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Publishing your Research Seven tips for effective writing David O’Sullivan National University of Ireland, Galway Hari Jagdev University of Manchester Background Creating new Knowledge is central goal of top Universities Creating new knowledge is adsorbing and exciting Disseminating new knowledge is time consuming and often dull Publishing Your Research How is knowledge disseminated? Patents and other protections Licenses and other commercial activities Publications Publishing Your Research Welcome David O’Sullivan, Ph.D. Research Director at NUI Galway Associate Editor Journal Manufacturing Processes Intl. Journal Manufacturing Systems Hari Jagdev, Ph.D. Research Director at UMIST (Manchester) Editor Journal of Computers in Industry Publishing Your Research Outline Types of Publications (Hari) Seven Tips for Effective Writing (David) Mind Mapping ‘Correct the Grammar’ Prize! Publishing Your Research Exercise Why publish? Publishing Your Research Why publish? Mission e.g. “…creation of new knowledge…” Validate your Research Communicate with others Populate your Resume Publishing Your Research Publishing Your Research Types of publications Reports Conference Papers Journal Papers Theses Magazine Articles Book Chapters Books Publishing Your Research Magazine Articles One-sided view or opinion Little or no peer review Principally used to popularise an idea Readers not expected to be expert Very little scientific worth Publishing Your Research Conference Papers Publishing interim results of ongoing research Value of Paper depends on Conference Number of attendees Submitted versus selected ratio (Top conference: 4 to 1 or more) Generally deemed ‘weak’ publications Less thorough review Short but supplemented by presentation Often accepted on ‘extended abstract’ Publishing Your Research Thesis Internal report by one author Limited readership supervisor, examiners, co-researchers Formal academic structure and style (similar to journal paper but longer) PhD thesis must be ‘publishable’ in whole or in part Increasingly, PhD students ‘must have’ published journal papers before submitting Publishing Your Research Journal Papers Key results of extended research Substantial and complete report Extensive review and revision Journal Hierarchy: Top, middle, easy! Fundamental versus Applied Top notch Journals Stringent Reviewing procedures (e.g. IEEE Journals have five reviewers per paper) Acceptance rate typically 1 in 5 Leadtime 6-18 months! Publishing Your Research Journal Papers – Special Issues Fast track approach Guest Editor Selected sub-set of reviewers active in your field You or your supervisor may know many of them! Downside: Infrequent Publishing Your Research Books and Book Chapters Types Professional Reference Student Textbook Published to gather a number of ideas together over number of years Comprehensive background and extended explanation Often less valuable than journal papers e.g. Australian Research Measures Conference Paper = 0.5 Book Chapter = 0.5 Book = 1 Journal Paper = 2 Publishing Your Research Publishing Your Research Seven tips for effective writing 1. Understand your research goals 2. Find a focus for your research 3. Get to know the writing environment 4. Develop a consistent layout and structure 5. Develop highly effective writing style 6. Master the tools of the trade 7. Understand the publishing process Publishing Your Research Correct the Grammar I find that confusion often “clouds” the exact meaning of the term innovation. Tidd et al. (1997) have excellent findings that state that “novelty is very much in the eye of the beholder”. In it’s broadest sense, the term originates from the Latin innovare, meaning “to make something new”. It’s obvious that innovation is a process of turning opportunity into new ideas and of putting these ideas into widely used practice. According to Tidd et al. (1997), innovation is a core process concerned with renewing what the organization offers and optimising the way it generates and delivers its output. We are all aware of the importance of innovation for business growth and there are many advantages. Howard (2003) discusses 5 disadvantages. Overall there is a need for a new paradigm in the way we conceptualise and materialise innovation. Publishing Your Research 1. Understand your research goals Obtain a higher degree Create new knowledge Publish new knowledge Set Targets (lead author) Publication Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Conf. Papers 1 1 1 Journal Papers 0 1 1 Thesis 0 0 1 Double or triple if you co-author! Publishing Your Research Publish or Perish! UK Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) Number of top Journal Publications …leads to increased funding Appointments and Promotions Journal papers are a key metric in awarding appointments and promotion Research Grants Lead researchers and importance of ideas often defined by publication record Publishing Your Research Collaboration with others Build relationships with potential co-authors Synergy Variety Or simply “sharing the workload” Follow the Leader! Lead the Follower! Publishing Your Research 2. Finding a focus for your research Create your own ideas Sell and validate your ideas: Supervisor/ Director Fellow researchers/ Co-authors Editors/ Reviewers Read then Brainstorm Don’t be afraid to sell an idea - then later change your mind Publishing Your Research What makes good research? Quantifiable problem Clear methodology Previous research/solutions, Hypothesis, … Innovative solution Method, process, model, software, algorithm, etc. Testing and validation Publishing Your Research Creativity ‘Bringing unrelated things together’ Publishing Your Research “Stewing Pot” Topic 2 Topic 3 (Intranet) (Teams) Topic 1 Topic 4 (Innovation) (Semantics) Semantic Innovation Management across the Extended Enterprise Publishing Your Research Creativity Tools > Mind Mapping Publishing Your Research Creativity Tools > Personal Brain Publishing Your Research Exercise Create a simple mind-map of your research keywords Publishing Your Research 3. Get to know the writing environment What Journals/Books are available? Top seven journals in your field? Journal affiliations of your supervisor/colleagues? Create a ‘Journal Boxfile’ (top 60 papers) NB: Jane Mulligan’s presentation Publishing Your Research Google Scholar Publishing Your Research Seven tips for effective writing 1. Understand your research goals 2. Find a focus for your research 3. Get to know the writing environment 4. Develop a consistent layout and structure 5. Develop highly effective writing style 6. Master the tools of the trade 7. Understand the publishing process Publishing Your Research 4. Develop a consistent layout and structure Structure versus Content Layout and Structure Citations and References Figures and Tables Publishing Your Research Layout and structure Title Keywords Authors Abstract Introduction Literature Survey Results Conclusions Acknowledgements References Publishing Your Research Online Writing Labs (OWL) Publishing Your Research http://indeng.nuigalway.ie/owl 5. Develop an effective writing style Write objectively Eliminate immature sentences jargon, acronyms colloquialisms Avoid deviating from main structure Publishing Your Research Online Writing Labs (OWL) Publishing Your Research http://indeng.nuigalway.ie/owl 6. Master the tools of the trade MS Word EndNote Powerpoint and Visio For ‘simple’ diagrams and tables No more than seven graphic elements! No more than 7c x 14r tables! Publishing Your Research Word™ Publishing Your Research End Note™ Publishing Your Research Visio™ Publishing Your Research 7. Understand the publishing process Contact with editor/supervisor Prepare and submit manuscript Reviewers comments Revised manuscript Compromise often required Remain humble and flexible Remember your goal! Publishing Your Research Conclusions Set clear publishing goals Create time and space Structure your paper Stay on the message Maintain the readers ‘good will’ Anticipate rejection and learn Celebrate successes Publications are never completed – they are abandoned! Publishing Your Research Use of “I” Correct the Grammar Invalid quotes I find that confusion often “clouds” the exact meaning of the term innovation. Tidd et al. (1997) have excellent Misspelling ‘Its’ state that “novelty is very much in the eye findings that of the beholder”. In it’s broadest sense, the term Subjective originates from the Latin innovare, meaning “to make something new”. Its obvious that innovation is a Says who? process of turning opportunity into new ideas and of putting Misspelling andthese ideas into widely used practice [Ref]. According to Tidd Subjective et al. (1997), innovation is a core process Incomplete concerned with renewing what the organization offers and optimising the way it generates and delivers its output. We are all aware of the importance of innovation for business growth and there are many advantages. Howard (2003) discusses 5 disadvantages. Overall there Informal need for a new paradigm in the way we is a conceptualise and materialise innovation. “five” Bull Publishing Your Research
"Publish or Perish_"