Diapositiva 1 - EELA Documents.ppt

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					           E-infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America




                  Volcano seismograms
                  sonification application
                  Domenico Vicinanza, CERN
                  EELA Conference, Santiago, September 04-05, 2006




IST-2006-026409       www.eu-eela.org
                                   Volcano eruption forecasting
             E-infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America



• Currently no definitive method to predict the eruption
  of a volcano has been discovered or implemented (yet).

• Scientists monitor
   – seismic waves
   – number of earthquakes and the intensity of a specific type of
     quake (harmonic tremors) in the run up to eruptions.
   – changes in the shape of the volcano or concentrations of gases
     emitted from the cone.




  IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org                        Santiago, Chile, EELA Conference, 05.09.2006   2
                        The hope: music for forecasting
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• By correlating spectra and melodies with precise
  stages of volcanic activity we hope to discover a sort
  of “signature tune” of an imminent eruption or
  earthquake.

• By identifying musical patterns that warn of an
  eruption it would be possible to implement civil
  protection measures, days or even hours before the
  event




  IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org                        Santiago, Chile, EELA Conference, 05.09.2006   3
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                                                                        Data Audification
• Data audification can be considered as the acoustic
counterpart of data graphic visualization, a mathematical
mapping of information from data sets to sounds.

• Data audification is currently used in several fields, for
different purposes:
– science and engineering,
– education and training,
mainly as data analysis and interpretation tool.

• Although most data analysis techniques are exclusively
visual in nature, data presentation and exploration systems
could benefit greatly from the addition of sonification
capabilities.

  IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org
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                                                                        Motivations
• Sonic representations are particularly useful when dealing
with complex, high-dimensional data, or in data monitoring
tasks where it is practically impossible to use the visual
inspection, or for pattern detection.

• Research has shown that people are quite more confident in
recognizing patterns audibly rather then visually

• Music theorists and researchers have carried out in centuries
of history lots of techniques and methods to detect, study and
classify musical phrases

• Main idea: Music as a language and music analysis as a tool
to inspect scientific data

  IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org
                    Sonification on the GRID network
             E-infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America



• First experiments involving sound production with
  INFN-GRID facilities started during the last months of
  2003.

• In September 2003, it was installed CSound, a free and
  cross-platform acoustic compiler, on a GRID test site,
  the Catania INFN-GRID computer farm

• The compiler was tested within the new environment
  and since its beginning, the test phase produced
  interesting results: efficient use of the calculus
  resources, customizable quality of the audio files.


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                                                                  Second Phase: Java
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• Second test phase: development of a sound production
suite based on Java (equipped with the standard audio
and math libraries), more flexible and easy to manage.

• All the results presented in this website have been
carried on using this last approach: sample computation,
audio rendering, DFT computing were obtained with the
Java sonification program on the GRID

Executable = "/bin/sh";
StdOutput = "sonification.out";
StdError = "sonification.err";
InputSandbox = {"sonification.sh", "Sonification.java", "etna.dat"};
OutputSandbox = {"Sonification.aiff", "Sound.dat","Spectrum.dat",
"sonification.out","sonification.err", "logfile"};
RetryCount = 7;
Arguments = "sonification.sh";



  IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org
                                                          Sound form volcanoes
             E-infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America



• Sonified data were geophysical
data collected by digital
seismographs placed on the Etna
volcano in Catania (Italy) and on
Tungurahua volcano in Ecuador.



• We carried out two sonifications:
– seismogram straight                                                                       Etna Volcano
sonification (tranformation into an
audible waveform)
– seismogram melodisation
(tranformation into a melody)




                                                                        Tungurahua   (Picture: M. Monzier IRD/IG-EPN)
  IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org
                      About seismograms audification
             E-infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America



• In both the cases, structural properties of the
  seismographic information would be straightly mapped
  into sound or melody properties

• In the first case, regularities in the seismograms will
  be reflected by the existence of spectral lines in the
  sonified signal

• In the second case, regularities in the seismograms will
  be transferred into regularities in the melody (such as a
  repeated set of data will become a repeated musical
  phrase)


  IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org                        Santiago, Chile, EELA Conference, 05.09.2006   11
              E-infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America
                                                                         Original data
• Example of ASCII files processed
  (sample from Etna data):

 Starting time: 15/06/2001 00:03:39.920
 Frequency: 100.1603 Hz
 Samples: 168960
 44
 43
 42
 44
 44
 46
 43
 45
   IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org
                                                                              First Sonification:
             E-infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America
                                                                          From data to waveform
• Scaling procedure to properly arrange the samples in
  the [-1,1] interval, according to their sampling
  frequency.
• Users can specify in the sonification program a certain
  resample frequency (pitch shift).
• Setting resample factors in the Java code greater than
  1 won't preserve the original pitch, allowing a
  frequency shift...
• ....making audible regular phenomena happening at
  very low frequencies.
• In this way it is possible to observe and study
  periodical patterns, regular behaviors, long-range
  correlations, which can happen at different time scales.

  IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org                        Santiago, Chile, EELA Conference, 05.09.2006   14
                                              Quasi-regular phenomena
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• The waveform coded in the audio file will have exactly
the same regularities, also recognizable thanks to the
presence of some higher lines in the spectrum.
• The order of magnitude of the frequency of quasi-
regular phenomena is in the range 0-50 Hz, with a
spectral envelope centered around 25-30 Hz.




                                      20x resampled Etna seismogram
  IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org
                             Etna waveform and sonogram
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IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org
                                                       Tungurahua Waveform
           E-infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America




IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org                        Santiago, Chile, EELA Conference, 05.09.2006   20
                                                         Tungurahua Spectrum
           E-infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America




                                                          Spectral lines = Regular patterns

IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org                        Santiago, Chile, EELA Conference, 05.09.2006   21
                                                          Tungurahua Sonogram
               E-infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America


Time evolution of the spectrum. Each vertical slice is the spectrum at a certain time

                                    Oscillation pattern variations
                                   are clearly visible in the pattern




    IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org                        Santiago, Chile, EELA Conference, 05.09.2006   22
                           Etna sonification within GILDA
           E-infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America




                              https://gilda.ct.infn.it/
                     https://glite-demo.ct.infn.it/




IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org
                                               http://glite-demo.ct.infn.it
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IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org
           E-infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America




IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org
           E-infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America




IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org
           E-infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America




IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org
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IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org
                        Listening to sonification.aiff file
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         Etna sonogram




IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org
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                                                                         Data melodization
• The whole data set interval is mapped on the (equally
  tempered) piano keyboard
• The min value of the seismographic data will
  correspond to the lowest playable note on the piano
  keyboard
• The max value to the highest playable note




  IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org                        Santiago, Chile, EELA Conference, 05.09.2006   30
             E-infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America
                                                                            Main advantages
• Already available tools to manage MIDI files and
  analyze them
• Tracking the evolution of the musical intervals, the
  dynamics of their patterns, it is possible to detect, with
  an high level and in a customizable way, any kind of
  modifications in the shape of seismogram.
Two example of MIDI analysis (free) software:
• Rubato (www.rubato.org)
• MIDI Toolbox (http://www.jyu.fi/musica/miditoolbox/)




  IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org                        Santiago, Chile, EELA Conference, 05.09.2006   31
           E-infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America
                                                                                   MIDI Toolbox




IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org                        Santiago, Chile, EELA Conference, 05.09.2006   32
                                               Dynamic evolution of the tonalities
                                           (related to couples of adjacent values)
           E-infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America




IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org                        Santiago, Chile, EELA Conference, 05.09.2006   33
                              Example: Sinusoidal behavior
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•   0.0
    0.587785252292
    0.951056516295
    0.951056516295
    0.587785252292
    0.0
    -0.587785252292
    -0.951056516295
    -0.951056516295
    -0.587785252292
    0.0
    0.587785252292
    0.951056516295
    0.951056516295
    0.587785252292
    0.0



 Original data                                         Graphical representation

IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org
           E-infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America
                                                                      Sinus melodization
     Data are periodic, so the melody is periodic, with the same period




                                Music representation
                              (of the same set of data)

IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org
                                   Melodization: a pictorial view
             E-infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America




• Pictorially we can say that the melodization works by
  overlaying seismograms with music notes

• To create the volcanic score, we take a seismogram
  and trace the shape on to blank music bars.

• Then we overlay the contours with musical notes.




  IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org                        Santiago, Chile, EELA Conference, 05.09.2006   36
                                       Seismograms Melodisation
           E-infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America




IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org
                                       Seismograms Melodisation
           E-infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America




IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org
                                       Seismograms Melodisation
           E-infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America




IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org
                                       Seismograms Melodisation
           E-infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America




        … have you ever heard a volcano playing a piano ?




IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org
           E-infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America




                                                                                            Melody follows
                                                                                            the shape
                                                                                            of the
                                                                                            oscillation

IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org                        Santiago, Chile, EELA Conference, 05.09.2006   41
                                       First Etna-Tungurahua duet
            E-infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America



Players:

• Mt Etna: Piano




• Mt Tungurahua: Guitar




 IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org                        Santiago, Chile, EELA Conference, 05.09.2006   42
             E-infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America
                                                                             Reference sites:
• Etna Sonification website:
  http://grid.ct.infn.it/etnasound

• Tungurahua Sonification web repository:
  http://grid.ct.infn.it/tungurahuasound

• MIDI Toolbox manual:
  http://www.jyu.fi/musica/miditoolbox/MIDI_Toolbox_Ma
  nual.pdf




  IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org                        Santiago, Chile, EELA Conference, 05.09.2006   43
                                                              Thanks! …Questions
           E-infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America




IST-2006-026409                www.eu-eela.org                        Santiago, Chile, EELA Conference, 05.09.2006   44

				
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