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					JAYAM COLLEGE OF        ENGINEERING
    AND TECHNOLOGY
    DHARMAPURI-636813




    3G MOBILE COMMUNICATION




           Presented by:
                 KUMAR.V
                 MOHAN.S


           Contact:
                 Kumarcse63@gmail.com
                    9842088719
                 Mohancse77@yahoo.com
                    9381443702




                 1
ABSTRACT

                 3G MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS

       3rd Generation Wireless, or 3G, is the generic term used for the next generation of
mobile communications systems. 3G systems aim to provide enhanced voice, text and data
services to user. The main benefit of the 3G technologies will be substantially enhanced
capacity, quality and data rates than are currently available.

       3G Mobile will enable the provision of advanced services transparently to the end
user and will bridge the gap between the wireless world and the computing/Internet
world, making inter-operation apparently seamless.

        The third generation networks should be in a position to support real-time video,
high-speed multimedia and mobile Internet access. All this should be possible by means
of highly evolved air interfaces, packet core networks, and increased availability of spectrum.

         The ability to provide high-speed data is one of the key features of third generation
networks, the real strength of these networks will be providing enhanced capacity for high
quality voice services. The need for landline quality voice capacity is increasing more
rapidly than the current 2nd generation networks will be able to support.

        High data capacities will open new revenue sources for the operators and bring the
Internet more closer to the mobile customer. The use of all-ATM or all-IP based
communications between the network elements will also bring down the operational costs of
handling both voice and data, in addition to adding flexibility.

       The drive for 3G is the need for higher capacities and higher data rates. Whereas
higher capacities can basically be obtained by having a greater chunk of spectrum or by
using new evolved air interfaces, the data requirements can be served to a certain extent by
overlaying 2.5G technologies on the existing networks. In many cases it is possible to
provide higher speed packet data by adding few network elements and a software

       The 3rd Generation Mobile System will most likely grow out of the convergence of
enhanced 2nd generation mobile systems with greater data transfer speed and capacity and
1st generation satellite mobile systems.




                                              2
                      CONTENTS

                                  Page No. :

1. INTRODUCTION                     4


2. A GLOBAL VISION TO 3G MOBILE     5


3. 3G ARCHITECTUE                   6


4. CHARECTRISTICS OF 3G              7


5. EVOLUTION TOWARDS 3G              8


6. SECURITY ASPECTS                  9


7. 3G SECURITY FEATURES              10


8. CONCLUSION                        11


9. REFERENCE                         12




                            3
1. Introduction

       3rd Generation Wireless, or 3G, is the generic term used for the next generation of

mobile communications systems. 3G systems aim to provide enhanced voice, text and data

services to user. The main benefit of the 3G technologies will be substantially enhanced

capacity, quality and data rates than are currently available.


       3G Mobile will enable the provision of advanced services transparently to the end

user and will bridge the gap between the wireless world and the computing/Internet

world, making inter-operation apparently seamless.


       The third generation networks should be in a position to support real-time video,

high-speed multimedia and mobile Internet access. All this should be possible by means

of highly evolved air interfaces, packet core networks, and increased availability of spectrum.


        The ability to provide high-speed data is one of the key features of third generation

networks, the real strength of these networks will be providing enhanced capacity for high

quality voice services. The need for landline quality voice capacity is increasing more

rapidly than the current 2nd generation networks will be able to support.




                                                4
       High data capacities will open new revenue sources for the operators and bring the

Internet more closer to the mobile customer. The use of all-ATM or all-IP based

communications between the network elements will also bring down the operational costs of

handling both voice and data, in addition to adding flexibility.


       The drive for 3G is the need for higher capacities and higher data rates. Whereas

higher capacities can basically be obtained by having a greater chunk of spectrum or by

using new evolved air interfaces, the data requirements can be served to a certain extent by

overlaying 2.5G technologies on the existing networks. In many cases it is possible to

provide higher speed packet data by adding few network elements and a software


       The 3rd Generation Mobile System will most likely grow out of the convergence of

enhanced 2nd generation mobile systems with greater data transfer speed and capacity and

1st generation satellite mobile systems. Evolution to the current generation mobile

networks to 3G doesn't necessarily mean seamless up gradation to the existing infrastructure

to the 3G.




                                               5
       2. A Global Vision to 3G Mobile




“The IMT-2000 third generation mobile standard enables mobile users to harness the

full power of the Internet through efficient high-speed radio transmission, optimized for

multimedia communications”




                                              6
3. 3G Architecture

       The 3G network will have a layered architecture, which will enable the efficient

delivery of voice and data services. A layered network architecture, coupled with

standardized open interfaces, will make it possible for the network operators to introduce and

roll out new services quickly




                                 Circuit
                                                               Circuit/
                                Network                       Signaling
                                                                                           Mobility
                                                              Gateway
                                                                                           Manager
                                                                           Feature
                      Circuit Switch
                                                IN Services               Server(s)

                                                RNC                                    Call
                                                                                       Agent
                  Voice                Data +
                                       Packet
                                       Voice           IP Core
          Radio Access                                                                 Packet Network
                Control                                Network                            (Internet)
                                                                              Packet
                                                                             Gateway
                                                         IP RAN




                       2G              2G/2.5G          3G




       . These networks will have a connectivity layer at the bottom providing support for

high quality voice and data delivery. Using IP or ATM or a combination of both, this layer

will handle all data and voice info.




                                                   7
       The layer consists of the core network equipment like routers, ATM switches and

transmission equipment. Other equipment provides support for the core bit stream of voice or

data, providing QOS etc.


       In 3G networks, voice and data will not be treated separately which could lead to a

reduction in operational costs of handling data separately from voice. The application layer

on top will provide open application service interfaces enabling flexible service creation.

This user application layer will contain services for which the end user will be willing to pay.

These services will include eCommerce, GPS and other differentiating services. In between

the application layer and the connectivity layer, will run the control layer with MSC servers,

support servers, HLR etc. These servers are needed to provide any service to a subscriber.


4. Characteristics of 3G

   The main characteristics of 3G systems, known collectively as IMT–2000, are a single

family of compatible standards that have the following characteristics:


      Used worldwide

      Used for all mobile applications

      Support both packet-switched (PS) and circuit-switched (CS) data transmission

      Offer high data rates up to 2 Mbps (depending on mobility/velocity)

      Offer high spectrum efficiency




                                               8
Figure 1. Multiple Standards for Different Applications and Countries




       IMT–2000      is   a   set     of   requirements   defined   by   the   International

Telecommunications Union            (ITU). As previously mentioned, IMT stands for

International Mobile Telecommunications, and “2000” represents both the scheduled year

for initial trial systems and the frequency range of 2000 MHz. All 3G standards have been

developed by regional Standards Developing Organizations (SDOs). In total, proposals for

17 different IMT–2000 standards were submitted by regional SDOs to ITU in 1998—11

proposals for terrestrial systems and 6 for Mobile Satellite Systems (MSSs). Evaluation of

the proposals was completed at the end of 1998, and negotiations to build a consensus among


                                               9
differing views were completed in mid 1999. All 17 proposals have been accepted by ITU as

IMT–2000 standards. The specification for the Radio Transmission Technology (RTT) was

released at the end of 1999.


       The most important IMT–2000 proposals are the UMTS (W-CDMA) as the successor

to GSM, CDMA2000 as the interim standard ’95 (IS–95) successor, and time division–

synchronous CDMA (TD–SCDMA) (universal wireless communication–136 [UWC–

136]/EDGE) as TDMA–based enhancements to D–AMPS/GSM—all of which are leading

previous standards toward the ultimate goal of IMT–2000.


       UMTS allows many more applications to be introduced to a worldwide base of users

and provides a vital link between today’s multiple GSM systems and IMT–2000. The new

network also addresses the growing demand of mobile and Internet applications for new

capacity in the overcrowded mobile communications sky. UMTS increases transmission

speed to 2 Mbps per mobile user and establishes a global roaming standard.


       UMTS is being developed by Third-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), a

joint venture of several SDOs—ETSI (Europe), Association of Radio Industries and

Business/Telecommunication Technology Committee (ARIB/TTC) (Japan), American

National Standards Institute (ANSI) T-1 (USA), telecommunications technology association

(TTA) (South Korea), and Chinese Wireless Telecommunication Standard (CWTS) (China).

To reach global acceptance, 3GPP is introducing UMTS in phases and annual releases. The

first release (UMTS Rel. ’99), introduced in December of 1999, defines enhancements and

transitions for existing GSM networks. For the second phase (UMTS Rel. ’00), similar

transitions are being proposed as enhancements for IS–95 (with CDMA2000) and TDMA

(with TD–CDMA and EDGE).


                                            10
       The most significant change is the new UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA), a

W–CDMA radio interface for land-based communications. UTRA supports time division

duplex (TDD) and frequency division duplex (FDD). The TDD mode is optimized for public

micro and pico cells and unlicensed cordless applications. The FDD mode is optimized for

wide-area coverage, i.e., public macro and micro cells. Both modes offer flexible and

dynamic data rates up to 2 Mbps. Another newly defined UTRA mode, multicarrier (MC), is

expected to establish compatibility between UMTS and CDMA2000.


5. Evolution towards 3G

       Phase 1 of the standardization of GSM900 was completed by the European

Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) in 1990 and included all necessary

definitions for the GSM network operations. Several tele services and bearer services have

been defined (including data transmission up to 9.6 kbps), but only some very basic

supplementary services were offered. As a result, GSM standards were enhanced in Phase 2

(1995) to incorporate a large variety of supplementary services that were comparable to

digital fixed network integrated services digital network (ISDN) standards. In 1996, ETSI

decided to further enhance GSM in annual Phase 2+ releases that incorporate 3G capabilities.


GSM Phase 2+ releases have introduced important 3G features such as intelligent network

(IN) services with customized application for mobile enhanced logic (CAMEL), enhanced

speech compression/decompression (CODEC), enhanced full rate (EFR), and adaptive

multirate (AMR), high–data rate services and new transmission principles with high-speed

circuit-switched data (HSCSD), general packet radio service (GPRS), and enhanced data




                                            11
rates for GSM evolution (EDGE). UMTS is a 3G GSM successor standard that is downward-

compatible with GSM, using the GSM Phase 2+ enhanced core.




The swift migration from 2G to 3G and their bandwidth used are as in the Figure.




6. Security Aspects


   • Network Authentication: The user can identify the network


   •   Explicit Integrity:Data integrity is assured explicitly by use of integrity

       algorithms


              Also stronger confidentiality algorithms with longer keys


   •   Network Security: Mechanisms to support security within and between networks




                                            12
   •   Switch Based Security: Security is based within the switch rather than the base

       station


   •   IMEI Integrity: Integrity mechanisms for IMEI provided from the start


   •   Secure Services: Protect against misuse of services provided by SN and HE


   •   Secure Applications: Provide security for applications resident on USIM


   •   Fraud Detection: Mechanisms to combating fraud in roaming situations


   •   Flexibility: Security features can be extended and enhanced as required by new

                 threats and services


   •   Visibility and Configurability: Users are notified whether security is on and

       what level of security is available.


             Users can configure security features for individual services


7. 3G Security Features

Mutual Authentication


                 During Authentication and Key Agreement (AKA) the user and network

       authenticate each other, and also they agree on cipher and integrity key   (CK, IK).

CK and IK are used until their time expires.




                                               13
               Assumption: trusted HE and SN, and trusted links between them. After AKA,

security mode must be negotiated to agree on encryption   and integrity algorithm.


       AKA process:




        USIM                        VLR                           HLR
                                          AV request, send IMSI

                                            Generate authentication
             RAND(i) || AUTN(i)             data V(1..n)

             Generate RES(i)
                                          Compare RES(i) and XRES(i)



8. Conclusion

       Standardization of 3G mobile systems is based on ITU (International Telecom Union)

recommendations for IMT 2000. IMT 2000 specifies a set of requirements that must be

achieved 100% for a network to be called 3G. By providing multimedia capacities and higher

data rates, these systems will enhance the range and quality of services provided by 2G

systems.


       The main contenders for 3G systems are wideband CDMA (W-CDMA) and

CDMA2000. The ETSI/ GSM players including infrastructure vendors such as Nokia and

Ericsson backed W-CDMA. cdma2000 was backed by the North American CDMA

community, led by the CDMA Development Group (CDG) including infrastructure vendors


                                            14
such as Qualcomm and Lucent Technologies. Universal Mobile Telephone System (UMTS)

is the widely used European name for 3G.


       The proposed IMT-2000 standard for third generation mobile networks globally is a

CDMA-based standard that encompasses THREE OPTIONAL modes of operation, each of

which should be able to work over both GSM MAP and IS-41 network architectures.


       UMTS is the European designation for 3G systems. The UMTS frequency bands

selected by the ITU are 1,885 MHz - 2,025 MHz (Tx) and 2,110 MHz - 2,2,20 MHz (Rx).

Higher frequency bands could be added in future if need be, for stationary data. There is still

some confusion about all the frequency options as FCC has not given clear indications so far.

The following table should briefly give an idea about the 3G system specifications.


         9. References


   •   3G TS 33.120 Security Principles and Objectives

       http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/tsg_sa/WG3_Security/_Specs/33120-300.pdf

   •   3G TS 33.120 Security Threats and Requirements

       http://www.arib.or.jp/IMT-2000/ARIB-spec/ARIB/21133-310.PDF

   •   Michael Walker “On the Security of 3GPP Networks”

       http://www.esat.kuleuven.ac.be/cosic/eurocrypt2000/mike_walker.pdf

   •   Redl, Weber, Oliphant “An Introduction to GSM”

       Artech House, 1995




                                              15

				
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