Fremont Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment by jolinmilioncherie

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									            Fremont/Dodge County
          Early Childhood Community
                 Assessment




Fremont Early Childhood Coalition
March 2012
                                     Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
                                                                                    March 2012


                                    Table of Contents


List of Figures                                                                 iii

List of Tables                                                                  vi

Acknowledgements                                                                viii

Executive Summary - Indicators of Early Childhood Need                          1

Guide for Service Array Participants                                            3

Overview                                                                        4

I. Population and Household Composition                                         5
      Population                                                                5
      Household Composition                                                     6

II. Income and Poverty                                                          7
        Income and Unemployment                                                 7
        Families and Children in Poverty                                        8
        Services for the Homeless and Families in Poverty                       14

III. Access to Health Care                                                      15

IV. Health and Early Childhood                                                  17
      Births to Teen Mothers                                                    17
      Prenatal Care                                                             17
      Complications at Birth                                                    18
      Services for Families with Young Children                                 18

V. Infant and Child Mortality                                                   20

VI. Public Assistance                                                           21

VII. Housing                                                                    24
       Affordability of Housing                                                 24
       Sub-Standard Housing                                                     25

VIII. Child Care and Pre-School                                                 26
       Child Care                                                               26
       Pre-School                                                               27
       Dodge County Head Start                                                  27


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IX. Education                                                                  29
      Educational Attainment                                                   29
      Dropout Rates                                                            30
      High School Graduation Rates                                             30
      Attendance Rates                                                         31
      Excessive Absences                                                       31
      Public Schools Statistics                                                32

X. Child Protection and Safety                                                 33

XI. Domestic Violence and Offenses Against Families and Children               34
      Domestic Violence                                                        34
      Services for Domestic Violence                                           36
      Offenses Against the Family and Children                                 37

XII. Unhealthy Juvenile Behaviors                                              37
       Juvenile Crime                                                          37
       Underage Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drug Use                                 41
       Sexually Transmitted Diseases                                           44
       Services for Families with Troubled Children                            44

Conclusion                                                                     45

Appendix A: The Nebraska Children and Families Foundation Child
            Well-Being Indicators                                              47

Appendix B: Selected Results from the 2010 Community Assessment
            Survey for Goldenrod Hills                          48

Appendix C: 2010 Poverty Thresholds                                            49

References                                                                     50




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                                    List of Figures

Figure 1. Percent Change in the Under 5 Population: County, State, and
National Comparisons (2000 to 2010)                                            5

Figure 2. Percent Change in Family Households with Children under 18:
County State, and National Comparisons (2000 to 2010)                          7

Figure 3. Unemployment: County, State, and National Comparisons
(2006-2010)                                                                    8

Figure 4. Poverty Rates for Households with Related Children under 5:
County, State, and National Comparisons (2010)                                 9

Figure 5. Poverty Rates by White Non-Hispanic/Latino and Hispanic/Latino:
County, State, and National Comparisons (2010)                            11

Figure 6. Racial/Ethnic Distribution of the under 5 Population at or below
Poverty in Dodge County (2010)                                                 11

Figure 7. Percent of Unmarried Women Who Gave Birth in the Past Year
at or below Poverty: County, State, and National Comparisons (2010)            13

Figure 8. Percent of Fremont Public School Students Receiving Free and
Reduced Lunch: County and State Comparisons (2006-2011)                        13

Figure 9. Births to Teen Mothers as a Percent of Total Births: County and
State Comparisons (2005-2009)                                                  17

Figure 10. Percent of Pregnant Women Receiving Prenatal Care in the
First Trimester: County and State Comparisons (2005-2009)                      17

Figure 11. Rates of Low Birth Weight, Pre-term Birth, and Birth Defects:
County and State Comparisons (2004/2005 - 2008/2009)                           18

Figure 12. Rate of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) per 1,000 Live
Births: County and State Comparisons (2005-2009)                               20

Figure 13. Infant Mortality per 1,000 Live Births: County and State
Comparisons (2005-2009)                                                        20

Figure 14. Death Rate for Population Aged 1-19 per 100,000 Population:
County and State Comparisons (2005-2009)                                       21


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Figure 15. Average Number of Participants Receiving Assistance through
Nutritional Programs for Children in Dodge County (2005-2010)                  23

Figure 16. Average Monthly Number of Families on ADC in Dodge County
(2005-2010)                                                          23

Figure 17. Average Number of Children Eligible for Medicaid in Dodge
County (2005-2010)                                                             24

Figure 18. Educational Attainment: County, State, and National
Comparisons (2010)                                                             29

Figure 19. Dropout Rates: Fremont and State Comparisons (2006-2010)            30

Figure 20. Graduation Rates: Fremont and State Comparisons
(2006-2010)                                                                    30

Figure 21. Daily Attendance Rates: Fremont and State Comparisons
(1994-2011)                                                                    31

Figure 22. Excessive Absences: Fremont and State Comparisons
(2010-2011)                                                                    32

Figure 23. Yearly Number of Children in Foster Care in Dodge County
(2005-2010)                                                                    34

Figure 24. Aggravated Domestic Violence Assaults in Dodge County
(2006-2010)                                                                    35

Figure 25. Simple Domestic Violence Assaults in Dodge County
(2006-2010)                                                                    35

Figure 26. Arrests for Offenses against Families and Children in Dodge
County (2006-2010)                                                             37

Figure 27. All Arrests (Adult and Juvenile) in Dodge County (2000-2010)        38

Figure 28. Juvenile Arrests in Dodge County (2000-2010)                        38

Figure 29. Juvenile Arrests for Drug and Alcohol Violations in Dodge
County (2000-2010)                                                             39

Figure 30. Juvenile Arrests for Larceny, Simple Assault, Vandalism, and
Runaway in Dodge County (2000-2010)                                            40



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Figure 31. Lifetime Alcohol, Tobacco, and Marijuana Use Rates: County
and State Comparisons (2010)                                                   41

Figure 32. 30-Day Alcohol, Tobacco, and Marijuana Use Rates: County
and State Comparisons (2010)                                                   42

Figure 33. Lifetime Medicinal and Performance Enhancing Drug Use Rates:
County and State Comparisons (2010)                                    43

Figure 34. Lifetime Drug Use Rates: County and State Comparisons
(2010)                                                                         44




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                                    List of Tables

Table 1. Fremont and Dodge County Population (2000 to 2010)                    5

Table 2. Dodge County Population by Race/Ethnicity (2010)                      6

Table 3. Dodge County Family Households with Children under 18
(2000 to 2010)                                                                 6

Table 4. Median Household Income: County, State, and National
Comparisons (2010)                                                             7

Table 5. Dodge County Poverty Statistics for Households with Children
under 5 (2000 to 2010)                                                         9

Table 6. City of Fremont Poverty Statistics for Households with Children
under 5 (2000 to 2010)                                                         10

Table 7. Births in the Past Year to Married and Unmarried Women and the
Percent at or below Poverty in Dodge County (2010)                      12

Table 8. Percent of Births in the Past Year to Married and Unmarried
Women: County, State, and National Comparisons (2010)                          12

Table 9. Percent of the Population under 18 with no Health Insurance:
County, State, and National Comparisons (2010)                                 15

Table 10. Income and Public Assistance by Family Household Type for
Dodge County (2010)                                                            21

Table 11. Percent of Population Receiving Food Stamps/SNAP and WIC
Benefits: County, State, and National Comparisons (2010)                       22

Table 12. Dodge County WIC Recipients by Type (2009)                           22

Table 13. Percent of Births Covered by Medicaid: County and State
Comparisons (2008)                                                             24

Table 14. Fair Market Rent (FMR) Housing Costs: County and State
Comparisons (2011)                                                             26

Table 15. Renter Households: County and State Comparisons (2011)               26

Table 16. Dodge County Licensed Child Care Facilities by Type (2011)           26

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Table 17. Federal, State, and Parochial Pre-School Programs in Dodge
County (2010-2011)                                                             27

Table 18. Education Statistics: Fremont and State Comparisons (most
current year of available data)                                                32

Table 19. Education Statistics: Fremont Public Schools (2010-2011)             33

Table 20. Child Protection and Safety Statistics: County and State
Comparisons (2007-2009)                                                        34

Table 21. Domestic Violence Rates per 1,000 Population: County and State
Comparisons (2010)                                                       36

Table 22. Juvenile Arrests per 1,000 Population: County and State
Comparisons (2010)                                                             40

Table 23. Number of Sexually Transmitted Diseases for Those 19 and
under in Dodge County (1996-2010)                                              44




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                                    Acknowledgements

The Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment was completed
by Schmeeckle Research Inc. with data being provided by numerous Fremont Area
Agencies. This assessment was funded by a grant from the Nebraska Children and
Families Foundation (NCFF) to support the planning process for the Fremont Early
Childhood Coalition led by the Fremont United Way.

For further information contact

Will Schmeeckle, M.A. and Joyce Schmeeckle, Ph.D. (Schmeeckle Research Inc.)
1701 S. 17th, Suite 2A
Lincoln, NE 68502
402-477-5407
will@schmeeckleresearch.com
www.schmeeckleresearch.com

or

Shawn Shanahan (Fremont Area United Way)
605 N. Broad St.
Fremont, NE 68025
402-721-4157
shawn@fremontunitedway.org




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    Executive Summary - Indicators of Early Childhood Need

    In the table below are contained 14 indicators of early childhood need in
    Fremont/Dodge County as determined by the evaluator (i.e. Schmeeckle Research Inc).
    Data directly impacting children ages 0-5 and families, as well as other data of
    secondary impact (such as educational attainment, school dropouts, juvenile
    delinquency, etc.) are included in this executive summary. Refer to the sections below
    in the report for statistics on specific indicators.

                     Indicators of Early Childhood Need in Fremont, Nebraska
Indicator                   Rationale
                             There has been a decline in husband-wife families with children and rise in single
                                parent families with children since 2000 in Dodge County. The rate of decline in the
   Change in
                                number of husband-wife families and rate of increase for single parent families are
    Household
                                greater than the state and the nation.
    Composition
                             Single parent families with children experience poverty at a much higher rate than
                                husband-wife families with children.
                             Dodge County has a lower median household income as compared to the state and
                                nation.
                             The rate of unemployment is higher in Dodge County than in the state.
                             There have been sharp increases in poverty rates for individuals and families since
                                2000.
   Poverty                  A notably higher rate of families with children under 5 are in poverty compared to the
                                state and nation.
                             There was high rate of births to unmarried mothers in Dodge County in 2009 and a
                                high rate of poverty for those unmarried mothers who gave birth.
                             The rate of Fremont Public Schools students receiving free and reduced lunch is
                                higher compared to the state.
                             Poverty, especially among the under 5 population, is higher in Dodge County
   Affordable Medical          compared to the state and nation, and has grown since 2000.
    Care                     There is no health clinic in Dodge County operating for the primary purpose of
                                providing medical services to the uninsured and under-insured population.
   Births to Teen           There is a slightly higher rate of births to teen mothers in Dodge County compared to
    Mothers                     the state.
                             The rate of women receiving 1st trimester prenatal care is lower in Dodge County
   Prenatal Care
                                compared to the state.
   Preventable Infant
                                The rate of SIDS in Dodge County is double the rate for the state.
    Mortality
                                The rates of pre-term births and children born with birth defects are slightly higher in
   Birth Complications
                                 Dodge County than in the state.
                                Participation rates for WIC and Food Stamps/SNAP are higher in Dodge County
                                 compared to the state and nation.
                                The number of children receiving food stamp and summer food program benefits has
   Public Assistance
                                 been increasing in recent years.
    Recipients
                                There has been an increase in families on ADC and the number of children eligible
                                 for Medicaid in recent years.
                                The percentage of births covered by Medicaid is high (over 50%).
                                The fair market rent (FMR) for a two bedroom apartment is well above the average
   Housing
                                 renter income in Dodge County.



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                Indicators of Early Childhood Need in Fremont, Nebraska (continued)
Indicator                   Rationale
                             There has been a large increase in the number of victims served at the Crisis Center
                                Domestic Violence Shelter since 2007.
   Domestic Violence
                             The number of domestic violence assaults has increased in recent years.
                             The rate of domestic violence assaults is higher in Dodge County than in the state.
                             Head Start serves at its capacity of 125 children every year. There are an estimated
   Shortage of Child
                                500-600 children eligible for Head Start every year.
    Care and Pre-school
    Services                 It is estimated that as many as half of all Kindergarteners and 1st graders in Dodge
                                County do not attend pre-school.
                             The rate of substantiated child abuse/neglect cases is higher in Dodge County than
   Child Protection and        in the state.
    Safety                   There is a slightly higher rate of state wards in Dodge County as compared to the
                                state.
                             A lower percentage of Fremont Public Schools students are proficient on the 3rd
                                grade reading assessment compared to the state (a possible indicator of school
                                readiness).
   Education                A lower percentage of the Dodge County population has High School and Bachelor's
                                Degrees compared to the state and nation.
                             Fremont Public Schools students consistently have lower graduation rates and
                                higher dropout rates compared to the state.
                             Marijuana use rates for 8th, 10th, and 12th graders were higher for Dodge County
   Underage Alcohol,
                                youth as compared to the state.
    Tobacco, and Drug
    Use                      30-day alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use rates for 8th graders were considerably
                                higher for Dodge County youth as compared to the state.




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    Guide for Service Array Participants

                                             Service Array Guide
Service Array Area               Location of Data

                                       Household Composition (pages 6-7)
                                       Income and Poverty (pages 7-15)
   Basic Needs                        Public Assistance (pages 21-24)
                                       Housing (pages 24-25)
                                       Education (pages 29-33)


                                       Access to Health Care (pages 15-16)
                                       Health and Early Childhood (pages 17-19)
   Health Care Access and             Infant and Child Mortality (pages 20-21)
    Health Promotion                   Public Assistance (pages 21-24)
                                       Underage Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drug Use (pages 41-44)
                                       Sexually Transmitted Diseases (page 44)


                                       Child Care and Pre-School (pages 26-28)
   Child and Youth Safety             Public Schools Statistics (pages 32-33)
    and Development                    Child Protection and Safety (pages 33-34)
                                       Unhealthy Juvenile Behaviors (pages 37-45)


                                       Household Composition (pages 6-7)
                                       Families and Children in Poverty (pages 8-13)
                                       Health and Early Childhood (pages 17-19)
   Family Safety and                  Infant and Child Mortality (pages 20-21)
    Development                        Child Care and Pre-School (pages 26-28)
                                       Educational Attainment (page 29)
                                       Child Protection and Safety (pages 33-34)
                                       Domestic Violence and Offenses against Families and Children (pages 34-37)




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Overview
The Fremont Early Childhood Coalition was selected by the Nebraska Children and
Families Foundation (NCFF) as a "Community at Risk" in 2010 based upon Dodge
County having five child well-being indicators that were worse than the state (see also
Appendix A).

These five indicators are:
    Infant Death Rate
    Births to Teens
    Juvenile Arrests
    Number of State Wards
    High School Graduation Rate

The NCFF placed the county in "Tier 4" of its "Communities at Risk," because Dodge
County had these five indicators as being worse than the state. There are only five
counties in all of Tiers 1 through 3 (Nebraska Children and Families Foundation, 2011).
As this report will show, other indicators could be added to those listed above (see the
"Executive Summary - Indicators of Early Childhood Need"). As a result of these
alarming data, Schmeeckle Research Inc. was contracted to provide a comprehensive
compilation of available data indicating the well-being of children in the community, with
a general focus towards the under 5 population, but with a broad inclusion of data
relevant to the general well-being of the community. This Early Childhood Community
Assessment will serve as a guide for community agencies in the analysis of the service
array in Dodge County.

Data were compiled from numerous sources. Major sources include U.S. Census,
Nebraska Department of Education, Nebraska Department of Health and Human
Services, Kids Count in Nebraska, Nebraska Crime Commission, and the Nebraska
Risk and Protective Factors and Student Survey (NRPFSS), among several others.
Most data are available only at the county level, but are primarily representative of the
city of Fremont, as Fremont contains over 70% of Dodge County's population.

The data are organized into 12 major themes, with sub-topics within certain themes.
The major themes are:

  I. Population and Household                    VII.  Housing
     Composition                                 VIII. Child Care and Pre-School
 II. Income and Poverty                           IX.  Education
III. Access to Health Care                         X.  Child Protection and Safety
IV. Health and Early Childhood                    XI.  Domestic Violence and Offenses
 V. Infant and Child Mortality                         Against Families and Children
VI. Public Assistance                             XII. Unhealthy Juvenile Behavior



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  I. Population and Household Composition
  Population

  Dodge County is located in Northeast Nebraska, approximately 35 miles northeast of
  Omaha. The population of Dodge County as of 2010 is 36,691. The city of Fremont
  comprises over 70% of Dodge County's population, with 26,397 residents (as of 2010).
  From 2000 to 2010, the population of Dodge County has increased by 1.5%. Over the
  same time period the under 5 population has increased by 12.4%. These rates of
  increase are largely due to the growth of the population in Fremont, which experienced
  a 20.2% increase in the number of children under 5 from 2000 to 2010. See Table 1
  below.

    Table 1     Fremont and Dodge County Population (2000 to 2010)
                                                                                           Percent
                                                     2000              2010
                                                                                           Change
   Fremont Total Population                          25,174            26,397               +5.1%
   Fremont Under 5 Population                        1,593             1,914               +20.2%
   Dodge County Total Population                     36,160            36,691              +1.5%
    Dodge County Under 5 Population                  2,225             2,500               +12.4%
  (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000a and 2010a)



                                       Figure 1. Percent Change in the Under 5 Population:
                                                  % Change Under 5
                                      County, State, and National Comparisons (2000 to 2010)
                                           15%
From 2000 to 2010 the under
5 population in Dodge County
grew at a slightly greater rate            10%
than the under 5 population in
Nebraska, and more than
                                             5%
double the rate for the nation.

                                             0%
                                                        Dodge County           Nebraska          United States
                              Percent Change in
                             Under Five Population            12.4%             11.3%                5.3%
                                2000 to 2010

                                                                                (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010a)




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Dodge County is primarily white (87.5%), with a moderately sized Hispanic/Latino
minority (10.1%). Other racial/ethnic groups make up just 2.1% of the population. See
Table 2 below.

  Table 2     Dodge County Population by Race/Ethnicity (2010)*
                                                                         American        Native
                               Two or
                Hispanic/                                                 Indian/      Hawaiian/
   White                        More          Black           Asian                                    Other
                 Latino*                                                  Alaskan        Pacific
                               Races
                                                                           Native       Islander
    87.5%        10.1%          0.9%          0.5%            0.5%          0.3%          0.1%         0.1%
(U.S. Census Bureau, 2010a)
*The Hispanic/Latino population is not counted in any racial category in the table above.



Household Composition

From 2000 to 2010 there were notable changes in the composition of family households
with children under 18. The number of husband-wife families with children under 18
decreased by 15.9%, while male householder, no wife present families with children
under 18 increased by 52.4%, and female householder, no husband families with
children under 18 increased by 15.7%. The total number of family households
decreased by 5.7% from 2000 to 2010. Despite this decrease in the number of families
with children under 18, there was a growth in the under 5 population in Dodge County.
See Table 3 below.

              Dodge County Family Households with Children* under 18
  Table 3
              (2000 to 2010)
                                                                                    Percent
                                                      2000            2010
                                                                                    Change
 Husband-Wife Families with Children
                                                      3,373           2,836          -15.9%
 Under 18
 Male Householder, no Wife Present
                                                       292             445           +52.4%
 Families with Children Under 18
 Female Householder, no Husband Present
                                                       823             952           +15.7%
 Families with Children Under 18

 Total Family Households with Children
                                                      4,488           4,233           -5.7%
 Under 18
(U.S. Census Bureau, 2000a and 2010a)
*Note: census data only counts children who are the parents' own children - either biological or adopted.


Compared to the state and the nation, husband-wife families with children under 18
experienced a greater decline from 2000 to 2010; male householder, no wife present
families with children under 18 experienced a greater increase; female householder, no
husband present families with children also experienced a greater increase; and total


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family households with children under 18 underwent a greater decline. See Figure 2
below.
As will be shown in the "Income and Poverty" section below, the decline in husband-
wife families appears to have considerably had an impact on the poverty status of the
under 5 population, as single parent families are much more likely to be in poverty than
husband-wife families.

         Figure 2. Percent Change in Family Households with Children under 18:
                                change in Comparisons (2000 to 2010)
                 County, State, and National family composition
               60%

               40%

               20%

                0%

             -20%
                                                                          Female
                                                Male Householder,
                           Husband-Wife                              Householder, no       Total Family
                                                 no Wife Present
                           Families with                            Husband Present      Households with
                                                  Families with
                         Children Under 18                            Families with     Children Under 18
                                                Children Under 18
                                                                    Children Under 18
         Dodge County         -15.9%                   52.4%             15.7%               -5.7%
         Nebraska             -7.6%                    35.7%             12.7%               -1.4%
         United States        -5.0%                    27.3%             10.6%                0.4%

(U.S. Census Bureau, 2000a and 2010a)



II. Income and Poverty

Income and Unemployment

In 2010, Dodge County had a median household income that was more than 20% lower
than the median household income for the nation. See Table 4 below.

               Median Household Income: County, State, and
  Table 4
               National Comparisons (2010)
      Dodge County                       Nebraska                    United States
         $42,849                             $49,342                     $51,914
(U.S. Census Bureau, 2010a)




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Community Action of Nebraska (2010) conducted a state-wide survey of Nebraska
residents which included questions about general well-being (see Appendix B for a
summary of selected highlights from the survey). One-fourth of participants from the 14-
county area in Northeast Nebraska served by Goldenrod Hills Community Action
reported being worse off than last year and cited the lack of available jobs as the top
barrier preventing adults from obtaining employment.

As shown in Figure 3 below, unemployment in Dodge County is slightly higher than in
the State of Nebraska as a whole, though it is still substantially lower than the rate for
the nation. Unemployment in Dodge County has followed state and nation trends,
reaching a 5-year high in 2010. The Nebraska Department of Labor (2010) estimated
that there were 960 unemployed members of the workforce in Fremont in 2010.
              Figure 3. Unemployment: County, State, and National Comparisons
                                 Unemployment
                                        (2006-2010)
                         10%


                            8%


                            6%


                            4%


                            2%


                            0%
                                     2006         2007       2008       2009        2010
                 Dodge County        3.4%         3.1%       3.4%        5.2%       5.4%
                 Nebraska            3.0%         2.9%       3.2%        4.8%       4.7%
                 United States       4.6%         4.6%       5.8%        9.3%       9.6%
(Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2011)



Families and Children in Poverty

Poverty has increased substantially in Dodge County from 2000 to 2010 as shown in
Table 5 below. Poverty appears to be hitting families with children under five the
hardest, with big increases in the percent of families with children under five at or below
poverty from 2000 to 2010. Married couple families with children under five experience
poverty at a considerably lower rate than do female householder, no husband present
families with children under five. Almost two-thirds of these single mother households
with children under five are at or below poverty in Dodge County. As mentioned above
in the "Population and Household Composition" section, married couple families are
decreasing and single parent families are increasing, undoubtedly having an impact on



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the percentage of children living in poverty. See Appendix C for a display of poverty
threshold definitions.


              Dodge County Poverty Statistics for Households with Children
  Table 5
              under 5 (2000 to 2010)
                                                                                 Percent
                                                  2000            2010
                                                                                 Change*
 Total Population at or below Poverty             8.6%            13.1%          +52.3%
 All Families with Children under 5 at or
                                                  12.4%           28.4%          +129.0%
 below Poverty
 Married Couple Families with Children
                                                  7.2%            16.6%          +130.1%
 under 5 at or below Poverty
 Female Householder, no Husband Present
 Families with Children under 5 at or below       39.6%           65.5%          +65.4%
 Poverty
(U.S. Census Bureau, 2000b and 2010b)
*Note: the percent change for all poverty statistics is the percent change in the poverty
rate, not the change in the number of individuals in poverty, though the two numbers
would be relatively close. The American Community Survey is unable to provide the
crude number of individuals in poverty.

Dodge County has a rate of poverty for the entire population that is slightly higher than
the State of Nebraska, and slightly lower than the national average. However, families
with children under five experience poverty at significantly higher rates than families in
the state and nation. See Figure 4 below.




Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                            9
                                               Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
                                                                                              March 2012


               Figure 4. Poverty Rates for Households with Children under 5:
                      County, State, family poverty
                                     and National Comparisons (2010)
               80%

               60%

               40%

               20%

                0%
                                                                                             Female Householder,
                                                                        Married Couple
                                                  All Families with                           no Husband Present
                         Total Population at                             Families with
                                                 Children under 5 at                             Families with
                          or below Poverty                             Children under 5 at
                                                  or below Poverty                            Children under 5 at
                                                                        or below Poverty
                                                                                               or below Poverty
         Dodge County          13.1%                   28.4%                 16.6%                  65.5%
         Nebraska              11.8%                   16.8%                  6.2%                  49.4%
         United States         13.8%                   17.1%                  6.4%                  45.8%

(U.S. Census Bureau, 2000b and 2010b)

As Table 5 above displayed Dodge County poverty statistics, Table 6 below contains
the same poverty statistics for just the city of Fremont. Comparison between Table 5
above and Table 6 below shows that, with the exception of Female Householder, no
husband present families with children under 5, the rates of poverty in 2010 were
greater for Fremont than for the whole of Dodge County. Additionally, the percent
change in poverty rates from 2000 to 2010 has been greater in Fremont as compared to
Dodge County, with the exception of female householder, no husband present families
with children under 5.

              City of Fremont Poverty Statistics for Households with Children
  Table 6
              under 5 (2000 to 2010)
                                                                                                       Percent
                                                               2000                  2010
                                                                                                       Change
 Total Population at or below Poverty                          8.8%                  14.0%             +59.1%
 All Families with Children under 5 at or
                                                               13.6%                 34.3%             +155.2%
 below Poverty
 Married Couple Families with Children
                                                               6.5%                  23.4%             +260.0%
 under 5 at or below Poverty
 Female Householder, no Husband Present
 Families with Children under 5 at or below                    43.4%                 62.8%             +44.7%
 Poverty
(U.S. Census Bureau, 2000b and 2010b)




Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                                                   10
                                    Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
                                                                                   March 2012

Figure 5 below displays poverty by White not Hispanic/Latino and Hispanic/Latino for
the total population and the under 5 population in each racial/ethnic category. The data
show that, while Hispanic/Latinos experience poverty at higher rates than white non-
Hispanic/Latinos, both White non-Hispanic/Latinos and Hispanic/Latinos in Dodge
County experience poverty at greater rates than their racial/ethnic peers in both the
state and the nation. White non-Hispanic/Latino children under 5 in Dodge County have
poverty rates that are almost double that for White non-Hispanic/Latino children in the
state. The rate of poverty for Hispanic/Latino children under five in Dodge County is
almost 50% higher than Hispanic/Latino children in the state. One in four White non-
Hispanic/Latino children under 5 and two-in-five Hispanic/Latino children under 5 are at
or below poverty in Dodge County.




Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                         11
                                               Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
                                                                                              March 2012



                       Figure 5. Poverty Rates by White Non-Hispanic/Latino and
                                      poverty by white and hispanic
                    Hispanic/Latino: County, State, and National Comparisons (2010)
                 60%



                 40%



                 20%



                  0%
                             White, Not           White, Not
                                                                     Hispanic/Latino       Hispanic/Latino
                           Hispanic/Latino      Hispanic/Latino
                                                                         (Total)              (under 5)
                               (Total)             (under 5)
           Dodge County        10.7%                23.3%                  32.8%                41.3%
           Nebraska             9.2%                12.7%                  22.4%                34.2%
           United States        9.5%                22.5%                  22.4%                32.1%

     (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000b and 2010b)



                                        Figure 6. Racial/Ethnic Distribution of the under 5 Population
                                                               under 5 Dodge County (2010)
                                                 at or below Poverty in poverty

The majority (almost two-
thirds) of children under 5 in
poverty in Dodge County are
White non-Hispanic/Latino.              Ethnicity/Race of Those under 5 in
Thus, proving that poverty                                                              64.0%                   30.5%    5.5%
                                                     Poverty
impacts all children in the
community at high rates,
regardless of race/ethnicity.


                                              White, Not Hispanic/Latino     Hispanic/Latino    All Other Races/Ethnicities

                                                                           (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000b and 2010b)




     Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                                              12
                                      Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
                                                                                     March 2012



Nearly 90% of unmarried women who gave birth in Dodge County in 2009 were at or
below poverty, which was substantially lower than the poverty rates for married women
(about one-fourth) who gave birth in 2009. Over half of all women who gave birth in
2009 were at or below poverty. See Table 7 below.

              Births in the Past Year to Married and Unmarried
  Table 7     Women and the Percent at or below Poverty in
              Dodge County (2010)
                                                     Percent at or Below
                                    Number
                                                          Poverty
 Married Women Who
                                     287                    25.6%
 Gave Birth
 Unmarried Women
                                     231                    87.4%
 Who Gave Birth

 Total Women Who
                                     518                    55.9%
 Gave Birth
(U.S. Census Bureau, 2010b)



A notably higher percentage of births in 2009 were to unmarried women in Dodge
County, as compared to the state and nation. See Table 8 below.

              Percent of Births in the Past Year to Married and Unmarried Women:
  Table 8
              County, State, and National Comparisons (2010)
                               Dodge County              Nebraska              United States
 Percent of Births to
                                    55.4%                 71.0%                   66.2%
 Married Women
 Percent of Births to
                                    44.6%                 29.0%                   33.8%
 Unmarried Women
(U.S. Census Bureau, 2010b)


Poverty affects unmarried women who gave birth at a high rate, with half of unmarried
women in the county who gave birth in 2009 being at or below poverty. The impact of
poverty on unmarried women who gave birth is even more pronounced in Dodge
County, as displayed below in Figure 7.




Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                              13
                                              Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
                                                                                             March 2012


         Figure 7. Percent of Unmarried Women Who Gave Birth in the Past Year at
                          poverty unmarried births
             or Below Poverty: County, State, and National Comparisons (2010)
                                   100%


                                    75%


                                    50%


                                    25%


                                       0%
                                                 Dodge County         Nebraska           United States
            Percent of Unmarried Women
            Who Gave Birth in the Past Year           87.4%            57.3%                50.4%
                 at or below Poverty

(U.S. Census Bureau, 2010b)


In each consecutive year over the past five, the percentage of students that receive free
and reduced lunches has increased in both the state and in the City of Fremont. The
rate of students that receive free and reduced lunch in Fremont has been consistently
higher than the rate for all students in the state. In the 2010-2011 school year, almost
half of all students enrolled in the Fremont Public School District received free and
reduced lunches. See Figure 8 below.

             Figure 8. Percent of Fremont Public School Students Receiving Free
               and Reduced Lunch: County and State Comparisons (2006-2011)
                                     Free and Reduced
                                 50%

                                 40%

                                 30%

                                 20%

                                 10%

                                  0%
                                              2006-           2007-   2008-      2009-         2010-
                                              2007            2008    2009       2010          2011
              Fremont Public Schools          40.2%       42.4%       44.8%      47.8%         48.9%
              Nebraska Public Schools         36.4%       37.3%       38.4%      41.2%         42.9%
(Nebraska Department of Education, 2011)



Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                                        14
                                    Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
                                                                                   March 2012

Services for the Homeless and Families in Poverty

Crisis Corps. Crisis Corps provides short-term safe and secure shelter services for
individuals and families experiencing housing crisis in the Fremont Community. The
shelter can serve up to 60 adults and children at any given time and provides three free
meals a day for clients. In addition to the shelter, other programs include case
management, professional counseling, basic health care, life skills education classes to
assist residents in securing employment and housing, and parenting classes.

Notable outcome data from 2010 include:
    404 clients received safe shelter and hygiene products, 21 of which were infants
      up to 4 years old, 45 were children aged 5 to 18.
    11,307 total nights of shelter for care corps clients.
    34,191 meals served.
    100 hours of service provided by visiting nurses.
    60 hours of service provided by a physician's assistant.
    94 clients participated in Rent Wise.
    73 clients participated in the Healthy Choices Program.
    77 participants in the Love and Logic Parent Training (31 were families from Care
      Corps, which is all of the families who were clients in 2010).
    90% of clients participated in life skills and parenting classes.
    95% of clients received case management services.
    84% of clients moved to permanent housing.
    Care Corps estimates serving 495 clients in 2011 (a 23% increase from 2010).
(Fremont Area United Way, 2011)

The Salvation Army. The Salvation Army provides a number of services for individuals
and families in need. In 2010 a total of 2,501 clients were served through the Salvation
Army's various programs, 215 of which were under the age of 5. The programs offered
by the Salvation Army include:
     Financial assistance for rent and utilities.
     Daily food to consumers through its food pantry.
     Educational information about GED classes, college degrees, local employment
       agencies, and funding opportunities for career advancement.
     Collaboration with social service agencies and local churches for appropriate
       referrals.
     Invitations to church youth groups and local college students to do service
       projects.
     Provision of on-site job training through Experienced Works for potential
       permanent employment.
     Public relations work to include articles in the Fremont Tribune, KHUB radio, and
       Time Warner Cable announcements.
     Prescription assistance for uninsured consumers in financial crisis, with the
       Salvation Army paying for a one month supply of prescription medication and
       help with application for prescription assistance.

Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                         15
                                      Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
                                                                                     March 2012

Notable outcome data from 2010 include:
    268 educational materials were distributed on financial savings in a year to
      consumers.
    152 consumers completed individual budget counseling.
    94 consumers were referred to Consumer Credit Card Counseling.
    77 consumers received utility assistance.
    25 consumers signed up for the level payment plan with the utility company.
    481 consumers received food pantry services.
    49 consumers received rental assistance.
    42 consumers received prescription assistance.
(Fremont Area United Way, 2011)

III. Access to Health Care

Despite the high rates of childhood poverty, the percent of the under 18 population in
Dodge County that does not have health insurance is lower than both the state and the
nation. Children receiving health insurance through Medicaid are not counted as
uninsured. See Table 9 below.

              Percent of the Population under 18 with no Health
  Table 9     Insurance: County, State, and National Comparisons
              (2010)
      Dodge County                  Nebraska               United States
           5.3%                      6.4%                      8.7%
(U.S. Census Bureau, 2010b)



The Three Rivers District Public Health Department in Fremont conducts an
immunization clinic serving children with no insurance, high deductable insurance, or
Medicaid. The immunization clinic is intended to provide immunization for those who do
not have any other options. In 2011 the immunization clinic served 325 clients ages 0 to
5. This gives a reasonable estimate of the number of children who are likely to have
some barriers to receiving medical care (Three Rivers District Health Department,
2012).

In the 2010 Community Assessment Survey, the top health care issue for the state was
cost, with 67% of all respondents reporting that they delayed medical care due to cost,
which was the exact same percent response from participants living in the area served
by Goldenrod Hills Community Action, which includes Dodge County and 13 other
counties in Northeast Nebraska. Additionally, the top basic need identified as a problem
by participants living in the Goldenrod Hills area was affordable medical, vision, and
dental care for their family (Community Action of Nebraska, 2010). Therefore, even for
those who have health insurance, there are several barriers to receiving health care.

For those who are unable to afford a visit to a doctor, the Three Rivers District Health
Department (covering Dodge, Saunders, and Washington Counties) offers appointment
Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                           16
                                    Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
                                                                                   March 2012

referrals to health care providers in the area that have agreed to offer low or no cost
services to patients that are unable to pay the usual rate for health care services (i.e.,
either uninsured or under-insured). While this referral system is effective in granting
access to health care services to some of those who would be otherwise unable to
receive medical care, it does not meet all of the needs of the community. From January
2008 to August 2011, Three Rivers District Health Department made 222 medical
referrals, 96 dental referrals, and 5 orthodontic referrals. However, One World Federally
Qualified Health Care Center in Omaha reports seeing upwards of 300 patients a year
from the Fremont Area (Bojanski, Gabb, Osborn, Smutko, Tumbleson, and Brittin,
2011). A Federally Qualified Health Care Center serves the uninsured and underinsured
population.

In addition to the referral program offered by the Three Rivers District Health
Department, Care Corps Homeless Shelter provides limited free medical services for
two hours a week as noted above in the "Income and Poverty Section". In 2011, there
were approximately 150 patient encounters at Care Corps (Bojanski, Gabb, Osborn,
Smutko, Tumbleson, and Brittin, 2011).

Because of the difficulty of access to health care for those in need in Dodge, Saunders,
and Washington Counties, authors of the "Feasibility Study for the Three County Health
Clinic Serving Dodge, Saunders, and Washington Counties, Nebraska" came to the
conclusion that, "The three-county area urgently needs a solution to the alarming and
growing gap in health care service availability to those in need." The authors
recommended the establishment of a primary care clinic to provide services to the
uninsured and under-insured (Bojanski, Gabb, Osborn, Smutko, Tumbleson, and Brittin,
2011).




Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                         17
                                             Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
                                                                                            March 2012



   IV. Health and Early Childhood

   Births to Teen Mothers
                                         Figure 9. Births to Teen Mothers as a Percent of Total Births:
                                                         Teen Births
                                                  County and State Comparisons (2005-2009)
                                              10%


Teen Pregnancy in Dodge
County is slightly higher than in
the state, with nearly 10% of all
children born to teen mothers                   5%
from 2005 to 2009.




                                                0%
                                                              Dodge County                  Nebraska
                          Births to Teen Mothers as a
                                                                 9.8%                        8.4%
                             Percent of Total Births

                                                 (Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services, 2010)



   Prenatal Care

                                 Figure 10. Percent of Pregnant Women Receiving Prenatal Care
                                                         1st Trimester
                                in the First Trimester: County and State Comparisons (2005-2009)
                                                        75%



Compared to the state, a lower                          50%
percentage of women in
Dodge County receive
prenatal care in their first
trimester.                                              25%



                                                        0%
                                                                  Dodge County               Nebraska
                          Percent of Pregnant Women
                            Receiving Prenatal Care                     68.0%                 72.0%
                             in the First Trimester

                                                 (Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services, 2010)




   Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                                    18
                                                Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
                                                                                               March 2012



       Complications at Birth

                                   Figure 11. Rates of Low Birth Weight, Pre-term Birth, and Birth
                                  Defects: County and State Birth
                                                            Comparisons (2004/2005 - 2008/2009)
                               15%

Compared to the state,
the rate of children born
with low birth weight
(less than 2500 grams)         10%
in Dodge County is
comparable. The rate or
pre-term births and
children born with birth        5%
defects is slightly higher
in Dodge County as
compared to the state.
                                0%
                                           Percent of Children Born                                 Percent of Children Born
                                                                      Incidence of Pre-term Birth
                                            with Low Birth Weight                                      with Birth Defects
                                                                             (2005-2009)
                                                 (2005-2009)                                              (2004-2008)
                          Dodge County              6.9%                        10.7%                        6.7%
                          Nebraska                  7.1%                         9.8%                        5.0%

                                                     (Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services, 2010)



       Services for Families with Young Children

       Young Mothers and Children (Y-MAC) Family Planning and Reproductive Health
       Program. The Y-MAC Family Planning and Reproductive Health program provides
       quality reproductive health services and education to individuals in need. It is the goal of
       the program to decrease the number of unplanned pregnancies, the incidence of
       sexually transmitted disease, abortion, and child abuse. The program also provides
       screening for breast and cervical cancer, diabetes, and sexually transmitted diseases.

       Notable outcome data from 2010 include:
           72 women received reproductive services.
           100% of pregnant participants received prenatal care in the 1st and 2nd
             trimesters.
           100% of pregnant participants showed a healthy weight gain.
           100% of pregnant participants used prenatal vitamins.
           90% of participants demonstrated healthy changes in their lifestyles.
           Less than 1% of participants showed evidence of gestational diabetes.
           95% of birth weights were over 5.5 pounds.


       Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                                             19
                                    Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
                                                                                   March 2012

     95% of participants demonstrated an increased knowledge regarding healthy
      pregnancy, child care, and budgeting.
    A 10% increase in referrals from other agencies, churches, and schools.
(Fremont Area United Way, 2011)

Lutheran Family Services Young Families Incentive Program (YFIP). The activities of
the Young Families Incentive Program (YFIP) are aimed at improving a parent's ability
to raise a healthy child or children. Three 16-week Nurturing Parenting Program classes
are offered by YFIP, two conducted in English and one in Spanish. The Nurturing
Parenting Program is a nationally recognized, evidenced based class, educating
parents on healthy ways to interact with their children and cope with the stressors of
parenting. In 2010, 334 parents with 578 children (a total of 912) were served by the
Young Families Incentive Program, an 11% increase from 2009. Of the 912 total
participants, 393 included children under 5 and their parents.

Monthly support groups are also provided for parents and families as a safe place to
build a support system. Many of the parents who attend the class were not raised in a
healthy environment and are determined to provide a better life for their children,
according to Lutheran Family Services (Fremont Area United Way, 2011). YFIP offers a
variety (at least 20 per year) of healthy on-site activities for both parents and their
families, including story time in partnership with Keene Memorial Library every
Wednesday, healthy eating habits demonstration in partnership with the Fremont Area
Medical Center, and Health Risk Assessments in partnership with Three Rivers District
Public Health Department.

Sara's Boutique is the Young Families Incentive Program's "store" that provides
incentive items to encourage parents to engage in healthy activities. Parents' positive
behaviors, such as keeping their child current on immunizations, are rewarded with
points, which are redeemable for essential children's items such as diapers, strollers,
and car seats. This reward system has been an effective strategy in keeping parents
involved in the well-being of their children.

Lutheran Family Services also operates a counseling program that provides mental
health services for individuals and families in need of a variety of behavioral health
services. The majority of the clients for the Counseling Program are adults. (Fremont
Area United Way, 2011)




Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                         20
                                              Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
                                                                                             March 2012



  V. Infant and Child Mortality

                            Figure 12. Rate of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) per 1,000
                                                          SIDS
                                 Live Births: County and State Comparisons (2005-2009)
                                        2.0

The rate SIDS in Dodge
County is double that of                1.5
the state. SIDS has
been shown to be                        1.0
preventable (American
Academy of Pediatrics,
2011).                                  0.5


                                        0.0
                                                         Dodge County                     Nebraska
                         Incidence of SIDS per
                                                              1.6                            0.8
                           1,000 Live Births

                                                 (Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services, 2010)



                                          Figure 13. Infant Mortality per 1,000 Live Births:
                                                               Infant Mortality
                                            County and State Comparisons (2005-2009)
                                         8


The rate of infant                       6
mortality (defined as the
death of a child before
the first birthday) in                   4
Dodge County is
comparable to that of
                                         2
the state.

                                         0
                                                         Dodge County                     Nebraska
                         Infant Mortality per
                                                             6.0                             5.8
                           1,000 Live Births

                                                 (Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services, 2010)




  Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                                   21
                                         Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
                                                                                        March 2012

                            Figure 14. Death Rate for Population Aged 1-19 per 100,000
                                                        1-19 Mortality
                              Population: County and State Comparisons (2005-2009)
                                          40


The death rate for the                    30
1-19 population in
Dodge County is
slightly higher as                        20
compared to the state.
                                          10


                                           0
                                                         Dodge County                     Nebraska
                       Death Rate for Ages 1-19
                                                             34.8                           31.7
                             per 100,000

                                               (Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services, 2010)



VI. Public Assistance

The median household income by family type and the percent receiving public
assistance are displayed below in Table 10. Married couple families with children have
a notably higher median family income as compared to single parent families with
children- more than 3.5 times that of female householder, no husband present families
with children. Half of all these single mother families receive public assistance in Dodge
County.

              Income and Public Assistance by Family Household Type for
  Table 10
              Dodge County (2010)
                                                       Median Family       Percent Receiving
                                                         Income            Public Assistance*
  Married Couple Families with Children                   $67,386                 7.0%
  Male Householder, no Wife Present with
                                                          $42,333                 18.7%
  Children
  Female Householder, no Husband Present
                                                          $18,696                 49.8%
  with Children
  Total Families with Children                            $51,535                 17.3%
(U.S. Census Bureau, 2010b)
*Public assistance programs include Supplemental Security Income (SSI), Cash Public Assistance, or
Food Stamps/SNAP Benefits




Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                                    22
                                        Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
                                                                                       March 2012



The percentage of the population that receives Food Stamp (also known as SNAP) and
Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) benefits in Dodge County is comparable to that of
the rest of the nation, but higher than the rest of the state. A substantially lower
percentage of the population in Nebraska receives Food Stamp benefits as compared to
the nation. See Table 11 below.

              Percent of Population Receiving Food Stamp/SNAP and WIC Benefits:
 Table 11
              County, State, and National Comparisons (2010)
                                    Dodge County                Nebraska             United States
 Food Stamps/SNAP                      9.6%                        4.5%                  9.3%
  WIC                                3.2%                       2.4%                     3.0%
(U.S. Census Bureau, 2010b, Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services, 2011)



The majority of WIC recipients in                               Dodge County WIC
                                                    Table 12
Dodge County are children, infants,                             Recipients by Type (2009)
and postpartum mothers. A very low                                         Percentage of Total WIC
percentage of WIC recipients are                                                 Recipients
pregnant women. Services to                        Pregnant women                   5.1%
pregnant women are provided by the                 Breastfeeding                    5.3%
non-profit agency Y-MAC (see the                   Postpartum                       18.7%
“Access to Health and Early                        Infants                          13.7%
Childhood" Section above).                          Children                        57.3%
                                              (Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services, 2010)



As shown below in Figure 15 the number of Food Stamp recipients under the age of 19
and the number of participants in the Summer Food Program in Dodge County have
increased since 2007. The number of WIC recipients has remained fairly level, with a
slight increase since 2005. All of these programs provide nutritional nourishment for
children.




Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                               23
                                        Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
                                                                                       March 2012



                     Figure 15. Average Number of Participants Receiving Assistance
                                      Nutritional Programs
                  through Nutritional Programs for Children in Dodge County (2005-2010)
                            2,000



                            1,500



                            1,000



                              500



                                0
                                      2005          2006        2007       2008           2009        2010
            Food Stamps (under 19)*                             1,377      1,446          1,666       1,916
            Summer Food Program*                                184         419           457         564
            WIC                       1,146         1,086       1,134      1,215          1,222       1,179
  (Kids Count in Nebraska 2006-2011, Nebraska Department of Education (2008-2011)
  *2005 and 2006 data unavailable.


                                                     Figure 16. Average Monthly Number of Families
                                                                   ADC
                                                          on ADC in Dodge County (2005-2010)
                                                       250

Since 2007, the monthly average                        200
number of families receiving the Aid to
Dependent Children (ADC) benefit in
                                                       150
Dodge County has increased each
year. ADC provides financial
                                                       100
assistance to families with children
that have little or no income.
                                                           50

                                                            0
                                                                2005     2006      2007      2008      2009    2010
                                              Families on ADC   186      171       163          177     199        215
                                                                        (Kids Count in Nebraska, 2006-2011)




  Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                                           24
                                         Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
                                                                                        March 2012


                                                     Figure 17. Average Number of Children Eligible
                                                                Medicaid
                                                        for Medicaid in Dodge County (2005-2010)
                                                     4,000
Following the trend of the rise in the
number of children receiving
assistance from social programs in
Dodge County in recent years, the
                                                     3,000
number of children eligible for
Medicaid has increased each year
since 2006 in Dodge County.

                                                     2,000
                                                                2005     2006    2007     2008    2009     2010
                                            Medicaid Eligible
                                                                2,849    2,716   2,794   2,936    3,051    3,360
                                               Children
                                                                        (Kids Count in Nebraska, 2006-2011)



                                                                    Percent of Births Covered by
In 2008, over half of all births in Dodge             Table 13      Medicaid: County and State
County were covered by Medicaid,                                    Comparisons (2008)
which is substantially higher than the                       Dodge County                 Nebraska
rate for the state of Nebraska.                              51.9%                     37.2%
                                              (Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services, 2010)



    VII. Housing
    Affordability of Housing

    Fair Market Rent (FMR) is a term used in real estate that indicates the amount of money
    a given property would command, if it were open for leasing at the moment. In Dodge
    County, the average fair market rent for a two-bedroom apartment is $682. The National
    Low Income Housing Coalition Outreach calculates the income needed to afford a fair-
    market rent two bedroom apartment, based on paying no more than 30% of wages on
    housing and utilities. The hourly wage needed for one person, working 40 hours a week,
    52 weeks a year, to afford a FMR two bedroom apartment in Dodge County is $13.12. If
    there are two wage earners in a FMR two bedroom apartment, then they must work 1.8
    full-time jobs at minimum wage in order to afford the apartment. The minimum income
    needed to afford a two bedroom FMR apartment in Dodge County is $27,280 (see
    Table 14 below). Note that the average income for female householder, no husband
    present families with children is $18,696, making a FMR two bedroom apartment
    unaffordable according to the National Low Income Housing Coalition Outreach
    standards.


    Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                                     25
                                        Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
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              Fair Market Rent (FMR) Housing Costs: County and State Comparisons
 Table 14
              (2011)
                                                                                    Full-Time Jobs at
                                            Hourly Wage
                      Two Bedroom                              Income Needed to      Minimum Wage
                                            Necessary to
                      FMR Cost per                                Afford Two        Needed to Afford
                                             Afford Two
                         Month                                   Bedroom FMR         Two Bedroom
                                            Bedroom FMR
                                                                                           FMR
 Dodge County              $682                 $13.12              $27,280                 1.8
  Nebraska                $644                  $12.78              $26,573                1.8
(National Low Income Housing Coalition Outreach, 2011)



In Dodge County, the estimated mean renter hourly wage is $8.51, almost $2 per hour
lower than the state average (see Table 15 below). In Dodge County, a single wage
earner must work 62 hours a week, 52 weeks a year to afford a FMR two-bedroom
apartment.

 Table 15     Renter Households: County and State Comparisons (2011)
                         Renter
                                           Estimated Mean
                     Households as a                            Rate Affordable at Mean
                                            Renter Hourly
                     Percent of Total                                    Wage
                                           Wage (2005-2009)
                       Households
 Dodge County             32%                    $8.51                   $442
  Nebraska                32%                   $10.33                   $537
(National Low Income Housing Coalition Outreach, 2011)



The lack of affordable housing certainly impacts a high portion of the community in
Dodge County. The number two basic need, after affordable health care, was paying for
utilities identified by participants from the 14-county Goldenrod Hills area in the 2010
Community Assessment Survey. (Community Action of Nebraska, 2010).

Sub-Standard Housing

In Dodge County there were a total of 294 houses determined to be substandard by
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Of these, 19 lacked
complete plumbing and 275 were overcrowded. Overcrowding is defined as more than
1.01 persons per bedroom. (Midland University/Dodge County Head Start, 2012).




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VIII. Child Care and Pre-School
Child Care

In the 2010 Community Assessment Survey, participants from the 14-county area
served by Goldenrod Hills Community Action identified the cost of child care as the top
issue for children and pre-school services as the top need for children (Community
Action of Nebraska, 2010). As the data show, there appears to be a shortage in
affordable child care and pre-school options in Dodge County.

There are five types of child care programs defined by the Department of Health and
Human Services. These are defined as follows:

      Child Care Center: Program licensed for at least 13 children.
      Family Child Care Home I: Program in the home of the provider, maximum
       capacity is eight children of mixed ages and two additional school age children
       during non-school hours.
      Family Child Care Home II: Program in the home of the provider or another sit;
       maximum capacity is twelve with two providers.
      Preschool: Program providing educational services where children do not nap
       and are not fed a meal.
      Provisional License: All newly licensed child care and preschool programs
       receive a Provisional License for their first year of operation.

As shown in Table 16 below, there are 2,066 available spaces in child care for Dodge
County. Given the rise in poverty for the under 5 population, access to affordable child
care is likely difficult for many families. Child care subsidies are provided to families who
receive Aid to Dependent Children (ADC) with incomes at or below 185% of the federal
poverty level and families who do not receive ADC but have incomes at or below 120%
of the poverty level (Kids Count in Nebraska, 2010). Please note: there are no data
available for non-licensed day cares.

 Table 16     Dodge County Licensed Child Care Facilities by Type (2011)
                                          Number of Facilities        Capacity
 Child Care Center                                21                    1,464
 Family Child Care Home I                         27                     268
 Family Child Care Home II                        13                     156
 Pre-School                                        5                     71
 Provisional Family Child Care Home                5                     50
 Provisional Child Care Center                     1                     45
 Provisional Pre-School                            1                     12
  Total                                            73                   2,066
(Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services, 2011)

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Pre-School

Public and non-public school districts in Nebraska are able to provide pre-school
services, due in large part to legislation passed in 2005 to increase funding for at risk
four-year olds to have access to high quality early childhood programs. In addition to the
5 licensed pre-schools and one provisionally licensed pre-school, which have a capacity
for 83 children, there are an additional 9 state and/or federally funded, or parochial pre-
schools, with a capacity to serve up to 356 children. These programs serve the general
or low income population, with the exception of Davenport School, which only serves
the special needs population. See Table 17 below.

              Federal, State, and Parochial Pre-School
 Table 17
              Programs in Dodge County (2010-2011)
                                                Capacity
 Dodge County Head Start                           125
 Davenport School - Fremont                        102
 Scribner Elementary                               18
 Logan View Elementary                              8
 North Bend Elementary                              5
 Archbishop Bergan                                 20
 Trinity Lutheran Elementary                       66
 St. Wenceslaus Elementary                         11
  Total                                            356
(Nebraska Department of Education Data Services, 2011a)



In total there were approximately 447 pre-school slots available in Dodge County during
the 2010-2011 school year (this is counting all state, federal, and parochial pre-school
programs as well as licensed child care pre-school programs). Considering there were
883 Kindergarten and 1st grade students enrolled in elementary schools in Dodge
County during the same year, Midland University/Dodge County Head Start (2012)
concludes that as few as half of those school-age children had access to any pre-school
services before entering the public or parochial school system.

Additionally, 66% of respondents to the Community Assessment Survey from the
Goldenrod Hills area with children 5 and younger identified pre-school education for
children 3-5 as the greatest need for education (Community Action of Nebraska, 2010).


Dodge County Head Start

Dodge County Head Start provides child development and education services to low
income 3- and 4-year olds and their families. Head Start provides pre-school programs
for children who would be otherwise unable to attend pre-school. Children who attend

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                                    Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
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pre-school are better prepared in terms of literacy and math outcomes as they move
into Kindergarten in the public schools. Head Start also teaches parents the importance
of their role in developing their children's literacy skills (Fremont Area United Way,
2011). The capacity for Head Start is 125 children. Based on 2010 poverty data, there
are an estimated 710 children living in poverty in Dodge County.

Notable outcome data from 2010-2011 include:
    134 3- and 4-year old children participated in Dodge County Head Start in 2010
      (as the capacity is 125, this number likely shows that 9 children left Head Start
      mid-year and were replaced by children on the waiting list).
    256 hours of teacher-directed instruction per child.
    A 8% increase in the English speaking abilities of the child participants from the
      first data collection to the third.
    A 27% increase in the ability of the child participants to identify letters of the
      alphabet from the first data collection to the third.
    A 33% increase in the ability of the child participants to make use of one-on-one
      correspondence in counting objects and matching groups of objects from the first
      data collection to the third.
    73% of parents reported spending more time reading and/or participating in
      literacy activities, 93% reported being more aware of everyday literacy activities
      that can be done at home, and 53% reported that the literacy initiative improved
      awareness of their responsibility as parents to be their child's first teacher.
    Over 5,900 breakfasts and 11,500 lunches served to Head Start eligible children.
    121 families received parenting and health education.
(Fremont Area United Way, 2011, and Midland University/Dodge County Head Start,
2012)




Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                         29
                                           Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
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      IX. Education

      Educational Attainment


                                                Figure 18. Educational Attainment:
                                                     educational Comparisons (2010)
                                          County, State, and National attainment
Dodge County has a           100%
rate of its population
with at least a high
                               80%
school degree that is
comparable to the
nation, but lower than         60%
the state. A notably
lower percentage of
the Dodge County               40%
population has
attained a Bachelor's
Degree or higher, as           20%
compared to the state
and nation.
                                0%
                                           High School Degree or Higher      Bachelor's Degree or Higher
                         Dodge County                 84.8%                            17.3%
                         Nebraska                     90.0%                            27.7%
                         United States                85.0%                            27.9%

                                                                          (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010b)




      Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                                30
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   Dropout Rates
                                         Figure 19. Dropout Rates*: Fremont and State Comparisons
                                                              Dropout Rates
                                                                (2006-2010)
                                                 4%


                                                 3%
The yearly dropout rate* of Fremont
Public Schools students is
consistently higher than all students            2%
in the Nebraska Public Schools
system. However, the dropout rate in
                                                 1%
Fremont has improved since 2006-
2007.
                                                 0%
                                                           2006-          2007-          2008-           2009-
                                                           2007           2008           2009            2010
                               Fremont Public Schools      3.3%            2.2%           2.4%           2.2%
                               Nebraska Public Schools     1.9%            1.7%           1.6%           1.5%
                                                                    (Nebraska Department of Education, 2011)
   *Note: the dropout rate is calculated by dividing the total number of 7th-12th grade students who dropped
   out by the official fall enrollment for grades 7-12. Students who transferred, graduated, were suspended,
   expelled, or were absent due to suspension, expulsion, illness, or death, are not counted as dropouts.

   High School Graduation Rates

                                       Figure 20. Graduation Rates*: Fremont and State Comparisons
                                                           Grad (2006-2010)
                                                100%



The graduation rate for Fremont                  95%
Public Schools Students is
consistently lower than the state                90%
average by five or six percentage
points.
                                                 85%


                                                 80%
                                                           2006-          2007-          2008-         2009-
                                                           2007           2008           2009          2010
                                Fremont Public Schools     83.9%          86.5%          83.9%         83.9%
                                Nebraska Public Schools    89.2%          89.8%          89.8%         90.0%
                                                                    (Nebraska Department of Education, 2011)
   *Note: the graduation rate is calculated by dividing the total number of high school graduates by the total
   number of graduates plus the number of students who dropped out in the current year's graduating class
   in grades 9-12.


   Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                                       31
                                         Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
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  Attendance Rates
                                                    Figure 21. Daily Attendance Rates:
                                                          Attendance
                                                Fremont and State Comparisons (1994-2011)
                                             100%

                                              98%
Since 1994 daily attendance at
Fremont Public Schools appears to             96%
be decreasing slightly, dropping
below the state average in recent             94%
years.
                                              92%

                                              90%
                                                       1994-      1999-      2004-     2009-      2010-
                                                       1995       2000       2005      2010       2011
                             Fremont Public Schools    96.0%      96.0%     95.6%      94.3%      94.3%
                             Nebraska Public Schools   95.2%      95.1%     94.6%      94.8%      95.2%
                                                               (Nebraska Department of Education, 2011)

  Excessive Absences

  Compared to all students in Nebraska Public Schools, the students in Fremont Public
  Schools had comparable rates of excessive absences (i.e., over 10, 15, and 20
  absences in a school year) in the 2010-2011 school year. However, elementary
  students in Fremont had a slightly lower rate of excessive absences compared to the
  state. Middle school students in Fremont had slightly higher rates of excessive
  absences compared to the state. High school students in Fremont had a fairly high rate
  of students absent for more than 20 days, likely in part due to dropouts. See Figure 22
  below.

  Note: students can be counted multiple times in the excessive absences data displayed
  below. For example, if a student were absent more than 20 times in a school year, this
  student would be counted in the cohorts of students with more than 10 and more than
  15 absences.




  Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                                 32
                                                        Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
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                           Figure 22. Excessive Absences: Fremont and State Comparisons
                                           Excessive Absences
                                                     (2010-2011)
                             50%
                                           Elementary               Middle School          High School               Total
                             40%


                             30%


                             20%


                             10%


                              0%        Fremont        Nebraska   Fremont    Nebraska   Fremont   Nebraska   Fremont     Nebraska
                                         Public         Public     Public     Public     Public    Public     Public      Public
                                        Schools        Schools    Schools    Schools    Schools   Schools    Schools     Schools
     % Students with over 10 Absences   14.9%           19.3%     26.2%       25.2%     34.8%      37.2%     24.0%           26.2%
     % Students with over 15 Absences    5.9%           7.1%      13.6%       11.1%     22.4%      21.0%     12.6%           12.3%
     % Students with over 20 Absences    2.2%           2.7%       7.8%       5.1%      16.1%      12.6%      7.6%           6.3%

(Nebraska Department of Education Data Services, 2011b, and Fremont Public Schools, 2011)



Public Schools Statistics

As noted above, Fremont Public Schools students have a lower graduation rate and a
higher dropout rate as compared to all Nebraska Public Schools students. Fremont
Public Schools also has a higher percentage of students receiving free/reduced lunches
and students receiving special education services, and a lower percentage of students
passing the 3rd grade reading exam as compared to the state. See Table 18 below.

                 Education Statistics: Fremont and State Comparisons (most
 Table 18
                 current year of available data)
                                                                            Fremont Public            Nebraska Public
                                                                               Schools                   Schools
 Graduation Rate (2009-2010)                                                    83.9%                        90.0%
 Dropout Rate (2009-2010)                                                        2.2%                        1.5%
 Percent of Students Receiving Free/Reduced
                                                                                48.9%                        42.6%
 Lunch (2010-2011)
 Percent of Students Receiving Special
                                                                                20.1%                        15.2%
 Education (2010-2011)
 Percent of ELL Students (2010-2011)                                             7.7%                        6.7%
 School Mobility Rate (2010-2011)                                               10.9%                        12.2%
                                                  rd
 Percent of Students Passing the 3 Grade
                                                                                63.9%                        71.1%
 Reading Exam
(Nebraska Department of Education, 2011)


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Education statistics for individual schools within Fremont Public Schools are contained
in Table 19 below. Schools with high rates of students receiving free/reduced lunches,
high rates of school mobility, and high rates of ELL students generally tend to have
lower proficiency rates on the Reading Assessment. Note: the percent of ELL students
is high at Linden Elementary due to that school receiving students from other buildings
where ELL is not available.

 Table 19      Education Statistics: Fremont Public Schools (2010-2011)
                                                                                         Proficiency on
                                                                                           rd th       th
                             Free/Reduced       School Mobility      Percent of ELL      3 , 6 , or 11
                              Lunch Rate            Rate               Students          Grade Reading
                                                                                          Assessment*
  Elementary Schools
 Bell Field                         50.0%            10.2%                0.0%               65.0%
 Clarmar                            38.2%             8.3%                0.5%               58.3%
 Grant                              56.0%             8.3%                0.5%               88.9%
 Howard                             34.6%            10.8%                0.0%               74.9%
 Linden                             66.5%            18.6%               22.0%               57.7%
 Miliken                            58.4%             9.8%               17.7%               66.7%
 Platteville                        10.2%             3.4%                0.0%               85.7%
 Washington                         93.1%            12.7%               47.1%               37.0%
      Middle School
 Fremont Middle School              52.8%             9.2%                3.9%               64.6%
       High School
  Fremont High School              36.5%             11.3%                  2.8%               66.3%
(Nebraska Department of Education, 2011)
*3rd grade reading assessment data pertains to elementary students, 6th grade to middle school
students, and 11th to high school students.



X. Child Protection and Safety

According to a Community Needs Assessment (2011) compiled by Goldenrod Hills
Community Action (GHCA), Dodge County was 2nd out of the 14 counties in Northeast
Nebraska that receive services from GHCA in the rate of substantiated cases of
abuse/neglect per 1,000. As shown below in Table 20, the rate of substantiated cases
of abuse/neglect and the number of state wards per 1,000 are both higher in Dodge
County as compared to the state.




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                                          Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
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              Child Protection and Safety Statistics: County and State
  Table 20
              Comparisons (2007-2009)
                                                    Dodge County                  Nebraska
  Rate of Substantiated Cases of Abuse/
                                                           13.8                        11.4
  Neglect per 1,000 (2007-2009)
  Number of State Wards per 1,000
                                                           14.8                        13.8
  Population (2009)
(Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services, 2010, Nebraska Children and Families
Foundation, 2010)


                                            Figure 23. Yearly Number of Children in Foster Care
                                                            Foster Care
                                                        in Dodge County (2005-2010)
                                                       200
The number of children in Foster
Care in Dodge County declined                          150
significantly (41.8%) from 2005 to
2010.
                                                       100
Note: from 2005 to 2010 the number
of children in foster care in Nebraska
                                                         50
decreased by 30.7%.

                                                          0
                                                                  2005   2006   2007     2008   2009        2010
                                      Children in Foster Care     158    106    74        91    87          92
                                                       (Nebraska Foster Care Review Board, 2006-2011)



XI. Domestic Violence and Offenses against Families and Children

Domestic Violence

An aggravated assault is an unlawful attack by one person upon another for the
purpose of inflicting severe or aggravated bodily injury, usually accompanied by the use
of a weapon or a means likely to produce death or great bodily harm. Simple assault
includes all assaults that do not involve the use of a firearm, knife, cutting instrument, or
other dangerous weapon and in which the victim did not sustain serious or aggravated
injuries. The term domestic applies to the family or household members and includes a
broad array of familial and dating relationships (Nebraska Crime Commission, 2010).

Shown in Figures 24 and 25 below are the number of incidents and arrests for
aggravated domestic violence assaults and simple domestic violence assaults. Law
enforcement tracks both the number of assaults (regardless of arrest) and the number
of arrests for domestic violence. The disparity in the number of assaults and the number

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                                            Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
                                                                                           March 2012

    of arrests could be explained in two ways: either law enforcement made no arrest, or
    multiple assaults led to a single arrest. The data show an increase in domestic violence
    over the past five years, corroborating the noted increase in the number of women and
    children receiving services from the Crisis Center for Domestic Violence and Sexual
    Assault (see below).
                                            Figure 24. Aggravated Domestic Violence Assaults
                                                        in Dodge County (2006-2010)
                                                  20



                                                  15
  The number of aggravated domestic
  violence assaults and arrests for
  aggravated domestic violence                    10
  assault has increased from 2006 to
  2010 in Dodge County.
                                                   5



                                                   0
                                                            2006      2007      2008       2009*       2010
                            Aggravated Domestic
                                                             8         8         17          10         14
                             Violence Assaults
                              Arrests for Aggravated
                                                             5         8         13          11         10
                            Domestic Violence Assaults

                                                                          (Nebraska Crime Commission, 2010)
                 *That the number of assaults is lower than the number of arrests in 2009 may be due to two
                (or more) individuals being arrested for a single assault (Nebraska Crime Commission, 2012)

                                                    Figure 25. Simple Domestic Violence Assaults
                                                            in Dodge County (2006-2010)
                                                   200

The number of and arrests for simple
                                                   150
domestic violence assault has also
increased from 2006 to 2010. There
is a notable difference between the                100
number of assaults and arrests.

                                                     50


                                                       0
                                                             2006       2007      2008        2009        2010
                              Simple Domestic Violence
                                                              134       123        143        175         177
                                      Assaults
                              Arrests for Simple Domestic
                                                                 51        41         38          50          65
                                   Violence Assaults


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                                        Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
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                                                                (Nebraska Crime Commission, 2010)
The rates for aggravated and
domestic violence assaults in                       Domestic Violence Rates per 1,000
2010 were higher in Dodge                Table 21   Population: County and State
County as compared to the                           Comparisons (2010)
state. Most noteworthy is the                                   Dodge County        Nebraska
rate of simple domestic violence        Aggravated Domestic
                                                                      0.4              0.3
                                        Violence Assaults
assaults in Dodge County,
which is almost double that of          Simple Domestic
                                                                      4.8              2.6
                                        Violence Assaults
the state.
                                                                (Nebraska Crime Commission, 2010)

    Note: the rate of arrests for simple and aggravated domestic violence assaults could not
    be calculated for the state, due to some law enforcement agencies only tracking the
    number of assaults and not the number of arrests.


    Services for Domestic Violence

    Crisis Center for Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault. The Crisis Center provides
    comprehensive services for victims, their families, and perpetrators of domestic violence
    and sexual assault, including a 24-hour hotline and shelter programs, support groups,
    criminal justice advocacy, and an educational program for perpetrators of violence. New
    additions to programming in 2010 include two satellite shelters being opened in Blair
    and West Point and the implementation of the Do It Right Teen Program, a five week
    program for youth on probation, addressing healthy relationships, abusive behaviors,
    respect, and other topics pertinent to healthy relationships.

    Notable outcome data from 2010 include:
        639 victims were served in 2010, a 77% increase from 2007.
        102 women and 140 children received safe and confidential shelter from abuse.
        Clients in shelter received 3,753 safe nights and 11,133 meals.
        92 women received group support and information on issues such as healthy
           relationships, dynamics of domestic violence, and self care.
        479 individuals received face-to-face contact and were able to recognize signs of
           abusive and healthy relationships.
        3,597 calls from victims needing crisis support, information, and referrals were
           answered on the 24-hour crisis line.
        70 victims received on-the-scene crisis intervention with law enforcement.
        82 hours of medical crisis intervention were provided at local hospitals.
        522 hours of criminal justice support were provided.
        The Crisis Center estimates serving 734 clients in 2011 and 844 in 2012.
    (Fremont Area United Way, 2011)




    Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                          37
                                         Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
                                                                                        March 2012



 Offenses Against the Family and Children

 Offenses against families and children include arrests and citations for non-support,
 neglect, abuse, abandonment, and non-payment of alimony. In 2010, the rate of
 offenses against the family and children in Dodge County was 0.7 per 1,000 population,
 compared to 0.8 per 1,000 population for the State of Nebraska.

                                     Figure 26. Arrests for Offenses against Families and Children in
                                                        Dodge County (2006-2010)
                                                30

The number of arrests for                       25
offenses against families and
children has fluctuated from                    20
2006 to 2010, with 2010
marking a high point in the                     15
number of arrests.
                                                10

                                                 5

                                                 0
                                                       2006    2007       2008      2009       2010
                           Offenses Against Families
                                                        16      23         22        19         24
                                 and Children

                                                                 (Nebraska Crime Commission, 2010)



 XII. Unhealthy Juvenile Behaviors

 While juvenile data does not pertain directly to the under 5 population, it gives a general
 indication of the well-being of the community and the environment in which children
 grow up.

 Juvenile Crime

 Dodge County has a rate of crime that is largely comparable to the rest of the state. In
 2010, the rate of all arrests (including adult and juvenile) per 1,000 population was 42.7
 in Dodge County, compared to 45.9 per 1,000 in all of Nebraska.




 Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                             38
                                                  Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
                                                                                                 March 2012


                                                     Juvenile)
                   Figure 27. All Arrests (Adult and Arrests in Dodge County (2000-2010)
                              2,000



The total number of
                              1,750
arrests (both adult
and juvenile) in Dodge
County has fluctuated
from 2000 to 2010,            1,500
but has stayed within
a relatively close
range.
                              1,250




                              1,000
                                         2000    2001    2002    2003    2004    2005    2006    2007    2008    2009       2010
                         Total Arrests   1,568   1,683   1,730   1,826   1,491   1,606   1,652   1,625   1,437   1,527      1,588

                                                                                 (Nebraska Crime Commission, 2010)



                                           Figure 28. Juvenile Arrests in Dodge County (2000-2010)
                                                           Juvenile Arrests
                               300


                               250
 As with total arrests,
 juvenile arrests have
 remained fairly stable        200
 since 2000 with minor
 fluctuations from year        150
 to year.
                               100


                                50


                                  0
                                         2000    2001    2002    2003    2004    2005    2006    2007    2008    2009       2010
                     Juvenile Arrests    267     218     290     258     238      232    270     290     268     280        273

                                                                                 (Nebraska Crime Commission, 2010)




      Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                                                39
                                                Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
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Since 2000, the number of juvenile arrests for drug abuse violations has increased
slightly, while the number of juvenile arrests for DUI has decreased and the number of
juvenile arrests for liquor laws (e.g., MIP, open container, etc.) has remained basically
stable, with some fluctuation. See Figure 29 below.

                    Figure 29. Juvenile Arrests for Drug and Alcohol Violations
                                    Juvenile Arrests Drug and
                                   in Dodge County (2000-2010) Alcohol
                                100



                                   75



                                   50



                                   25



                                    0
                                         2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   2010
           Drug Abuse Violations         21     26     34     17     20     27     32     32     19     29     31
           Driving Under the Influence   16      8     12      7     10      5      6      7      1      6      3
           Liquor Laws                   55     33     86     68     59     63     63     81     76     57     58

(Nebraska Crime Commission, 2010)




Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                                                     40
                                          Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
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   From 2000 to 2010 the number of juvenile arrests for larceny has decreased by 67.0%.
   Over the same time period however, the rate of arrests for simple assault has increased
   by 414.3%. Juvenile arrests for vandalism and runaway have fluctuated notably from
   year to year, but with general increasing trends. See Figure 30 below.


                      Figure 30. Juvenile Arrests for Larceny, Simple Assault, Vandalism, and
                                        Juvenile Arrests Other
                                      Runaway in Dodge County (2000-2010)
                    125


                    100


                    75


                    50


                    25


                      0
                          2000   2001   2002      2003     2004   2005    2006     2007     2008     2009     2010
          Larceny         109     83     89          69      64    70      40          40    69       58       36
         Simple Assault    7      4      4           6       10    10      13          15    12       26       36
         Vandalism         10     8      13          12      10    13      25          16    10       13       24
          Runaway          5      26     12          28      25    7       40          32    26       34       17
   (Nebraska Crime Commission, 2010)




                                                             Juvenile Arrests per 1,000 Population:
                                               Table 22
                                                             County and State Comparisons (2010)
In 2010, Dodge County had a rate                                          Dodge County             Nebraska
of juvenile arrests that was                   Drug Abuse Violations             3.5                 3.0
comparable to the state. The rate              Liquor Laws                       6.6                 3.8
of arrests for liquor laws and                 DUI                               0.3                 0.4
runaway were notably higher -                  Larceny                           4.1                 6.5
nearly double - as compared to
                                               Simple Assault                    4.1                 4.2
the state.
                                               Vandalism                         2.7                 2.2
                                               Runaway                           1.9                 1.0
                                               Total Juvenile Arrests           30.6            31.1
                                                                         (Nebraska Crime Commission, 2010)




   Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                                          41
                                        Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
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Underage Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drug Use

There were 1,235 survey participants from Dodge County in the Nebraska Risk and
Protective Factors Students Survey (NRPFSS), a bi-annual survey of behaviors and
attitudes pertaining to a broad array of topics including drug and alcohol use and other
risky youth behaviors; the survey administered to 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th grade
students. Such a large sample size for Dodge County allows for very reliable data, with
a margin of error of 4% to 5% at a 99% confidence level for each grade level.

Compared to all youth participants from state, Dodge County 8th, 10th, and 12th
graders reported higher lifetime use rates of marijuana. Dodge County 10th graders
also have higher alcohol and tobacco lifetime usage rates as compared to the state.
Other than these instances, there were not considerable differences between Dodge
County and Nebraska with regard to lifetime alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use rates.
See Figure 31 below.


                      Figure 31. Lifetime Alcohol, Tobacco, and Marijuana
                       Use Rates: County and State Comparisons (2010)
                                        Lifetime Alcohol, etc.
           80%



           60%



           40%



           20%



            0%
                    Dodge               Dodge               Dodge                 Dodge
                             Nebraska            Nebraska              Nebraska            Nebraska
                    County              County              County                County
                        6th Grade           8th Grade            10th Grade          12th Grade
        Alcohol     13.1%      14.0%    28.7%      28.0%      52.3%     49.3%     65.2%     67.9%
        Tobacco     4.3%       5.6%     18.2%      17.0%      36.0%     32.4%     49.0%     49.3%
        Marijuana   0.6%       0.9%      7.3%      6.5%       24.9%     17.8%     35.7%     29.2%

(Nebraska Risk and Protective Factors Student Survey, 2010)




Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                                     42
                                           Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
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When asked about their use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use in the past 30 days,
8th grade participants in the 2010 NRPFSS from Dodge County reported much higher
rates of alcohol and tobacco consumption, binge drinking, and marijuana use compared
to their peers in the state. Dodge County 10th graders were also comparable or higher
in the same 30-day use rates to their peers in the state. At the same time, Dodge
County 12th graders were lower in all four 30-day use categories compared to their
peers in the state. See Figure 32 below.


                       Figure 32. 30-Day Alcohol, Tobacco, and Marijuana Use
                            Rates: County and State Comparisons (2010)
                                            30-day
             40%



             30%



             20%



             10%



                0%
                       Dodge                Dodge               Dodge               Dodge
                                Nebraska             Nebraska            Nebraska            Nebraska
                       County               County              County              County
                           6th Grade            8th Grade          10th Grade          12th Grade
      Alcohol           3.9%      3.0%       9.8%      7.9%     21.0%     21.0%     25.7%     34.7%
      Tobacco           0.0%      1.3%       8.4%      1.3%     16.5%     15.7%     23.5%     27.2%
      Binge Drinking    0.6%      0.9%       5.0%      0.9%     17.0%     13.4%     18.5%     25.6%
      Marijuana         0.3%      0.5%       3.2%      0.9%     10.2%      8.0%     17.3%     11.8%

(Nebraska Risk and Protective Factors Student Survey, 2010)




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                                              Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
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Dodge County 12th graders reported very high lifetime use rates of performance
enhancing drugs (12.8%) - almost double the state. Dodge County 8th and 10th graders
also had higher lifetime use rates of performance enhancing drugs. Prescription drug
and steroid use was higher than the state among all participants from Dodge County as
compared to the state. Non-prescription drug use was slightly higher among 12th
graders in Dodge County as compared to the state. See Figure 33 below.


                       Figure 33. Lifetime Medicinal and Performance Enhancing
                                            Lifetime State Comparisons(2010)
                         Drug Use Rates: County andOther Drugs
                           15%




                           10%




                               5%




                               0%    Dodge               Dodge               Dodge               Dodge
                                              Nebraska            Nebraska            Nebraska            Nebraska
                                     County              County              County              County
                                        6th Grade           8th Grade           10th Grade          12th Grade
      Prescription Drugs              1.6%     1.3%      3.5%      2.4%       9.3%     7.0%      12.0%     11.4%
      Non-Prescription Drugs          0.6%     0.9%      1.9%      2.2%       4.2%     4.5%       8.0%     6.4%
      Performance Enhancing Drugs*                       1.3%      0.7%       5.4%     3.2%      12.8%     6.9%
      Steroids*                                          1.6%      0.8%       1.2%     0.9%       1.6%     0.9%

(Nebraska Risk and Protective Factors Student Survey, 2010)
*6th grade students were not asked about lifetime use of performance enhancing drugs and steroids.




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                                             Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
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  Lifetime inhalant use rates are higher among Dodge County 8th, 10th, and 12th grade
  participants in the 2010 NRPFSS, as compared to the state. Lifetime use of LSD,
  Cocaine, and "Other Drugs" is generally higher among Dodge County youth as
  compared to the state (with some exceptions by grade), notably among 12th graders in
  Dodge County. See Figure 34 below.

                                    Figure 34. Lifetime Drug Use Rates:
                                               State Comparisons (2010)
                                   County and Lifetime Drugs
                  12%


                   9%


                   6%


                   3%


                   0%
                         Dodge                Dodge                  Dodge                 Dodge
                                  Nebraska               Nebraska               Nebraska             Nebraska
                         County               County                 County                County
                            6th Grade            8th Grade                10th Grade          12th Grade
           Inhalants     6.7%      6.3%        8.6%        6.7%       9.0%        5.8%     7.2%       5.3%
           LSD*                                0.9%        0.8%       2.1%        2.0%     4.0%       3.3%
           Cocaine*                            1.3%        0.8%       1.2%        1.6%     4.4%       3.2%
           Meth*                               0.9%        0.7%       1.5%        1.1%     1.2%       1.7%
           Other Drugs   0.3%      0.6%        4.1%        2.7%       7.8%        5.5%     10.4%      6.9%

  (Nebraska Risk and Protective Factors Student Survey, 2010)
  *6th grade students were not asked about lifetime use of LSD, cocaine, and meth



  Sexually Transmitted Diseases

The ten year count of the number                                     Number of Sexually Transmitted
of individuals under 19 with                           Table 23      Diseases for those 19 and Under
sexually transmitted diseases has                                    in Dodge County (1996-2010)
increased in Dodge County from                                1996-2005                           2001-2010
1996-2005 to 2001-2010.                                             214                            305
                                                                              (Kids Count in Nebraska, 2006-2011)



  Services for Families with Troubled Children

  Nebraska Family Helpline. The Nebraska Family Helpline connects Nebraska families to
  the help they need when dealing with their children's behavioral problems and mental
  health issues. Operators assess immediate safety needs, identify the potential level of a

  Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                                             45
                                    Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
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behavioral health crisis, and make recommendations for referrals. The aim of the
program is to improve Kindergarten readiness, prevent young children from entering the
Child Welfare System, and to promote the social and economic well-being of children
and families. In 2011, there were 63 calls from Dodge County to the Nebraska Family
Helpline. Note: there was little outreach or advertisement of the Helpline in 2011, as this
was a pilot project for Dodge County.

Notable characteristics of the callers to the helpline from Dodge County include:
    The average age of callers was 39 and 76% were female.
    68% said their relationship with their children was a stressor.
    44% said their expectations of their children was a stressor.
    48% said supervision of the children was a stressor.
    36% said access to services was a stressor.
    The top problems of the identified child as reported by the parents were: not
      following family rules, aggression in the home, arguing with authority figures, and
      not following school authority.
    64% of callers reported that the "identified child" that prompted the call was
      between the ages of 9 and 16.
    70% of the callers had children 8 years or younger, though only 24% of callers
      reported that the "identified child" that prompted the call was 8 or younger.
(Nebraska In-Home Family Services, 2011)


Conclusion

Several statistics point to a growing need for community investment in the under 5
population. Arguably, all of these statistics are linked to poverty and the change in
household composition. Since 2000 there have been substantial declines in the number
of husband-wife families and increases in the number of single parent families. Coupled
with this rise in single parent families has been a drastic increase in the number of
children under 5 in poverty, with 28.4% of Dodge County families being at or below
poverty in 2010. In the city of Fremont, 34.3% of all families with children under 5 are at
or below poverty. The rates of poverty for single mother families are considerably
higher, with over 60% being at or below poverty in both Fremont and Dodge County.
Coupled with this increase in poverty is the recent increase in the number of children
recipients of public assistance programs such as Food Stamps, the Summer Food
Program, ADC, and Medicaid.

As the number of single parent families has increased along with the rate of poverty,
housing has become more difficult to afford for families in poverty. The average wage
earner in Fremont makes enough money in a month to afford rent for a two-bedroom
apartment at $442 per month without spending more than 30% of their income on rent
and utilities. However, the fair market rent in Fremont is $682 a month for a two
bedroom apartment.



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                                    Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
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Many children in Dodge County appear to be growing up in unhealthy home
environments. The rate of domestic violence assaults in Dodge County is considerably
higher than in the state. Also, the rates of substantiated child abuse/neglect cases and
state wards were higher in Dodge County than in the state.

A difficult home life undoubtedly affects a child's school performance negatively. The
rate of students that are proficient on the third grade reading state evaluation is lower in
Fremont as compared to the state. Also, the rate of dropouts is higher than the state
and the rate of high school graduates is lower than the state.

Outcome results from Fremont area agencies also display many areas of need. Some
agencies are seeing sharp increases in the number of clients and some are operating at
capacity with long waiting lists. For example, Head Start is continually at capacity, with
long waiting lists every year. Currently there are an estimated 500-600 children under 5
that are eligible for Head Start, which is far beyond the program's capacity of 125
children. Other areas pointing to need include:
     The high number of children and families receiving basic services from the
       Salvation Army.
     The increase in the number of participants in the Young Families incentive
       program.
     The increase in services provided at the homeless shelter.
     The 77% increase since 2007 in those seeking shelter from domestic violence.
     The low percentage of women receiving first trimester prenatal care, despite the
       high number of women receiving pregnancy services from the Young Mothers
       and Children (Y-MAC) Family Planning and Reproductive Health Program.
     There also appears to be a need for affordable child care and preschool options
       based solely on the number of available spots compared to the number of total
       children. Affordability and availability of child care and pre-school was also a
       major topic of concern for participants in the Community Assessment Survey.

These statistics, among others included in the report, all demonstrate a need for the
continued and enhanced development of outreach services to improve the lives of
children in Dodge County in the areas of education, health care, child and family safety,
and basic needs.




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                                      Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
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Appendix A

The Nebraska Children and Families Foundation Child Well-Being Indicators

The Nebraska Children and Families Foundation (NCFF) examines eight indicators for
all counties in the state. Counties that demonstrate need in multiple indicators are
selected for investment by the NCFF. Dodge County and state comparisons are
contained in the table below, with the five indicators that are worse than the state
highlighted.

Appendix
   A        Eight Child-Well Being Indicators (NCFF)
                                                             Dodge County       Nebraska
Infant Death rate per 1,000 (2005-2009)                           6.0              5.8
Percent of Births to Teens (2005-2009)                            9.8              8.4
Juvenile Arrests per 1,000 (2010)                                32.0             31.1
Rate of Substantiated Child Abuse/Neglect Cases (2009)            3.2              7.8
Rate of State Wards per 1,000 (Dec. 2009)                        14.8             13.8
High School Graduation Rate (2009-2010)                          87.7             90.0
Percent of Population Speaking a Language Other Than
                                                                  7.7              9.2
English at Home among Population aged 5+ (2005-2009)
Percent of Population below Poverty Level (2009)                 11.6             12.2




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                                    Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
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Appendix B
Selected Results from the 2010 Community Assessment Survey for Goldenrod
Hills

Community Action of Nebraska conducted a Community Assessment Survey in May of
2010. The selected results below are for the 14 counties in Northeast Nebraska served
by Goldenrod Hills Community Action. These counties are Antelope, Burt, Cedar,
Cuming, Dakota, Dixon, Dodge, Knox, Madison, Pierce, Stanton, Thurston, Washington,
and Wayne. Results from the survey that are especially pertinent to families and
children are contained below.

Health Care
   Two-thirds (67%) of respondents delayed medical care because of cost.
Poverty
   Top three perceptions of the causes of poverty for respondents whose household
      income is less than $25,000:
          1. Lack of training/education
          2. Single parent household
          3. Not enough jobs

      Top three perceptions of the causes of poverty for respondents whose household
       income is over $80,000:
          1. Low motivation
          2. Lack of training/education
          3. Drug abuse/addiction

Children and Youth
    Top three issues and needs for children:
         1. Cost of child care
         2. Pre-school services
         3. Childhood services for birth to age three

Basic Needs
   Top three basic needs identified as a problem for the respondent:
        1. Affordable medical, dental, and vision care for the family
        2. Paying for utilities
        3. Affordable clothing

Employment

      Top three barriers preventing adults from finding employment:
          1. Lack of available jobs
          2. Health problems/disability

Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                         49
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           3. Lack of education




Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                         50
                                                        Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
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             Appendix C

             2010 Poverty Thresholds

             The table below displays the 2010 U.S. Census household income thresholds for
             poverty. If a family's before tax income is less than the threshold, then that family and
             every individual in it is in poverty. The official poverty thresholds do not vary
             geographically, but they are updated for inflation using Consumer Price Index (CPI-U).
             The official poverty definition uses money income before taxes and does not include
             capital gains or noncash benefits (such as public housing, Medicaid, and food stamps).

             Poverty Thresholds by Size of Family Unit


                                                                      Related children under 18 years



  Size of family unit
                                     Weighted                                                                                    Eight
                                     Average     None       One       Two      Three      Four      Five      Six      Seven      or
                                    Thresholds                                                                                   more



One person (unrelated individual)     $11,139
 Under 65 years                       $11,344    $11,344
 65 years and over                    $10,458    $10,458


Two people                            $14,218
 Householder under 65 years           $14,676    $14,602   $15,030
 Householder 65 years and over        $13,194    $13,180   $14,973


Three people                          $17,374    $17,057   $17,552   $17,568
Four people                           $22,314    $22,491   $22,859   $22,113   $22,190
Five people                           $26,439    $27,123   $27,518   $26,675   $26,023   $25,625
Six people                            $29,897    $31,197   $31,320   $30,675   $30,056   $29,137   $28,591
Seven people                          $34,009    $35,896   $36,120   $35,347   $34,809   $33,805   $32,635   $31,351
Eight people                          $37,934    $40,146   $40,501   $39,772   $39,133   $38,227   $37,076   $35,879   $35,575
Nine people or more                   $45,220    $48,293   $48,527   $47,882   $47,340   $46,451   $45,227   $44,120   $43,845   $42,156




             Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                                             51
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                                       References

American Academy of Pediatrics (2012). Policy Statement: SIDS and Other Sleep-Related
  Infant Deaths: Expansion of Recommendations for a Safe Infant Sleeping Environment:
  http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2011/10/12/peds.2011-2284

Bojanski, Gabb, Osborn, Smutko, Tumbleson, and Brittin (2012). Feasibility Study for the Three
   County Health Clinic Serving Dodge, Saunders, and Washington Counties, Nebraska.

Bureau of Labor Statistics (2011). Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS):
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Community Action of Nebraska (2010). 2010 Assessment Survey Results for Goldenrod Hills
  Community Action.

Fremont Area United Way (2011). 2010 Agency Outcome Reports.

Fremont Public Schools (2011). School Attendance Records File. Re: Truancy Statistics. E-mail
   from Ginger Fredrickson to Will Schmeeckle.

Goldenrod Hills Community Action Partnership (2011). 2011 Community Needs Assessment.

Kids Count in Nebraska (2006-2011). 2006-2011 Reports: http://voicesforchildren.com/kids-
   count/

Midland University/Dodge County Head Start (2012). Community Assessment 2011-2012.

National Low Income Housing Outreach (2011). Cited in Goldenrod Hills Community Action
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Nebraska Children and Families Foundation (2010). Community Profile 2010.

Nebraska Children and Families Foundation (2011). Communities at Risk and Nebraska
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Nebraska Crime Commission (2010). Uniform Crime Reports 2000-2010:
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Nebraska Crime Commission (2012). RE: Domestic Assault Data. E-mail from Marilyn Keelan to
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Nebraska Department of Education (2008-2011). Cited in Kids Count in Nebraska (2006-2011)
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Nebraska Department of Education (2011a). State of the Schools report:
   http://reportcard.education.ne.gov/

Nebraska Department of Education Data Services (2011a). Cited in: Midland University/Dodge
   County Head Start (2012). Community Assessment 2011-2012.


Fremont Early Childhood Coalition                                                           52
                                    Fremont/Dodge County Early Childhood Community Assessment
                                                                                   March 2012

Nebraska Department of Education Data Services (2011b). K-12 Membership and Students with
   More than 10/15/20 Absences: http://www.education.ne.gov/documents/2010-
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Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services (2010). Contained in the Community
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Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services (2011). Child Care Programs:
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Nebraska Department of Labor (2010). Local Area Unemployment Statistics. Cited in: Labor
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Nebraska Foster Care Review Board (2006-2011). Cited in Kids Count in Nebraska (2006-2011)
   2006-2011 Reports: http://voicesforchildren.com/kids-count/

Nebraska In-Home Family Services (2011). Dodge County Helpline Pilot Project.

Nebraska Risk and Protective Factors Student Survey (2010). Analysis of Raw Data.

Three Rivers District Public Health Department (20120. Re: Three Rivers Vaccine Activity. E-
   mail from Lyndsay Osborn.

U.S. Census Bureau (2000a). 2000 U.S. Census. Data generated by American Factfinder:
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U.S. Census Bureau (2010a). 2010 U.S. Census. Data generated by American Factfinder:
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U.S. Census Bureau (2000b). 2000 American Community Survey. Data generated by American
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U.S. Census Bureau (2010b). 2010 American Community Survey (5-year estimates). Data
   generated by American Factfinder:
   http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml




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