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					Project Study I BE 1701                                                       Building Services



Acknowledgement
We would like to extend our gratitude to our lecturer Dr. Yasangika Sandanayake, Miss.
Pabasara Wijeratne and Miss. Sinethma making this course work a success by giving their
helping hands at all time we raise our problems.

I thank the librarian and the senior students who helped us in finding resources to make this
project more meaningful and we would like to appreciate the support given by our own batch
mates. Not only that but also we would like to covey our thanks to the staff of architecture
Extension building for giving us information and letting us to take photographs. Finally we
thank our parents who always stood behind and helped to make this effort a success.




Department of Building Economics                                                              i
Project Study I BE 1701                                                                                                  Building Services



Table of content
Acknowledgement ........................................................................................................................ i
Table of content ...........................................................................................................................ii
List of tables ............................................................................................................................... vi
List of figures.............................................................................................................................vii
1.0 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 1
2.0 Building Services ................................................................................................................... 2
   2.1 Water supply and distribution system- From reservoir to building ................................... 2
   2.1.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 2
   2.1.2 Continuity of supply ....................................................................................................... 2
   2.1.3 Water quality................................................................................................................... 2
   2.2 Water supply and distribution system- Within the building (cold and hot water) ............. 2
   2.2.1 Potable water supply ....................................................................................................... 2
   2.2.2 Hot water supply ............................................................................................................. 3
   2.2.3 Fixtures and appliances ................................................................................................... 3
   2.3 Electrical system- Generating station to building .............................................................. 3
      2.3.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 3
      2.3.2 Electrical (Power) Distribution System....................................................................... 3
      2.3.3 Transformers ............................................................................................................... 5
   2.4 Electrical system- Within the building .............................................................................. 5
      2.4.1 Converters ................................................................................................................... 5
      2.4.2 Color codes .................................................................................................................. 5
      2.4.3 Wiring methods ........................................................................................................... 6
   2.5 HVAC system .................................................................................................................... 6
      2.5.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 6
      2.5.3 What is Air-Conditioning? .......................................................................................... 7
      2.5.4 The major processes of Air-Conditioning ................................................................... 7
      2.5.5 Major HVAC System Types ....................................................................................... 7
      2.5.6 Selecting a system. ...................................................................................................... 7
   2.6 Above and below ground drainage system ........................................................................ 8
      2.6.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 8
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     2.6.2 Systems of drainage .................................................................................................... 8
     2.6.3 Some important points that should be considered when designing a drainage system
     .............................................................................................................................................. 8
     2.6.4 Use of intercepting traps ............................................................................................. 8
     2.6.5 Ventilation ................................................................................................................... 9
  2.7 Fire protection and detection system ................................................................................. 9
     2.7.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 9
     2.7.2 Fire protection systems.............................................................................................. 10
     2.7.3 Fire detectors and alarms........................................................................................... 10
  2.8 Safety and security system ............................................................................................... 11
  2.9 Telecommunication system ............................................................................................. 15
     2.9.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 15
  2.10 Data communication system .......................................................................................... 16
     2.10.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 16
     2.10.2 Mainframe Computers............................................................................................. 16
     2.10.3 Mini computers ....................................................................................................... 16
     2.10.4 Networking methods ............................................................................................... 17
  2.11 Horizontal and vertical circulation system .................................................................... 18
     2.11.1 Lift ........................................................................................................................... 18
     2.11.2 Electrical lift ............................................................................................................ 18
     2.11.3 Mechanism of Electrical lifts system ...................................................................... 19
     2.11.4 Oil-hydraulic lift ...................................................................................................... 19
     2.11.5 Escalators ................................................................................................................ 19
     2.11.6 Travelators (moving pavements) ............................................................................. 19
     2.11.7 Safety....................................................................................................................... 19
  2.12 Gas supply system.......................................................................................................... 20
     2.12.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 20
     2.12.2 Pipe positions .......................................................................................................... 20
     2.12.3 Diameter of pipes .................................................................................................... 20
     2.12.4 Some important points that should be considered when designing a gas supply
     system ................................................................................................................................. 20
3.0 Building services installed in selected building and their technology................................. 21
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  3.1 Water supply and distribution system- From reservoir to building ................................. 21
  3.2 Water supply and distribution system- Within the building (cold and hot water) ........... 21
     3.2.1Domestic Water Supply with Gravity Tank ............................................................... 21
  3.3 Electrical system- Generating station to building ............................................................ 21
  3.4 Electrical system- Within the building ............................................................................ 22
  3.5 HVAC system .................................................................................................................. 22
     3.5.1 All air system ............................................................................................................ 22
     2.5.2 Air conditioning ........................................................................................................ 23
  3.6 Above and below ground drainage system ...................................................................... 23
     3.6.1 Separate system ......................................................................................................... 23
  3.7 Fire protection and detection system ............................................................................... 24
     3.7.1 Water fire extinguisher .............................................................................................. 24
     3.7.2 Carbon dioxide fire extinguisher ............................................................................... 24
  3.8 Safety and security system ............................................................................................... 24
  3.9 Telecommunication system ............................................................................................. 24
     3.9.1 Duplex telecommunication system ........................................................................... 24
  3.10 Data communication system .......................................................................................... 25
     3.10.1 Star topology ........................................................................................................... 25
  3.11 Gas supply system.......................................................................................................... 25
4.0 Building services maintenance procedure ........................................................................... 25
  4.1 Water supply and distribution system- From reservoir to building ................................. 25
  4.2 Water supply and distribution system- Within the building (cold and hot water) ........... 25
  4.3 Electrical system- Generating station to building ............................................................ 26
  4.4 Electrical system- Within the building ............................................................................ 26
     4.4.1 Maintaining ............................................................................................................... 26
  4.5 HVAC system .................................................................................................................. 26
     4.5.1 Maintaining a HVAC System. .................................................................................. 26
     4.5.2 Cost............................................................................................................................ 26
  4.6 Above and below ground drainage system ...................................................................... 26
  4.7 Fire protection and detection system ............................................................................... 27
     4.7.1Maintenance procedure .............................................................................................. 27

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   4.8 Safety and security system ............................................................................................... 27
   4.9 Data communication system ............................................................................................ 27
5.0 Conclusions ......................................................................................................................... 28
6.0 References ........................................................................................................................... 29
7.0 Annexes ............................................................................................................................... 30




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List of tables
Table 1- 2.1- Classification of occupancies ..............................................................................................9
Table 2- 2.2- Fire classification.................................................................................................................9




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List of figures


Figure 1- electrical distribution system .....................................................................................................4
Figure 2- Security system ....................................................................................................................... 12
Figure 3- Alarm system .......................................................................................................................... 12
Figure 4- Equipment............................................................................................................................... 13
Figure 5- Security cameras ..................................................................................................................... 13
Figure 6- Access systems ....................................................................................................................... 14
Figure 7- Lightning protection system ................................................................................................... 15
Figure 8- Earth quake protection system................................................................................................ 15
Figure 9- Network .................................................................................................................................. 17
Figure 10-Single fan system ................................................................................................................... 23
Figure 11-Air condition machines.......................................................................................................... 23




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1.0 Introduction
This report contains information about building services which was found by doing a literature
review and a case study. It contains three main chapters which are about building services,
building services installed in the selected buildings and their technology and building services
maintenance procedure. We found this information by referring books, surfing internet and
asking from people who maintain the building.

Building services can be said as life blood of a building. They are defined as the elements
which needed to allow a building to function, and provide movement, communication, comfort
and other facilities to the occupants. Building services include water supply, electrical supply,
HVAC, security system, fire protection and etc. The people who involve in construction,
operation and maintenance of buildings such as architects, quantity surveyors, facilities
managers and engineers should have a sound knowledge and appreciation of the subject,
because building services are dynamic and unavoidable.

The building that was selected to conduct the case study was Architecture Extension building
of University of Moratuwa. We selected that building because it has many of the building
services though some services like elevators and gas supply is not there.




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2.0 Building Services
2.1 Water supply and distribution system- From reservoir to building

2.1.1 Introduction
Water supply systems get water from a variety of locations, including groundwater (aquifers),
surface water (lakes and rivers), conservation and the sea through desalination. The water is
then, in most cases, purified, disinfected through chlorination and sometimes fluoridated.
Treated water then either flows by gravity or is pumped to reservoirs, which can be elevated
such as water towers or on the ground (for indicators related to the efficiency of drinking
water distribution see non-revenue water). Once water is used, wastewater is typically
discharged in a sewer system and treated in a wastewater treatment plant before being
discharged into a river, lake or the sea or reused for landscaping, irrigation or industrial use.

2.1.2 Continuity of supply
Continuity of water supply is taken for granted in most developed countries, but is a severe
problem in many developing countries, where sometimes water is only provided for a few
hours every day or a few days a week. It is estimated that about half of the population of
developing countries receives water on an intermittent basis.

2.1.3 Water quality
Drinking water quality has a micro-biological and a physico-chemical dimension. There are
thousands of parameters of water quality. In public water supply systems water should, at a
minimum, be disinfected—most commonly through the use of chlorination or the use of ultra
violet light—or it may need to undergo treatment, especially in the case of surface water. For
more details, please see the separate entries on water quality, water treatment and drinking
water.(Wikipedia, 2012c)

2.2 Water supply and distribution system- Within the building (cold and hot
water)

2.2.1 Potable water supply
This supply may come from several possible sources.

Municipal water supply

       Water wells
       Delivered by truck
       Processed water from creeks, streams, rivers, lakes, rainwater, etc.


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Domestic water systems have been evolving since people first located their homes near a
running water supply, e.g., a stream or river. The water flow also allowed sending waste water
away from the domiciles.

Modern indoor plumbing delivers clean, safe, potable water to each service point in the
distribution system. It is imperative that the clean water not be contaminated by the waste
water (disposal) side of the process system. Historically, this contamination of drinking water
has been the largest killer of humans.

2.2.2 Hot water supply
Domestic hot water is provided by means of water heater appliances, or through district
heating. The hot water from these units is then piped to the various fixtures and appliances that
require hot water, such as lavatories, sinks, bathtubs, showers, washing machines, and
dishwashers.

2.2.3 Fixtures and appliances
Everything in a building that uses water falls under one of two categories; Fixture or
Appliance. As the consumption points above perform their function, most produce
waste/sewage components that will require removal by the waste/sewage side of the system.
The minimum is an air gap. See cross connection control & backflow prevention for an
overview of backflow prevention methods and devices currently in use, both through the use
of mechanical and physical principles.

Fixtures are devices that use water without an additional source of power. (Wikipedia, 2012c)

2.3 Electrical system- Generating station to building
2.3.1 Introduction

Each building requires an electrical system to provide power for the lights and to run various
appliances and equipment. At Navy bases, the electrical (or power) system consists of three
main parts: the power plant that supplies the electrical power, the electrical distribution system
(external) that carries the electrical current from the generating station to the various buildings,
and the interior electrical wiring system that illuminates the building and feeds the interior
electrical power to the appliances and equipment within the building.

2.3.2 Electrical (Power) Distribution System

Electrical distribution is defined as the delivery of power to building premises, on poles or
placed underground, from the power plant or substation through feeders and mains.




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The power system is generally considered to be a combination of two sections: the
transmission and the distribution. The difference between the two sections depends on the
function of each at that particular time.

At times, in a small power system, the difference tends to disappear, and the transmission
section merges with the distribution section. The delivery network, as a whole, is referred to as
the distribution section and is normally used to designate the outside lines and frequently
continues inside the building to include power outlets.

Most land-based power systems use alternating current (ac) rather than direct current (dc),
principally because transformers can be used only with ac. An ac distribution system usually
contains one or more generators (technically known as ALTERNATORS in an ac system); a
wiring system of FEEDERS, which carry the generated power to a distribution center; and the
DISTRIBUTION CENTER, which distributes the power to wiring systems called PRIMARY
MAINS and SECONDARY MAINS. A representative transmission and distribution system is
shown in figure.




                                   Figure 1- electrical distribution system
Power from the generating station may be carried to the various points of consumption by
overhead transmission and distribution lines, by underground cable, or by a combination of
both. At most advanced bases, OVERHEAD feeder lines are commonly used because such
lines are cheaper to build, simpler to inspect, and easier to maintain than UNDERGROUND


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cables. Obviously, the use of underground cables is preferred at airports and runways to
prevent hazardous flight conditions.

2.3.3 Transformers

 They have two different types: "step-up" and "step-down". Step-up transformers allow you to
plug a higher-voltage device into a lower-voltage power socket (such as using a UK device in
the US). Step-down transformers allow you to plug a lower-voltage device into a higher-
voltage socket (such as using a US device in the UK). Some transformers offer both. Take care
to use the right type: if you plugged a 110-to-220 V step-up transformer into a 220 V socket,
you would get 440 V and a fried device.

 You must also make sure that the power rating (wattage) of your transformer is at least 10%
greater than that of the device; otherwise, the transformer can overheat and even catch fire.
Before buying a transformer, look for the "input" figure: usually on the device's plug or in the
manual. Some don't display wattage, but you can work it out simply by multiplying the voltage
(V) and the current (amps (A); if it is milliamps (mA), divide by 1,000). The resulting figure is
the same as the wattage.

 Transformers can be used with both electronic devices (such as those with chips and circuits)
and electrical appliances (such as those with heating elements and motors). They can usually
operate for a much longer time than converters.

2.4 Electrical system- Within the building
2.4.1 Converters

 This lighter-weight, less expensive devices can handle large wattage loads of up to 1600 watts
but only step-down voltage, not raise it. They are suitable for those in 110-120V countries
traveling to where the voltage is 220-240V. Converters are designed to operate for only an
hour or two at a time, not continuously. As stated above, they cannot be used with electronic
devices: devices that use chips or circuits, such as a computers, printers, VCRs, or even battery
chargers.

 Nowadays, many electronic devices actually come with a converter which plugs into the
power mains and converts the current to DC. However, if this won't accept a foreign voltage
(check the plug) do not place a second converter behind it. You must use a heavier transformer
instead. Fortunately, in the past few years, more and more devices come with a universal
AC/DC converter already included, and the most you would need is a plug adapter.

2.4.2 Color codes

To enable wires to be easily and safely identified, all common wiring safety codes mandate a
color scheme for the insulation on power conductors. In a typical electrical code, some color

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Project Study I BE 1701                                                            Building Services


coding is mandatory, while some may be optional. Many local rules and exceptions exist.
Older installations vary in color codes, and colors may shift with insulation exposure to heat,
light, and ageing.

 Many electrical codes now recognize (or even require) the use of wire covered with green
insulation, additionally marked with a prominent yellow stripe, for safety grounding (earthing)
connections. This growing international standard was adopted for its distinctive appearance, to
reduce the likelihood of dangerous confusion of safety grounding wires with other electrical
functions, especially by persons affected by red-green colour blindness.

2.4.3 Wiring methods

Materials for wiring interior electrical systems in buildings vary depending on:

•       Intended use and amount of power demand on the circuit

•       Type of occupancy and size of the building

•       National and local regulations

•       Environment in which the wiring must operate.

 Wiring systems in a single family home or duplex, for example, are simple, with relatively
low power requirements, infrequent changes to the building structure and layout, usually with
dry, moderate temperature, and non-corrosive environmental conditions. In a light commercial
environment, more frequent wiring changes can be expected, large apparatus may be installed,
and special conditions of heat or moisture may apply. Heavy industries have more demanding
wiring requirements, such as very large currents and higher voltages, frequent changes of
equipment layout, corrosive, or wet or explosive atmospheres. In facilities that handle
flammable gases or liquids, special rules may govern the installation and wiring of electrical
equipment in hazardous areas.

Wires and cables are rated by the circuit voltage, temperature rating, and environmental
conditions (moisture, sunlight, oil, chemicals) in which they can be used. A wire or cable has a
voltage (to neutral) rating, and a maximum conductor surface temperature rating. The amount
of current a cable or wire can safely carry depends on the installation conditions.

2.5 HVAC system
2.5.1 Introduction

Modern air-condition systems are part of over everyday life. Advances in thermodynamics,
fluid mechanics, electricity, electronics, construction, materials, medicine, controls and social
behavior are the building blocks to better engineered products of air-conditioning.


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2.5.3 What is Air-Conditioning?

The definition of air-conditioning has been broadened to include all of HVAC, which stands
for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-conditioning (cooling). Air-conditioning in its modern sense
is the control of temperature, moisture content, cleanliness, air quality and air circulation.
(Johnson, 2000)

2.5.4 The major processes of Air-Conditioning

The seven major processes of air-conditioning are heating, cooling, humidifying and
dehumidifying, cleaning, ventilating and air movement.

       Heating is the process of adding thermal energy (heat) to the air in the conditioned
        space for the purpose of raising or maintaining the temperature of the air.

       Cooling is the process of removing thermal energy (heat) from the air in the
        conditioned space for the purpose of lowering or maintaining the temperature of the
        air.

       Humidifying is the process of adding water vapor (moisture) to the air in the
        conditioned space for the purpose of raising or maintaining the moisture content of the
        air.

       Dehumidifying is the process of removing water vapor (moisture) from the air in the
        conditioned space for lowering or maintaining the moisture content of the air.

       Cleaning is the process of removing particulate and biological contaminants from the
        air in the conditioned space for the purpose of improving or maintaining the air quality.

       Ventilating is the process of exchanging air between the outdoors improving or
        maintaining air quality, composition and freshness.

       Air movement is the process of circulating and mixing air through conditioned spaces
        in the building



2.5.5 Major HVAC System Types

       All-air systems.

       Air-and-water systems.

       All-water systems.

2.5.6 Selecting a system.

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Project Study I BE 1701                                                          Building Services


The key issues when selecting an HVAC system are occupant comfort, clean air standards and
process requirements. The requirement must function at an acceptable level of reliability and
for reasonable initial, operating and maintenance cost, while meeting the environmental
control requirements of the application. Performance and quality requirement, spatial
requirement, first cost, operating cost, energy cost are the main criteria when we are going to
select a system. (Johnson, 2000)

2.6 Above and below ground drainage system
2.6.1 Introduction

The efficient disposal of foul and surface water from a building is of great importance to
public health and is essential part of the construction of a building. If a drain is unsound and
leaks, the escaping water may contaminate the water supply or air. The escaping water may
also wash away the soil below the foundation and cause a risk of settlement of part of a
building.

2.6.2 Systems of drainage

       Separate system
       Combined system
       Partial separate system

2.6.3 Some important points that should be considered when designing a drainage system

       The layout of the system should be as simple and direct as possible and the number of
        bends, traps and manholes kept to a minimum.

       The pipes should be laid in straight lines, from point to point.

       The pipes should be non-absorbent, durable, smooth in bore and of adequate strength.

       All the parts of the drainage system should be accessible for inspection and cleaning.

       Pipes should not pass under a building unless absolutely necessary and pipes should
        not be laid close to building foundation.

       Pipes should not pass near trees because of the possibility of damage by the roots.

2.6.4 Use of intercepting traps

In the past, intercepting traps were fitted between the drain and sewer, with the object of
preventing sewer gasses entering the drainage system. Modern drainage systems do not
include an interceptor and this has led to better ventilation of the sewer , fewer blockages and
saving in costs.

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Project Study I BE 1701                                                            Building Services


2.6.5 Ventilation

The ventilation of the drain is provided by means of a vent stack at the head of the foul water
drain. A soil or waste stack may be used as a vent pipe, providing it is of suitable diameter.

2.7 Fire protection and detection system
2.7.1 Introduction

Fire protection systems are required to tackle small fires, evacuation and major fire-fighting. A
building’s fire risk is classified according to its occupancy and use. A fire is supported by
three essential ingredients: fuel, heat and oxygen. (Chadderton, 2007)

The system of fire-fighting employed depends upon the total combustible content of the
building (fire load), the type of fire risk classification and the degree of involvement by the
occupants. (Chadderton, 2007)

                            Table 1- 2.1- Classification of occupancies

Category                             Group                  Hazard occupancy

Extra light                          -                      Public building

Ordinary                             1                      Restaurant

Ordinary                             2                      Motor garage

Ordinary                             3                      Ware house

Ordinary                             3 (special)            Woodwork

Extra high                           -                      Paint manufacture

Extra high (storage)                 1                      Electrical appliance

Extra high (storage)                 2                      Furniture

Extra high (storage)                 3                      Wood, plastics or rubber

Extra high (storage)                 4                      Foamed plastics or rubber



                                   Table 2- 2.2- Fire classification

Classification                     Fire type                     Fire-fighting system



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A                                  Wood and textiles   Water, cools

B                                  Petroleum           Exclude oxygen

C                                  Gases               Exclude oxygen

D                                  Flammable metals    Exclude oxygen

E                                  Electrical          Exclude oxygen, non-conducting



2.7.2 Fire protection systems

2.7.2.1 Portable extinguishers

       Water

       Dry powder

       Foam

       Vaporizing liquid

       Carbon dioxide

2.7.2.2 Fixed fire-fighting installations

       Hose reels

       Dry hydrant riser

       Wet hydrant riser

       Foam inlets

       Automatic sprinkler

       Carbon dioxide

       Fixed BCF, BTM and dry powder

2.7.3 Fire detectors and alarms

       Hazard detectors

       Ionization smoke detector

       Visible smoke detector
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       Laser beam

       Closed-circuit television

2.8 Safety and security system
Security system design depends on the building type and location, and on what needs to be
secured. Systems must also be responsive to codes and regulations, appropriately interactive
with other building systems, cost effective in both the short and long term, and adaptable
enough for foreseeable needs. Finally, security needs should be addressed early in the design
process.

Building security is not just about installing the latest electronic gear and software package.
Nor is it just a consideration for building types with highly specific occupancy considerations.
Increasingly, buildings of all sorts are candidates for the kind of careful security planning that
proceeds hand-in-hand with the architectural design process. To ensure an appropriate and
cost-effective level of security, architects need to acquaint themselves with the range of
security factors that affect design.

A security system's most important job is to provide safety for all the employees, the staff, and
the visitors who use a building. Also protecting building and asserts from fire, lightning and
other natural threads such as earthquakes and Tsunami. But security considerations go far
beyond this. Access control very often extends beyond merely controlling who may enter a
building - and monitoring when and where they do so - to include the control and monitoring
of the specific people permitted access to particular areas within a larger facility. For different
sets of reasons, a range of different building types - healthcare facilities, banks, hotels, offices
with sensitive data storage areas - all require such concentric layers or levels of access control.

2.8.1 Steps of security planning in Building project

       Clarifying the risks of intrusion with customer and insurance company

       Observing the object conditions and considering the constructural weaknesses

       Clarifying if after the installation of the security system something of the constructural
        or ornamental conditions may change (cabinets, partitions, heaters, air-conditioning,
        curtains, etc.)




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       Wishes and behaviors of the customer (delayed arming, panic detector, local alarming,
        silent alarming, location of the components)




                                   Figure 2- Security system


2.8.3 Security System Components




                                   Figure 3- Alarm system

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Professional solution with Intrusion Alarm Panel L240

Security from fire and Electricity is important part in mordent day Building Security. Below
Finger is showing some equipment’s use for protection against fire.




                                   Figure 4- Equipment
2.8.4 Security/VIDEO cameras

Includes CCTV cameras and the monitors and security command centers they serve. Infrared
cameras now on the market are capable of producing high-quality images in complete
darkness. Pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) devices permit the remote control of CCTV cameras; video
switchers allow multiple cameras to display on a single monitor.




                                    Figure 5- Security
                                        cameras




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Nowadays Security cameras are the main part in security system in highly protected building.
Alarms are connected to cameras and main controlling unit can watch every single action
inside the building.

2.8.5 Motion sensors

Infrared motion sensors (1 below) can be ceiling- or wall-mounted; although such detectors
are mostly used to protect interior spaces, there are motion detectors available for exterior use

2.8.6 Access control systems

In Today lot of technology involved in Access controlling those is

       Finger print

       Card readers

       Security codes and serial numbers(Password)

       Sound and eye recognizes




                                   Figure 6- Access systems
2.8.7 Lightning Protection

Protection from Lightning in every high rise building there must be some kind of lightning
protection to secure all electronic materials.

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Project Study I BE 1701                                                         Building Services


2.8.8 Protection from Earthquakes and other natural threads

If building is in danger areas which have many earthquakes Tsunami or other natural disasters,




architectures and engineers have to design models which are safe for use.

2.9 Telecommunication system
2.9.1 Introduction

With the increasing demand for computer network installations, telecommunications
                     Figurebecome growing opportunity system
grounding and bonding hasFigure 7-aLightning protection for electrical contractors. Although
                             8- Earth quake protection system
similar grounding principles apply, understanding the telecommunications terminology and
special considerations has been a challenge.

As with traditional electrical grounding, telecommunications networks and equipment should
be grounded to the electrical service. However, simply grounding to structural steel isn't
enough when tackling telecommunications systems. The sensitivity of the electronic
equipment requires that the telecommunications cabling and power be effectively equalized to
prevent loops or transients that can damage the equipment. This means designing a complete
grounding and

Bonding system goes beyond the basic "green-wire" methodology. Unpredictable and
intermittent data loss and outright computer failure can result from a transient. To help ensure
the safety and operation of sensitive computer equipment, as well as the safety of personnel,
the electrical contractor should install an effective grounding system that will circumvent such
disturbances.

To ensure effective equalization, the telecommunications ground should be directly attached to
the electrical service ground. However, an electrode such as a ground rod or other grounding
electrode system can be used when no electrical service is present.

2.9.2 Different types of telecommunication systems

       Optical communication system
       Radio telecommunication system

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       Duplex telecommunication system
       Half- duplex telecommunication system
       Tactical telecommunication system

2.10 Data communication system
2.10.1 Introduction

Data Communications is the transfer of data or information between a source and a receiver.
The source transmits the data and the receiver receives it. Data Communication is interested in
the transfer of data, the method of transfer and the preservation of the data during the transfer
process. The purpose of Data Communications is to provide the rules and regulations that
allow computers with different disk operating systems, languages, cabling and locations to
share resources.

2.10.2 Mainframe Computers

Mainframe and minicomputer data systems were popular in the 1960s, 70s, and 80s. They
have mostly been replaced by Local Area Network systems. A mainframe is a large,
centralized computer that performed all computing activities. All applications were installed
on the mainframe computer, and all data was stored on the mainframe computer’s disk drives.

2.10.3 Mini computers

Mini computers are smaller than mainframe, general purpose computers and give computing
power without adding the prohibitive expenses associated with larger systems. It is generally
easier to use,

       Mini computers usually have multiple terminals.

       Mini computers may be used as network servers and Internet servers.




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                                    Figure 9- Network




2.10.4 Networking methods

Without networks, almost all communication in the world would cease to happen. It is because
of networking that telephone, televisions, the internet, etc. work. One way to categorize
computer networks is by their geographic scope.

       Local Area Network (LAN)

LANs are network usually confined to a geographic area such as a single building. LANs can
be small, linking as few as three computers but often link hundreds of computers. The
architectural extension building is a huge and complex building which has many computer
labs and offices. Architecture Department is also there.

       Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

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MAN is basically a bigger version of LAN and normally uses similar technology. It might
cover a group of nearby corporate offices or a city and might be either private or public.



       Wide Area Network (WAN)

Often a network is located in multiple physical places. Wide Area Networking combines
multiple LANs that are geographically separate.

The method of Local Area Network (LAN) is the using method of this large building to
interconnect with the offices, labs and other things.

Networking Topologies

       Star topology

       Ring topology

       Bus topology

       Mesh topology



2.11 Horizontal and vertical circulation system
2.11.1 Lift

A lift installation has an important bearing on the efficient functioning of the building it
serves, and to obtain an efficient service the number and type of lifts must take into account
several factors including the type of building and nature of its occupancy. Lifts should be sited
in the central area and take into account the proximity of entrances to the building and
staircases.

Lift system work different mechanism such as

•       Electric lift

•       Paternosters

•       Oil-hydraulic lift




2.11.2 Electrical lift
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An electric lift with traction drive consists of a lift car suspended by steel ropes which travel
over a grooved driving sheave. The steel ropes are connected to the top of the car at one end to
the frame of a counterweight at the other. The counterweight reduces the load on the electric
motor to the difference in weight between the car plus load, and the counterweight plus
friction the difference is termed the unbalanced load.

2.11.3 Mechanism of Electrical lifts system

•       Roping arrangement

•       Single-wrap traction

•       Roping

•       Double-wrap traction

•       Drum drive

•       Winding motors

2.11.4 Oil-hydraulic lift

The older types of hydraulic lifts are operated by water from a high-pressure water main with a
centralized pumping station and a good number are still in use today. However, the capital and
maintenance costs of high-pressure water mains are height, and the modern lift use oil pressure
from a self-contained power pack driven by an electric motor.

2.11.5 Escalators

Escalators are continuous conveyors designed for moving large numbers of people quickly and
efficiently from one floor to another. Unlike a normal lift installation it requires no waiting
time, and in order to achieve a similar service a large number of lifts occupying more floor
space would be required. However, an escalator can be used in conjunction with a lift, for
example, between basement and ground floor where traffic is light, to avoid the need for the
lift to travel to the lower floor when the demand on the upper floor is heavy.

2.11.6 Travelators (moving pavements)

These are similar in construction to escalators, but are intended for the horizontal movement
of passenger. The moving surface is either a reinforced rubber belt or a series of linked steel
plates running on rollers.

2.11.7 Safety

The equipment is set in motion by a key-operated switch, and safety measures include a stop-
push switch, fitted at each end of the pavement. A powerful electrical-mechanical brake is

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fitted to the driving mechanism, which stops the pavement in the event of an electrical fault or
a power failure.



2.12 Gas supply system
2.12.1 Introduction

Gas is distributed mainly in two methods. They are through pipes or cylinders. In Sri Lanka
gas is mainly distributed using gas cylinders, pipe system are not that much popular here.

2.12.2 Pipe positions

Gas pipes should not be fitted inside electrical intake chambers, transformer rooms, lift shafts,
refrigerator chambers or inside the space in a cavity wall. When a gas pipe runs close to some
other service, contact between them should be prevented by a spacing or insulation.

2.12.3 Diameter of pipes

The diameter of gas pipe depends upon its length, frictional loss due to fittings, amount of gas
required and the permissible pressure required at the appliance. It should be not less than
25mm nominal bore for a single family dwelling. If the pipe supplies more than one meter, the
capacity of the pipe should be at least equal to the capacity of a 25mm diameter pipe for each
primary meter supplied.

2.12.4 Some important points that should be considered when designing a gas supply
system

       Sharp bends and angles increasing pressure loss should be avoided.

       Each end of the pipe should be provided with sufficient connectors or unions to permit
        its removal, cleaning or alteration with minimum damage to the structure or
        decoration.

       Pipes should be well supported with clips or brackets that will prevent the pipe being
        contact with the finished surface of the building.

       Where a pipe passes through a wall or floor, a sleeve should be provided and the space
        between the sleeve and the pipe filled with incombustible material.

       Pipes in contact with any material likely to cause their corrosion should be protected
        with a coating of bitumen.

       Pipes should not be placed within a cavity.


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       Where lead or copper pipes are run under timber floors, care should be taken to avoid
        puncturing the pipe when nailing the floorboards to the joists.

       Pipes should not be installed near any source of heat.

3.0 Building services installed in selected building and their
technology
3.1 Water supply and distribution system- From reservoir to building
Most systems are divided into zones. Factors determining the extent or size of a zone can
include hydraulics, telemetry systems, history, and population density. Sometimes systems are
designed for a specific area then are modified to accommodate development. Terrain affects
hydraulics and some forms of telemetry. While each zone may operate as a stand-alone
system, there is usually some arrangement to interconnect zones in order to manage equipment
failures or system failures (Wikipedia, 2012c)

3.2 Water supply and distribution system- Within the building (cold and hot
water)
3.2.1Domestic Water Supply with Gravity Tank

The domestic water supply system with gravity tank is presented below:

For proper operation of the system, the gravity tank is located at least 30 ft or 10 m above the
highest outlet or consumer. In tall buildings it's necessary to use pressure reducing valves in
the lowest floors before the fittings.

The volume of the tank must be designed to compensate for the limited capacity of the supply
lines. The tank fills up when the consumption of hot and cold water is lower than the capacity
of the supply lines - and the tank is emptied when the consumption is higher than the supply
lines capacity.

A drawback with the system with the open gravity tank on the top floor is the potential danger
of freezing during winter conditions. Huge tanks will also influence the construction of the
building. (the engineering tool box, 2012)

3.3 Electrical system- Generating station to building
Distribution system of the selected building begins as the primary circuit leaves the sub-station
and ends as the secondary service enters the building's meter socket. The voltage used is
appropriate for the shorter distance and varies from 2,300 to about 35,000 volts depending on
utility standard practice, distance, and load to be served. Distribution circuits are fed from a


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transformer located in an electrical substation, where the voltage is reduced from the high
values used for power transmission. (Wikipedia, 2012)

3.4 Electrical system- Within the building
Aluminum at one time was used for the building. But aluminum wire heats and contracts when
conducting electricity, causing loose wires that pose a fire risk. Since that time, aluminum
wiring has been confined, for the most part, to the wires used for bringing in the electrical
power to the meter pole. Copper wire is now the norm for all electrical wiring that carries
power throughout the building.

3.5 HVAC system
3.5.1 All air system

These systems provide complete sensible heating and humidification, and sensible and latent
cooling, by supplying conditioned air to the conditional space. Air from each zone is
transported by the air handler to the heating and cooling coils.




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                                   Figure 10-Single fan system
2.5.2 Air conditioning

Fans are installed inside the ceiling to suck up
polluted air from the rooms. A central air
conditioning system can’t be seen in the
architecture extension building. But some
separate air conditions are provided at the
computer labs and for some rooms.




                                                         Figure 11-Air condition machines
3.6 Above and               below        ground
drainage system
3.6.1 Separate system

In which the foul water discharges from basins, sinks, baths, etc., are conveyed by foul water
drains to a foul water sewer, or private sewage disposal plant; the rainwater or surface water

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from roofs and paved areas are conveyed by surface water drains to a public surface water
sewer or soak away.

The foul water discharges from toilets, bath rooms and other sanitary appliances are carried to
a foul water sewer through a separate pipe system. This architecture extension building has a
good gutter system to dispose the collected rain water. The rain water collected through the
gutter system is carried to a foul water sewer through a separate system of drains.

3.7 Fire protection and detection system
3.7.1 Water fire extinguisher

Water fire extinguisher is installed for each 210 m2 floor area, with a minimum of two
extinguishers per floor. A high-pressure CO2 cartridge is punctured upon use and a 10 m jet of
water is produced for 80 s. Water must not be used on petroleum, burning liquids or in
kitchens as it could spread the fire. (Chadderton, 2007)

3.7.2 Carbon dioxide fire extinguisher

Pressured CO2 extinguishers leave no deposit and are used on small fires involving solids,
liquids or electricity. They are recommended for use on delicate equipment such as electronic
components and computers. The CO2 vapour displaces air around the fire and combustion
ceases. There is minimal cooling effect, and the fire may restart if high temperatures have
become established. Water-cooling backup is used where appropriate. (Chadderton, 2007)

3.8 Safety and security system
In the selected building there is only a lightening protection system as safety and security
systems. The lightening protection system is placed on the roof and has been connected to the
ground by a copper wire.

3.9 Telecommunication system
3.9.1 Duplex telecommunication system

In Duplex communications system two equipments can communicate with each other in both
the directions simultaneously and hence the name Duplex. When you interact with your friend
over the telephone, both of you can listen to each other at the same time. The sender sends the
signals to the receiver who receives it then and there and also give his valuable feedback to the
speaker for him to respond. Hence the communication actually takes place between the
speaker and the receiver simultaneously.

In the Duplex communication system, two devices can communicate with each other at the
same time.


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A type of communication system involves the sender and the receiver where the sender is in
charge of sending signals and the recipients only listen to it and respond accordingly. Such
communication is also called Simplex communication system. (Management study guide,
2012)

3.10 Data communication system
3.10.1 Star topology

Star networks are one of the most common computer network topologies. In its simplest form,
a star network consists of one central switch, hub or computer, which acts as a conduit to
transmit messages. This consists of a central node, to which all other nodes are connected; this
central node provides a common connection point for all nodes through a hub. Thus, the hub
and leaf nodes, and the transmission lines between them, form a graph with the topology of a
star. If the central node is passive, the originating node must be able to tolerate the reception of
an echo of its own transmission, delayed by the two-way transmission time (i.e. to and from
the central node) plus any delay generated in the central node. An active star network has an
active central node that usually has the means to prevent echo-related problems. (Wikipedia,
2012)

3.11 Gas supply system
There was no gas supply system in that building. Gas supply systems are mostly existed in
domestic and high rise buildings in countries with seasonal changes. In Sri Lanka gas supply
systems are not used for domestic purposes. In most developed countries gas supply systems
are used for domestic purposes too. Gas is distributed among buildings by the gas supply
board. In those countries gas pipe lines are used to supply gas for gas cookers, ovens, boilers,
etc., in homes. But in Sri Lanka gas pipes are used mainly in large buildings such as factories.

4.0 Building services maintenance procedure
4.1 Water supply and distribution system- From reservoir to building
Water supply networks usually represent the majority of assets of a water utility. Systematic
documentation of maintenance works using a Computerized Maintenance Management
System is a key to a successful operation of a water utility. (Wikipedia, 2012c)

4.2 Water supply and distribution system- Within the building (cold and hot
water)
Domestic water supply system should be maintained properly. Fittings of the pipes and other
parts should be checked. Most of the time fittings of the pipe occurs troubles. But domestic
water supply systems don’t need regular maintaining.

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4.3 Electrical system- Generating station to building
Advises on problems installing and repairing electrical power distribution and special purpose
electrical systems. Solves maintenance problems by studying layout drawings, wiring and
schematic diagrams, and analyzing construction and operating characteristics. Uses meters,
testing devices, indicators, and recorders to locate equipment, distribution, and motor
controller malfunctions and faults. Diagnoses malfunctions, and recommends repair
procedures necessary to correct defective equipment. Develops and establishes maintenance
and operating procedures to ensure maximum efficiency. (Powers, R. 2012)

4.4 Electrical system- Within the building
4.4.1 Maintaining

The electrical system in the building should be maintained properly to have the fullest service.
Wires and equipment such as trip switches, main switches should be checked to know whether
they are working properly.

4.5 HVAC system
4.5.1 Maintaining a HVAC System.

Common best practices for maintaining a HVAC system follow.

       Select best filter capacity

       Replace filters (1-6 months)

       Clean Evaporator and Condenser coil (once or twice a year)

       Inspect area around air intake (twice annually)

       Fix leaks in Cabinets and Supply Duct (annually)

       Clean and Adjust Dampers (annually)

       Inspect Fan, Bearings and belts (twice annually)

       Clean Air Ducts (inspect every 2 years)

4.5.2 Cost

The cost of these separate air conditions may vary according their volume. According to the
gathered data these units are a price level of 145,000/=

4.6 Above and below ground drainage system
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       Place gravel along the footers of the house to prevent water build up and seepage back
        into the crawl space or basement.

       Use “L” shaped elbows that allow drain from the roof gutters to flow outward away
        from the house.

       Don’t neglect your gutters or drain pipe and opt for an ‘every once in a while’ cleaning
        approach.
       Don’t ack sand or soil into the footers along the base of the house. (Vanguar, 2011)



4.7 Fire protection and detection system
4.7.1Maintenance procedure

       The extinguisher is not blocked by equipment, coats or other objects that could
        interfere with access in an emergency.

       The pressure is at the recommended level.

       The nozzle or other parts are not hindered in any way.

       The pin and tamper seal (if it has one) are intact.

4.8 Safety and security system
Maintaining the lightning protection system is not that much difficult because it doesn’t need
regular maintenance. If the system has been damaged by something it should be repaired.

4.9 Data communication system
       Do not download programs if you do not trust or you are not familiar with the provider.
        Doing so might put your computer network at risk to viruses which can lead to several
        problems in the future.
       Once the internet connection slowed down, you need to reset the modem and the
        router. You must also reboot all the PC’s connected to the network; then restart.
       Check the cables which are connected to the Ethernet, computers, and to the network
        to find out if there are faulty or malfunctioning cables so you can fix them as soon as
        possible.
       Utilize the Disk Cleanup on the System Tool especially if you have several computer
        drives and repeat the process until all the drives are cleaned up. (Barry M, 2012)



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5.0 Conclusions
Building services are essential for a building because they do a really good job for the
occupants of the building. When selecting building services to a particular building, many
things should be considered such as use of the building, users of the building, place of the
building (weather, climate), allocated money. So planning building services is not that much
easy. Now a days many building services firms use computer-aided engineering (CAE)
software programs, created either in-house or by external parties, to assist in their system
design and analysis. This method has many benefits, including easier and more exhaustive
visualization of proposed solutions, the ability to create virtual models for analysis and
calculations, and the ease of use in spatial planning.

Building services engineers work closely with other construction professionals; architects,
structural engineers and quantity surveyors. They influence the architecture of a building and
play a significant role on the sustainability and energy demand of a building. Within building
services engineering, new roles are emerging, for example in the areas of renewable energy,
sustainability, low carbon technologies and energy management. With buildings accounting
for around 50% of all carbon emissions, building services engineers play a significant role in
combating climate change.




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6.0 References
Barry M, 2012. Maintaining a Computer Network[online]. [Accessed on 23rd of May 2012],
Available from: http://decidingedge.com/technology/maintaining-a-computer-network/.

Chadderton, D. V., 2007. Building services engineering, 5th ed., London: Taylor & Francis.

Powers, R. 2012b. Air Force Enlisted Job Descriptions[online]. [Accessed on 23rd of May
2012], Available from: http://usmilitary.about.com/od/airforceenlistedjobs/a/afjob3e0x1.htm.

Management study guide, 2012. Different Types of Communication Systems[online]. [Accessed
on 23rd of May 2012], Available from: http://www.managementstudyguide.com/different-types-of-
communication-system.htm.

The Engineering tool box, 2012. Design of domestic water supply system [online]. [Accessed
on 24th of May 2012], Available on: http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/water-supply-
systems-d_477.html.

Vanguard, 2011. Maintaining your home drainage system[online]. [Accessed on 23rd of May
2012], Available from: http://www.vanguardngr.com/2011/08/maintaining-your-home-drainage-
system/.

Wikipedia, 2012a. Star network [online]. [Accessed on 23rd of May 2012], Available from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_network.

Wikipedia, 2012b. Electric power distribution[online]. [Accessed on 23rd of May 2012]
available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_power_distribution.

Wikipedia, 2012c. Water supply network[online]. [Accessed on 23rd of May 2012], Available
from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_supply_network.

Wikipedia, 2012d, Tap water [online]. [Accessed on 24th of May 2012], Available on:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tap_water.




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7.0 Annexes




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