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Development of tools and sharing best practice for OHS

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					  Focus on the development of tools and
  sharing of best practice for the practical
implementation of the OHS related EU acquis

      ECBOHS OHS Seminar, Sarajevo 24.10.2011
             Professor Heikki Laitinen
              3T Results Ldt. (Finland)

                                                M E S S
        OHS, Productivity, and Well-being

High productivity • Low unemployment       • Low unemployment
                  • A lot of accidents &   • Few accidents & diseases
                    diseases                a complete well-being
                   limited well-being
Low productivity • High unemployment       • High unemployment
                 • A lot of accidents &    • Few accidents & diseases
                   diseases                 limited well-being
                  low well-being
                  Low OHS level            High OHS level
Good Occupational Health and Safety is
          good business

• Improvement of OHS, productivity and
quality, at the same time and with the same
    actions gives a short pay-back time




                                              3
Fatal occupational accident rate, Finland
                             Fatal accidents / 100 000 worker

   30


   25


   20


   15


   10


    5


    0
        1960   1965   1970    1975    1980   1985   1990   1995   2000   2005


                                                                                4
    Explanations for the positive development in Finland
     • Common efforts by social partners and authorities
        – The Centre for Occupational Safety (training)
        – Finnish Work Environment Fund
        – Increased number of safety inspectors
     • OHS cooperation between workers and employer at
       workplace
        –   Workers safety delegates in workplaces bigger than 10 workers
        –   Safety Manager of the company
        –   Safety Committee
        –   Training
     • Occupational health services
     • Research and education
        – Finnish Institute of Occupational Health
        – Universities (medical doctors, engineers)
     • Improved engineering (EU machine safety directive)
     • Improved productivity and quality in industry

5
    Safe, healthy and productive workplace

                         Personnel               Severe health problems
                   Knowhow, motivation,
Good management
                                                 Slight health problems
                       working habits
                                                   Health hazards
                  Physical environment
                  Buildings, tools, materials,
                            methods

                            Work
                  Content, amount, fluency


                        Psycho-social
                        environment               Fruits of
                   Climate, innovativenes,
                           commitment               work
 International standards in OHS Management

• ILO Guideline on OHS Management Systems (2001),
• OHSAS 18001 (2007)
• BS 18004:2008 Guide to achieving effective occupational
  health and safety performance




                                                            7
              ISGIP Multi-process OHS-MS Model
                  Top Management Responsibilities
                   1. OHS Policy and OHS organisation
                  2. Responsibilities and rights in OHS
              3. Integration of OHS into business operations

                              OHS Functions
Business Organization     4. Risk Assessment             OHS Organization
•   Production            5. Health surveillance     •   OHS Council
•   Purchasing            6. Performance             •   Workers OHS delegates
                             Monitoring
•   Logistics                                        •   OHS Expert(s)
                          7. Incident reporting &
•   Maintenance              investigation           •   OH Services
•   Administration, and   8. Continual improvement
    other management      9. Training &
    functions                communication
                          10. Emergency
                             preparedness
Main Categories of OHS Indicators

           Reactive                   Proactive

                                      Standard observation &
Output /                                  questionnaire,
              Accident statistics
                                        near-miss reporting
result


Input /    Corrective activities after Preventive & controlling
activity     accident & disease               activities
              Elmeri Monitoring      Accidents and
Audits          TR Monitoring         Sicknesses


                                     Severe health problems
                Technical risk
                   factors
 Management


                                     Slight health problems
              • work environment
              • machines and tools       Near-misses
                 • materials


              Human risk factors
              • working practices
                • use of PPEs             Fruits of the
                • risk taking                work
             Use of the TR and Elmeri

 •   Tool for training the employees
 •   Management tool; goals, stick & carrot
 •   Feedback-tool in order to improve safety behavior
 •   Tool for safety competition between departments of the
     company
 •   Tool for safety competition between companies




11
 TR Safety Monitoring for construction
• Walkthrough, the whole site
   – sample of minimum 100 observations
• Six safety aspects
   – working habits, scaffolding & ladders, machines, protection against
     falling, lighting & electricity, order & tidiness
• Correct / not correct scoring
   – Correct if the item meets safety standards or good practice
• TR-index
   – percentage of correct items related to all observed items
The observation round covers the whole site,
from ground to the upper floor

During the round, the site is divided into observation areas, small
enough that it can be observed from where the observer stands
                TR – observation form
Observerd items                 Correct                  Not correct
1. Working habits                       ll       =17          l         =11
2. Scaffolding and ladders                        =5                     =20
3. Machinery and equipment                        =5                     =5
4. Protection against falling      l             =21                   ll =22
5. Electricity and lighting              lll       =13                   =10
6. Order and tidiness                          lll =18                   =15
 Total                                             79                   83

           TR -Index                   79/(79+83) x 100 = 49 %

                                                                           14
TR-index and accident rate, N=115 sites
                Laitinen H, Marjamäki M, Päivärinta K: The validity of the
                TR safety observation method on building construction.
                Accident Analysis and Prevention 31 (1999) 463-472
                              300
 Accidents / 1000 man years



                              250

                              200

                              150

                              100

                               50

                                0
                                    40   50   60       70        80   90   100
                                                   TR-index, %
       The average TR-index and accident rate of the competition
                        companies 1995-2008
 Laitinen, H., Päivärinta, K.: A new-generation safety contest in the construction
 industry – a long-term evaluation of a real-life intervention. Safety Science 48
 (2010) 680-686.




Heikki Laitinen
www.3tratkaisut.fi
       Estimates of the impact of the OHS
    competition in construction sites by using
    TR- method during 1997-2006 in Finland

         • 30 000 accidents prevented

         • 120 permanent injuries prevented

         • 24 fatal injuries prevented

         • 100 milj. € savings in accident costs



Heikki Laitinen
www.3tratkaisut.fi
   Elmeriind Monitoring Method
• A representative sample of work area/stations are
  observed
• 18 OHS items observed in every area
• “Correct” / “not correct” scoring
• “Correct” scoring when the item meets OHS
  standards, or good workplace practice
• Safety index=100 x correct : (correct+not
  correct) (%)
             Elmeriind - observed items
Main items           Sub-items
Safety behavior      1) use of PPE, risk taking

Order & tidiness     2) work tables & shelves & surfaces, 3) waste
                     container, 4) floors & platforms

Machine safety       5) condition & machine guards, 6) control
                     devices
Industrial hygiene   7) noise, 8) lighting, 9) air, 10) thermal
                     conditions, 11) chemicals
Ergonomics           12) musculoskeletal load, 13) work postures

Floors and access    14) structure of floors and access routes
routes
First aid & fire     15) electric box, 16) first aid kit, 17) fire
safety               extinguisher, 18) emergency exits

                                                                     19
Lost working hours of blue collar workers due to accidents and Elmeri+ -index
of groups of small and large engineering workshops, 86 companies. Grouping
is based on Elmeri+ index of each company. Trend lines are linear estimations.
(Laitinen et all, manuscript for Safety Science 2011)
          Elmeri feedback-project in Imatra Steel company

                                       JP alueet
                      Kaikki alueet yhteensä                  JP 1 Jojo
                      JP 2                                    JP 4 Strombooli
                      JP 5 Colombo                            JP 6 Keskoset
                      JP 7 Takila
Indeksi

100 %

 90 %

 80 %

 70 %

 60 %

 50 %

 40 %

 30 %

 20 %

 10 %
                       6




                                                                 3


                                                                      7
            41


                 49




                            14


                                  22


                                        34


                                               43


                                                    47


                                                         51
       9
     99
   .1
 33




                                         Viikot
Results of safety contest in metal industry, Finland
  • Organizers: Industry Association, labour unions, safety inspectorate
  • 200 companies
  • Best companies rewarded in every year




                                                                           22

				
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