RUSTENBURG STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT by TBeo2ff8

VIEWS: 338 PAGES: 43

									    RUSTENBURG STRATEGIC
  ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
      PUBLIC DRAFT – VISION AND STRATEGIES

                          PREPARED FOR

    North West Department of Agriculture, Conservation, Environment
(NWDACE), Department of Developmental Local Government & Housing (NW
                           DDLG&H) and
                  The Finnish Environment Institute


                          PREPARED BY




              Ecological and Environmental Consultants
                           PO Box 441037
                               LINDEN
                                 2104

                           Tel. 011 782 3428
                           Fax. 011 888 9588
                  Email. Info@ecoassessments.co.za

                         In association with:




                          Date: June 2003

                       Our Reference: 212/02
                                                                          Public Draft: Vision & Strategies

TABLE OF CONTENTS


1      INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 1
    1.1 BACKGROUND .............................................................................................. 1
    1.2 PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT .................................................................. 1
    1.3 VISION (OR OBJECTIVES) FOR THE ENVIRONMENT ................................. 1
      1.3.1 Natural Environment ................................................................................ 1
      1.3.2 Socio-Economic Environment .................................................................. 2
      1.3.3 Services Environment .............................................................................. 2
      1.3.4 Land Use Environment ............................................................................ 3
      1.3.5 Policy Environment .................................................................................. 3
    1.4 APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT .................................................................. 4
2      STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING THE ENVIRONMENT & DEVELOPMENT ... 10
    2.1 GEOLOGY ................................................................................................... 10
      2.1.1 Summary of Relevant Information.......................................................... 10
      2.1.2 Opportunities ......................................................................................... 10
      2.1.3 Constraints ............................................................................................ 10
      2.1.4 Desired State of the Environment .......................................................... 10
    2.2 SOILS ........................................................................................................... 12
      2.2.1 Summary of Relevant Information.......................................................... 12
      2.2.2 Opportunities ......................................................................................... 12
      2.2.3 Constraints ............................................................................................ 12
      2.2.4 Desired State of the Environment .......................................................... 12
    2.3 TOPOGRAPHY ............................................................................................ 14
      2.3.1 Summary of Relevant Information.......................................................... 14
      2.3.2 Opportunities ......................................................................................... 15
      2.3.3 Constraints ............................................................................................ 15
      2.3.4 Desired State of the Environment .......................................................... 15
    2.4 HYDROLOGY............................................................................................... 18
      2.4.1 Summary of Relevant Information.......................................................... 18
      2.4.2 Opportunities ......................................................................................... 18
      2.4.3 Constraints ............................................................................................ 18
      2.4.4 Desired State of the Environment .......................................................... 18
    2.5 WATER QUALITY......................................................................................... 19
      2.5.1 Summary of Relevant Information.......................................................... 19
      2.5.2 Opportunities ......................................................................................... 20
      2.5.3 Constraints ............................................................................................ 20
      2.5.4 Desired State of the Environment .......................................................... 20
    2.6 ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS..........................ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.17
      2.6.1 Summary of Relevant Information..........Error! Bookmark not defined.17
      2.6.2 Opportunities .........................................Error! Bookmark not defined.17
      2.6.3 Constraints ............................................Error! Bookmark not defined.17
      2.6.4 Desired State of the Environment ..........Error! Bookmark not defined.17
    2.7 FAUNA ......................................................................................................... 23
      2.7.1 Summary of Relevant Information.......................................................... 23
      2.7.2 Opportunities ......................................................................................... 23
      2.7.3 Constraints ............................................................................................ 24
      2.7.4 Desired State of the Environment .......................................................... 24
    2.8 FLORA ......................................................................................................... 26
      2.8.1 Summary of Relevant Information.......................................................... 26
      2.8.2 Opportunities ......................................................................................... 27
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    2.8.3 Constraints ............................................................................................ 27
    2.8.4 Desired State of the Environment .......................................................... 27
  2.9 LANDUSE .................................................................................................... 31
    2.9.1 Summary of Relevant Information.......................................................... 31
    2.9.2 Opportunities ......................................................................................... 32
    2.9.3 Constraints ............................................................................................ 33
    2.9.4 Desired State of the Environment .......................................................... 33
  2.10 CULTURAL / HISTORIC FEATURES ........................................................ 34
    2.10.1 Summary of Relevant Information ...................................................... 34
    2.10.2 Opportunities...................................................................................... 35
    2.10.3 Constraints ......................................................................................... 35
    2.10.4 Desired State of the Environment ....................................................... 35
  2.11 AIR QUALITY ............................................................................................ 35
    2.11.1 Summary of Relevant Information ...................................................... 35
    2.11.2 Opportunities...................................................................................... 35
    2.11.3 Constraints ......................................................................................... 35
    2.11.4 Desired State of the Environment ....................................................... 35
  2.12 SERVICE PROVISION .............................................................................. 36
    2.12.1 Summary of Relevant Information ...................................................... 36
    2.12.2 Opportunities...................................................................................... 36
    2.12.3 Constraints ......................................................................................... 36
    2.12.4 Desired State of the Environment ....................................................... 37




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1 INTRODUCTION
1.1   BACKGROUND

      The first phase of the SEA undertook to describe the status quo of the
      environment of the study area. This phase also included consultation with the
      relevant interested and/or affected parties with the purpose being to collect the
      views, concerns, opinions and issues that surround development, land use
      planning and management of the environment.

1.2   PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT

      The purpose of this document is to present the collective vision for
      development of the study area. This vision has been formulated by means of
      integrating, the often polar points of view on, how the area should be
      developed.

      The document first presents the objectives or core principles that should be
      acknowledged in an attempt to attain the vision for the area. Secondly, each
      environmental attribute is assessed in terms of its sensitivity, opportunities and
      constraints that set the backdrop for determining the strategic objective to
      managing and implementing plans to attain the proposed vision.


1.3   VISION (OR OBJECTIVES) FOR THE ENVIRONMENT

      Below are the vision statements for the management of the environment of the
      study area.

1.3.1 Natural Environment

       Vision is to retain and promote the:

          Natural vegetation and ecosystems;
          Existing vegetation as a control to erosion;
          Viable agricultural areas;
          Existing parks that are under pressure for development;
          Species composition of virgin land by means of appropriate burning
           events;
          Magaliesberg as an ecologically sensitive zone that has significant
           aesthetic value;
          Unique geological features that form a part of the Magaliesberg Mountain
           Range;
          Fertile and agriculturally important soil types that occur in the valley and
           foot of the Magaliesberg;
          Red Data fauna and flora species that occur in the Rustenburg area;
          Improvement of the quality of the air in and around Rustenburg;
          Improvement of the quality of the water in the rivers, dam and streams.

       In addition, the vision includes refraining from:

          Developing on steep slopes and ridges;
          Locating housing on High Quality and viable agricultural land;
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         Poaching that occurs in the KMR;
         The spread of invader plants that occur along the rivers;
         Polluting rivers;
         Impacting on the ground water resource;
         Dust and air pollution (sulphate and suspended particulates) from
          industrial activities, e.g. mining, that cause long term impacts on human,
          bird and plant life;
         The occurrence of acid rain that causes changes to the environment.

1.3.2 Socio-Economic Environment

      Vision is to retain and promote:

         the visual assets of the study area;
         sufficient housing to the influx of workers (i.e. require approximately 3000
          houses per annum);
         access to studies and environmental information;
         the Local Economic Development Plan for Rustenburg;
         the cultural historic sites, statues and buildings that occur in the area;
         information on the natural and cultural heritage that is locked up in
          literature and not accessible as an information base to inform
          environmental and local authorities of such areas;
         the proper use of sites accessible to the public by means of tourism
          related infrastructure to protect the sites.

      In addition, the vision includes refraining from:

         unplanned development that may impact negatively on tourism;
         the visual impact of development on the ridges;
         squatting in the KMR, nature areas and any other areas;
         noise pollution over the Magaliesberg as a result of air flights;
         noise pollution in the vicinity of small holdings due to loud music;
         light pollution caused by development pressure in the higher lying areas.

1.3.3 Services Environment

      Vision is to:

         Encourage appropriate infrastructure development;
         Upgrade gravel roads within Olifantsnek;
         Provide appropriate services in Olifantsnek;
         Prevent the impact of sub-standard roads;
         Prevent water shortages in Rustenburg, e.g. areas south of the Mall that
          are own service areas;
         Prevent impacts of septic tanks that pollute the underground water;
         Provide sufficient land fill facilities and structures for waste management;
         Prevent illegal dumping that occurs on the edge and within the KMR and
          MPNE and elsewhere in the study area;
         Minimise the affect traffic volumes will have on all roads into as well as
          around Rustenburg;
         Improve the problem of congestion along the R24;


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         Prevent local flooding that occurs along Kremetart Avenue, Foord and
          Scheiding Streets and the Molen Street Bridge;
         Prevent the flooding of the sewerage network during heavy rainfall events;
         Prevent erosion due to storm water run off in newly developed areas;
         Upgrade the sewerage treatment plant that is too small to handle the
          amount of sewerage;
         Provide sewage services to rural areas by means of appropriate septic
          tanks.

1.3.4 Land Use Environment

      Vision is to retain and promote:

         Sewage management of the Kloof Area;
         Sufficient land for development;
         Development areas that include sufficient green areas;
         Infrastructure requirements including the Olifantsnek Dam settlement and
          sanitation plan; Rustenburg Sewage Works, Water Supply to areas not
          formally services, Waste Management Facilities;
         Provide appropriate land for housing & industrial development.

      In addition the vision includes refraining from:

         Urban sprawl by densifying in and in close proximity to existing urban
          areas;
         Illegal development on the Mountainous Areas;
         Illegal & unsafe land use alongside the Olifantsnek Road and on the small
          holdings (eg. Scrap yards, businesses, housing compounds and dumping
          sites);
         Inappropriate development on the borders of the KMR;
         Densification that changes the character of the area;
         Development on the borders of the KMR increase trespassing, waste and
          boundary management problems (eg. alter character of hiking trails);
         Sub-divisions of High Quality and viable agricultural land;
         Illegal settlements;
         Illegal land uses leading to the degradation of the environment in terms of
          water pollution, fragmentation of land, destruction of trees, loss of
          legitimate taxes and limited development in townships.

1.3.5 Policy Environment

      Vision is to:

         Improve management by the local authority that is considered to lack
          manpower, political will, bureaucracy, clear guidelines, law enforcement;
         Address inadequate planning problems of the past;
         Provide for management of the buffer zone between the KMR and
          development;
         Prevent haphazard development;
         Promote planning of green areas in and around town;
         Increase management of sport centres in the black urban areas;
         Institute monitoring and liability assessments;

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              Improve the timeframe for the EIA studies;
              Provide management plans for urban open spaces and urban nature
               areas;
              Provide Red Data species lists to environmental and local authorities that
               can be used to red flag certain areas where development is proposed;
              Provide a policy for the protection and management of Red Data,
               Protected and Medicinal plants that occur on private land and specifically
               when such plants occur on proposed development sites;
              Provide guidance through policy and strategic direction;
              Ensure the application of the existing regulations;
              Ensure staff and institutional capacity;
              Ensure Political Leadership.

1.4   APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT

      In order to ensure that development attests to the vision of the area, it is
      necessary to distinguish environmental control zones (see Table 1 below &
      Figure 14). Specific guidelines have been prepared with the purpose of
      assisting developers, the public and the NW DACE (and other relevant
      authorities) to improve decision making based on the occurrence of various
      features on the site.

      The following environmental control zones are provided:

             High Environmental Control (High Sensitivity) - This area should include
              land uses that are of a low impact status in order to prevent immediate
              impacts on these highly sensitive areas.

             Medium Environmental Control (Medium Sensitivity) – Areas that have
              medium sensitivity according to the sensitivity of the various environmental
              attributes.

             Low Environmental Control (Low Sensitivity) - Development of areas that
              are considered to have no or low sensitivity.

Table 1. Criteria for ranking sites as High, Medium or Low environmental control
         sites:

                                               Class of Sensitivity
Biophysical                      High               Medium                   Low
Category
Average Slope &                   > 8°                 5 – 8°                 < 5°
surrounds      (refer
Fig. 13)
Occurrence         of          Red Data             Protected &              None
Sensitive species                                    Medicinal
Habitat for Red              High Priority          Low Priority             None
Data species
Position of site with      Within 1:50 year       Between 1:50 and    Outside 1:100 year
regards     to    the          floodline             1:100 year            floodline
Floodline                                             floodline
Agricultural                    Hutton             Hutton / Mispah           Rock
potential of soils              Arcadia              Shortlands /           Mispah
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(Refer to Fig. 4)                                Glenrosa
Location of MPNE            <500m              500 – 1000m             >1000m
boundary (Refer to
Fig. 13)
Affect on Open            Core Area            Intermediate             None
Space       function    Connector Area
(Refer to Fig. 8)
Socio-economic
Category
Significance       of      Significant         Not significant          None
Cultural     Historic
sites (Refer to Fig.
8)
Visual Sensitivity           Inside               Outside              Outside
(Refer to Fig. 12)
Landuse                    Designated           Agricultural /      Residential /
                         conservation or       Undetermined         Commercial /
                        open space area                            Office / Special

Important Note:

Figure 14 provides the Environmental Control Zones on the basis of the
following categories only:
  Average Slope & Surrounds;
  Proximity to the MPNE Boundary;
  Open Space Function;
  Significance of Cultural Historic Sites;
  Visual Sensitivity;
  Land Use

The identification of the environmentally sensitive zones is based on the following
premises:

1.     Average Slope & surrounds

       Motivation: The likely cost for development and potentially the impact on the
       environment increases on a slope of 8° and steeper. This includes impacts
       associated with storm water runoff, bank collapse, etc.

       Application: A slope analysis of the study area indicated that a substantial
       amount of the hilly and mountainous areas are 8° and steeper (Figure 13).
       The areas of 8° and steeper further coincide well with the ecologically
       sensitive areas identified (Figure 8). The category (medium environmental
       control zone) occurs on the edge of the 8° areas. Slopes of 0-5° fall into the
       low environmental control zone area.

2.     Occurrence of Sensitive Species

       Motivation: Sensitive fauna and flora species (Red Data, Medicinal and
       Protected) are listed for the study area and are protected by various sets of
       legislation. Their occurrence on a site should be managed responsibly.



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      Application: Every development site should be assessed for the occurrence of
      Red Data species listed for the study area. The occurrence of Red Data
      species on a site will place a proposed application in the High Environmental
      Control Zone. The occurrence of Protected and Medicinal plants on a site will
      place a proposed development in the Medium Environmental Control Zone.
      He absence of such species will place the site in a low Environmental Control
      Zone.

3.    Habitat for Red Data Species

      Motivation: Sensitive species are often not observed on a site due to the
      seasonality of the species (flora) or the mobility of species (fauna). The
      potential occurrence of habitat on a site should be managed responsibly.

      Application: Every development should be assessed for the occurrence of
      suitable habitat for Red Data species listed for the area. If suitable habitat
      occurs, the site will be more sensitive than if no habitat occurs. The
      categorization into the various environmental control zones can further be
      done according to the provincial priority given to the various Red Data
      species listed for the study area. Such a priority system can be developed or
      based on the Red Data status of every species listed for the area.

4.    Position of site within floodline

      Motivation: Development within the 1:50 year floodline level can not occur
      according to existing legislation. According to the National Water Act (1998) it
      is a requirement that the 1:100 year floodline level is shown on all
      development plans. These areas lie often in close proximity to the 1:50 year
      level except where the floodplain is shallow. In such cases measures will be
      required to manage impacts to ensure that the impact on the water resources
      can be managed and mitigated. Areas falling outside the 1:100 year level
      would potentially have an lower impact on the water resource.

      Application: All areas within the 1:50 year floodline area are no-go areas with
      a High Environmental Control zoning. Areas falling within the 1:100 year flood
      line fall within the Medium Environmental Control zone, whereas areas
      outside of the 1:100 year floodline will have a Low Environmental Control
      zoning.

5.    Agricultural potential of the soil

      Motivation: The National department of Agriculture has various programmes
      aimed at retaining and improving the wise use of the agricultural resource of
      the country. This requires that soils with a Medium/High agricultural potential
      be protected from development for the purpose of encouraging agricultural
      production.

      Application: Hutton and Arcadia soils that have an agricultural importance (i.e.
      soils with a high potential for agricultural use) have been grouped into the
      High Environmental Control zone. The intermediate soils comprising a
      combination of soils types (Hutton & Mispah or Shortlands & Glenrosa) have
      been zoned with Medium Environmental Control. Rock and Mispah falls
      within the Low Environmental Control zone, as these soils are considered to
      be less agriculturally valuable soils.
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6.    Location of MPNE boundary

      Motivation: The effect of surrounding landuses on the MPNE boundary is a
      concern of many authorities, public, Non-governmental and conservation
      groups. Increased urban development on the edges of the MPNE has lead to
      a general encroachment on the natural boundary characterized by increase
      litter, trampling, exotic plant infestation and illegal trespassing in the MPNE.

      Application: A line indicating a distance of 500 and 1000 meters from the
      boundary of the MPNE has been indicated on Figure 13. The 500m was
      determined by considering the average distance between the MPNE and the
      Donkerhoek road in the northern part of the study area. The distance was
      applied equally all along the MPNE boundary. The function of the lines will be
      to assess the distance of any proposed development to the proximity of the
      MPNE where developments located closer to the MPNE will be considered
      more sensitive and will fall into the High Environmental Control Zone.

7.    Affect on Open Space Function

      Motivation: In the landscape, it is important to maintain connectivity between
      natural habitats and between natural areas in the larger landscape. If this is
      not maintained, populations (fauna and flora) become isolated and will
      subsequently die out.

      Application: All the ecologically sensitive areas were identified in the study
      area and mapped. These areas were further identified into three categories
      which describes their function as open spaces in the landscape. These
      categories can be described as follows:

      Core Areas
      The areas that were included into the category forms the most important
      elements in an open space system. They are characteristically larger areas
      which often include more than one habitat type which adds to the species
      richness of the areas. The shape of the areas are further rounder which
      allows for less areas in contact with surrounding landuses and subsequently
      less “edge effect” (negative spill over impacts from urban or agricultural
      landuses neighbouring the core area). These areas are often already used
      and conserved as natural areas and passive recreational activities are
      already occurring in the areas.

      Intermediate areas
      Areas included into the category, is natural with respect to the vegetation.
      They play an intermediate role in the open space system where they are
      usually smaller than core areas with subsequently less diverse habitats. The
      areas are not necessarily used and seen by the general public as natural and
      recreational areas but may be used for such purposes if access is possible.
      The shape of these areas are less optimal and could include longitudinal
      areas where large sections of the boundary of the area are exposed to
      negative impacts from surrounding landuses (the edge effect is therefore
      high). Intermediate areas play a connector role along with the streams and
      rivers between core areas.

      Connector areas
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      Streams and rivers are the most important connectors in the landscape.
      Servitiudes such as powerline may also fulfil this function. Stream and rivers
      allows for species movement in the landscape where other obstacle such as
      urban development and roads prevent such movement. Streams and rivers
      should therefore be managed with utmost care and responsibility and habitat
      disturbance should not be allowed to occur due to development actions.

8.    Occurrence of Cultural Historic Sites

      Motivation: The National Heritage Resources Act requires that any
      development of land greater than 10 000 m2 in extent must be subject to a
      Phase 1 Cultural Historic Assessment. This assessment determines the
      location and significance of any cultural historic features on the site and
      recommends appropriate mitigation.

      Application: A site that is rated to be of significance will generally be
      investigated in more detail by means of a Cultural Historic Impact
      Assessment. Consequently these sites fall within a High Control Zone.

      Sites with no significant features will not be investigated in any more detail,
      although some form of mitigation may be required. These sites therefore fall
      within the Medium Control Zone.

      Sites with no cultural historic features will fall within the Low Control Zone

9.    Visual Sensitivity

      Motivation: Rustenburg is characterized by several hills and koppies with the
      Magaliesberg forming a scenic backdrop to the town. These landscape
      characteristic gives Rustenburg its character and sense of place. Amongst
      other more complex social benefits, the sense of place affects the tourism
      potential of the town and makes it attractive for people to reside there. These
      landscape elements should therefore be managed responsibly and
      developments in these areas should be considered with severe scrutiny and
      will fall into the High Environmental Control Zone.

      Application: Any development proposed that is located in the Visually
      Sensitive areas (Figure 12) will fall into the High Environmental Control zone.

10.   Land Use

      Motivation: Areas that are designated conservation or open space areas
      commonly provide ecological and environmental functions that are important
      for the protection of biodiversity, encourage human health and well being and
      provide structure and form to urban areas. Areas that are used for agricultural
      and undetermined use require management according to the Environmental
      Conservation Act and National Environmental Management Act.

      Application: Designated conservation areas and open space areas will fall
      within the High Environmental Control zone, whereas areas of agricultural or
      undetermined use would fall within the Medium Environmental Control zone.
      All other areas, i.e. Residential, Commercial, Office or Special Use areas, will
      fall within the Low Environmental Control zone.

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Use of table:

Should a site be categorized by a combination of high, medium and low criteria, then
the highest category will apply e.g should a site be affected by any one of the criteria
listed under the high control zone, it will be considered as a high control zone
development.




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2 STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING THE ENVIRONMENT &
  DEVELOPMENT
2.1   GEOLOGY

2.1.1 Summary of Relevant Information

      The study area comprises 6 geological types. These include:

         Quartzite;
         Norite, hybrid rocks, diabase and epidiorite;
         Norite / pyroxenite;
         Norite-anorthosite;
         Slate, shale, hornfels;
         Gabbro, norite

      The slope areas are distinguished by a stable geology (quartzite) whereas the
      lower lying areas have a more active geological substrate (norite & gabbro).
      Gabbros are particularly prevalent in the flatter areas associated with river
      courses.

      The geological substrate is particularly sensitive to sewage impacts. No
      inherent geological areas, other than the gabbros, occur within the study area
      that would limit development.

2.1.2 Opportunities

      The majority of the area has a stable, or relatively stable, geology that does
      not limit development. The Rustenburg area includes significant opportunities
      of mining for Chrome, Stone, Platinum and other precious group metals.

2.1.3 Constraints

      Areas with a predominantly gabbro substrate will constrain the nature &
      density of development.

2.1.4 Desired State of the Environment

      Vision

      The geology of the area should be maintained in a stable state. This will
      require that adequate services (i.e. sewage), storm water control and
      appropriate mining activities be implemented where appropriate.

2.1.4.1 Quartzite

      Sensitivity

      There is no sensitivity associated with this geology

      Strategic Objective

      Not applicable
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2.1.4.2 Norite, Hybrid Rocks, Diabase and Epidiorite

       Sensitivity

       There is no sensitivity associated with this geology

       Strategic Objective

       Not applicable

2.1.4.3 Norite / Pyroxenite

       Sensitivity

       There is no sensitivity associated with this geology

       Strategic Objective

       Not applicable

2.1.4.4 Norite / Anorthosite

       Sensitivity

       There is no sensitivity associated with this geology

       Strategic Objective

       Not applicable

2.1.4.5 Slate / Shale / Hornfels

       Sensitivity

       There is no sensitivity associated with this geology

       Strategic Objective

       Not applicable

2.1.4.6 Gabbro / Norite

       Sensitivity

       This geology is particularly sensitive to shrink / swell characteristics. This
       means that structures established on this substrate are likely to exhibit
       significant cracks owing to soil movement and the shifting of foundations.

       Strategic Objective

       Only development that is suitable to the site should be supported. A detailed
       geotechnical investigation will be required in order to determine the specific
       measures necessary to mitigate impacts such as cracking, collapse, etc.
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2.2   SOILS

2.2.1 Summary of Relevant Information

      The study area comprises 6 soil types. These include:

         Arcadia;
         Hutton & Mispah;
         Hutton:
         Rock & Mispah;
         Shortlands & Glenrosa:
         Shortlands & Hutton

      The soils of the area follow the concept of the catena where they are shallow
      & rocky in the mountainous areas with a lower fertility than the lower lying and
      clay rich soils at the base. Further downslope, and typically in association with
      rivers, dams and floodplains occur the vertic, melanic and undifferentiated red
      structured soils.

      The agricultural areas are located on the fertile soils associated with water
      availability.

2.2.2 Opportunities

      The soils that are suitable for development include the Rock / Mispah, Hutton
      / Mispah, Hutton and Shortlands / Hutton types.

      The Hutton & Shortlands / Glenrosa soils are suitable for agriculture. The
      Arcadia soil type can also be used for agricultural production (e.g. Tobacco).

2.2.3 Constraints

      Soil types, as with geology, limit development in the following way:

          Fertile soils that can be used for agriculture;
          Clayey soils that have shrink/swell characteristics;
          Undifferentiated soils that can easily erode.


2.2.4 Desired State of the Environment

      Vision

      The fertile soil types in the study area should be retained for the purpose of
      agricultural production (i.e. Arcadia, Hutton, Shortlands & Glenrosa).
      Development of the other soil types should prevent erosion, significant storm
      water run-off, contamination, pollution.

2.2.4.1 Arcadia

      Sensitivity

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      This soil type characteristically has a high to very high Shrink / Swell nature.
      This means that during the dry season the clays contract and in the wet
      season they expand. The Arcadia soil type generally contains more than 60%
      clay.

      The high clay content further prevents surface water drainage to deeper
      layers. Hence the flow & drainage of contaminated water is impeded.

      The Arcadia soil type is not suitable for development without significant
      foundation measures and adequate service provision. This is because the
      high clay content prevents vertical water movement. It will also be important
      to ensure protection of pipes, roads, etc from lateral and vertical soil
      movement.

      Strategic Objectives

      Development on these soils must be suited to overcome the constraints of the
      site. This will require the use of suitable foundations, adequate drainage,
      appropriate service (i.e. sewage) provision, etc.

      Where opportunities occur, i.e. suitable infrastructure, then the appropriate
      agricultural practices should be encouraged (e.g. cultivation of maize, cotton
      and sun flower).

2.2.4.2 Hutton / Mispah

      Sensitivity

      These soils are generally less fertile containing a lower clay/loam content and
      more lime. These soils are also therefore more stable and better suited to
      development. The soils are more structured and better able to drain water.

      Strategic Objectives

      Development of these is possible without any particular intervention.

2.2.4.3 Hutton

      Sensitivity

      This soil type is very suited to agricultural use (i.e. citrus & maize). The soil is
      well structured and relatively fertile with good drainage characteristics.
      Nevertheless, these soil characteristics make is also suited to development.

      Strategic Objectives

      This soil is relatively fertile and should therefore be retained for agricultural
      use.

2.2.4.4 Rock / Mispah

      Sensitivity



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      The Rock / Mispah soil type is not suitable for agricultural use. The soil type is
      shallow and characterised by the prevalence of surface rock.

      Strategic Objectives

      Development on this soil is limited by the presence of rock and shallow soils.
      Blasting activities will therefore be required and these impacts will need to be
      managed and mitigated.

      Similarly, owing to the shallowness of the soil and the associated slope upon
      which this soil occurs, it will be necessary to ensure adequate and
      appropriate storm water control to limit erosion.

2.2.4.5 Shortlands / Glenrosa

      Sensitivity

      This soil type is rated to be relatively fertile owing to the higher clay content of
      the Glenrosa soil. Consequently agricultural production should be encouraged
      on this soil. The drainage characteristics are fair to good.

      Strategic Objectives

      Encourage agricultural production where suitable infrastructure occurs.

2.2.4.6 Shortlands / Hutton

      Sensitivity

      This soil is similarly relatively fertile except that the Hutton has a lower clay
      content. Drainage characteristics are rated to be good

      Strategic Objectives

      Development should pose no risk on this soil type.


2.3   TOPOGRAPHY

2.3.1 Summary of Relevant Information

      The following topographic units occur in the area:

         The Magaliesburg Mountain Range
         Ridges
         Mid slopes
         Undulating Plains
         Hex River Floodplain
         Tributary Floodplains
         Valley Bottom

      The topography in this area has a marked influence on the impact of
      development. For instance, development that occurs in exposed localities in

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      elevated positions will be noticeable from great distances owing the relatively
      flat to undulating topography of the surrounding area. In such cases,
      mitigation measures may not suffice to mask the environmental impact. This
      is true for developments that might include highly visible impacts (lights) at
      night, noise, and associated impacts.

      Development impacts such as those described above are generally less
      common in lower lying areas.

2.3.2 Opportunities

      The relatively undisturbed Magaliesburg Mountain areas provide a significant
      asset to Rustenburg and should be preserved. This will serve to consolidate
      the tourism potential of the area in the short, medium and long term.

2.3.3 Constraints

      Development on the higher lying positions will be visible from far and this
      would detract from the visual beauty of Rustenburg. All higher lying areas with
      slopes greater than 8° should be protected from development.


2.3.4 Desired State of the Environment

      Vision

      The higher lying areas should all be retained as natural features of
      Rustenburg. Development of areas with slopes greater than 8° should be
      discouraged. Appropriate mitigation measures and development types should
      be encouraged on the 5 – 8° slopes.

      The Hex River Floodplain and the Tributary flood plains should not be
      developed (i.e. no development is proposed within the 1:100 year floodline
      level).

2.3.4.1 Magaliesberg Mountain Range

      Sensitivity

      The Magaliesberg Mountain range is currently protected under the
      Environment Conservation Act as a Protected Natural Environment. This area
      provides Rustenburg with a significant natural asset and this should continue
      to be protected against development.

      Strategic Objectives

      Protect the existing demarcation of the Magaliesberg Protected Natural
      Environment. Low impact development activities should be supported within
      this demarcation. This would include for instance compliance to the
      regulations published under Administrator’s Notice 127 (4 May 1994) of
      Section 16(2) of the Environment Conservation Act (73 of 1989).

2.3.4.2 Ridges

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      Sensitivity

      The area includes a number of sensitive and relatively undisturbed ridges.
      Similarly, there are instances where development has already occurred on
      the ridge. Ridges serve as suitable habitat for a number of Red Data (Fauna
      and Flora) species. Ridges are also considered to significantly contribute to
      the sense of place of Rustenburg and these should be retained in their natural
      state.

      Strategic Objectives

      Development activities should not be supported on slopes greater than 8°.

      Development on ridges should be visually unobtrusive and include lighting
      that is focused downward (i.e. not dispersive lighting).

      Activities that generate significant noise should not be encouraged on ridges
      that would create nuisance noise in downslope areas.

      The trampling of lookout points should be prevented and the appropriate
      infrastructure developed.

2.3.4.3 Mid slopes

      Sensitivity

      Mid slope areas are very similar to ridge areas as these often are visibly over
      great distances. Where the slope is greater than 8° then development should
      be discouraged. Reasons for this include the visual impacts, impact of storm
      water, erosion, ground stability, etc.

      Strategic Objectives

      Development on these areas needs to be evaluated to ensure that there are
      no significant impacts that would detract from the ambience of Rustenburg.

2.3.4.4 Undulating Plains

      Sensitivity

      The undulating plains of the study area have already largely been developed.
      Areas further north and east of Rustenburg hold promise for development but
      these are constrained by aspects such as geological and soil condition.

      Strategic Objectives

      Development should be encouraged on the undulating plains around
      Rustenburg, but this will need to take into consideration the existing
      constraints.

2.3.4.5 Hex River Flood Plain

      Sensitivity

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      The Hex River floodplain is under pressure to be developed. This includes a
      number of activities such as business, residential, hospitality and other. This
      area is currently not adequately serviced to be able to accommodate further
      development.

      The Hex River floodplain includes a number of exotic trees but also has
      natural elements that deserve protection.

      Strategic Objectives

      Remove all exotic species growing within the Hex River Floodplain.

      Limit further development activities until adequate and suitable service
      provision is made available.

      Maintain the habitat integrity within the entire Hex River course.

      Encourage the planting of indigenous trees and shrubs.

2.3.4.6 Stream & Tributary Floodplains

      Sensitivity

      A number of streams and stream tributaries bisect the study area. Some of
      these are relatively natural (e.g. Waterkloofspruit Floodplain) whereas others
      have been significantly impacted upon (Watervalspruit & Dorpspruit
      Floodplains).

      Strategic Objectives

      The natural stream and stream tributary flood plains should be retained in
      their existing state. Efforts to remove exotic species should be encouraged.
      Erosion protection and storm water control should be implemented in areas
      where localised flooding and erosion occur.

      Floodplains of stream and tributaries that have already been altered by
      development activities should be rehabilitated. This should include the use of
      retention ponds, gabions, planting indigenous trees & shrubs, etc.

      Development that occurs on the fringes of such areas should be green.

      An adequate “buffer area” should separate the floodplain from developments.

2.3.4.7 Valley Bottom

      Sensitivity

      The valley bottom commonly comprises soils that are sensitive to
      development. From a topographic point of view valley bottoms provide no
      constraint to development, except should they include disruption to the visual
      landscape and ambience of the area.

      Strategic Objectives

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      Ensure that development activities do not obstruct or significantly undermine
      the ambience of the area.


2.4   HYDROLOGY

2.4.1 Summary of Relevant Information

      The study area includes 7 streams and stream tributaries that bisect the area.
      One dam, the Olifantsnek Dam, is located in the south eastern corner of the
      study area, and the Hex River is the main river draining the area to the
      Bospoortdam in the north.

      Development, pollution, localised flooding, erosion, siltation and
      sedimentation are common impacts associated with the stream and river
      courses.

2.4.2 Opportunities

      The river courses need to be protected from any further development.
      Pollution and contamination of the water course needs to be controlled and
      minimised.

2.4.3 Constraints

      Localised flooding,    erosion   and   siltation   will   continue   with   further
      development.

2.4.4 Desired State of the Environment

      Vision

      The runoff of surface water in the study area should not contribute to
      significant erosion, sedimentation or siltation. Localised flooding should be
      minimised to ensure that the damage to infrastructure is reduced.

2.4.4.1 Streams

      Sensitivity

      The Waterkloofspruit, Waterfallspruit, Dorpspruit, tributary of the
      Legadigadispruit, Rooikloofspruit and Sterkstroomspruit provide the major
      conduits of waterflow through the study area. These all drain into the Hex
      River. Each of these spruits have a water quality rated to be good to fair and
      are characterised by high peak flows owing to their location in the upper
      reaches of the catchment.

      Strategic Objectives

      Storm water control in these streams is imperative to control localised
      flooding and impacts on the Hex River. These will increase as development
      increases. Measures are necessary to control siltation on an on site basis so
      that impacts further downstream can be mitigated.

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      Development activities should further include controls on the management of
      sewage and waste in the upper reaches of the catchment in order to
      circumvent cumulative impacts on the Hex River.

2.4.4.2 Rivers

      Sensitivity

      The Hex River is the only major river course in the study area. This river
      drains northward from the Olifantsnek Dam toward the Bospoortdam. The
      water quality of this river is poor. The river is also impacted upon by fertilizers
      from the agricultural areas that it passes through.

      Strategic Objectives

      Control needs to be exercised on the inadequate provision of services
      (especially sewage treatment) that influences the Hex River. The sewage
      works north of the study area is incapable of dealing with the demand and the
      impact of peak flow during heavy thundershower events. This station must be
      upgraded.

      It is necessary that control be exercised on the use of fertilizers in the study
      area, especially along the banks of the Hex River and Olifantsnek Dam.

      Development along the Hex River will need to include measures to control
      storm water run-off, siltation, sedimentation, the spread of exotic species, etc.

2.4.4.3 Dams

      Sensitivity

      The Olifantsnek Dam is an irrigation dam that provides water to the areas
      north of it. The dam is shallow and regularly dries up during drought periods.
      Development on the borders of the dam are increasing the pressure on its
      uniqueness and ambience.

      Strategic Objectives

      The Olifanstnek Dam provides an opportunity for recreational water use as
      well as significant natural character. This should be retained and enhanced by
      increasing the use of the water resource and making it more readily available
      for suitable development (i.e. camping grounds, angling, bird hides, nature
      walks, etc.).

      The quality of the dams water needs to be controlled by limiting impacts of
      inadequate service provision, increasing development pressure, fertilizer run-
      off, etc.


2.5   WATER QUALITY

2.5.1 Summary of Relevant Information


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      The quality of the surface water is relatively good to fair in the upper lying
      portions of the various streams. However the quality of the Hex River is rated
      to be poor to average, primarily as a result of Faecal coliforme bacterial
      contamination.

      The Olifantsnek Dam, although relatively clean, is threatened by impacts such
      as inadequate service provision, development pressure, fertilizer run-off,
      siltation, etc.

2.5.2 Opportunities

      An improved water quality will increase the ambience of the streams, rivers
      and dams in the study area for the benefit of all. This could spurn a greater
      awareness and appreciation of the water resource by means of nature trails,
      bird hides, rambles and the such.

2.5.3 Constraints

      Unplanned development and increasing densities are increasing the pressure
      on the resource. Inadequate services threaten the water quality and
      measures to control impacts such as siltation and sedimentation are required.

      The quality of the surface water should be protected and improved by means
      of preventing sewage impacts, drainage of water through waste sites,
      controlling construction activities that can contribute to contamination of the
      stream and rivers and limiting the use of agricultural fertilizers.


2.5.4 Desired State of the Environment

      Water quality must be improved and maintained at an acceptable standard.


2.5.4.1 Surface water

      Sensitivity

      The surface water quality is variable and is rated from poor to good.

      Strategic Objectives

      The quality of the water in the streams, rivers and dams must be improved
      such that it is potable.

      All water resources should comply to the minimum requirements as set by the
      Department of Water Affairs & Forestry Target Water Quality Guidelines for
      domestic use.

2.5.4.2 Ground Water

      Sensitivity

      Two aquifer types occur in the area. These include the Rustenburg layered
      Suite and the Magaliesberg Formation. The ground water yield from these
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      aquifers is generally poor (i.e. less than 2l/s) and the water quality is generally
      average to good.

      Water abstraction is typical in the areas not provided with serviced water.

      Strategic Objectives

      Ground water quantity and quality must be protected for the use as potable
      water supply in the agricultural sections of the study area.

      Control of land use must be exercised to mitigate the impact of sewage
      contamination in these areas, until adequately services are in place.


2.6   ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

2.6.1 Summary of Relevant Information

      The distinguishable ecological features or habitats occurring in the study area
      include mountainous areas, wetlands, streams and river courses, dams,
      indigenous woodland and grassland floral communities. All the ecologically
      sensitive areas were identified in the study area and mapped. These areas
      were further identified into three categories which describes their function as
      open spaces in the landscape. These categories are as follows:

      Core Areas
      The areas that were included into the category forms the most important
      elements in an open space system. They are characteristically larger areas
      which often include more than one habitat type which adds to the species
      richness of the areas. The shape of the areas are further rounder which
      allows for less areas in contact with surrounding landuses and subsequently
      less “edge effect” (negative spill over impacts from urban or agricultural
      landuses neighbouring the core area). These areas are often already used
      and conserved as natural areas and passive recreational activities are already
      occurring in the areas.

      Intermediate areas
      Areas included into the category, is natural with respect to the vegetation.
      They play an intermediate role in the open space system where they are
      usually smaller than core areas with subsequently less diverse habitats. The
      areas are not necessarily used and seen by the general public as natural and
      recreational areas but may be used for such purposes if access is possible.
      The shape of these areas are less optimal and could include longitudinal
      areas where large sections of the boundary of the area are exposed to
      negative impacts from surrounding landuses (the egde effect is therefore
      high). Intermediate areas play a connector role along with the streams and
      rivers between core areas.

      Connector areas
      Streams and rivers are the most important connectors in the landscape.
      Servitiudes such as powerline may also fulfil this function. Stream and rivers
      allows for species movement in the landscape where other obstacle such as
      urban development and roads prevent such movement. Streams and rivers

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      should therefore be managed with utmost care and responsibility and habitat
      disturbance should not be allowed to occur due to development actions.

2.6.2 Opportunities

      Not all sensitive areas have been affected by development at the present
      stage. An open space system of connected natural areas can be developed to
      guide development around sensitive areas. Some natural areas have
      historically been left undeveloped and managed as open spaces (e.g. the
      Kwaggapan Nature Reserve and Cultural Centre land) and should form the
      core areas and cornerstones of an open space system. Much of the present
      natural land belongs to the Local Authority which can be developed and
      utilized as public amenities where recreation could be provided and cost
      recovery can be initiated through controlled access points.

2.6.3 Constraints

      Some potentially important connector areas between natural areas have been
      affected by development.

      Financial commitment to manage natural open spaces areas may be lacking
      or receive low priority.

      Development will be restricted in ecologically sensitive areas.

2.6.4 Desired State of the Environment

      Vision

      All natural areas should be maintained and protected against unsustainable
      development. All open spaces should be maintained and protected against
      unsustainable development. During urbanization, designated sensitive areas
      should be identified and protected in such as way that they are connected.
      Riverine areas should not be encroached upon.

2.6.4.1 Core

      Sensitivity

      Core areas form the cornerstone of the open space system and supports a
      high species richness and biodiversity.

      Strategic Objective

      Core areas should be conserved and managed as natural open spaces in the
      landscape.
      Urban parklike open spaces should only be rezoned if a holistic assessment
      of the nature, function and need of all such areas have been done and a
      decision has been made as to which areas are the most appropriate to rezone
      for other purposes.




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2.6.4.2 Connector

      Sensitivity

      Connector areas are often longitudinal in shape ad therefore prone to impacts
      along its edges. Stream and rivers which forms a large part of the connectors
      in the study area are further affected by water pollution due to bad land
      management practices as well as invasion of exotic vegetation which is
      transported downstream from its source.

      Strategic Objective

      Connector areas must be protected against developmental damage and
      disturbed areas must be rehabilitated. Riverine vegetation must be conserved
      and sufficient buffer areas must be maintained between the connector and
      the surrounding development.

2.6.4.3 Intermediate

      Sensitivity

      Intermediate areas are often located between core areas and adjoining
      connector area and therefore functions as connectivity elements in the
      landscape. These areas are often not as undisturbed as core area and will be
      prone to be developed thereby affecting the connectivity between the core
      areas and in the landscape in general.

      Strategic Objective

      Intermediate areas should be conserved as open space in the natural
      landscape with limited recreation orientated development where the
      connectivity function of the areas is not compromised. The role of areas 25,
      26 and 27 (Figure 8) as intermediate areas in the open space system must be
      re-assessed should development be proposed in these areas.


2.7   FAUNA

2.7.1 Summary of Relevant Information

      All areas that still resemble the natural vegetation in the study area function
      as habitat for a range of faunal species. The rural surroundings of Rustenburg
      town further support the probability of wild faunal species occurring in the
      study area. A variety of faunal species have been recorded for the study area.
      The occurrence of such species on the neighboring Kgaswane Mountain
      Reserve further implies that such species may also occur in undeveloped
      areas in the study area. The species recorded for the study area further
      includes Red Data species (species with internationally recognized
      conservation status) of which the habitat should be noted and protected
      during development in the study area.

2.7.2 Opportunities


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      Sensitive species have been listed for the area and their habitats are
      described. Environmental impact studies can be used to facilitate the
      assessment of the occurrence of recorded sensitive habitats and species.
      Layout plans can be developed around sensitive habitats. The area is rich is
      fauna which can continue to add value to the tourism experience in the area
      with special reference to bird watching. Provincial biodiversity initiatives are
      increasing the knowledge of faunal distribution throughout the province.

2.7.3 Constraints

      Urbanization in Rustenburg is presently happening at a fast rate and can be
      restricted in areas where Red Data fauna habitats occur. Development
      designs are completed before the faunal and habitat sensitivities for a specific
      area is determined.

2.7.4 Desired State of the Environment

      Vision

      Natural habitats should be protected against unsustainable development as it
      will affect faunal populations including Red Data faunal habitats and
      populations.

2.7.4.1 Birds

      Sensitivity

      Eight (8) Vulnerable (Red Data) have been recorded in the larger area
      according to the distribution maps. Two Vulnerable (Red Data) bird species
      have specifically been recorded in the area. The listed species’ Vulnerable
      status are often caused by loss of habitat through agricultural and associated
      practices and urbanization. Insensitivity towards habitats utilized by these
      species may increase the impacts and lead to possible extinction of species.

      Strategic Objectives

      The habitats and potential occurrence of sensitive bird species should be
      assessed before development is approved. Suitable habitats should be
      conserved where possible or mitigation measures provided to decrease
      impacts.

      Conservation of sensitive bird species can be conveyed to the public by
      developing educational bird outings and volunteer watch dogs.

2.7.4.2 Herpetofauna

      Sensitivity

      New reptiles species are still discovered regularly. This a concerning
      especially due to the fact that reptile species are not easily noted or easily
      recorded due to their secretive lifestyle.

      Common herpetofaunal species may land up to be Red data species if habitat
      is not protected whilst development such a urbanization or agricultural
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      development is happening. Habitat protected in general should therefore be
      the focus during the development process. Special attention should be given
      to species that are habitat bound and /or species that will not be able to
      quickly move out of a site where development is proposed.

      Five Red Data herpetofaunal species are recorded for the study area as well
      as a wide variety of other reptile and amphibian species. Amphibian species
      are very susceptible to water pollution and the Giant Bullfrog are often
      unknowingly affected by urban development due to only being visible for
      approximately 3 months of the year after which it hibernates underground.

      Strategic Objectives

      The habitats and potential occurrence of sensitive herpetofaunal species
      should be assessed before development is approved. Suitable habitats
      should be conserved where possible or mitigation measures provided to
      decrease impacts.

      The introduction of exotic faunal species into the area should follow the
      correct legislated procedures.


2.7.4.3 Lepidoptera

      Sensitivity

      Common butterfly species may land up to be Red data species if habitat is not
      protected whilst development such as urbanization or agricultural
      development is happening. Habitat protected in general should therefore be
      the focus during the development process. Special attention should be given
      to species that are habitat bound and /or species that will not be able to
      quickly move out of a site where development is proposed.

      Eleven Red Data butterfly species can potentially occur in the study area.
      Their habitats range from bushveld, grassland and riparian veld.

      Strategic Objectives

      The habitats and potential occurrence of butterfly and sensitive butterfly
      species should be assessed before development is approved. Suitable
      habitats should be conserved where possible or mitigation measures provided
      to decrease impacts.

      The introduction of exotic faunal species into the area should follow the
      correct legislated procedures.


2.7.4.4 Other Invertebrate

      Sensitivity

      Over time, more information will become available on invertebrate species
      that are of conservation value e.g. scorpion species, baboon and trapdoor

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       spiders. The habitats and potential occurrence of such species should be
       assessed before development is approved.

       Strategic Objectives

       The habitats and potential occurrence of sensitive invertebrate species should
       be assessed before development is approved. Suitable habitats should be
       conserved where possible or mitigation measures provided to decrease
       impacts.

       The introduction of exotic faunal species into the area should follow the
       correct legislated procedures.


2.7.4.5 Mammals

       Sensitivity

       Common mammal species may land up to be Red data species if habitat is
       not protected whilst development such as urbanization or agricultural
       development is happening. Habitat protected in general should therefore be
       the focus during the development process. Special attention should be given
       to species that are habitat bound and /or species that will not be able to
       quickly move out of a site where development is proposed.

       Nine Red Data and sensitive species have been recorded on the Kgaswane
       Mountain Reserve and can therefore potentially occur in the study area.

       Strategic Objectives

       The habitats and potential occurrence of mammals and sensitive mammal
       species should be assessed before development is approved. Suitable
       habitats should be conserved where possible or mitigation measures provided
       to decrease impacts.

       The introduction of exotic faunal species into the area should follow the
       correct legislated procedures.


2.8   FLORA

2.8.1 Summary of Relevant Information

      Various vegetation types have been identified in the study area on different
      scales by different botanists. The most appropriate identification of vegetation
      with reference to scale is the identification completed for the North West
      Province Biodiversity Site Inventory (2003).

      A list of Red Data and sensitive plant species have been listed for the area.

      Protected species listed under the Transvaal ordinance of 1983 still needs to
      received protection.


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     Alien species that are characteristic to the area have been listed with the
     habitats they potentially invade.

2.8.2 Opportunities

      Sensitive species have been listed for the area and their habitats are
      described. Environmental impact studies can be used to facilitate the
      assessment of the occurrence of recorded sensitive habitats and species
      where developments are proposed. Layout plans can be developed around
      sensitive habitats.

      The area is rich is flora which can continue to add value to the tourism
      experience in the area. Tree identification is becoming increasingly popular
      and should be utilized for tourism in the area.

      Provincial biodiversity initiatives are increasing the knowledge of floral
      distribution throughout the province.

2.8.3 Constraints

      Urbanization in Rustenburg is presently happening at a fast rate and can be
      restricted by important ecosystems.

2.8.4 Desired State of the Environment

      Vision

      Natural vegetation should be protected during the process of development.
      Biodiversity as well as scarce and Red Data species should be maintained.
      South Africa is signatory to the International Biodiversity Convention and has
      a responsibility in this regard.

2.8.4.1 Gold Reef Mountain Bushveld

      Sensitivity

      This vegetation type generally follows the Magaliesberg mountain range and
      is characterized by a high species richness. Many of the Red Data plants
      listed for the study area occur in this vegetation type. Insensitive construction
      activities often leave a lasting scar in this generally rocky terrain.

      Strategic Objectives

      A vegetation assessment including a Red Data scan should be completed if
      development is proposed in this vegetation type.

      Mature indigenous trees should be included in the layout.

      The connectivity between habitats and properties should be maintained.

      Steep slopes (± 8°) should be included into an open space system.

      Drainage lines, floodlines and water quality should be protected.

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2.8.4.2 Rustenburg Gabbro Thornveld

      Sensitivity

      This vegetation type has been affected by urban, agricultural and mining
      activities in the study area.

      Strategic Objectives

      Bushveld trees should be maintained as far as possible.

      Habitat connectivity between properties should be maintained.

      A vegetation assessment including a Red Data scan should be completed if
      development is proposed in this vegetation type.

      A vegetation scan and Red Data scan can be considered if the site has
      severely been affected by agricultural activities.

      Drainage lines, floodlines and water quality should be protected.

2.8.4.3 Moot Plains Bushveld

      Sensitivity

      The vegetation type has largely been affected by urban and agricultural
      development while remaining natural patches of vegetation is still observed in
      the northern part of the study area. This vegetation type neighbors the
      species rich Magaliesberg vegetation. This has some importance in that this
      vegetation type will function as an ecotone area (transitions area between
      different habitats) where the species richness is often higher than the
      surrounding habitats.

      Strategic Objectives

      Natural savanna (trees and grassland) should be maintained as natural
      features.

      Habitat connectivity between properties should be maintained.

      A Vegetation Assessment including a Red Data scan should be completed if
      development is proposed in this vegetation type.

      A Vegetation Scan and Red Data Scan can be considered if the site has
      severely been affected by agricultural activities.

      Drainage lines, floodlines and water quality should be protected.


2.8.4.4 Norite Koppies Bushveld

      Sensitivity



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      This small vegetation unit is largely associated with the Rietvly mountain in
      the northern part of the study area. The vegetation is generally undisturbed.

      Strategic Objectives

      A vegetation assessment including a Red Data scan should be completed if
      development is proposed in this vegetation type.

      Mature indigenous trees should be included in the layout.

      The connectivity between habitats and properties should be maintained.

      Steep slopes (±8°) should be included into an open space system.

      Drainage lines, floodlines and water quality should be protected.

2.8.4.5 Wetlands of man-made dams

      Sensitivity

      Man made dams are often characterized by large indigenous trees as well as
      some indigenous wetland vegetation such as reeds and sedges. Wetland
      habitats is home to variety of Red Data fauna and flora species.

      Strategic Objectives

      Wetlands should be maintained an incorporated into development where
      possible.

2.8.4.6 Riverine Wetlands

      Sensitivity

      Riverine wetlands are one of the most vulnerable habitats in the study area
      due to its susceptibility to pollution and exotic plant invasion. Large sections of
      floodline have already been affected by exotic vegetation and presently
      increasingly urbanization.

      Strategic Objectives

      Development should not be allowed in the 1:50 year floodline or 25 meters
      from the side of the stream/river which ever width is the largest.

      Wetlands should not be drained for agricultural purposes.

      Mining of wetlands for peat should follow the correct legislated procedures.

      Diversion and damming of streams/rivers should follow the correct legislated
      procedures.

      Existing riverine vegetation such as is found along the Hex and Dorpsriver
      should be conserved in any development proposal despite the above
      parameters provided.

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      Exotic vegetation should be removed and controlled as per the guidelines
      provided in the Status Quo report.

2.8.4.7 Endorheic Pan Wetlands

      Sensitivity

      Endorheic pans are closed system which creates habitats for a variety of
      faunal and floral species. These pans are natural features which should be
      maintained as such in the landscape.

      Strategic Objectives

      Development should not be allowed to encroach upon pans. A buffer area
      should be determined to protect the pan from surrounding land uses and
      activities.

      Pans should not be drained or used for stormwater runoff collection point.

2.8.4.8 Exotic Vegetation

      Sensitivity

      Exotic vegetation infestation can lead to loss of natural habitat, loss of
      valuable agricultural land and are costly to remove often rendering the soils
      infertile and difficult to rehabilitate. In addition, exotic plants generally utilize
      larger quantities of water than indigenous plants which impacts negatively on
      hydrological systems and balances.

      Strategic Objectives

      Exotic vegetation should be removed and/or contained where it occurs.

      Exotic vegetation should specifically be strictly controlled along water courses
      and according to the legislated guidelines provided in the Status Quo report.

2.8.4.9 Sensitive Plants (Red Data, Protected and Medicinal Plants)

      Sensitivity

      Red Data Species -
      Red Data species have a researched and proven low survival potential if
      removed from their natural habitat. These plants should therefore be
      protected where they naturally occur.

      Protected Plant Species -
      Protected Plants are often plants that may end up being Red Data plants if
      not properly conserved in the short term.

      Medicinal Plant Species -
      The over utilization of medicinal plants may lead to plants eventually being
      listed as Red Data plants.

      Strategic Objectives
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          Red Data Species -
          The occurrence of the plant must be assessed as close as possible to the
          flowering time of the plant (this is possible taking into account the average
          lifetime of a project application from being a concept to authorization date).

          Red Data plants should be protected where they naturally occur (in situ) as far
          as possible.

          A protective natural buffer area, to be determined by a professional botanist,
          should be maintained around plant populations in order to protect the plant
          from human related activities associated with development.

          Protected Plant Species -
          Protected plants should be protected where they naturally occur (in situ) as
          far as possible. Alternatively protected plants may be relocated to a similar
          habitat in the site (in the open space areas) or to a natural area in close
          proximity to the site. The guidance of a botanist and/or horticulturist should be
          obtained for this purpose.

          Medicinal Plant Species -
          The study area should be assessed with regards to the most popular
          medicinal plants which may potentially become Red Data plants in the
          foreseeable future. A management strategy in association with the users as
          well as nurseries should be established to maintain sustainable utilization
          patterns.

2.9       LANDUSE

2.9.1 Summary of Relevant Information

          The Rustenburg Area is characterised by a mix of land uses. These include
          activities such as:

             Tourism;
             Mining;
             Agriculture;
             Residential;
             Industrial;
             Recreational;
             Open Space;
             Municipal Services.

          Many areas also include illegal activities that have arisen as a result of poor
          control, inadequate planning, urbanisation and development. This has
          spurned a need for houses, jobs, service provision and development.
          Consequently the pressure on the environment has increased to levels that
          mean that development is not sustainable.

         The northern suburbs of the town, north of the Dorpspruit, are predominantly
          low-to-middle income housing. There are new townships such as Thlabane
          West which have been aimed at the middle class, but have been slow to take
          off owing in part to the stigma that attaches to the north.

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      The large number of backyard shacks (estimated at 10 000) in Thlabane,
       which is indicative of the demand for low cost housing.

      The northern part of the CBD has become a major transportation depot for
       public transport, particularly taxis, and is responding to the largely lower
       income clientele who predominate in the area. Limited new investment and
       lack of maintenance of facilities, to name some of the possible contributory
       factors, has detrimental impacts on the quality of the environment in the area.

      The southern part of the CBD appears to be maintaining a better standard of
       development. Limited parking and accessibility and other related issues such
       as the promotion of office uses in the adjacent residential areas, are not
       assisting it in retaining its role as the regional centre for commerce and
       industry.

      There is a general exodus of retail buying power from the CBD in favour of
       peripheral locations, such as Waterfall Park.

      Two industrial townships exist in Rustenburg, one to the south of the CBD
       and the other to the north of the CBD. The northern township (Rustenburg
       Extension 9) has not been successful in attracting development, with much of
       the blame attributed to the lack of good access, it’s location in a backwater,
       and the proximity to poorer residential townships.

      The upmarket residential townships are extending to the south and west and
       are threatening the very environmental features such as the indigenous trees
       and the higher topography that make Rustenburg attractive and give it tourist
       appeal. This is particularly pertinent in areas where densification of residential
       erven is taking place.

      There is a proliferation of illegal land uses along the major routes from
       Pretoria and Johannesburg, particularly along the so-called Olifantsnek
       Corridor.

      There is a diminishing agricultural component in the south eastern part of the
       area in the so-called Delta Area.

      The growing traffic congestion and the need for a rethink about the roads in
       and around the urban area in order to promote better accessibility and to
       facilitate further development in the industrial areas. The potential impact of
       the N4 on the established urban area of Rustenburg, if it follows the original
       alignment proposed through the Area, will be substantial.

      The reduction in the amount of land allocated for conservation and
       environmental protection, and the encroachment of urban development onto
       sensitive zones such as the fence-line of the nature reserve.

2.9.2 Opportunities

       Rustenburg comprises a number of areas that have not yet suffered the fate
       of unsustainable development practices. Some areas still retain their natural
       beauty and these should be protected.

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2.9.3 Constraints

      Development that will occur as a result of the N4, increasing demand for
      housing, services and industrial areas will exert pressure on natural
      resources. The planning for the area includes several examples where
      development will not be beneficial in the long term.

2.9.4 Desired State of the Environment

      Vision

      The retention of the salient natural environmental features in a way that
      enhances the character, amenity and sustainability of urban and rural
      development in the study area, and the effective management of future
      development within this context.

      Sensitivity

      The SEA has highlighted the need for:

         The creation and protection of open / riverine space;
         The retention of the “sense of place” conveyed by the topographical and
          ecological attributes of the area (i.e. mountains, slopes, vegetation, etc.);
         Direction regarding the sub-division of farm land which is not formally
          reticulated with services;
         The identification of new land for residential and other land uses with due
          regard for the location, soils, geology, etc;
         Deriving benefit from the mining operations in the area for the better
          development of the area in general, and the mitigation of the impacts of
          mining on the form function and living quality of the study area and the
          contiguous environs;
         Better communications between the authorities responsible for the
          development of the study area.

      Strategic Objectives

      It is apparent that the study area lacks coherent developmental planning and
      management. This has contributed to the difficulties identified in this report.

      If this is to be addressed, it requires that the relevant municipal authorities
      area:

         Adequately capacitated (staff, equipment, funding, etc.)
         Guided by well formulated land use frameworks and policies, and
         Supported by suitable legal regulations.

      While most of these issues should form part of the Integrated Development
      Plan for the study area, they have not necessarily been adequately
      addressed in the current IDP.

     The revision of the IDP must ensure that it includes a Spatial Development
     Framework and basic guidelines for a land use management system.

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     The SDF must be informed by the principles for development set out in Chapter
     One of the Development Facilitation Act, the National Environmental
     Management Act, and the findings of the Strategic Environmental Assessment
     report.

     It should also be complemented by the documents stipulated in Governemnt
     Gazette No 22605 of 2001 (24th August 2001) which require that the objectives
     must reflect the desired spatial form of development in the area and contain:

        Strategies and policies regarding the manner in which these objectives are
         to be attained;
        Basic guidelines for a land use management system;
        A capital investment framework;
        A strategic environmental assessment (the subject of this study);
        Programmes for the development of land; and
        Provides a visual representation of the above.

     In the short term, the following must be addressed:

        The preparation of a sub-division policy for the farm area south of the
         Waterfall Mall, which should include a basic infra-structural framework for
         future roads and services and clarity on the legal process to be followed. It
         should prescribe requirements relating to the future land uses, the provision
         of suitable access to the new subdivisions, the standards required for
         sanitation and disposal of waste materials, the availability and proposed
         usage of potable ground water sources and the provision for a future
         network of access roads and formal services;
        The preparation of a housing strategy in consultation with the mines in
         order to address the short fall of housing in the area, ensure that housing is
         well located, and minimize the possibility of further backyard and shack
         development;
        The preparation of a land use audit of the areas outside the former
         municipal boundary with a view to establishing the rights granted,
         compliance with the rights granted and the formulation of an approach to
         ensure appropriate land use management in the area;
        Formalization of the Olifantsnek township and its services;
        A moratorium on the sale and land owned by the municipality until
         adequately assessed for its suitability to contribute to the vision for the
         study area;
        Preparation of a policy to protect areas adjacent to sensitive zones defined
         by slope. Ecological characteristics, ands the like from inappropriate land
         use;
        Preparation of a Spatial development Framework and land use
         management system to inform future municipal and private development
         opportunities in the study area..


2.10 CULTURAL / HISTORIC FEATURES

2.10.1 Summary of Relevant Information


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      The study area includes a number of important cultural / historic sites. These
      include not only archaeological sites but also historical sites of both the black
      and white ancestories.

2.10.2 Opportunities

      The wealth of cultural / historic sites in the area should be capitalised on by
      means of encouraging appropriate development. This could include historic
      tours & walks, specialised guest houses, or associated activities.

2.10.3 Constraints

      Development activities make areas more accessible with the consequent
      increase in thefts, trespassing, and damage to such sites.

2.10.4 Desired State of the Environment

      The cultural / historic features of the area should be retained in their current
      form and / or rehabilitated to ensure for their preservation. Efforts to better
      integrate development with the occurrence of these features should be
      encouraged.


2.11 AIR QUALITY

2.11.1 Summary of Relevant Information

      The Air quality of the Rustenburg area is considered to be poor. This is
      primarily a result of the advent of mining in the area that has led to elevated
      levels of SO2, Particulate Matter (PM10), dusts, biomass emissions, and
      associated impacts.

2.11.2 Opportunities

      Cleaner air would also ensure a healthy Rustenburg for all it’s inhabitants.
      An improved air quality in Rustenburg would mitigate the impacts on the
      biodiversity of the study area.

2.11.3 Constraints

      The poor air quality in Rustenburg negatively affects the tourist industry upon
      which Rustenburg has an asset.

2.11.4 Desired State of the Environment

     Vision

     The study area should comprise an area of clean air in which people can live
     without impacting on the health and well being. To achieve this will require that
     relevant parties comply to the proposed Atmospheric Pollution Control Act by
     means of controlling activities that give rise to atmospheric impacts.

     Sensitivity

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     The current air quality of the Rustenburg area is rated to be poor to very poor.
     This stems primarily from the impact of mining and other industrial activities. In
     some cases the poor air quality has given rise to complaints from the public as
     well as increasing pressure on the natural environment.

     Strategic objective

     The air quality of Rustenburg should be improved according the requirements
     of the NW DEAT.

     The mines and other industries in Rustenburg must adhere to the National Air
     Quality Guidelines.

     The Local Authority in association with NW DEAT and NW DME must ensure
     compliance.

     No biomass burning shall be permitted without a permit.

     Exposed surfaces must be wetted or kept wet during windy periods to reduce
     dust.

     Soil that is transported must be suitably covered to prevent dust escape.

     Veld fires and the burning of fossil fuels for domestic purposes should be
     controlled and minimized by means of providing electrical power.


2.12 SERVICE PROVISION

2.12.1 Summary of Relevant Information

      The level and standard of service provision varies through the study area. In
      the conventionally urban areas, services are available. However, within the
      growing areas of Rustenburg, services are either insufficient or at a level of
      service that is inadequate. This gives rise to environmental impacts including
      pollution, contamination of water, dumping, and unhealthy living conditions.

2.12.2 Opportunities

      The provision of services where they are required would assist in minimising
      environmental impacts such as water contamination, pollution, waste, etc.

      Improved service delivery would speed up development and foster economic
      investment in the area.

2.12.3 Constraints

      No further development should be supported in areas that are not fully
      serviced.

      Where the local authority can not provide such a service, then the
      developer(s) should commence with providing the required infrastructure.

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2.12.4 Desired State of the Environment

       Vision

       All further development in an area should only be supported if the required
       services are available at an adequate standard. This should include the
       provision of adequate and appropriate infrastructure for roads, storm water,
       electricity, sewage, waste management, water.

2.12.4.1 Electricity

       Sensitivity

       The current level of demand and supply for electricity is considered sufficient.
       However increased development in the area will require that the service be
       expanded to meet the need.

       Strategic Objectives

       Begin a process to determine the future demand for electrical supply to
       Rustenburg and initiate steps to ensure that is available.

2.12.4.2 Roads

       Sensitivity

       The increasing traffic flows to and through the area are placing a strain on the
       efficacy of the road network.

       Inequalities exist for the internal roads of Rustenburg and Thlabane.

       The alignment of the N4 is likely to bisect Rustenburg, although current
       construction activities are likely to cease at the Rustenburg / Magaliesburg
       (R24) road for the time being.

       The R24 is upgraded / repaired on an ad hoc basis and an additional
       intersection at the Mall is proposed. Movement by heavy vehicles along this
       road is high and is likely to increase owing to the N4.

       The local road infrastructure in Olifantsnek are inadequate being gravel
       roads. An upgrade of these roads is required.

       Strategic Objectives

       A regional traffic movement plan is required to address the impacts of the
       existing as well as future traffic problems.

       Budgets must be provided by the LA for the upgrade of roads in Olifantsnek.

       Address the inequalities in the internal road infrastructure of Thlabane.

2.12.4.3 Sewage

       Sensitivity
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      The sewage treatment plants suffers from overloading and frequently spills
      into the Hex River affecting the water quality of the Bospoort Dam.

      The rural areas and areas peripheral to the urban areas deal with sanitation
      by means of local solutions (e.g. septic tanks, conservancy tanks, french
      drains). This can impact on the quality of the ground water.

      Strategic Objectives

      Undertake a study of the entire sewage system of Rustenburg to determine
      the effectiveness and adequacy of the existing system.

      Upgrade the existing sewage treatment plant.

      Improve the system of sanitation in the study area by means of upgrading
      sewer pipes, the sewage treatment plant, and separating storm water flow
      versus sewage flow.

      Implement measures to plan for future development areas including the
      existing area of Olifantsnek.

      Investigate the opportunity of creating an evaporation pond that could service
      the surrounding areas that have conservancy tanks.

2.12.4.4 Storm Water

      Sensitivity

      Densification & recent development in Rustenburg Town has led to increased
      pressure on the stormwater infrastructure giving rise to overflows.

      The level of service in Thlabane will need upgrading to improve the
      effectiveness of this infrastructure.

      Seasonal flooding occurs along Krematart Avenue, Foord and Scheiding
      Streets and at the Molen Street Bridge.

      Stormwater does not appear to be a problem in areas peripheral to the urban
      areas.

      During heavy storms the storm water run-off gives rise flooding of the sewage
      network.

      Strategic Objectives

      Separate the drainage of storm water from that of the sewage system.

      Institute ways to ensure that development activities address storm water
      impacts including peak flows, localised flooding, erosion, siltation and
      collapse of river banks.

      Provide adequate storm water control in Thlabane and Olifantsnek.

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      Upgrade the storm water systems in the Old Rustenburg.

2.12.4.5 Waste Management

      Sensitivity

      Only a single land fill site exists to service solid waste disposal in the area.
      This is at capacity.

      Illegal dumping is prevalent in natural areas.

      Three transfer stations exist. One of these is run-down and requires
      significant improvement.

      No transfer stations occur in the vicinity of the Waterfall Mall.

      Strategic Objectives

      Upgrade or commission as soon as possible a new landfill site that will have
      adequate capacity.

      Upgrade the existing transfer stations in the study area. This should include
      longer operating hours and appropriate staff to control activities at the site.

      Provide for adequate recycling facilities at the transfer station and land fill site.

      Provide a transfer station in the vicinity of the Waterfall Mall area.

      Control illegal dumping.

2.12.4.6 Water

      Sensitivity
      Problems of capacity exist to meet the demands for water in the newer
      southern townships. Maintenance issues exist in the older parts of
      Rustenburg Town.

      Areas south of the Waterfall Mall are not serviced. Similarly areas outside of
      the serviced areas of Rustenburg & Thlabane make use of borehole and river
      water.

      Strategic Objectives

      A thorough water audit is required to establish the exact reason for the
      shortage of water in the vicinity of the mines.

      The water quality requires regularly audits to ensure that water of suitable
      standard is provided.

      The existing reticulation of Rustenburg requires re-examination and
      upgrading.

      A source of water is required for Olifantsnek. This must then be reticulated to
      serve the existing developments. Alternatively, ground water must be used for
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      the existing development and no further demand placed on the aquifer until a
      potable water system is available.

      The Olifantsnek Dam should not be used as a source of potable water.

2.12.4.7 Telecommunications

      Sensitivity

      The bulk of the formal urban areas are serviced with telephone lines. The
      same does not seem to be true for the peripheral areas.

      Strategic Objectives

      Investigate in greater detail the capacity and supply of telecommunication
      infrastructure in the urban and peripheral areas.

      Future development areas must be serviced with telephone infrastructure.




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