From The Telegraph To Internet2 And Beyond - Fluid Networking.ppt

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					From the Telegraph to Internet2 and Beyond:
The Technology of Telecommunications from
        the Civil War to Star Wars
From the Telegraph to Internet2 and Beyond:
The Technology of Telecommunications from
        the Civil War to Star Wars.

              November 27 2006
                Tom Minnis

                                 Copyright 2006 Strategic Advisory Group
  The Beginning of Datacom
• 1840, Samuel Morse patents the telegraph
• 1856 Western Union formed
   – consolidation of independent telegraph companies
   – telegraph equipment shops merge into Grey &
• 1861, Civil War, coast to coast telegraph
• 1867 The first trans-Atlantic telegraph cable
• 1872 Western Union buys Gray & Barton, and
  renames it Western Electric.
                                       Copyright 2006 Strategic Advisory Group
     The Beginning of Telecom
• 1861 Philip Reis (Germany) describes The Telephone
• 1871 Antonio Meuci files patent for Telephone
• 1876 Alexander Graham Bell, Patents invention of the
  telephone, March 10.
• Western Union turns down telephone patents for $100,000
• 1878 Bell forms the American Bell Telephone Company
  and establishes 1st switching office in New Haven, CT
  January, 28
• Thomas Watson applies for first telephone ringer patent
• 1881 John Carty, a Bell engineer, invents the two-wire
  local loop
                                         Copyright 2006 Strategic Advisory Group
         The Beginning of Radio
• 1887, Heinrich Hertz produces the first man-made radio
• 1888, Rotating field AC alternator invented by Nikola
• 1895 Marconi invents Radio (spark gap)
• 1891 high-speed alternators as radio transmitters Reginald
  Fessenden. investigated transmitting lower-frequency
  signals along telegraph lines to create a multiplex telegraph
• 1902 Valdemar Poulsen of Denmark introduces the arc-
                                             Copyright 2006 Strategic Advisory Group
   Mergers Spawn Big Business
• 1881, Western Electric joined the Bell system
• 1891 Strowger Automatic Telephone Exchange produces
  step switching equipment
• 1886 Westinghouse Electric Company formed
• 1892, General Electric Company formed by the merger of
  Thomson-Houston and Edison General Electric.
• Bell has controlling interest in Western Union and Western
• 1899, American Bell Telephone Company changes name
  to AT&T
• 1908 Automatic Electric merge with Strowger Automatic
  Telephone Exchange
                                            Copyright 2006 Strategic Advisory Group
         Component Refinements
• 1904, John Ambrose Fleming invented the diode rectifier vacuum
• 1906, alternator-transmitter was perfected ready for public
• Lee DeForest announced the development of the first three-element
• 1907, DeForest invented the electric amplifier using his triode
• 1913 Western Electric developed the high vacuum tube
• 1947 Transistor invented
• 1958 Jack Kilby, Texas Instruments, developed the first integrated
• 1970 Ted Hoff at Intel develops the 4004, the first microprocessor.
• 1974 April Intel 8080, August Motorola 6800

                                                   Copyright 2006 Strategic Advisory Group
     Organized Basic Research
• 1902 Morkrum Co, Joy and Sterling Morton
  fund R&D leading to the teleprinter with Charles
  and Howard Krum.
• 1907, Bell Labs splits away from Western Electric
  by John J. Carty and Frank Jewett
• 1908, Automatic Electric merge with Strowger
  Automatic Telephone Exchange
• 1917 GE buys the American division of Marconi
  and spins off RCA with David Sarnoff as
                                    Copyright 2006 Strategic Advisory Group
 Datacom changes from Morse Code
          to Baudot Code
• 1901 Baudot's code modified by Donald Murray and
  Western Union now known as the 'Baudot code', also
  known as the International Telegraph Alphabet No 2
• 1910 First installation of Teleprinter between New York
  and Boston on a Postal Telegraph Company line using the
  start stop synchronization technique personally installed by
  Howard and Charles Krum of the Morkrum company
• 1925 Teleprinter machines came into common use
• 1930 Morkrum Company and the Kleinschmidt Electric
  Company was purchased by AT&T and renamed Teletype
                                             Copyright 2006 Strategic Advisory Group
      Long Distance Telephone
• 1915 First telephone call from Bell in New York to Watson in San
• 1929 First radio telephone service operated between Britain and
  the US
• 1930’s FDM comes into widespread use
• 1935 First telephone call around the world. About 6700 telcos in
• 1947 First trial of PCM system
• 1956 First Trans-Atlantic Telephone cable
• 1957 TDM implemented, D1 channel bank starts deployment
• 1962 Orbiting communication satellites were used to relay and
  amplify telephone transmissions for the first time
• 1980 First fiber-optic transmission systems were introduced in
• 1988 First Trans-Atlantic fiber-optic cable went into operation
• 1989 CCITT publishes SONET standards G.707, G.708, G.709
                                                Copyright 2006 Strategic Advisory Group
  Common Control vs. Distributed
• 1892 First installation of Strowger Automatic Telephone
• 1917 A. K. Erlang (Denmark) The beginning of Telephone
  Traffic Engineering
• 1919 The Bell System starts installing Step by Step switches made
  by Automatic Electric
• 1921 The Bell system installs the first Panel Switch
• 1938 Bell introduces #1 crossbar central office switches
• 1943 #4 Crossbar introduction
• 1948 #5 Crossbar introduction
• 1958 7 digit all number dialing phase in starts, January
• 1960 AT&T installs first electronic switching system I in Morris,
• 1964 Telephone numbering plan defines country codes, area
  codes, and local numbering systems
• 1965 AT&T introduces stored program controlled switching #1
  ESS.                                               Copyright 2006 Strategic Advisory Group
     Common Control vs. Distributed
•   1970 AT&T introduces its #2 ESS electronic switch
•   1972 Automatic Electric introduces the #1 EAX ESS
•   1976 Northern Telecom demonstrates the DMS-10
     IDDD international direct dialing introduced
•   1979 Northern Telecom installs first production DMS-100 local central office
•   1980 Signaling System 7 begins deployment
•   1982 5ESS introduced
•   1999 Lucent installs last #4ESS switch in Atlanta, GA. A total of 145 #4ESS
    machines were installed in the AT&T Long Lines network with several more
    installed for regional (RBOC) use.
•   2002 Last known Step-by-Step switch in North American public switched
    network is replaced with a digital (DMS-10) switch in Nantes, QC Canada.
    This switch was probably the last fully electro-mechanical switch in the North
    American PSTN
•   2003 Sprint Local (EMBARQ) begins replacement of traditional Nortel DMS-
    100 digital time-domain circuit-switched telephone switches with new Nortel
    Communications Server packet-based softswitches.
                                                           Copyright 2006 Strategic Advisory Group
Datacom changes from person talk
       to computer talk
• 1938 Western Union first FAX machine
• 1939 Teleprinter 75 words per minute!
• 1944 Teleprinter 100 words per minute!
• 1957 Teleprinter 300 words per minute
• 1958 AT&T introduces datasets (modems) for direct connection
• 1963 The American Standard Code for Information Exchange
• 1964 Paul Baran publishes “On Distributed Communications:
  Introduction To Distributed Communications Networks” out of the
  need for the command and control of ICBM’s to survive a nuclear
  attack and thus provide deterrence of a first strike. A survivable
  network is needed to make MAD (Mutually Assured Destruction)
  a creditable deterrent.
• 1967 Larry Roberts at the Advanced Research Projects Agency
  publishes a paper proposing ARPANET.
   IBM BSC Binary Synchronous Communication BiSync computer
  to computer protocol                               Copyright 2006 Strategic Advisory Group
    Computers need to talk faster
• 1969 APRANET started between Stanford and UCLA
• 1973 Ethernet invented Xerox Parc Bob Metcalfe
  TCP/IP first described
  The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is introduced
• 1974 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) introduced
• 1976 X.25 networks implemented
  IEEE 802.3 standardizes Ethernet
• 1981 Hayes introduces 300-bps modem
• 1983 TCP/IP deployed in the ARPANET which define INTERNET
• 1986 NSF introduces its 56kbps backbone network
• 1987 Bellcore introduces the Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line

                                                 Copyright 2006 Strategic Advisory Group
           More Computer Talk

• 1989 NSF ups its backbone network from 56kbps to T-1
• 1992 WWW invented, CERN physicist Tim Berners-Lee.
   One-millionth host connected to the Internet, doubling every year!
• 1993 Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) established
  The NSF network backbone jumps from T-1 to T-3.
  The Internet browser MOSAIC is introduced
  (ADSL) standardized using the discrete multitone technology
• 1994 Netscape Internet browser is introduced
• 1997 IETF MPLS Working Group formed
• 1998 Half the subscriber lines were being used for data
• 2002 GMPLS starts evolving
                                                  Copyright 2006 Strategic Advisory Group
           A new industry is created
•   1972 AT&T turns down buying ARPANET
•   1974 Dataphone Digital Service DDS
    Gary Kildall establishes Digital Research Inc and CP/M as the first PC
    operating system. CP/M also serves as the basis of all modern DOS versions
    including the Caldera DR DOS and other derivatives including PC-DOS from
    IBM, and MS-DOS from Microsoft
    Caldera successfully Sues Microsoft for copying CP/M to make DOS
•   1975 Bill Gates and Paul Allen establish Microsoft
    Popular Electronics features the MITS Altair 8800 computer which is
    considered the first personal computer.
•   1976 Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak establish Apple Computer
    Alan Shugart, IBM, introduced the 5.25-in floppy
•   1981 IBM introduces its PC in August
•   1982 Sun Microsystems established
•   1984 Bell System is broken up

                                                         Copyright 2006 Strategic Advisory Group
  Attempts at converging voice and
           data networks
• 1968 AT&T starts development of the Integrated Digital
  Services Network (ISDN).
• 1984 Frame Relay first presented to the CCITT
• 1990 Frame Relay becomes popular with the addition of
  Local Management Interface (LMI) by: Cisco Systems,
  StrataCom, Northern Telecom, and Digital Equipment
• 1995 VOIP introduced by AVAYA with their MultiMedia
  Communications eXchange (MMCX)
• 1996 Multi-service ATM network specification released

                                        Copyright 2006 Strategic Advisory Group
Government Control And Taxation

• 1934 Communications Act. Congress creates the FCC
• 1936 Rural Electrification Act
• 1956 Hush-a Phone decision
  Consent Decree, AT&T agrees to license its patents to
  others, stick with Telecom only and keep WE
• 1967 Carterphone Decision
• 1984 January 1, DIVESTITURE of AT&T
     – AT&T Long Lines, 23 Bell Operating Companies (BOCs),
       which coalesced into 7 regional BOCs BellSouth, NYNEX,
       Ameritech, Bell Atlantic, US West, Pacific Telesis,
• 1985 FCC decisions related to registration of CPE for
  T-1 and sub-rate digital services       Copyright 2006 Strategic Advisory Group

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