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					From Caterpillar to
  Butterfly – The
    Transition
Wittgenstein in Transition
Several things will cause Wittgenstein to
believe that the Tractatus is flawed:

  Ramsey


  Sraffa
Always be mindful of this:

                                            Fall 1930 - death
1918 -- 1928        1929 – May 1930




“My account will be hard to follow: because it says
something new but still has egg-shells from the old view
sticking to it. 1944 or later, CV 44.

“My thinking, like everyone’s, has sticking to it the shriveled
remains of my earlier (withered) ideas.” CV 1932-34, 23
     A Guide to
Wittgenstein’s Style
Style of Philosophy

Remarks, not a Formal Proof

Wittgenstein abandons the idea that he must
set forth premises (propositions) in some
orderly, logical, sequenced relationship
He begins doing philosophy by short remarks
(He will always complain that he can never
get them organized well)
"I think I summed my attitude to philosophy when I
said: philosophy ought really to be written as a
POETIC COMPOSITION. It must, as it seems to
me, be possible to gather from this how far my
thinking belongs to the present, future or past. For I
was thereby revealing myself as someone who
cannot quite do what he would like to be able to
do." from Culture and Value, 1933-34, page 24 ...
“If I am thinking about a topic just for myself and not
with a view to writing a book, I jump about all round it;
that is the only way of thinking that comes naturally to
me. Forcing my thoughts into an ordered sequence is
a torment for me. Is it even worth attempting now?

I SQUANDER an unspeakable amount of effort making
an arrangement of my thoughts which may have no
value at all.” CV, 1937, 28.
Wittgensteinian Method

Thoughts, nothing else

The only thing that should matter is the
thought
No topic sentences, no introductions, no
tables, graphs, no literature review
 Cf: today’s scholarship as “journalism”

  You are taught to celebrate a literature
  community. You are judged by how well you
  slave for it. (You are put in its employment)

  For Wittgenstein, all that matters is the
  thought. Not the community of thinkers
How to read Wittgensteinian Properly

Recreate his chain of thought

With each passage, ask what he is thinking
about and what he is trying to do
He is thinking to himself in those passage


 Cf: Biblical reading
Voicing

Conversations with himself

He’ll state something as though it were a
common statement.
Then he’ll state the often-heard reply
Then he’ll interject his idea


"Nearly all my writings are private
conversations with myself. Things that I say to
myself tete-a-tete.” CV 1948
257. “What would it be like if human beings shewed no outward
signs of pain (did not groan, grimace, etc.)? Then it would be
impossible to teach a child the use of the word ‘tooth-ache.’” –
Well, let’s assume the child is a genius and itself invents a
name for the sensation! – But then, of course, he couldn’t make
himself understood when he used the word. – So does he
understand the name, without being able to explain its meaning
to anyone? – But what does it mean to say that he has ‘named
his pain?’ – How has he done this naming of pain?! And
whatever he did, what was its purpose? – When one says “He
gave a name to his sensation” one forgets that a great deal of
stage-setting in the language is presupposed if the mere act of
naming is to make sense. And when we speak of somone’s
having giving a name to pain, what is presupposed is the
existence of the grammar of the word “pain;’ it shews the post
where the new word is stationed.
80. I say “There is a chair.” What if I go up to it, meaning to fetch
it, and it suddenly disappears from sight? – “So it wasn’t a chair,
but some kind of illusion.” – But in a few moments we see it
again and are able to touch it and so on. – “So the chair was
there after all and its disappearance was some kind of illusion.”
– But suppose that after a time it disappears again – or seems
to disappear. What are we to say now? Have you rules ready
for such cases – rules saying whether one may use the word
“chair” to include this kind of thing? But do we miss them when
we use the word “chair;” and are we to say that we do not really
attach any meaning to this word, because we are not equipped
with rules for every possible application of it?


                    Rhetorical: the answer is no.

                     Flex-talking
     A Guide to
Wittgenstein’s Works
Manuscript to Typescript
How Wittgenstein works will be a bit strange



    Remarks
   (Notebook)



                Manuscript



    Cutting,
    clipping,
    arranging
Manuscript to Typescript
How Wittgenstein works will be a bit strange



    Remarks
   (Notebook)



                Manuscript




                              Typescript
                Cutting,
                clipping,
                arranging
Manuscript to Typescript
How Wittgenstein works will be a bit strange



    Remarks
   (Notebook)


                                           Clip them and
                Manuscript                 start over!




                              Typescript
Manuscript to Typescript
How Wittgenstein works will be a bit strange

This process continued for more than 20
years, but never culminated in an
arrangement Wittgenstein was satisfied with
Literary executives have been publishing
manuscripts and typescripts themselves:
   Philosophical Remarks
   Philosophical Investigations

   Remarks on Philosophy of Psychology
Manuscript to Typescript
Or they have been publishing their own
arrangement of things they have found:
-- clipped notes in a box-file Zettel
-- excerpts from his notebooks
                       Culture and Value

 -- edited segments, arrangements of
typescripts/manuscripts:
      Philosophical Grammar

     Remarks on the Foundation of Mathematics
Student Lecture Notes
His students have also published lecture
notes, perhaps reconstructed, many, many
years after his death
•   Lectures on Aesthetics, Psychology and
    Religious Belief
• Lectures on the Foundations of
  Mathematics
• Wittgenstein’s Lectures (Alice Ambrose)
(Even G.E. Moore published something
about his lectures).

Best way to understand these is as a testimonial of what
the students THOUGHT the lecture was about.
Timeline




    1929        1932     1934        1937


    Philosophical
    Remarks                          First 188
                                     remarks of
              Philosophical          Philosophical
              Grammar                Investigations
                       Blue and
                       Brown Books
Timeline




    1938 to 1944     1945- 1946         1949-1951


  Remarks 189-421 Remarks 421-
  of Philosophical 693 in               On Certainty
  Investigations   Philosophical
                   Investigations


Culled from
manuscripts
dating 1931-
1945               “Philosophy of Psychology”
On Certainty
It was taken directly from his notebooks. It did
not go through the manuscript-typescript
process.
Also, some portions of it were written when he
thought himself not to have the same abilities
(He was medicated for the last part of it)

 1949     Remarks 1-64

 1950      Remarks 65-299

 Last month and three weeks of life
 March-April, 1951     Remarks 300-676
On Certainty
Wittgenstein’s assessment of his own abilities in 1949:
"The truth is this. a) I have not been able to do any sustained
good work since the beginning of March 1949. b) Even before
that date I could not work well for more than 6 or 7 months a
year. c) As I'm getting older my thoughts become markedly
less forceful & crystallize more rarely & I get tired very much
more easily. d) My health is in a somewhat labile state
owing to a constant slight anemia which inclines me to catch
infections. This further diminishes the chance of my doing
really good work. e) Though it's impossible for me to make any
definite predictions, it seems to me likely that my mind will
never again work as vigorously as it did, say, 14 months ago. f)
I cannot promise to publish anything during my lifetime." (letter
written to Malcolm about Malcolm's efforts to secure a research grant for
Wittgenstein from the Rockefeller Foundation). (Monk, 565).
Comparing Early and
 Later Wittgenstein
The one thing in common

Criticizing Thoughts

  • Throughout his whole life, Wittgenstein
    will be concerned with how to think
    properly
  • How to tell the difference between good
    and bad intellectual activity
The big difference

Tractatus:

  • The criticism comes before you can
    speak
  • You are not going to be allowed to say
    quite a few things

Investigations:

  • You can say ANYTHING
  • The criticism will come after the fact
                              Question:
                     What will the criticism look
                                like?
The big difference

New Criticism:

    • Word Sense

   • Grammar
        Depth or shallowness
        Confusion

   • Pictures of Account
       Inadequacy?

   • Aesthetical Judgments

				
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