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					Gerunds and Infinitives

      Use of English
     Secondary 6 / 7
            What is infinitive?

   A verb that will never change in forms

   With regard to number, person or tense

   Usually used with the particle “to”.

   e.g. I wish to get into a good university.
         How does it look like?
   e.g. “Take”…

           Simple    Perfect   Continuous

Active     To take   To have   To be taking

Passive To be taken To have    To have been
                    been taken taking
   Not + “to” infinitive
       e.g.   He advised us not to go
               swimming tomorrow.
       Compare:
          He advised us not to go swimming tomorrow.

          (He gave us advice: don’t go swimming tomorrow)

          He did not advise us to go swimming tomorrow.
          (He did not suggest us to go swimming tomorrow.)
    Bare infinitive: Infinitive without
       “to” – When will we use it?
       Modal auxiliary verbs (e.g. Shall, Will, Can, etc.)
          e.g.   Sandy will come to the party.

       Verbs of feeling and perceptions (e.g. hear, smell, see,
        notice, etc.)
          e.g.   I saw him walk in the park.
                  He was seen to walk in the park. (Passive)

       “Make” and “Let”
          He lets us go with you.
          Her jokes made us laugh.
    Bare infinitive: Infinitive without
       “to” – When will we use it?
       “Had better” / “would rather” / “can do nothing
         e.g. You’d (had) better do your assignment now.
               I’d (would) rather stay here a bit longer.
               As I was locked in the room, I could do
               nothing but shout for help.
       “Need” / “Dare”
         e.g.   She needs not do it herself.
                 He dared not lie to his wife.
     When do we use infinitives?

   Subject
       e.g.   To drive after drinking too
               much is dangerous. (Subject)
               (It is dangerous to drive after
               drinking too much.)
   After adjective
       e.g.   He is not happy to be alone. (After
     When do we use infinitives?

   After question tags (e.g. When, what, how,
       e.g.   I’m not sure what to cook first.

   Absolute construction
       e.g.   To be honest, I don’t enjoy doing this.
Gerunds: What does it look like?
   A verb that has changed into its present
    continuous form

   Functioning as a noun

   Naming certain kinds of activities, hobbies and

   e.g. I enjoy staying in bed in the morning.
          How does it look like?
   e.g. “Break”…

               Simple         Perfect

Active         Breaking       Having broken

Passive        Being broken   Having been
        When do we use gerunds?
   Subject
       Hobbies (e.g. Reading, hiking, etc.)
            e.g. Reading can help us to learn more words.
       Activities & behaviours (e.g. Dancing)
            e.g. Dancing is a kind of performing art that is
             hard to learn.
       Issues you want to draw readers’ attention
        (e.g. Killing)
            e.g. Killing animals should not be encouraged.
        When do we use gerunds?

   Objects
       Providing description to the receiver of the
        action verb
       e.g. She always avoids getting involved in
        the quarrels.
    When do we use gerunds?
 A list of verbs using gerunds after…
Acknowledge Consider         Finish      Report
Admit           Can’t help Forgive       Resist
Anticipate      Deny         Imagine     Save
Appreciate      Dislike      Keep        Suggest
Avoid           Enjoy        Mention     Tolerate
Celebrate       Escape       Mind        Understand
Defer           Excuse       Practise    …
Delay           Feel like    Prevent,
        When do we use gerunds?

   After prepositions
       As complements to the verb + preposition

       Example: Interested in, fond of, persisted in,
        confessed of, look forward to

       e.g. I look forward to hearing from you.
           Infinitives or Gerunds?

   Which of the following is correct?

       I really like reading.

       I really like to read in the library.

       Both correct!
           Infinitives or Gerunds?

   Gerunds

       Applicable to ALL general case (i.e. It is true
        in most cases)
       With verbs such as like, hate, prefer, etc
       Example: I like swimming. (In most cases, I
        like swimming.)
           Infinitives or Gerunds?

   Infinitives

       Only applicable to one or several PARTICULAR
       It will only happen when the special
        condition(s) is (are) fulfilled
       Example: I like to swim in winter. (i.e. I don’t
        like to swim in summer)
              Exceptional Cases

   Verbs like begin, start, plan, propose,
    continue, attempt…

       Gerunds and infinitives can be used
       Without changing the meaning
       e.g. I start writing a book.
              I start to write a book.
               Exceptional Cases

   Verbs (such as allow, advise, acknowledge,
    encourage, permit, etc.) + an object
    noun + infinitive

       Action in the infinitive phrase directed to the
       e.g. My teacher advised me to start early.
Now, work on the exercises!

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