Animal Behavior - PowerPoint by TBeo2ff8

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									       Animal Behavior
What is Animal Behavior?
     ~ what an animal does as it interacts
          with its environment.
Ex ) Humpback whales- breaching
Questions are raised about the animal’s
behavior.
           Animal Behavior
 Most  investigations of Animal Behavior
  involve a combination of discovery based
  science and hypothesis based science.
 When scientist study animals in the wild,
  using a controlled experiments to test
  hypotheses is often impractical.
 Scientists test their hypotheses through
  further observation.
         Animal Behavior
 Immediate cause: an explanation of an
 organism’s behavior based on its
 immediate interactions with the
 environment
               Animal Behavior
  All animals behaviors depend on some
  combination of genes and environment.
 Innate behavior: a behavior that is
  performed correctly by all individuals of a
  species, even if they have no previous
  experience.
       Example: Digger wasps-born “knowing” how
        to build a nest
            Animal Behavior
 Fixed action pattern- an innate behavior that
  occurs as an unchangeable sequence of
  actions.
 An animal can only perform a FAP as a whole
  “script” from beginning to end.
 An FAP is usually triggered by a specific
  stimulus.
 A FAP allows an animal to perform a task
  correctly the first time without learning the
  behavior.
           Animal Behavior
 Many innate behaviors coordinate with
 rhythmic changes in the environment.

 Some   patterns may be seasonal or daily

 Example)  Daily: Flying squirrels are active
 at and night and sleep from dawn to dusk
           Seasonal: mammals migrate to
 better feeding grounds during dry seasons
          Animal Behavior
 CircadianRhythm: innate rhythm with a
 cycle of 24 hours
           Animal Behavior
 Learning: A change in animal’s behavior
 resulting from experience



 Habituation: an animal learns not to
 respond to a repeated stimulus that
 conveys little or no important information
          Animal Behavior
 Ex)Your ears detect the clock’s constant
 sounds, but your brain does not initiate a
 response

      water organism, hydra, contracts
 Fresh
 when disturbed by the slightest touch

 Scarecrow can keep birds away from a
 garden for a time
            Animal Behavior
 How   does habituation help an animal?

    Allows an animal’s nervous system to focus
     on stimuli that signal food, mates, or real
     danger, and not waste time or energy on
     other less important stimuli.
             Animal Behavior
 Imprinting: learning that is limited to a
 specific time period in an animal’s life and
 is usually irreversible.

 Resultof imprinting: strong bond between
 two animals

 Takes    place during critical learning period
               Animal Behavior
    Conditioning: learning that a particular
    stimulus or a particular response is linked
    to a reward or punishment

       Classical Conditioning: an otherwise
        meaningless stimulus is associated with a
        reward or a punishment
       Example) Pavlov trained a dog to salivate at
        the sound of a bell.
             Animal Behavior
 Operant Conditioning: an animal learns to
 associate one of its own behavioral acts
 with positive or negative effect

 Repeat    is rewarded/ Avoid is harmed

     Example) predator associate prey with painful
      experience
             Animal Behavior
 Insight:the ability to respond appropriately
  to a new situation without previous
  experience

     Example) Octopus and jar and Chimpanzee in
      room with boxes and banana.
             Animal Behavior
 Playbehavior: many mammals and some
 birds engage in behavior that can best be
 described as play

2    Hypotheses:
     Practice Hypothesis and Exercise Hypothesis
             Animal Behavior
 Social   Behavior:
     interactions between two or more individuals
      of the same species


     Careful observation and experiments have
      resulted in much of the current understanding
      of social behaviors
                 Animal Behavior
   Competitive Behaviors
       Compete for food, space or mates
       Competitions sometimes result in conflicts between
        individuals
   Aggressive behaviors
       Actual physical struggles or threatening behaviors
        between animals
   Dominance Hierarchies
       Ranking of individuals as a result of aggressive
        behaviors in a group
              Animal Behavior
 Territorial   Behavior

     A territory is an area that individuals defend
      and from which other members of the same
      species are excluded.

     One an animal has a territory they claim it
      continuously.

       • Examples ) Bird Songs & male cheetah marking
             Animal Behavior
          ritual: elaborate behavior
 Courtship
 performed before mating.

 Confirmthat individuals are of the same
 species but of the opposite sex
            - Or -
 Bean opportunity for an animal to
 advertise its positive qualities to a potenial
 mate.
            Animal Behavior
 Communicating:
     Use if a variety of signals, including sound,
      odors visuas displays and touches
     Example ‘waggles dance”


 Coopertation: individuals work together in
 a way that is beneficial to the group

								
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