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PSE4U Exam Review Anything we have covered during the semester is fair game for your final exam. You should study from: Written notes PowerPoint notes Tests Assignments Your textbook Your friend’s brains – discussion is good! Bone Anatomy & Muscle Anatomy Anatomical position and directions of movement, planes and axes. Describe the various parts of the skeletal and muscular system, and the ways in which they relate to human performance (e.g. according to their location, structure, function and characteristics). Biomechanics Explain the laws of physics as they related to movement (ie, Newton’s laws related to levers, velocity and linear acceleration). Describe biomechanical principles (ie, stability, the relationship between force and movement). Apply knowledge of the phases of a skill (ie, the phases of a golf stroke, backswing, critical instant, follow-through) to analyse movement. Energy Systems Demonstrate an understanding of the energy systems (ie, anaerobic alactic/lactic, aerobic) and their contributions to activity (ie, long distance running as compared to sprinting). Strength & Conditioning Describe muscle contraction, demonstrating their understanding of sliding filament theory and the use of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and calcium. Evaluate the effects of various training methods on performance (ie, effects of sports-specific and non-specific training, effects of overtraining, principles of training). Nutrition Describe the relationship between nutrition and activity (ie, caloric balance, nutrient balance). Know the caloric content of each macronutrient and how it applies to RMR and exercise. Functional Movement Skills Be able to explain the key points of several of the function movement skills. Integrate the functional movement skills into a practice or lesson with measureable results. Sample Questions: True and False: T F 1. Actin and myosin are the contractile elements found in the myofibril. T F 2. Carbohydrates are the primary source of energy during activity. T F 3. The major function of the deltoid is the adduction of the shoulder. T F 4. Tendons join bone to bone. T F 5. Eversion involves moving the top of the foot upward toward the shin. T F 6. Abduction occurs when one moves a body part toward the midline. T F 7. Extension takes place when the angle between two bones is increased. T F 8. BMI is based on a ratio between height and weight. T F 9. Vitamins and minerals are examples of macronutrients. T F 10. One gram of fat is equal to 4 kcal. T F 11. Rest between sets increases as you move through the stages of periodization in strength training. T F 12. The principle of individual differences holds that in order for specific outcomes to occur, training exercises must be specific to these outcomes. T F 13. Concussions must be treated with rest and time. T F 14. A common injury to many land-based sports is an ankle sprain. T F 15. ATP breaks down to phosphate and creatine in the energy cycle. Multiple Choice: 1. Which of the following is incorrect? a) the wrist is distal to the elbow b) the sternum is lateral to the humerus c) the sternum is anterior to the vertebral column d) the pelvis is superior to the femur e) none of the above 2. The saggital plane divides the body a) into anterior and posterior b) into superior and inferior c) into left and right d) both a) and b) e) none of the above 3. The scapula is an example of a a) long bone b) short bone c) flat bone d) irregular bone e) sesmoid bone 4. Which of the following are not classifications of muscle: a) cardiac b) smooth c) skeletal d) tendons e) none of the above 5. The anaerobic alactic energy system is mainly used during this stage of exercise: a) from 2 minutes and up b) from 1-10 seconds c) from 10 seconds to 2 minutes d) both a) and c) e) none of the above 6. When the resistance is between the force and the fulcrum, the type of lever is: a) Class I b) Class II c) Class III d) none of the above 7. Basal metabolic rate can be defined as a) the rate at which your cardiovascular system uses energy b) the rate at which all your muscle, taken together, use energy on a daily basis c) the sum of all the essential energy needed for one’s body to function d) a rate of energy comsumption that only applied to those who are active e) all of the above 8. Which of the following statements best describes carbohydrates? a) they break down into amino acids b) they contain 9 calories per gram c) there are 20 or so different types d) all of the above e) none of the above Application: State the opposite actions of all the following movements and give an example of where they occur: flexion, abduction, external rotation, pronation, retraction, plantar flexion and depression. Explain the parts of a long bone. Describe the differences between isokenetic, isometric and isotonic contractions. Describe the relationship between the parts of the sarcomere. Describe the proper and improper treatment of an injury to a joint. Describe the three main energy systems and their limitations. Name several food items that are an excellent source of iron and explain why iron is so important for female athletes. What percentage of our daily caloric intake should come from carbohydrates, fats and proteins? How many calories is in each of these macronutrients? Outline the parameters of the FITT principle. Outline and explain the principles of strength and conditioning. Explain the changes during the process of periodization with regard to each of the four stages of training. With reference to the “Fosbury Flop” and the jump serve, explain how biomechanics has played a role in advancing human performance in the high jump and in volleyball. Using the four basic areas of human development, pick a person you know and write a brief report about their current level of development within each area.
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