Bologna Process in Hungary

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					Bologna Process in Hungary


                                                  András Derényi
    National Institute for Educational Research and Development
                                          Hungarian Credit Office
                                           derenyi@kreditiroda.hu
                                                www.kreditlap.hu
Key dates in Hungarian HE in the past 15
years
1990 - political transition and reform process in HE
1993 - new Act on Higher Education
1996 - significant modification on the act
1998 - WB loan contract for modernizing Hu HE
1999 - Bologna Declaration undersigned by Hu as well
2000 - act on institutional integration (merging)
2001 - Act on Recognition of Diplomas
        Ratification of Lisbon Convention
2005 - new act on HE
…and many lower level laws and decrees
1990 - political transition

Consequences:
- withdrawal of state representatives from university
  senates
- more liberal atmosphere

- attention turned towards universities (its
  organization, teaching, and governance)
- initiatives in local institutional reforms appeared
  separately led by enlightened rectors or leading
  professors
1993 - new act on higher education

Significance:
It is the first occasion that an act was dedicated
   to higher education sector (instead of the
   whole education sector)
Universities gained more autonomy, state
   control decreased, accreditation process
   started, new (normative [?]) funding appeared
However, dual institutional system along with
   dual training system remained untouched.
  Dualism in HE in Hungary
                  Colleges and universities
        w/ professional profile         w/ professional or general profile
        many small institutions         small and large institutions
     lower level of scientif. exc.      higher level of scientific excellence

          3 or 4 year programs           5-6 year programs
      available only in colleges         available only in universities
             low level of theory         overloaded w/ high level of theory
     high level of prof. practice        low level of prof. practice
        lead to college degree            lead to university degree
equivalent of a bachelor degree          equivalent of a master degree
                  degrees contain qualifications as well

  In 1993 many of HE members presumed, it would be better to shift to a
       cycled system soon. The new HE Act did not touched this issue.
1996 - significant modification on the act

New issues appeared:
- Right to introduce cycled system
- Credit system appeared
- Reaffirmed accreditation process and committee
- Doctoral studies (PhD) and habilitation (instead of former
  soviet-like system of scientific levels)
- New registration of degree programmes (qualifications
  requirements)


In 1996 all HE members knew, universities would have
   to shift to a cycled system. The modified act barely
                     touched this issue.
WB loan for modernizing HE in Hu

Main aims is to strengthening:
- flexibility of training system and institutional structure

- adaptability to environmental change and social needs

- transparency

- accountability

- modern governing structures and techniques




  One of the tools: rapid introducing of a cumulative
    credit system as a vehicle of inherent reform in
         degree structure and teaching method.
1999 - Bologna Declaration

Hungary has undersigned the Declaration
In the next years only a little progress was
  made.
Government: „Let’s talk about it (a little), don’t
  do much about it”
Universities: „Dual system is a valuable
  tradition we need to insist on it. Hungarian
  HE is better then HE in West-Europe.”
   2000 – termination of WB contract
   2000 - act on institutional integration:
     merged small university/ies with neighbouring larger one

     merged universities located in the same city into one large local

          university
    This ordination has halved the number of universities for a few years
       though old problems and contradictions remained. (parallel
       structures and positions, share of profits and deficits etc.)
   2001 - Act on Recognition of Diplomas (degrees and qual.s)
   2001 - Ratification of Lisbon Convention on
    Recognition of Qualifications (1997)

   2002 – new government started to adopt principles of Bologna
    Process
Catching-up with EHEA
2002 – new government started to adopt principles of Bologna Process
 Working group for catching up with EHEA. Task:
      coordination of expert works to prepare a new (Bologna) act on HE
   National Bologna Board (members: representatives of rectors’ conference,
    accreditation committee, „bologna board” of scientific fields)
   Governmental decrees introduced new cycle system, new qualifications
    framework for Hu HE, new process of founding and registering new
    bachelor and master programmes

Reform is overburdened with other issues such as change of financing
   rules, change of governing structures, withdrawal of the state from
   determining organization structure of the university, enhancing student
   rights and equal opportunity in HE etc.

Debates and arguments on behalf of universities against „such fast and
  determined changes” that „leave traditional, valuable dual system
  behind”
Credit system in Hungarian HE
2003 – all universities have been obliged to introduce and apply
   cumulative credit system (that is similar to ECTS in its features)
Preceding events:
1990 - some universities started to develop their own credit system (that
   were different to one another)
1990 - news from ECTS pilot project; conferences on ECTS
1996-97 - Tempus-CME project on feasibility of credit system in
        Hungary (final study with recommendations)
1998 - contract of WB Loan with commitments (such as founding a
        national credit council and a central office in order to offer support)
1998 - governmental decree on introducing credit system by 2002/2003
        (focus on cumulative credit)
1999 - Bologna Declaration (among its principles there is ECTS)
2002 - Tuning project recommended: ECTS should be developed
        towards a cumulative tool. EUA adopted ECTS in Zürich
2003 - Berlin Meeting adopted the recommendation of Tuning project
2005 - National Credit Monitoring in Hu (results: credit system is fully
        introduced and applied – though with shortages; ECTS transfer
        credit is hardly used, student mobility and recognition of
        learning outcomes are not supported, moreover often refused.
    2005-2006 New act on HE
   New act legalized cycle system and excluded formal dual system
   New act included detailed rules of how to apply credit system

By this time:
 All freshmen studying in bachelor programmes (exc. some programs)
 Some master programs have started yet, many more start by Sept. 07
 Credit system is fully introduced and applied; ECTS transfer credit is not
   used widely, student mobility and recognition of learning outcomes are
   not supported everywhere



      Doubtfulness and debates concerning Bologna Process are not
                                decreasing.
Problems with our credit system

   Though main features of Hungarian credit
    system are the same as that of ECTS, its use
        as cumulative tool is rather formal (universities
        follow the rules but credit-based approaches do
        not penetrate the attitude of the staff towards
        learning
        as transfer tool is rare and occasional, mainly
        because professors do not like to recognize study
        events that have happened outside the
        department.
      Study abroad and recognition of credits
                              Have you wanted your                              Have you
 Have you studied abroad?     credits be recognized at                          succeded?
                              home?       NA/
             NA/                                                                    NK
             NK                                NK                                   7%   fully
             1%                                4%                                        21%
                                 no                                       no
 no           yes                                    yes
                                70%                                      36%
95%           4%                                    26%                                   partly
                                                                                          36%
                   N=1496                                  N=53                                    N=14


              Are you planning to study                      Would you like your
              abroad in the next 2 semesters?                credits be recognized?
                               NA/                                    NA/N
                                                                   no
                               NK                                       K
                                                                  12%
                               4% yes                                  6%
                      no
                                 21%
                     75%                                                      yes
                                                                             82%
                                      N=1496                                        N=313
    Student mobility whithin Hungary (past semester)
                                                       Basis: total pool, N=1496

Have you picked up                                  Have you picked up
                       Have you picked up courses
courses from other                                  courses from other
                       from other faculty?
program(s)?                                         university?
         no                        no                       no
        90%                       91%                      96%


               NA/                      NA/                        NA/
         yes   KN                 yes   KN                 yes     KN
         7%    3%                 6%    3%                 1%      3%




 Plans of gaining credits in the next semester:

     16%                        10%                        4%
     Obstacles of mobility
                                                             Prop. of answers as „I do not know”    4, 5 % (fully
                                                                                                    featuring,
                                                      28                         14%                featuring)

     Lack of information on
                                                            35                   15%
            mobility

                                      10

                                                 20                              23%
Difficulties in administration
    concerning studying                                30                        22%
           elsewhere
                                               17

                                           15                                    35%

Financial burden of mobility                          28                         25%

                                          13

                                 0   10         20    30         40   50      60       70      80      90       100

                                          teaching staff              students                registrars
                                              András Derényi
National Institute for Educational Research and Development
                                      Hungarian Credit Office
                                       derenyi@kreditiroda.hu
                                            www.kreditlap.hu

				
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