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									             Differentiation Instruction Overview
A way of teaching in which teachers proactively modifies the
curriculum, teaching methods, resources, learning activities, and
student products to address the needs of individual students and/or
small groups of students to maximize the learning opportunity for each
student in the classroom.
     -Tomlinson,et al., (in press)

               Differentiated Instruction is a teacher’s
                     response to learner’s needs.

                     Guided by general principles of differentiated
                               Instruction, such as ….

            Respectful                   Flexible         Ongoing Assessment
              Tasks                     Grouping           and Adjustment

                          Teacher can differentiated …

                Content                     Process                     Product
             TEKS/ Curriculum               Instruction                 Assessments

                                … according to the student’s ……

             Readiness                      Interest                  Learning Profile

             …through a range of instructional and management strategies
                     Definitions of Differentiation
                     A strategy for differentiating instruction that provided for meaningful
    Anchoring         ongoing activities to which students automatically move when they
     Activity         have completed an assigned task; can occur throughout a unit, a six-
                      week, or longer.
                     Collecting data to better understand the collective abilities of a student
    Authentic         by presenting real-world challenges that require the application of
   Assessment         relevant knowledge, understanding, and skills,
                     A strategy for differentiating instruction that provides a 3-step process
                      which a) assesses what a student knows; b) plans for learning what is
   Compacting         not known, and c) plans for freed-time to be spent in enrichment or
                      accelerated study.
                  A strategy for differentiating instruction that provides for students to be a
Flexible Grouping  part of many different groups based on the mach of the task to the
                   student readiness, interest, or learning profile.
                  A strategy for differentiating instruction that provides for collections of
Learning Centers   material that learners use to explore topics or practice skills (tasks can
                   be adjusted to readiness, interest, or learning profile)
                  A strategy for differentiating instruction that provides for an agreement
     Learning      between student and teacher which can take many forms obligation the
    Contracts      student to the performance of work according to agreed-upon
                     Different ways to demonstrate intellectual ability as conceived by the
                      research of Howard Gardner. [interpersonal, intrapersonal, kinesthetic,
                      linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, naturalist, visual-spatial]
                     Any method, strategy, or process used to determine a student’s current
Pre-assessment        level of readiness or interest which allows the teacher to meet the
                      students “where they are.”
 Problem Based       A strategy that places students in the active role of solving problems in
    Learning          much the same way adult professionals perform their jobs.
                     In differentiated instruction, ascertaining the student’s prior mastery of
                       knowledge, understandings, and skills to a unit of instructions, subject
    Readiness          of course. “How well” does a student’s knowledge, understandings
                       and skills match a topic of task.
                     A strategy for differentiating instruction that provided the support
                       needed for a student to succeed in challenging work; planning student
   Scaffolding         work and presenting materials from the simple to the complex in such
                       a way as to build student mastery and confidence
                     A strategy for differentiating instruction that provided for the use of
     Tiered           varied levels of activities to ensure that students explore ideas at a level
   Instruction        that builds on their prior knowledge and prompts continued growth
                         Comparing Classrooms

   Traditional Classroom                   Differentiated Classroom

  Student difference are masked             Student differences are studies
 or acted upon when problematic                 as a basis for planning
                                       Assessment is ongoing and diagnostic to
Assessment is most common at the
                                       understand how to make instruction more
end of learning to see “who got it.”
                                              responsive to learner needs
   A relatively narrow sense of               Focus on multiple forms of
       intelligence prevails                    intelligences is evident
       A single definition of          Excellent is defined in large measure by
         excellence exist              individual growth from a starting point
         Student interest is           Students are frequently guided in making
        infrequently tapped                 interest-based learning choices
  Relatively few learning profile           Many learning profile options
  options are taken into account                    are provided for
                                           Many instructional arrangements
 Whole class learning dominates
                                                        are used
Coverage of texts and curriculum            Student readiness, interest, and
    guides drive instruction              learning profiles shape instruction
                                        Use of essential skills to make sense of
 Master of facts and skills out of
                                           and understand key concepts and
 context are the focus of learning
                                          principles is the focus of learning.
  Single option assignments are               Multi-option assignments
            the norm                              are frequently used
        Time is relatively               Time is used flexibly in accordance
           inflexible                            to the student need

       A single text prevails              Multiple materials are provided

 Single interpretation of ideas and       Multiple perspectives on ideas and
      events may be sought                   events are routinely sought
          Teacher directs                The teacher facilitates student skills
         student behavior               at becoming more self- reliant learners
        The Teacher solves                 Students help other students and
            problems                          the teacher solve problems
   The teacher provides whole           Student work with the to establish both
   class standards for grading.        whole-class and individual learning goals
   A single form of assessment
                                        Students are assessed in multiple ways.
           is often used.
                       Dale’s Cone of Experience                                        1

People Generally                                                                    Levels of
10% of what they Read
                                             Hear Words
20% of what they Hear                                                                   Receiving
                                             View Images
30% of what they See
                                      Watch Moving Pictures                                Visual
                                        Watch Demonstration
50% of what they
Hear and See
                                        Attend Exhibit /Site

70% of what
they Say and                       Design Collaborative Lessons
                                    Do a Dramatic Presentation
                               Simulate or Model a Real Experience
90% of                                                                                        Doing
they Do
                      Design / Perform a Presentation - Do a Real Thing

   Educational Technologies: New Foundations for Faculty Success. Virginia Tech.
  http://www.edtech.vt.edu/edtech/hhernand/Misc/dales_cone/dales_cone.pdf. (May 11, 2005)
Differentiated Instruction Online Strategies
     CSCOPE Lessons
     (Requires Login / Password from district – contact Bill Shuttlesworth)

     Instructional Strategies Online

     New Horizons for Learning: Teaching and Learning Strategies

     Glossary of Instructional Strategies

     Teaching Strategies

     RtI Interventions Manual
     This 112 page document contains both classroom strategies and SRB interventions

Reading Strategies
     Florida Center for Reading Research (for Teacher)
     Differentiated Reading Instruction;: Small Group Alternative Lesson structures for
             Student Centered Activities: Grades K-1
             Student Centered Activities: Grades 2-3
             Student Centered Activities: Grades 4-5

     Reading Quest
     For content comprehension

Posted by Various School Districts:
     Instructional Strategies for Engaging Learners (Guilford, NC)

     Instructional Strategies (Sabine, LA)

     Prince George’s County Public Schools

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