Version Control and LINC by TBeo2ff8

VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 40

									Version Control
       &
     LINC
       White Paper



      24 May, 2012



 Document Number NL3012
       Version 1.0
Version Control & LINC                                                  Page 2 of 40
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                              TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                      2

TABLE OF FIGURES                                                                       5

VERSION CONTROL OVERVIEW                                                               6
  Version Control and LINC                                                              6
    Introduction                                                                        6
    Source Control or Patch Control                                                     6
    Release Management                                                                  6
    Version Management                                                                  6
  Purpose of this paper                                                                 7

TABLE SUMMARY OF VERSION CONTROL TASK FORCE REQUIREMENTS                               8
  Version Control Tools                                                                 9
     Generally                                                                          9
LINC                                                                                   10
    Introduction                                                                       10
  Functionality already in LINC 15                                                     10
  New Functionality in LINC 15.2 and LINC 16.1                                         10
     LINC 15.2 Change Identification Features                                          11
     LINC 15.2A CASE Extract Enhancements                                              11
     LINC 16.1 Planned Change Management Features                                      12
LDAIII                                                                                 14
  Introduction                                                                         14
  Object locking and change control                                                    14
  Object extraction enhancements                                                       15
  Use of the Development Hierarchy                                                     16

OVERC                                                                                  18
    Introduction                                                                       18
  Performance & Resource Implications                                                  18
     Processor                                                                         18
     Disk Space                                                                        18
     Installation and Documentation                                                    18
     Sites Running the product                                                         19
     Current Directions                                                                19
ABSKIT                                                                                 21
     Introduction                                                                      21
     Installation and Documentation                                                    21
     Sites Running the product                                                         21


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LINC CONFIGURATION MANAGER                                                              22
     Introduction                                                                       22
     Sites Running the product                                                          22
EPIC                                                                                    23
     EPIC General Information                                                           23
     Sites running the product                                                          23
VERSION CONTROL REQUIREMENTS                                                            24
  Introduction                                                                          24
  Summary of Version Control Task Force Requirements                                    24
  Patch Identification and Management                                                   24
    Identify patch that spans the system                                                24
    Define baseline and be able to roll patches in                                      25
    Control of patches                                                                  25
    Utilize LCOPY with patch                                                            25
    Multi-session patches                                                               25
    Patch Viewing                                                                       26
    Designate patch status                                                              26
    Generate system excluding patches                                                   26
  Runtime System Management and Transfer                                                26
    Patch matching                                                                      26
    Code Configuration                                                                  27
    Runtime transfer parameter file                                                     27
    Remote runtime transfer                                                             27
    Transfer subset                                                                     27
    Mode attribute of a version                                                         27
  Control and Distribution of Source Code                                               28
    LCOPY with patch intelligence                                                       28
    Exclude ISPEC from generates                                                        28
    Audit Trail of Changes                                                              28
    Object check-out                                                                    28
    Full compare/merge facilities                                                       29
    Full module support                                                                 29
    LCOPY Tracking                                                                      29
    Configurable items and generates                                                    29
  Management of External Files, etc.                                                    29
    Managing external files                                                             29
  Additional Requirements                                                               30

PC-BASED VERSION CONTROL TOOLS THAT HAVE BEEN USED WITH LDAIII                          31
  PVCS                                                                                  31
  RCS                                                                                   31
  Maestro                                                                               32
  LDACompare                                                                            32

SAMPLE ENVIRONMENT                                                                      33
  Development Architecture Overview                                                     33

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APPENDIX - GLOSSARY                                                                40




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                                TABLE OF FIGURES

Figure 1 Table of version control requirements against the toolset ________________________ 9
Figure 2 LINC Logon screen showing change identifier field ___________________________ 11
Figure 3 Sample LINC Editor showing patch identification _____________________________ 11
Figure 4 Sample LINC Development Partial CASE Extract Menu ________________________ 12
Figure 5 Unlocking an Activity in LDAIII ____________________________________________ 14
Figure 6 Specification Options menu in LDAIII showing change control check box __________ 15
Figure 7 LDAIII Extract Menu - allowing partial extract ________________________________ 16
Figure 8 LDAIII Model Directory - showing development hierarchy_______________________ 17
Figure 9 Sites running OverC ___________________________________________________ 19
Figure 10 Multi-machine development controlled by OverC ____________________________ 20
Figure 11 Sites running ABSKIT _________________________________________________ 21
Figure 12 Sample PVCS Menu - showing individual .MDL files checked in ________________ 31
Figure 13 Components of version control in a PC driven development project ______________ 33
Figure 14 File Manager directory showing .MDL files for LINC objects under version control __ 34
Figure 15 Checking an object in using the PVCS interface _____________________________ 35
Figure 16 Object version ident ___________________________________________________ 36
Figure 17 Initial CASE Load screen _______________________________________________ 37
Figure 18 Secondary CASE Load screen __________________________________________ 38
Figure 19 Glossary ___________________________________________________________ 40




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                              Version Control Overview


Version Control and LINC
Introduction
The topic of version control is one of the most contentious in the world of data processing - every
site is demanding 'version control' but to the question 'What do you consider version control to be
?' is likely to be a whole variety of responses. This working paper is intended to look at the topic of
version control from the LINC perspective (on all platforms) and for the purposes of clarity will
henceforth breakdown version control into three distinct areas. There is a significant amount of
overlap between these areas and not every developer requires all of the functions but nearly every
developer requires some combination of them.

Source Control or Patch Control
This is concerned with keeping track of individual changes to a system, and tying them to a
particular problem, feature, or developer. Examples of 3GL products that address this problem
include PCR on the 2200 Series and Patch Manager on the A Series.

Release Management
This area is concerned with identifying the cumulative changes that have been made to a system
over a time. This is primarily for the purposes of identifying the magnitude of change, for testing
and quality management. It is also necessary to be able to revert the system to a previous level.

Version Management
This area is concerned with the maintenance of different levels of the same system, which might
contain different changes, at different locations, and maintained by different groups of people. The
Unisys USAS LCM (LINC Configuration Manager) product is intended primarily to address this
problem.




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Purpose of this paper
This is a working paper, begun in July 1992, to explore the requirements of Version Control
among LINC customers, and identify features in LINC and other products, including some third
party products, which can be used to address these problems. If you like, it is a catalogue of the
most up to date information we have at the moment on what people are doing to address their
version control issues. We also attempt to provide information on directions in the LINC suite of
products. For example, in 1992 we included information on plans for LINC 15 which would effect
version control. In 1994 we have added LINC 16 functionality which can be anticipated for delivery
in the latter part of 1995.
As a working document this paper will be updated periodically as new information becomes
available. For additional information, or to obtain a current copy of the paper you may contact the
LINC mailbox on OfisLink id LINC/CORP.




Alan Hood                LINC Business Unit                              OfisLink id (hood/corp)
Neville Barnshaw         UK Information Services                         eMail id (8055/emmk)




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  Table Summary of Version Control Task Force Requirements
The following table gives a one line summary of typical version control requirements, along with
an indication of which products or features may be used to help satisfy each requirement. Each
feature or requirement is listed, paraphrased from the Version Control Task Force report. A more
detailed description follows later in this paper.
      Notes:
      LINC 15 refers to functionality already in LINC, or new to releases 15.1, or 15.2.
      LINC 16 refers to new or expanded functionality planned for release 16.1.
      LDA III refers to functionality in LDA III release 1.1.
      Other lists products discussed in this paper which may be applied in specific areas.

Feature / Requirement                    LINC 15        LINC 16      LDA III   ABS       OverC     Other
                                                                               Kit

Patch Identification and
Management
[SOURCE CONTROL / PATCH
CONTROL]

Identify patch that spans the system     partial        Yes                              Yes
Define baseline and be able to roll                     partial                partial   Yes
patches in
Control of patches                       partial        partial                          partial   LCM
Utilize LCOPY with patch                 partial        partial                          partial
Multi-session patches                    partial        Yes          partial   Yes       Yes
Patch Viewing                                           Yes                              Yes
Designate patch status                                  Yes                              partial
Generate system excluding patches

Runtime System Management and
Transfer
[RELEASE MANAGEMENT
VERSION MANAGEMENT]

Patch matching                                          partial                partial   partial   PVCS
Code Configuration                       partial                               partial
Runtime transfer parameter file
Remote runtime transfer                  Yes (A)
Transfer subset                                         partial      partial                       PVCS
Mode attribute of a version                             Yes                              partial   PVCS

Control and Distribution of Source
Code
[RELEASE MANAGEMENT
VERSION MANAGEMENT
SOURCE CONTROL]

LCOPY with patch intelligence                           Yes                    Yes       partial   LCM
Exclude ISPEC from generates

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Feature / Requirement                    LINC 15        LINC 16      LDA III   ABS       OverC     Other
                                                                               Kit
Audit Trail of Changes                   partial        Yes                    partial   partial   LCM
                                                                                                   PVCS
Object check-out                         Yes                         Yes                 Yes       PVCS
Full compare/merge facilities            partial                               partial   partial   LCM
                                                                                                   PVCS
Full module support                      Yes                         planned             partial

LCOPY Tracking                                                                 Yes       Yes
Configurable items and generates                        Yes                    partial             EPIC

Management of External Files, etc.
[SOURCE CONTROL]

Managing external files                                                                  partial   PVCS

Additional Requirements

Apply patch from one LINC                partial                     partial             planned   LCM
Specification into another               (LCOPY)                     (CLD)
environment
Provide warning of conflict between      partial                               Yes                 LCM
patches                                  (LCOPY)
Screen Based Editor (similar to          N/A            N/A          N/A
LINC)
                 Figure 1 Table of version control requirements against the toolset

Version Control Tools
Generally
A variety of version control products are available to LINC development sites including ones
specifically designed to work with LINC and others restricted to specific platforms. In this review
only the mainframe based products OverC and ABSKIT are considered in detail and some notes
are made at the end of this article regarding non-LINC specific PC version control products.
Additionally, where appropriate we will discuss features currently available in LINC 15 and LDA III
1.1, and features planned for LINC 16 which can help with version control.




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                                                LINC
Introduction
Historically the primary tool for version control in LINC has been LCOPY. Apart from providing a
mechanism for making a full backup and restore of your LINC specification, LCOPY has features
that allow save and restore of parts of the specification (e.g. selected ISPECs, Reports, GLGs...).
LCOPY can also be used to compare two versions of a specification one being an LCOPY backup
file and other being the active copy in the LINC database. From this comparison you can create a
'patch' file which can then be 'merged' into another version of the specification.
This capability in LCOPY was seen by many to be insufficient because it was highly resource
intensive, normally at too high a level of granularity, and relies on manual procedures to ensure
that the proper files are maintained.

Functionality already in LINC 15
      LCOPY - As discussed above, the primary feature of LINC used in version control is
          LCOPY. LCOPY not only allows users to copy a specification to be transferred to
          another LINC environment, or saved as a backup. It also allows copying in and out of
          portions of a specification, creation of a patch file, which is the result of a comparison
          between the current state of the specification in the development repository and an
          earlier backup LCOPY file.
      Modules - While not normally considered a version control feature, Modules can be used
           to help maintain different versions of the same system.
             As an example, consider a software vendor with many customers for a Sales and
             Inventory application. Both Customer A and Customer B will need to have a version
             of the CUST ISPEC, and each will want their own company name to appear in the
             header portion of the screen. But Customer A may want different security logic
             processed when making inquiries or updates to the CUST database.
             If the specification is defined as a Module Master, and A and B are defined as
             Modules, it will very easy to insert the Global Logics %CUST-HEADER and %ISPEC-
             SECURITY-CHECKS into the master copy of CUST. In Module A these macro
             Global Logics can be mapped to GLG-A-HEADER and GLG-CHECK-SECURITY,
             and in Module B to GLG-B-HEADER and GLG-NO-SECURITY, respectively.
             Changes for adding new general functionality, or correcting errors, can be easily
             made in one place, and will be reflected in all versions of the system. But changes
             that are unique to a single customer can also be easily handled. It is not necessary to
             maintain a separate copy of the specification for each unique customer.
             This example could also be applied to a company with many divisions (Module A =
             Division A), or to some types of planned system upgrades (Module A = Release 1,
             Module B = Release 2).

New Functionality in LINC 15.2 and LINC 16.1
LINC 15.2 was released in October, 1993.
LINC 15.2A was released in May, 1994.
LINC 16.1 is planned for release in the third quarter of 1995.
With the LINC 15.2 release, features were added to help with source change identification. In
LINC 16.1 additional source management features will be added.

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LINC 15.2 Change Identification Features
Source Change Identification - For all areas which are entered via the LINC Editor, changes are
recorded as a part of the data record. Changes can be identified by a usercode, a station-id, or a
user-specified identifier. Where user specified identifiers are used they are set up in the GLOBAL
specification




                    Figure 2 LINC Logon screen showing change identifier field
        NEXT
        ....*....1....*....2....*....3....*....4....*....5....*....6....*....7..
        000100:This global logic FLAG's to BA020
        *id                            07/06/94 14:46:51 CASELOAD
        000200 : Version 01.01.0001 Updated 13/04/94 by RS
        *id                            07/06/94 14:46:52 CASELOAD
        000300
        *id                            07/06/94 14:46:52 CASELOAD
        000700
        *id                            07/06/94 14:46:52 CASELOAD
        16:05:16:50    * CSPCLD Global logic BA020U * id

                     Figure 3 Sample LINC Editor showing patch identification
      Soft Resource Locking - Resources, such as ISPECs, GLGs, Reports, can be 'locked' in
            the Development System across sessions. As with change identification, the lock can
            be based on a usercode, a station-id, or a user-specified patch id.

LINC 15.2A CASE Extract Enhancements
            Extract of Parts - LINC15R2A (15.2.300) can automatically CASE-Extract all objects
            (or parts of an object) that have been changed since a (user entered) time stamp




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                  Figure 4 Sample LINC Development Partial CASE Extract Menu

LINC 16.1 Planned Change Management Features
      Change Identification Extensions - The Change Identification feature of LINC 15 will be
           expanded to include non-logic items, including identifying data items, displays,
           dictionary items, specification and structure options, report generate groups, frame
           descriptions, configure parameters, and logical databases. Change records are not
           kept for deleted items (so, a standard should be not to delete anything, purely
           comment out logic lines) This release will extend Change Identification to all areas of
           the specification.
      Patch Identification - A facility is provided to specify a 'patch' which is the accumulation of
           all changes associated with a particular correction or addition. Patches can be
           consolidated into an 'archived patch'. Various inquiries can be made on a patch or
           group of patches. LCOPY is changed to allow unload, load, create patch and merge
           patch functions using the patch-id information or not, as desired.
      Change Control Auditing - This provides the ability to create audit information for logic
           lines, data items, displays, dictionary items, specification and structure options and,
           optionally, generates etc. There are also utilities for reporting and archiving audit
           information.
      The ability to extract and apply patches -This feature will give the user two new functions
           - the ability to extract a patch and the ability to apply an extracted patch to another
           specification. In general, the application of patches will apply the changes made
           under the specified patches, and will not necessarily be concerned with matching the
           target structure to the source one before the patch was applied. This means that it
           will be possible to apply the "essence" of a change from one specification to another


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             that is not necessarily identical (although, in practice, they will need to have come
             from a common parent at some point).
      Runtime Version Identification - Users may now specify version identification for their
           runtime systems, and inquire upon, or display version information at runtime. This will
           be especially useful in ensuring that out of date reports are not run against recently
           regenerated specifications, or in co-ordinating interactions between two separate
           LINC systems.
      Configuration Sets - The LINC development system will be able to define multiple
           environment generate sets for a single specification. During generation the user
           system will be automatically configured according to the named generate set. The
           generation is targeted to one of these generate sets.




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                                              LDAIII
Introduction
LDAIII version 1.1A contains compatible version control mechanisms to host LINC, it is however,
vital that before using LDAIII for full or partial LINC system development that a decision is made
whether to use LDAIII or host LINC as the ‘system-driver’. This decision will determine whether to
utilize host or PC based version control tools and procedures. (the preceding chapters have
assumed the host will be the driver, in the appendix a description is given of an environment
where LDAIII is the master and the host is treated as the slave development environment)

Object locking and change control
Both LINC15.2 and LDAIII version 1.1 have the capability of allowing locks at object level. For
LINC this is at ISPEC level only - within LDAIII it is any LDA object.




                             Figure 5 Unlocking an Activity in LDAIII




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         Figure 6 Specification Options menu in LDAIII showing change control check box




Object extraction enhancements
Allows extraction of changed objects (since last load or unload or in the repository plus relevant
dictionary items if required) or specifically named objects. Options are also available just to extract
'parts' (such as a logic pocket) given the capability of 15.2A to be able to load these. Where
versioning is to be performed at the 'object' (generally ISPEC) level it is not recommended to use
the 'parts' facilities.




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                         Figure 7 LDAIII Extract Menu - allowing partial extract

Use of the Development Hierarchy
For sites new to LDAIII it is strongly recommended to use the development hierarchy for more
than just a physical break down of the system that is being developed. Activities can be used to
help management of the development process - i.e. a specific business requirement can be built
into an Activity (even if some of its constituent objects are present in other activities). Inside an
activity it is easier to size, design, and control. Activities can be extracted (or, in version 1.1 all
changes inside an activity can be extracted) to ensure that the file that will be CASE loaded is as
small as possible. This will then have a beneficial effect on CASE load and generate performance
and mean the integration with upper case tools is more practical.




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                 Figure 8 LDAIII Model Directory - showing development hierarchy
Where CASE Extracts are made from the mainframe host the tool 'structure saver' to preserve the
functional-area and activity hierarchy is recommended (for more details reference the LDAIII Best
Practice Guide or contact the editors)




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                                              OVERC
Introduction
OverC, from KLA, provides security and auditing functions that are not readily available in the
standard LINC product. Version Control can be added to this to provide patch-based (or FCF-
based) control over the LINC Development System.
OverC is written mostly in LINC, and uses a COMS Processing Item to intercept all messages
coming into or going out from the Interactive. When an attempt is made to perform a function that
will update the LINC database, OverC will intercept the command and require the user to identify
the "FCF" being worked on. If the FCF has not been defined, or the developer has not been
assigned to that FCF, the update is not allowed.
When full auditing is turned on, OverC captures a before image of the ISPEC before any updates,
and an after image when the ISPEC updates are complete. A summary of any changes made
during the session is stored in the audit file. Other information that is captured includes the date
and time, the user-id, a reason for the FCF, and ISPECs, Reports or Global Logics that may be
affected by the FCF.
This product does not update the LINC database directly. It will format a screen that can be
"transmitted" by the user, in the LINC Editor, for making relatively small changes.
OverC does not allow the use of the LCOPY screens directly. Instead, when the user requests an
LCOPY function, OverC displays its own menu screen, on which the user enters the details.
OverC then generates a WFL job to run LCOPY using the batch interface. They say they are able
to provide more functionality and control this way.

Performance & Resource Implications
Processor
On an A6 OverC adds about 1 second per thousand lines of code - tests at Scottish Life (A17)
showed that it was not possible to go over a second except when manipulating the GSDs.
Statistics can be output when running, but a 'rule of thumb' is that it adds between 25-33% on top
of the LINC editor termination time when leaving a logic pocket. It can run in 18K of AllowedCore.

Disk Space
Additional disk space will be required - the amount is dependent on the amount of control that is
chosen - a rule of thumb is that a sector of disk is required for every line patched - the total
amount of disk required then depends on how long these patches remain on disk. Archive tools
are available and it is possible to retain the patch headers only, and have them reference a
specific tape where the full details can be found. Nat West Life initially implemented OverC under
a partial patch philosophy with only certain structures / developers having full auditing but with all
contentions written away to the audit files.

Installation and Documentation
The product should not be difficult to install, but because of the use of the COMS Processing
Item, it will not be of the "load and go" variety.
The documentation is well written, the functionality is easy to understand, and should not cause
much difficulty for an experienced LINC user.




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Sites Running the product
OverC comprizes two modules - standard OverC source control, and version control. The
following sites are running source control, more than half of them are also running the version
control module.
       Chelsea Building Society
       Unisys UK (UFSS Development)
       HYPO-MSL (Bracknell)
       Unisys UWT (GWB Implementation in Hungary)
       Leeds Permanent Building Society
       Nat West Life
       Skipton Building Society
       Scottish Life
       Royal Life Assurance
       Teachers Assurance
       Principality Building Society
       Norwich & Peterborough Building Society
       Advance Bank (Sydney)
                                   Figure 9 Sites running OverC
Note: Several LINC2200 sites have expressed great interest in taking the product if it was
ported (including Australian Customs) but this is unlikely to happen (at least in the short-term).

Current Directions
A patch manipulation module was added to allow the transfer of single patches (such as Global
SDs) and the capability of undoing patches. PC-OverC is under development for source control
with a version tracking module and links to host OverC for version comparison (it uses runtime
LDA system plus some C and Visual Basic) and demonstrations should be available by the end of
1994 with a product available by the end of the first quarter 1995
OverC can provide some control over a multi-installation development by using the concept of a
'slave' system installed within OverC for each of the systems installed at the remote development
site. The developments can be kept in step by information that is transferred between the two
OverC systems




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                   A Series                                  A Series / File-Server

                         LINC15                                   LINC15 / LDAIII




                         aDB bDB
                                                                                     cDB

                  OverC               P.I.                  OverC         P.I. / CDLL

                                             Slave                   Slave   Slave
                                               c                       a       b




                          a       b                                                  c



                     Figure 10 Multi-machine development controlled by OverC
In the diagram above the same system, being developed on two separate machines, can be split
across A-Series or split between PC and A-Series




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                                              ABSKIT
Introduction
The ABS LINC Developers Kit (referred to as "the Kit" in their documentation) is an add-on
module that can be installed on top of the LINC Development system. It is a system, written in
LINC, which provides additional functionality, including:
             Additional on-line inquiries not provided by Standard LINC
             Additional hard copy inquiries not provided by Standard LINC
             Quality Assurance Functions
             Version Control Functions
The Kit is also a part of a broader package of standards and guidelines that can be used for
developing LINC applications. ABS Kit has been developed for use on the A Series, and has been
successfully ported to the 2200 Series. The portions of the Kit that are most useful to LINC
programmers are the various inquiry functions. But there are parts of the Kit that bring
considerable benefits to management and quality assurance.
The "Version Control" portion of ABS Kit falls mainly into the category of Release Management. It
is based upon functions of LCOPY, and tools to read the LINC database and extract a description
of changes made since the baseline LCOPY. This tool does not attempt to implement Source
Control or Patch Control. It approaches the Version Control problem from the Release
Management direction, emphasising the provision of information on what has been changed over
a time, rather than specifics of individual "patches". This product does not update the LINC
database directly, because of support problems this would cause for the end users. When
updates are desired, it will format a screen that the user can "transmit" to the LINC editor.

Installation and Documentation
Installation of this product, especially on the 2200 Series, is not trivial but the documentation
appears complete. Along with the written documentation there is a demonstration diskette that
should be very helpful to the user in evaluating the product, and learning how to use it. The
demonstration diskette requires a PC/Windows environment.
It should not be difficult for an experienced LINC user to learn how to us this product.

Sites Running the product
ABSKIT can be run on both the 2200 and A Series platforms
       Brisbane City Council (2200/400)
       Australian Customs (2200/900)
       Nationwide Building Society (2200/900)
       TSV (2200/900)
       Unisys UWT (Octagon Project)
                                   Figure 11 Sites running ABSKIT




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                           LINC Configuration Manager
Introduction
LCM has been built by Unisys specifically for the airlines USAS products, and is specific to the
2200 platform, in recent times there have been efforts to 'productize' it and remove the airline
specifics. Ostensibly it provides the same functionality as an enhanced LCOPY PATCH/MERGE -
to address the issue of the control of a large number of LINC patches and manage the
implementation of patches into a platform solution that may have been localized by the customer.
In a similar manner to LCOPY Compare it uses line sequence numbers for code merge (note this
is different to how ABSKIT functions) and so it would be of limited value to sites running LDAIII
where the sequence numbers are indeterminate. LCM was developed for the 2200 Series and has
been ported to U series.

Sites Running the product
LCM is currently running at three USAS sites and internally at Eagan (USAS development). It has
been demonstrated to Australian Customs who installed it and used it for a few weeks but it did
not address their specific version management issues.
It has been generally recognized that while LCM is extremely useful in a USAS environment, and
conceptually would be beneficial to a number of LINC customers, the way in which it has been
implemented relies heavily on the idiosyncrasies of the USAS LINC development environment. To
remove enough of these restrictions to make LCM generally usable was deemed to be too much
effort, and USAS management decided not to market the product generally. It is being used by
some USAS customers.




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                                                 EPIC
EPIC General Information
          The LINC Environmental Parameter Configurator (EPIC) is a LINC2200 product written
          for Australian Customs by Unisys. It provides the facility to maintain multiple sets of
          LINC application configuration parameters for a LINC application externally to the LINC
          development environment repository.
          EPIC provides the following functions:
                   Create and maintain a configuration set in the EPIC repository for a LINC
                    application. Use this configuration set to verify and update the application's
                    configuration details in the LINC development environment database.
                   Create a configuration set in the EPIC repository from an existing LINC
                    application.
                   Create and/or modify configuration details manually through LINC screens for
                    a LINC application.
                   Verify the configuration set in the EPIC repository against the LINC application
                    specification in the LINC interactive and list any differences found.
                   Update the configuration parameters for the LINC application in the LINC
                    interactive from a configuration set in the EPIC repository.
                   List the Need Compile flags from the LINC repository when verifying or
                    updating the LINC repository configuration details.
                   Backup and reload a specification from the EPIC repository.
                   List the details of a specification in the LINC repository.
                   Initiate a generate of a LINC application.

Sites running the product
Currently EPIC is used only at Australian Customs Service, but plans are being formulated to
market this and other utilities that have been developed as a part of their LINC project.




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                           Version Control Requirements
Introduction
In 1990 a task force visited several LINC user sites, both internal development projects, and
customers. They came up with a list of requirements. A summary of those requirements is given
below, along with comments whether each of the products reviewed are able to satisfy that
particular requirement.

Summary of Version Control Task Force Requirements
Each feature or requirement is listed, paraphrased from the Version Control Task Force report.
For each requirement, if a LINC 15, LINC 16 or LDA III feature satisfies this requirement (in part),
the comment is made. Following this are details of how the ABS, KLA, and other products satisfy
this requirement, if at all. A typical feature will be as follows:
    This is a feature/requirement description.
(HIGH/MEDIUM/LOW) relative priority from the LINC Version Control Task Force.
LINC 15 functionality that may address this area.
LINC 16 planned functionality that may address this area.
LDA III functionality that may address this area.
ABS Kit - How this feature would be handled by the ABS product.
OverC - How this feature would be handled by the KLA product.
EPIC - How this feature would be handled using EPIC.
Other - Other tools or products that may address this requirement.

Patch Identification and Management
[SOURCE CONTROL / PATCH CONTROL]

Identify patch that spans the system
    Be able to identify a patch that spans the system. A patch can affect lines of code or data
     items in ISPECs, Global Logics or Reports. A patch should be able to be identified by author,
     date and time. (HIGH)
    Additionally the patch number should be printed on each line of LDL listing
LINC 15 - Identification of changes included in 15.2, Patch identification (e.g. patch number) is
not. Optionally, patch information is shown in Editor and on LDL listings.
LINC 16 - Patch identification expanded from LINC 15.2 capabilities to include screen and data
items.
ABS Kit - does not cover this one directly. It allows for a new "version" of the entire system but not
individual patches.
OverC - Yes. All changes to the system must be identified by an "FCF" number. An FCF may
span multiple sessions, and may be used by more than one developer. An audit of changes made
to any given area can be produced.




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Define baseline and be able to roll patches in
    Need to have the capability to change the definition of the base source code. Patches are
     kept separately. Allow for patches to be rolled into the baseline source and a new baseline
     source created. A history of the patches is needed. (HIGH)
LINC 16 - LCOPY allows retaining or updating of patch information, allowing updates to keep
existing patch details, have them merged under a new patch-id, or clear the patch-id for the entire
system, effectively creating a new baseline.
ABS Kit - This could be accommodated, only at a very high level. The patch file consists of
changes since the last version. Some facility for merging different sources exists, but it seems
manually intensive.
OverC - Yes. An audit, to varying degrees of detail, can be produced for each change. Changes
can be reverted, insofar as OverC will not physically modify the LINC database, but will produce a
screen image that, if transmitted by the user, will update the LINC logic.

Control of patches
    Developer controls the relationship of patches and "LCOPY LOAD" that patch. (HIGH)
    Also it should be possible to export a group of patches to be applied against another
     application. E.g. once a system is released a set of patches (an A tape) could be generated
     and applied on site.
LINC15 - 15.2A allows the case-extract of 'changes'
LINC16 - LCOPY will be aware of patch-id and allow users to create/merge patches, or
load/unload partial specifications by patch-id.
ABS Kit - Avoids use of LCOPY, except as a baseline.
OverC - Through patch manipulation module
LCM - This is the primary use of LCM by USAS.

Utilize LCOPY with patch
    Be able to "LCOPY UNLOAD" a specific patch and "LCOPY LOAD" that patch. (HIGH)
LINC15 - LINC15.2A allows the case-extract of changes - minimum unit is a 'part'
LINC16 - LCOPY will be aware of patch-id and allow users to create/merge patches, or
load/unload partial specifications by patch-id.
LDA III - Allows extract of ‘parts’ which can in turn be loaded (via CLD) into host based LINC
Development.
ABS Kit - Avoids use of LCOPY, except as a baseline.
OverC - Full ISPEC Load/Unload currently. Line item changes planned. OverC has its own
"LCOPY" screens, which will set-up WFL jobs to perform the selected LCOPY functions.

Multi-session patches
    A patch should be able to be developed across multiple interactive sessions. (HIGH)
LINC15 - ISPEC locking available across sessions.
LINC16 - Logging on to a patch allows users to use the same patch-id across multiple sessions.
LDA III - Locking of any LINC object is permitted.



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ABS Kit - Yes, a patch (or version) can be developed over a time, but, the version would include
all changes made by all developers.
OverC - Yes. An FCF can span many sessions, and potentially more than one Interactive, and
host.

Patch Viewing
    Ability to view all patches in Interactive, committed patches as well as patches under
     development. (HIGH)
LINC16 - A new patch inquiry facility is provided. Allows a variety of selection criteria including
date and time ranges, patch-ids, patch creator, or other user defined keys.
ABS Kit - Not directly supported.
OverC - Yes.

Designate patch status
    Need to designate a patch as - Not Approved - Do not include in generate. Approved - Can be
     included in generate. Committed - Has completed testing, and can not be modified further.
     (MEDIUM)
LINC16 - Patch status can be designated as Open, Closed, or Archived.
ABS Kit - Not directly supported.
OverC - Yes - but not specifically against patches but against 'work units' (FCFs). It is   in   the
next release that they have to be specifically approved or not.

Generate system excluding patches
    Need to be able to generate a system by a designated patch level, This would include all the
     patches up to, and including, the patch specified. This should include the ability to exclude a
     patch from a generate. (LOW)
ABS Kit - Not supported.
OverC - Not supported.
LINC15 - Not Supported.

Runtime System Management and Transfer
[RELEASE MANAGEMENT VERSION MANAGEMENT]

Patch matching
    Need to identify the object level and source level and verify that these match. This should be a
     version number, enforced by LINC, which is automatically incremented every time the system
     is generated. Need to know what patches are in a generated object. The patch level should be
     available to the developer for inquiry and display. (HIGH)
LINC16 - Runtime Versioning allows a version id, and time-stamp which is updated with each
system and report generate. Version id information can be inspected in LDL during execution.
ABS Kit - Each version carries a time stamp.
OverC - Allowed for on an ISPEC basis, not system basis. Each ISPEC carries its own version
number, updated each time as it is changed (and visible (if chosen) on all screens).



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PVCS - Each time a specification is checked in to PVCS a version-id is updated. This is most
helpful in ensuring that the version of an application in the host LINC Development Environment
matches that of the workstation.

Code Configuration
    Source, Object, and work file control in local and remote hosts. This should include the ability
     to "configure" code after it has been generated to fit other production environments.
     (MEDIUM)
LINC 15 - Configure utility allows configuration of host-specific attributes (e.g. pack information)
for a system that has transferred, or generated without installing.
ABS Kit - Limited support of this function, maintenance of identical versions on different hosts
should be relatively easy.
OverC - Not supported.

Runtime transfer parameter file
    Ability to save a runtime transfer parameter file. (LOW)
ABS Kit - Not supported.
OverC - Not supported.

Remote runtime transfer
    Hands off runtime transfer. (LOW)
LINC15 Hands off runtime transfer is a LINC 15.1 feature on A Series.
ABS Kit - Not supported.
OverC - Not supported.

Transfer subset
    Transfer a subset of the entire system with runtime transfer. (LOW)
LINC16 - Subsystem transfer (available on A Series only). Only those subsystems which have
      been updated since the previous transfer to the target system will be transferred by
      default. This will be controlled by date and time stamps maintained in the LINC control
      file of the generate and target systems.
ABS Kit - Not supported.
OverC - Not supported.

Mode attribute of a version
    Support the concept of a "mode" as an attribute of a version. Examples of modes might be:
     Test, Development, Training, etc. (LOW)
LINC16 - Could be accommodated using user-defined version id feature.
ABS Kit - Not supported.
OverC - OverC can control releases between interactives.




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Control and Distribution of Source Code
RELEASE MANAGEMENT VERSION MANAGEMENT SOURCE CONTROL

LCOPY with patch intelligence
    Perform LCOPY functions (Unload, Compare, etc.) through a given patch level. (HIGH)
LINC16 - LCOPY will be able to selectively run against a specified group of patch-ids.
ABS Kit - Yes. This utility is based on copy-type functionality. It either uses LCOPY, or a stripped
down version of LCOPY to accomplish most of its activities.
OverC - Replaces LCOPY screens with OverC screens and generates WFL jobs to run the
standard LINC LCOPY utility.
LCM - Performs equivalent function, but does not use LCOPY.

Exclude ISPEC from generates
    Ability to exclude an ISPEC from a generate. (HIGH)
ABS Kit - Not supported.
OverC - Not supported.

Audit Trail of Changes
    Provide an audit trail of changes, before and after image of changed items. Identify
     information such as date and time of change, who made the change, the reason, and a patch
     id option to view audit trail in LDL listing and On-line. (HIGH)
    Additionally allow a programmer to attach a comment to each patch (above). These
     comments can be separately printed and assembled into release notes.
LINC15 Some auditing capability in 15.2, at least to keep an audit trail of changes made. Before
and after images will not be provided for all cases. Multiple changes to the same line will not be
maintained.
LINC16 - Patch identification adds the ability to state what should be changed, why, and by whom.
Patch Query reports on a range of patches. A complete Change Audit Trail feature is also being
introduced in LINC 16. Change identification information is not available for deleted items.
ABS Kit - Before and after images of changes made between versions are provided. Details of
individual patches would not be available on a per patch basis.
OverC - Yes, not LDL listing, but available in on-line or report format. Auditing is on a per-
patch/per-ISPEC basis.
LCM - Yes.

Object check-out
    Check out a piece of LINC code, ISPEC, Global Logic or Report, so that no one else may use
     it, and then check it back in again when the change is complete. Ability to lock out changes to
     all or portions of the system. (MEDIUM)
LINC15 Ability to lock objects across sessions is in 15.2 .
LDA III - Locking of any LINC object is permitted in LDA III.
ABS Kit - Not supported.
OverC - Yes.

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PVCS - (See Other Tools section) When used with LDA III, PVCS allows full versioning and time-
stamping of any LINC object.

Full compare/merge facilities
    A three way compare/merge capability. (MEDIUM)
LINC15 - Exists to a limited degree in LCOPY.
ABS Kit - This is alluded to in the documents, but not described.
OverC - Conflict report available.
LCM - Yes. Patches from different versions can be compared, and merged. Conflict analysis
report identified duplicates, and on-line patch editor allows resolution of the conflicts.

Full module support
    Define and work with a module of a full "master" system with the ability to: Generate a module
     separately, Generate a master while logic in the module is under development. Promote logic
     from the module into the master after it has been tested. Have changes to the master flow to
     the module automatically. (MEDIUM)
LINC15 - Some module enhancements in LINC15 but not addressed in LDA.
ABS Kit - Not supported.
OverC - No distinction between modules - LCOPY screens do not take module into account. "No
       reason it shouldn't work."

LCOPY Tracking
    A facility in LCOPY to keep a record of date, time, and destination (file/tape name) of the
     backed up source. (LOW)
ABS Kit - Each version carries a time stamp, Uncertain of the file/tape name.
OverC - Yes. Access to LCOPY is controlled through OverC screens that then generate WFL jobs
to start LCOPY batch processes.

Configurable items and generates
    Implement a concept of a configurable Item, and variants of these items. Ability to generate a
     system by specifying a collection of configurable Items, and their Variants. (LOW)
LINC16 - Introducing the concept of 'configuration sets' which can be maintained apart from
system generates. Prior to a generate the user can select from a number of configuration sets.
ABS Kit - An LCOPY that forms the basis of the version could be selectable by ISPEC, GLG, etc.
The version would then highlight changes to the selected items. This is not directly supported.
OverC - Not supported.
EPIC - This is the primary problem EPIC was developed to address.

Management of External Files, etc.
SOURCE CONTROL

Managing external files
    Managing files, etc., that are outside the LINC environment and have common version control
     facilities. (LOW)

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LINC15 - Not supported.
ABS Kit - Not supported.
OverC - Not currently supported but OverC can be linked with the BL products to provide this
       functionality.
PVCS - Can be used to manage a variety of file types in a PC environment.

Additional Requirements
To be possible to apply a patch made to one application in a LINC system to other applications in
that system, or move that patch to another LINC system and apply it there. Such a patch would
need separate approval to ready it in each application.
LINC15 - To the extent that the patch is intended to move the target specification up to the same
level as the specification from which it was created, this can be done using facilities in LCOPY. If
the intent is to maintain different sources, this can be more difficult.
LDA III - Using Extract of Parts, changes to a logic container (e.g. Pre-Screen Logic) can be
extracted and CASE Loaded into host-base LINC. But the granularity is no finer than a logic
container at this time.
OverC - Planned.
LCM - Yes, to the extent that the system is developed using USAS naming conventions and
restrictions.
Provide warnings when there are conflicts between patches, such as both patches changing the
same line of code.
LINC15 - LCOPY supplies an error listing to inform the user of conflicts in a patch merge
operation.
OverC - Yes.
LCM - Yes, to the extent that the system is developed using USAS naming conventions and
restrictions.
Screen Based Editor: The patch manager should have a screen-based editor, similar to the
existing LINC editor.
LINC15, LINC16, LDA III - Does not apply.
ABS Kit - Not supported.
OverC - Not supported.




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PC-Based Version Control Tools that have been used with LDAIII
PVCS
PVCS is a specific PC based version control product from Intersolv. It supports check-in, check-
out and automatic version numbering. It holds baseline copies of the objects checked-in and delta
formats of differences. It has rigorous file access control and version history facilities. It is not
LINC/LDA specific - in fact any objects can be stored in the PVCS repository (e.g. WORD
specifications accompanying the extracted LDA model files). It will be integrated into
Powerbuilder. PVCS can be very useful in version management on the PC, including non-LDA
files (e.g. documentation, spreadsheets and test-data), and in release management - keeping the
PC and host LINC repositories in sync.
                                                        .




             Figure 12 Sample PVCS Menu - showing individual .MDL files checked in

RCS
RCS is a PC version control product that functions in a similar manner to PVCS (and is used by
the LINC Development Centre to develop LDAIII itself). It is not as strong on access control as
PVCS and lacks the ability to do automatic tagging on spreadsheets, word documents and other
binary files.




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Maestro
Maestro is an upper CASE tool that supports all the earlier phases of the System Development
Life-Cycle and well as incorporating project management facilities. One site is purely using
Maestro for its version management capabilities.

LDACompare
This is a simple third party windows based product that can directly compare LDA model files.
Until LDAIII 1.1 is generally available this tool is invaluable in determining changes to LDA objects
and for simple passive versioning. (For more details reference the LDAIII Best Practice Guide or
contact the editors)




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                                  SAMPLE ENVIRONMENT
Development Architecture Overview
In the example overleaf a PC version control tool is used and integrated with LDAIII, the upper
CASE tool Systems Engineer is used to drive all business system design.
Through SE/LINC-UP a .MDL (shell) file of the new objects can be extracted automatically. A
Visual Basic program (called PVCSForm - for full details see the LDAIII Best Practice Guide) is
run against this file to:
         Apply a $HEADER$ literal at the top of the Business Rules for new objects (this will be
           expanded into a full version/time-stamp by PVCS). An object with an existing
           version/time-stamp will be ignored
         Split the file into constituent LINC Objects for initial check into PVCS
         Perform the check-in to PVCS and check-out as a read-only copy
         Reconstitute the Activity as a .MDL file that can be checked back into LDA if required.
Version management through this environment is achieved by using the LDAIII business hierarchy
to flow through all changes and new functionality. An Activity of the objects should be created that
represents the total business change comprising the new objects and any existing ones affected
by the new/changed business process. This makes the business change sizeable (in LDA
Function Points), visible (graphically) and manageable (for extraction and LINC Design Audit).
The activity will include the design (lower case) relationships and any explicitly assigned object
function points (such as to a Wildcard)
When the objects are taken into LDA the conflict resolution dialogue box opens up automatically;
where there are conflicts between the incoming and existing objects these must not be overwritten
with the incoming objects (otherwise existing logic and version time-stamps will be lost).

                                          Version Control


      Client Builder




                          LINC Design
                           Recovery                                        File Xfer

                                                                                       CLD

                          LINC-UP                                                                  LINCII
                                                                                       CEX
                         Activity Build
                                                               Structure Saver
                                                LDAIII
   Systems Engineer 5.1
                                                                                                 ABSKIT Compare

    Logical Modelling                 LINC Physical Modelling
    Physical Modelling
    Impact Analysis

           Figure 13 Components of version control in a PC driven development project

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When the work on the activity is complete the changed objects (not parts) within the activity are
extracted as a .MDL file. It is recommended that the lowest unit that is versioned is the LINC
object; whilst both LDA and LINC have the capability of extracting and loading changed parts (e.g.
an object logic pocket) this could make versioning considerably more cumbersome.
This .MDL file is spilt up into individual objects by a Visual Basic program (PVCSForm - for details
see the LDAIII Best Practice Guide) and the constituent files are individually checked into PVCS
(a put). This program will also place the $Header information at the start of the Business Rules if
versioning information does not already exist for any object.
As a result of the PVCSForm processing there will be a set of .MDL files. Each .MDL file will
represent an individual LINC object. Also .MDL files will have been built containing the local data
dictionary and the Global Set-Up data items




    Figure 14 File Manager directory showing .MDL files for LINC objects under version control
The objects are then extracted (a get) from PVCS and put immediately back into LDA (this
ensures that their version numbers correspond). Providing that there is no interim runtime
database reorganisation this process will not affect runtime testing on the PC




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                     Figure 15 Checking an object in using the PVCS interface
Each version of an object is stored as a set of delta differences.




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                                  Figure 16 Object version ident
After the Activity is passed through the PVCS processing it is also uploaded to LINC on the host.
The options within the first CASE Load screen to be used are recommended as:
         Specification Name - Name of the specification being loaded into
         Delete Existing Specification - N
         Access Code/LSM Security - as defined by site




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                           Figure 17 Initial CASE Load screen




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                              Figure 18 Secondary CASE Load screen
Within the secondary CASE Load screen the options should be:
             Allow local conflict with GLOBAL Dictionary                  N
             Override LINC Dictionary Item Text                           N
Using these options will allow the version information inside the LDA objects to override the
existing version information (for dictionary items). Note also the Change Identifier parameter on
this second CASE Load screen.
After CASE loading a file the CLDLOG file should be examined for all warnings and errors, e.g.
<< LINC CASE LOADER >>
 ____ This Specification exists - transmit screen to confirm
 ____                             << LINC CASE LOADER >>
 ____ PERFORMING PRIMARY EDIT OF INPUT
 ____ LOADING CSPCLD
 ____ BA020 being deleted, ignore MCB timeout warnings during delete.
Options are available at this point to compare the patch on the host by using the 15.2A feature,
set a version using ABSKIT version control and/or perform a total version comparison. This is
performed to give auditability of the change across the complete toolset. An alternate approach is
to view changes by the designated session or date as built within LDA and recorded by the CASE
Load process.



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The changes can be optionally CASE extracted from the host and transferred to the PC for
loading into the upper CASE tool where further versioning and post implementation checking can
be carried out.




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                                  Appendix - Glossary
               Item          Explanation

    .MDL                     LINC CASE Interchange File - a file format understood by both LDA
                             and LINC on the mainframe host. Sometimes referred to as the
                             ‘model’ file.

    LCOPY                    Mainframe host LINC copy facility - a file format understood by all
                             LINC
                             mainframe hosts

    LINC Object              ISPEC, Report or Global Logic

    LINC Part                Part of an Object (such as just the Pre-Screen logic of an ISPEC)

    Wildcard                 An LDA object to represent any object, function or system that falls
                             outside the scope of the functional view.
                             They are typically used to represent external CALLs.or existing
                             legacy systems.

    GSD                      Global Working Storage

    SD                       Local (to the object) working storage

    Activity                 A grouping of LINC objects that forms a logical business process
                             The same LINC objects can appear in many
                             Activities, but only a single definition is held in the repository

    Functional Area          A grouping of Activities to represent a significant business function.
                             The same
                             Activity can appear in many Functional Areas

    Business Segment         A grouping of LINC Objects, Profiles, Wildcards, Activities and
                             Functional
                             Areas that together will form a discrete system

    Business Model           A grouping of Business Segments - the total Business process

    Local Data dictionary    A dictionary local to one system (Business Segment)

    Global Data Dictionary   A dictionary global to all systems (the Business Model data
                             dictionary)


                                         Figure 19 Glossary


                                                                                          Alan Hood
                                                                                   Neville Barnshaw
                                                                                      24 May, 2012



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