Rhetorical Device Examples 鈥Student Discovered.doc by wangnuanzg

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									                      Rhetorical Device Examples – Student Discovered

Anaphora
  1. Anaphora
         a. Something is happening in Memphis; something is happening in our world
         b. It helps emphasize the fact that some sort of change is occurring in the world.
         c. Martin Luther King Junior- April 3rd 1968
  2. Anaphora
         a. Yesterday, the Japanese government also launched an attack against Malaya.
            {Last night, Japanese forces attacked Hong Kong.
            Last night, Japanese forces attacked Guam.
            Last night, Japanese forces attacked the Philippine Islands.
            Last night, the Japanese attacked Wake Island.}
            And this morning, the Japanese attacked Midway Island
         b. He underlines what Japan did against several countries "yesterday" and is trying
            to convince that America should declare war against Japan for what they have
            done.
         c. Franklin Delano Roosevelt Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation delivered 8
            December 1941.
  3. Anaphora
         a. We do not give up. We do not quit. We do not allow fear or division to break
            our spirit.
         b. He emphasizes the point that we as a nation do not give up easily and endure
            through hard times by using this technique.
         c. Barack Obama; State of the Union 2010
  4. Anaphora/Parallelism
         a. We cut taxes. We cut taxes for 95% of working families. We cut taxes for small
            businesses. We cut taxes for first-time homebuyers. We cut taxes for parents
            trying to care for their children. We cut taxes for eight million Americans paying
            for college.
         b. He emphasizes that the government has been cutting taxes for everyone using this
            technique.
         c. Barack Obama; State of the Union 2010
  5. Anaphora
         a. I refuse to accept despair as the final response to the ambiguities of history. I
            refuse to accept the idea that the "isness" of man's present nature makes him
            morally incapable of reaching up for the eternal "oughtness" that forever
            confronts him. I refuse to accept the idea that man is mere flotsam and jetsam in
            the river of life, unable to influence the unfolding events which surround him. I
            refuse to accept the view that mankind is so tragically bound to the starless
            midnight of racism and war that the bright daybreak of peace and brotherhood can
            never become a reality. I refuse to accept the cynical notion that nation after
            nation must spiral down a militaristic stairway into the hell of nuclear
            annihilation.
         b. He uses this device to tell the audience that he refuses to accept whatever that is
            opposing him. With him repeating this line, he captures the audience’s attention
            better than if he were just listing what he refuses to accept.
         c. Martin Luther King – December 10, 1964
   6. Anaphora/Parellelism (repetition)
         a. Somewhere I read of the freedom of assembly. Somewhere I read of the freedom
            of speech. Somewhere I read of the freedom of press.
         b. MLK creates emphasis on this by repeating the same word at the beggining of
            each of these sentences.
         c. Martin Luther King, Jr. --April 3, 1968
   7. Anaphora
         a. It can be helped by preventing realistically the tragedy of the growing loss hrough
            foreclosure of our small homes and our farms. It can be helped by insistence that
            the Federal, the State, and the local governments act forthwith on the demand that
            their cost be drastically reduced. It can be helped by the unifying of relief
            activities which today are often scattered, uneconomical, unequal. It can be helped
            by national planning for and supervision of all forms of transportation and of
            communications and other utilities that have a definitely public character.
         b. “It can be helped” is used at the beggining of each sentence and emphasises the
            statement that they can do something about it and should.
         c. Franklin Delano Roosevelt – 1941
   8. Anaphora/parallelism (sytax)
         a. They have fought in our wars; they have served in our government; they have
            stood for civil rights; they have started businesses; they have taught at our
            universities; they've excelled in our sports arenas; they've won Nobel Prizes,
            built our tallest building, and lit the Olympic Torch.
         b. He emphasizes who he is talking about by stating “they have” to create a balance
            between all the phrases.
         c. Barack Obama,2007

Epistrophe
   1. Epistrophe
         a. …in the midst of death, life persists. In the midst of untruth, truth persists. In the
              midst of darkness, light persists.
         b. The word “persists” is used at the end of clauses that are right next to each other.
         c. Mohandas Gandhi – October 17, 1931
   1. Epistrophe
         a. this nation under God shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of
              the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth.
         b. Lincoln is using “the people” multiple times is succesive clauses to emphasise his
              statement that it s about the people of the united states.
   2. Epistrophe
             a. We all agree tonight, all of the speakers have agreed, that America has a very
                 serious problem. Not only does America have a very serious problem, but
                 our people have a very serious problem. America’s problem is us. We’re her
                 problem. The only reason she has a problem is she doesn’t want us here.
             b. Malcolm X uses epistrophe to emphasize and make clear the “problem” that
                America has.
             c. Malcolm X, October 10, 1963
   4. Epistrophe
             a. It has talked and talked and talked and talked the words of freedom, but it has
                failed and failed and failed in the works of freedom.
             b. He repeats “works of freedom” to emphasize his sentence.
             c. Barry Goldwater; Speech Accepting the Republican Presidential Nomination;
                delivered 16 July 1964, San Francisco

Anadiplosis
  2. Anadiplosis
          a. It's because we have a vision, a vision for the future of this country, of this
             nation, of the WORLD ORDER!
          b. He uses Anadiplosis to emphasize the point that it is their idea, this thing that
             they’re working on, will change the world.
          c. Iron Man, 2008
  2. Anadiplosis
          a. You ask, what is our aim? I can answer in one word: victory. Victory at all costs,
             victory in spite of all terror, victory, however long and hard the road may be; for
             without victory, there is no survival.
          b. The same word used at the end of one clause, is the same word used at the
             beginning of the next clause. By doing this, Mr. Churchill is further explaining his
             one word answer.
          c. Winston Churchill - May 13, 1940

Epanalepsis
   1. Epanalepsis
         a. Hope in the face of difficulty. Hope in the face of uncertainty. The audacity of
             hope!
         b. He uses this to tell us that he wants us to hope.
         c. Barack Obama, 2004 Democratic National Convention Keynote Address, 2004

Parallelism (repetition)
   1. parallelism (repetition)/anaphora
       a. Now {I have been to those labs and research parks. I have talked with the scientists
           and to the venture capitalists. I have seen their ambition.} And let me tell you, I
           would not bet against it.
       b. He is saying “I have…” which further reiterates that he has taken part in what he is
           trying to preach/ what he is saying about Global Warming.
       c. Arnold Schwarzenegger: Address to the United Nations on Global Climate Change
           24 September 2007, United Nations General Assembly
   2. Parallelism (repetition)
           a. For us, they packed up their few worldly possessions and traveled across oceans
               in search of a new life. For us, they toiled in sweatshops and settled the West;
             endured the lash of the whip and plowed the hard earth. For us, they fought and
             died, in places like Concord and Gettysburg; Normandy and Khe Sahn.
        b. This is an example of parallelism because Obama repeats the same phrase three
             times (“For us, they…”). This adds emphasis to what he is trying to say about
             what America did for us.
        c. Barack Obama, January 20, 2009
3.   Parallelism (repetition)
        a. Ours is a Party of the man who was nominated by those distant conventions and
             who inspired and restored this nation in its darkest hours: Franklin D. Roosevelt.
             Ours is a Party of a fighting Democrat who showed us that a common man could
             be an uncommon leader: Harry S. Truman.
             Ours is a Party of a brave young President who called the young at heart,
             regardless of age, to seek a “New Frontier” of national greatness: John F.
             Kennedy.
        b. This is an example of parallelism because Jimmy Carter repeats the same phrase
             three times (“Ours is a Party…”). He uses this to emphasize his belief in the
             Democratic Party, and to get people to vote for him.
        c. Jimmy Carter, July 15 1976
4.   Parallelism (repetition)/anaphora
        a. ”…our faith is sure, our resolve is firm, and our union is strong.”
        b. Bush uses “our” to better describe us, as a people, and as a country. By repeating
             our __ is __, he helps us understand better what he’s saying.
        c. George Bush- 2003
5.   Parallelism (repetition.)/anaphora
        a. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot
             hallow this ground.
        b. He’s repeating “We cannot” we meaning the Americans. He exaggerates it by
             saying it 3 times in the same sentence.
        c. Abraham Lincoln, November 19, 1863.
6.   Parallelism (repetition)
        a. I want to be the President who educated young children to the wonders of their
             world. I want to be the President who helped to feed the hungry and to prepare
             them to be tax-payers instead of tax-eaters. I want to be the President who
             helped the poor to find their own way and who protected the right of every citizen
             to vote in every election. I want to be the President who helped to end hatred
             among his fellow men, and who promoted love among the people of all races and
             all regions and all parties. I want to be the President who helped to end war
             among the brothers of this earth.
        b. The repeated use of “I want to be the President who…” emphasizes the ideas and
             beliefs of President Johnson. These sentences summarize his speech’s main ideas
             and show that they are all similar to each other in being his ideas. This also gives
             the part of speech a more poetic, yet organized, feel.
        c. Lyndon Baines Johnson, 1965
7.   Parallelism (repetition)
        a. We have faced serious challenges together, and now we face a choice. We can go
             forward with confidence and resolve, or we can turn back to the dangerous
              illusion that terrorists are not plotting and outlaw regimes are no threat to us. We
              can press on with economic growth, and reforms in education and Medicare, or
              we can turn back to old policies and old divisions.
         b. He uses repetition in order to give emphasize the choice which the viewers are
              given and emphasize the importance of the choice.
         c. George W. Bush; 2004 State of the Union Address; delivered 20 January 2004
   8. Parallelism (repetition)
         a. Brother: Our seats were once large, and yours very small. You have now become
              a great people, and we have scarcely a place left to spread our blankets. You have
              got our country, but you are not satisfied; you want to force your religion upon us.

              Brother: Continue to listen. You say that you are sent to instruct us how to
              worship the Great Spirit agreeable to His mind. And if we do not take hold of the
              religion which you white people teach, we shall be unhappy hereafter. You say
              that you are right, and we are lost. How do you know this to be true? We
              understand that your religion is written in a book. If it was intended for us as well
              as for you, why has not the Great Spirit given it to us, and not only to us, but why
              did He not give to our forefathers knowledge of that book, with the means of
              understanding it rightly? We only know what you tell us about it. How shall we
              know when to believe, being so often deceived by the white man?

              Brother: You say there is but one way to worship and serve the Great Spirit. If
              there is but one religion, why do you white people differ so much about it? Why
              not all agree, as you can all read the book?

              Brother: We do not understand these things. We are told that your religion was
              given to your forefathers and has been handed down -- father to son. We also have
              a religion, which was given to our forefathers, and has been handed down to us,
              their children. We worship that way. It teaches us to be thankful for all the favors
              we receive; to love each other, and to be united. We never quarrel about religion.

          b. This is showing emphasis on who Chief Red Jacket is directing his speech
             towards. It also makes you feel closer to the speech giver because they are
             referring you as a close family member.

          c. Seneca Chief Red Jacket; 1805

Consonance/Assonance
   1. Consonance
         a. My constituency is the desperate, the damned, the disinherited, the
            disrespected, and the despised. They are restless and seek relief.
         b. He repeatedly says the “d” syllable, which stresses the importance f the words
            he’s saying
         c. Jessie Jackson – 1984
   2. Consonance
         a. Stand up for each other; for beautiful, blessed, bountiful America.
         b. He uses beautiful, blessed, and bountiful to make his speech more interesting and
            create a new effect.
         c. John McCain, September 4, 2008.
   3. Consonance
         a. Rather than useful jobs in our country, our people have been offered bureaucratic
            "make work"; rather than moral leadership, they have been given bread and
            circuses. They have been given spectacles, and, yes, they've even been given
            scandals.
         b. He uses three words that all start with the same consonant sound.
         c. Barry Goldwater; Speech Accepting the Republican Presidential Nomination;
            delivered 16 July 1964, San Francisco
   4. Consonance
         a. Somewhere at this very moment a child is being born in America. Let it be our
            cause to give that child a happy home, a healthy family and a hopeful future.
         b. Consonance is an intentional repetition of 3 or more consonant sounds among
            nearby words. Bill Clinton was intentionally repeating the consonant “h” in this
            sentence.
         c. Bill Clinton delivered this speech on July 16, 1992.
   5. Consonance
         a. “He out-sang his cynics. He out–danced his doubters. He out-performed the
            pessimists.”
         b. He achieved a greater purpose than his rivals.
         c. Reverend Al Sharpton 2009

Slogan

   1. Slogan
         a. “Because it's not just Negroes, but really it's all of us, who must overcome the
             crippling legacy of bigotry and injustice. And we shall overcome.”
         b. The slogan, “We shall overcome”, is repeated throughout the speech in order to
             remind the audience what the focus is on.
         c. Lyndon Baines Johnson, 1965

Parallelism (syntax)
   1. Parallelism (syntax)
           a. And I know it’s not easy. You’re far away from home. You miss your kids. You
              miss your spouses, your family, your friends.
           b. Obama uses parallelism (syntax) to show multiple ideas of a subject to emphasize
              the importance of it.
           c. Barack Obama, 28 March 2010.
   3. Parallelism(syntax)
           a. Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any
              price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any
              foe, to assure the survival and the success of liberty.
           b. He emphasizes the fact that the nation will endure through and face anything to
              assure the freedoms of the country through using this technique.
           c. John F. Kennedy; Presidential Inaugural Address 1961
   4.   Parallelism (syntax)
           a. ”…our faith is sure, our resolve is firm, and our union is strong.”
           b. Bush does this to better describe us, as a people, and as a country. By repeating
                our __ is __, he helps us understand better what he’s saying.
           c. George Bush- 2003
   5.   Parallelism (syntax)
           a. We have a common oppressor, a common exploiter, and a common
                discriminator.
           b. This is an example of parallelism because when he repeats ‘a common’ he is
                showing the equality throughout the sentence, and the importance of each point.
           c. Malcom X 1963
   6.   Parallelism (syntax)
           a. It has talked and talked and talked the words of freedom, but it has failed
                and failed and failed the works of freedom.
           b. The sentence is balanced by both sides by using the same construction and a
                comma to separate the clauses and also has an interesting ring.
           c. Barry Goldwater; Speech Accepting the Republican Presidential Nomination;
                delivered 16 July 1964, San Francisco
   7.   Parallelism (syntax)
           a. “…because Michael kept going, because he didn’t accept limitations, because
                he refused to let people decide his boundaries…”
           b. Emphasizes what sets Micheal Jackson apart from everyone else.
           c. Reverend Al Sharpton 2009

Rhetorical Fragment
   1. Rhetorical Fragment
          a. Look at the American Revolution in 1776. That revolution was for what? For
             land. Why did they want land? Independence. How was it carried out?
             Bloodshed.
          b. He uses this technique by placing short fragments after rhetorical questions to
             emphasize the point that bloodshed is the only way to freedom.
          c. Malcolm X; Message to Grassroots 1963

   2. Rhetorical fragment
         a. He knew it was not enough. Not enough.
         b. By repeating “Not enough” as a fragment, he is emphasizing the idea and
             stressing it to his audience, who will likely remember the phrase better.
         c. Barack Obama, 2004

Rhetorical Question
   1. Rhetorical question
          a. What would happen to me from some of our sick white brothers?

           b. B. This rhetorical question allows for the audience to revel in deep thought as
              they consider the reality of the persecution the blacks were facing at the time.
           c. C. Martin Luther King Junior-April 3rd 1968
   2.   Rhetorical Question
        a. “How do we preserve their legacy -- not just on this day, but every day? We need
           not look far for our answer.”
        b. This a rhetorical question because after the speaker asks the question, he answers it
           by saying that they “need not look far.” Meaning that the question asked was not
           meant to be difficult; we should have already known the answer.
        c. Barack Obama, 2010
   4.   Rhetorical Question
           a. Why should you take by force that from us which you can have by love? Why
               should you destroy us who have provided you with food? What can you get
               by war? We can hide our provisions and fly into the woods. And then you must
               consequently famish by wrongdoing your friends.
           b. Chief Powhatan is asking why Captain John Smith chooses to do so much harm to
               him and his people when they have done so much good to benefit Smith’s people.
           c. Chief Powhatan, 1609
   5.   Rhetorical Question
           a. “However, why are we here? How is it that a simple, plain property issue
               should now find itself so ennobled as to be argued before the Supreme Court
               of the United States of America? I mean, do we fear the lower courts, which
               found for us easily, somehow missed the truth? Is that it?”
           b. It makes the audience think about the issues or problems that are either
               overlooked or not thought about greatly.
           c. John Quincy Adams - 1997
   6.   Rhetorical Question
           a. And what sort of soldiers are those you are to lead? Are they reliable? Are
               they brave? Are they capable of victory?
           b. He uses a rhetorical question to add emphasis and make the audience think about
               what he is talking about.
           c. May 12, 1962 General Douglas Macarthur

Asyndeton
   1. asyndeton
         a. There were dark nations from Africa and Asia. Some of them were Buddhists.
             Some of them were Muslim. Some of them were Christians. Some of them
             were Confucianists; some were atheists. Despite their religious differences, they
             came together. Some were communists; some were socialists; some were
             capitalists. Despite their economic and political differences, they came together.
             All of them were black, brown, red, or yellow.
   2. Asyndeton
         a. Whether they are in Johannesburg, South Africa; Nairobi, Kenya; Accra,
             Ghana; New York City; Atlanta, Georgia; Jackson, Mississippi; or Memphis,
             Tennessee -- the cry is always the same: "We want to be free."
         b. This takes out the conjunctions and makes it so that it creates emphasis as he
             groups the people.
          c. Martin Luther King, Jr. --April 3, 1968
Polysendeton
   1. Polysyndeton
          a. We lived and laughed and loved and left.
          b. This polysyndeton makes emphasizes the point that the person had a good time
             and it the period of time was short.
          c. James Joyce-1939
   2. Polysyndeton
          a. You didn’t come here on the "Mayflower." You came here on a slave ship ——
             in chains, like a horse, or a cow, or a chicken.
          b. He uses this technique by using “or a” instead of the usual conjunction and shows
             them how inhumanely they were brought over to America.
          c. Malcolm X; Message to Grassroots 1963
   3. Polysyndeton
          a. In it men and women from all these countries -- large or small, powerful or
             weak.
          b. She uses “or” a lot to make the address general and show that it applies to all
             people not a specific group.
          c. Queen Elizabeth II Address to the United Nations General Assembly delivered 21
             October 1957
   4. polysyndeton
          a. Nor will it be finished in the first one thousand days; nor in the life of this
             Administration; nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. But let us
             begin.
          b. he repeats the conjunction “nor” to show the difficulty of the obstacles
          c. JFK-1961
   5. Polysyndeton
          a. And we all agree that we needed to make it harder for them to organize and
             strategize and get flight licenses and sneak across our borders.
          b. The numerous “and” conjunctions are used to emphasize the number of reasons
             the PATRIOT Act was implemented, and emphasize its great importance.
          c. Barack Obama; Senate Floor Speech on the PATRIOT Act; delivered 15
             December 2005
   6. Polysyndeton
          a. It has talked and talked and talked and talked the words of freedom, but it has
             failed and failed and failed in the works of freedom.
          b. He uses numerous conjunctions, 7, to emphasize the importance of what he is
             talking about.
   7. Polysyndeton
          a. Black and White, Rich and Poor, wise and other wise, drunk and sober
          b. Using “and” to emphasize that she is referring to a very wide range of people
          c. Anna Howard Shaw; 1915
   8. polysyndeton
          a. Instead, they overlap and share common principles -- principles of justice and
             progress, tolerance and the dignity of all human beings.
          b. Using the conjunction “and” groups the ideas into pairs, which are easier to
              understand and are more interesting than if he just listed the ideas one by one. It
              also suggests a bigger variety of ideas other than what was listed.
          c. Barack Obama, 2009
   9. Polysyndeton
          a. you can be filled with bitterness, and with hatred, and a desire for revenge.
          b. Polysyndenton is deliberate use of many conjunctions for special emphasis. The
              constant use of “and” in the sentence made it effective by putting emphasis on
              the people’s feelings when they got to know that MLKJ died. Robert is
              emphasizing the emotions of the people at that time of the speech.
          c. Robert J. Kennedy delivered this speech on April 4, 1968.
   10. Polysyndeton
          a. “It will not reduce our need for arms or allies or programs of assistance to
              others.”
          b. Shows that what has happened will not completely change political structure.
          c. John F. Kennedy, July 26, 1963.
   11. Polysyndeton
          a. “Here is what this step can mean to you and to your children and your
              neighbors…”
          b. Adds unity, and includes everyone.
          c. John F. Kennedy, July 26, 1963.

Ellipses
    1. Ellipsis
           a. All you gotta do.
           b. He uses this technique by omitting the word “That’s” at the beginning of the
               sentence even though the audience knows that it is implied in the context.
           c. Malcolm X; Message to Grassroots 1963
    2. Ellipsis
           a. Sound familiar?
           b. An ellipsis is the intentional omission of a word or words that are readily implied
               by the context. This is an ellipsis because “Sound familiar?” is not a sentence and
               there are not the words”Does it” in front of “Sound familiar?” So Barack
               Obama didn’t include those words on purpose to emphasize and for us to think
               about what the paragraph before it is saying.
           c. Barack Obama (2007)


Inverted Syntax
   1. Inverted Syntax
          a. For us, they toiled in sweatshops and settled the West
          b. This inverted syntax intensifies “for us”, which makes their sacrifice weigh even
             more.
          c. President Barack Obama-January 20th 2009
   2. Inverted Syntax
          a. Indifference, then, is not only a sin, it is a punishment.
         b. This inversion between ‘indifference’ and ‘then’ is used to make the statement
             more strong, more emphasized. “Then, indifference is not only a sin, it is a
             punishment” is clearly a weaker sentence, and switching those two words made it
             more clear and strong.
         c. Elie Wiesel, 1999
   3. Inverted syntax
         a. …to live in peace and security; to get an education and to work with dignity; to
             love our families, our communities, and our God. These things we share.
         b. Instead of saying “We share these things”, he switches the predicate and the
             subject which sounds a little awkward but the audience will likely remember the
             phrase.
         c. Obama, 2007

Juxtaposition
   1. Contrast (juxtaposition)
          a. "To whom much is given, of him much is required."
          b. It is juxt. because it creates an interesting effect with normally unassociated.
          c. Clarence Thomas, 2001 “Be Not Afraid”
   2. Juxtaposition
          a. It is a crisis of confidence.
          b. “Crisis” and “confidence” is not normally perceived to correlate, but President
              Carter juxtaposed these two words to explain how America’s overconfidence may
              have led to undesirable events (hence “crisis”). This juxtaposition gives many of
              his audience to analyze his meaning in this sentence, because they find it unusual
              for “crisis” and “confidence” to be together. After analyzing, many of his
              audience would then understand his point better, if not at all.
          c. Jimmy Carter, 1979
   3. Juxtaposition
          a. It has talked and talked and talked and talked the words of freedom, but it has
              failed and failed and failed in the works of freedom.
          b. He combines unique concepts to create an interesting sentence to interest the
              reader.
          c. Barry Goldwater; Speech Accepting the Republican Presidential Nomination;
              delivered 16 July 1964, San Francisco
   4. Juxtapostion
          a. "If you want to go quickly, go alone. If you want to go far, go together." We
              need to go far, quickly.
          b. He put the answer together when there was really only 1 choice.
          c. Albert A. Gore Nobel Peace Prize Lecture delivered 10 December 2007, Oslo,
              Norway

Antithesis
   1. Antithesis
           a. "Put up or shut up."
           b. It is antithesis because it only gives two options to the audience.
           c. Clarence Thomas, 2001 “Be Not Afraid”
   2. Antithesis
         a. It is no longer a choice between violence and nonviolence in this world; it's
             nonviolence or nonexistence.
         b. The two bolded words are presented as the only options when in reality there are
             many more.
         c. Martin Luther King, Jr. ; 3 April 1968
   3. Antithesis
         a. Not the human capacity for evil, but the human capacity for good. Not the
             desire to destroy, but the impulse to save, and to serve, and to build.
         b. Help strongly show opposites of what we shouldn’t do in contrast to what’s right.
         c. Barack Obama; 2009
   4. Antithesis
         a. So long as our relationship is defined by our differences, we will empower those
             who sow hatred rather than peace, those who promote conflict rather than the
             cooperation that can help all of our people achieve justice and prosperity.
         b. By putting contrasts of peace vs. violence, he is stressing the urge to create and
             maintain a solid, good relationship [with the Muslim community]. This leaves the
             audience with seemingly two choices: get past their differences and encourage
             peace or let things stay the same and promote violence and hatred.
         c. Barack Obama, 2009

   6. Antithesis
         a. “Either the opponents of slavery will arrest this further spread and place it
             where the public mind shall rest in the belief that it is on a course of ultimate
             extinction; or its advocates shall press it forward, until it shall become alike
             lawful in all of the States, old as well as new, North as well as South.”
         b. Shows only two options, in a way that shows it’s either the favored option or the
             unwanted option.
         c. Abraham Lincoln, June 16, 1858

Oxymoron
  1. Contrast (oxymoron)
        a. "gun-toting moderate"
        b. Its oxymoron because gun-toting and moderate are two words that don’t go
            together.
        c. Clarence Thomas, 2001 “Be Not Afraid”

   2. Oxymoron
         a. ’Cause someone has taught you to suffer —— peacefully.
         b. Malcolm X uses this phrase to tell you to endure pain without screaming; he
            wants you to just think the pain is nothing. You cannot suffer in peace in real life.
         c. Malcolm X, 1963

Paradox
   1. Paradox
         a. The silence is deafening.
         b. At first this phrase doesn’t make sense, but when you think about it, when it is
            silent, you can’t hear anything, consequently, it’s like you are deaf..
         c. delivered May 1993, Mercer University, Macon, GA Clarence Thomas
   2. Paradox
         a. …symbolizing an end, as well as a beginning…
         b. J. F. Kennedy uses Paradox to display the fact that his coming into office is not
            just a new beginning, since he’s a new person, but the end of whatever problems
            they may have had previously, but it seems strange at first that a beginning could
            also be an end.
         c. John F. Kennedy, 1961
   3. Paradox
         a. "The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but it can
            never forget what they did here."
         b. At first it doesn’t seem to make much sense that what happens could be forgotten,
            and remembered at the same time, but when you think about it, what is said
            doesn’t really matter to people in the long run, but they have to live with and
            remember what is actually done.

Hyperbole
  1. Hyperbole
         a. Massachusetts is on the frontline of marriage, but unless we adopt a federal
             amendment to protect marriage, what's happening here will unquestionably
             enter every other state.
         b. This is used to make the people feel more strongly with the speaker and makes
             them think they really need to make a change. They couldn’t possibly know what
             every state will do though.
         c. Mitt Romney, delivered 15 October 2008
  2. Hyperbole
         a. Go search where you will, roam through all the monarchies and despotisms of the
             Old World, travel through South America, search out every abuse and when you
             have found the last, lay your facts by the side of the everyday practices of this
             nation, and you will say with me that, for revolting barbarity and shameless
             hypocrisy, America reigns without a rival.
         b. America does have a rival. Several rivals actually. And not all Americans are for
         slavery. Some are against it and are willing to help.
         c. Frederick Douglass, 1852
  3. Hyperbole
         a. “As a rule, some people think if you give them a football, or a baseball, or
             something like that -- naturally they're athletes right away.”
         b. To try and prove a point he says “naturally they’re athletes…” but really the can’t
             be athletes right away, proving his point.
         c. Babe Ruth, Farewell to Baseball Address, 1947
  4. Hyperbole/Security
         a. And also in the human rights revolution, if something isn't done, and done in a
             hurry, to bring the colored peoples of the world out of their long years of poverty,
             their long years of hurt and neglect, the whole world is doomed.
         b. If something is not done, the world will not be doomed, but saying that it will be
            exaggerates the fact and creates emphasis on it, making the audience believe they,
            in this case, have to do something.
         c. Martin Luther King, Jr. --April 3, 1968
   5. Hyperbole
         a. “This is the most radical, daring experiment in our history.”
         b. Cloning is a big issue, but Rifkin is making it seem huge and couldn’t possibly
            rank experiments in history on a scale from most to least that everyone would
            agree on. He uses superlatives and adjectives that have a major impact on the
            listener’s thought processing.
         c. Jeremy Rifkin, 1998.
   6. Hyperbole
         a. You know, four years ago, following the most devastating attack in our history,
            this Senate passed the USA PATRIOT Act in order to give our Nation's law
            enforcement the tools they needed to track down terrorists who plot and lurk
            within our own borders and all over the world; terrorists who, right now, are
            looking to exploit weaknesses in our laws and our security to carry out attacks
            that may be even deadlier than those that took place on September 11.
         b. There may have been a more devastating attack in the history of the US, such as
            the attack on Pearl Harbor; he does this in order to emphasize this certain
            occurrence as very important and influential.
         c. Barack Obama; Senate Floor Speech on the PATRIOT Act; delivered 15
            December 2005

   7. Hyperbole
         a. We are shaped by every culture, drawn from every end of the Earth.
         b. He is stressing that his country is very diverse, with a vast variety of culture and
            origins, but we cannot be “drawn from every end of the Earth” because the Earth
            has no end, and we cannot measure “every” culture, so these are exaggerations.
         c. Barrack Obama, 2007

Farce
   1. Farce
         a. These new weapons are not in your interest. They contribute nothing to your
            peace and well-being. They can only undermine it. But this country has no wish to
            cause you to suffer or to impose any system upon you. We know that your lives
            and land are being used as pawns by those who deny your freedom.
         b. The Cubans are said to be used as pawns so represent their powerlessness and
            being controlled by other countries. This exaggerates the fact of Cuba’s land
            being used by a missile site, because they may not necessarily be used solely for
            another country’s benefit.
         c. John F. Kennedy, 1962
Pun
   1. Pun
         a. “the Cold War thawed”
           b. The Cold War didn’t actually thaw, but he says it as a witty remark relating
              “Cold” to actually being cold in temperature which would allow it to thaw if it
              was in a temperature meaning of the word cold.
           c. George W. Bush, GOP Nomination Acceptance Address Philadelphia, PA, 2000
6. Pun
           a. These acts shatter steel, but they cannot dent the steel of American resolve.
           b. George Bush uses a serious pun to get the audience to really reflect on what he is
              talking about by referring to actual steel first and then referring to steel as
              determination.
           c. George Bush, September 11, 2001

Idiom
    1. Idiom
           a. “I would move on by Greece and take my mind to Mount Olympus.”
           b. He wouldn’t literally take his mind, being his brain, to Mount Olympus. Instead,
              he means he will think about and focus on the subject of the speech.
           c. Martin Luther King, Jr. - 1968
    2. Idiom
           a. I’ll not forget guys like Tito the Builder. He recently became a U.S. citizen,
              running his own construction company now. And he on the trail, he was telling us
              so proudly, he says, "Yes, I was born in Colombia, but I was made in the USA.
              This is a land of opportunity."
           b. This is an idiom because you can’t be made in the U.S. This indicates that from
              the position the United States, you can achieve all of your dreams. Of course, we
              know that we cannot accomplish all of our wants, but can get close to achieving
              them.
           c. Sarah Palin- November 13th 2008

   3. Idiom
          a.  ”Now, the truth is, no matter how hard you work, you're not going to ace every
             class…”
          b. Obama says you are not going to ace all your classes, meaning that you’re not
             going to pass all of your classes with amazing grades, but instead of saying it the
             boring way, he says it in a way that everybody knows.
          c. Barack Obama- 2010
   4. Idiom
          a. Several weeks ago, these efforts bore fruit.
          b. He uses an idiom in order to interest the reader and provide for varied speech
             techniques.
          c. Barack Obama; Senate Floor Speech on the PATRIOT Act; delivered 15
             December 2005
   5. idiom
          a. But I am convinced that in order to move forward, we must say openly to each
             other the things we hold in our hearts and that too often are said only behind
             closed doors.
          b. The President uses “hearts” and “closed doors” metaphorically, in familiar
             expressions of ‘saying unspoken thoughts’ that get his ideas across easier.
          c. Barack Obama, 2009

Colloquialism
   1. Colloqualism
          a. …"Hallelujah Holla Back."
          b. Obama uses colloquialism to have better communication with a different dialect.
          c. Barack Obama, 18 May 2009.
   2. Colloquialism
          a. They didn't get around to that.
          b. “Get around to that” is a phrase used by many Americans, and by saying he
              speaks their language in a way.
          c. Martin Luther King, Jr. --April 3, 1968
7. Colloquialism
          a. The facts of yesterday and today speak for themselves.
          b. “speak for themselves” is a commonly used phrase that americans use to express
              that something has enough evidence to prove itself.
          c. Franklin Delano Roosevelt -- 1941
8. Colloquialism
          a. The United States trying to hang on to second.
          b. To use common language to say, “to keep 2nd place”
          c. Dan Hicks and Rowdy Gaines. 2008
9. Colloquialism
          a. that you must not allow yourself to get bogged down with unattained goals.
          b. This is a term which people of this time were common with.
          c. Martin Luther King Sermon at Temple Israel of Hollywood delivered 26
              February 1965

Purr Words/Weasel Words
   1. Purr Words
         a. So I want to thank the Academy for this incredible honor.
         b. She refers to the award as an incredible honor, which shows that she doesn’t take
            the award for granted and appreciates it.
         c. Reese Witherspoon 2006
   2. Purr Words
         a. “Through hard work and perseverance my father got a scholarship to study in a
            magical place, America,”
         b. He says America is a magical place while talking to Americans, so he is
            complimenting the audience.
         c. Barack Obama, 2004 Democratic National Convention Keynote Address, 2004
   3. Weasel and Purr Words (2 Techniques)
         a. The Iraqi people will, in the name of God, add to their honorable record. It will
            be a day when the cowardly aggressors will be condemned by both history and
            the whole world, having been condemned by God Almighty.
         b. He uses these techniques to slander the Americans as well as inspire the Iraqi
             people at the same time.
         c. Saddam Hussein; 1996
   4. Purr words
         a. This great Nation will endure, as it has endured, will revive and will prosper.
         b. Roosevelt is using these words ( “revive”, “prosper”, and “endure”) to get the
             crowd to believe in their country and to inspire a good reaction.
         c. Franklin Delano Roosevelt – 1941
   5. Purr Words
         a. We are in a transitional period right now, fascinating and exhilarating times,
             learning to adjust to changes and the choices we, men and women, are facing.
         b. It caused the audience to feel excited and to pay special attention to what she is
             saying.
         c. Barbara Pierce Bush ; June 1st, 1990
   6. Purr Words
         a. I need not pause to say how delighted and honored I am to be here tonight, and
             to be a part of this very significant conference. And I certainly want to express
             my deep personal appreciation to the committee and to all of you for extending
             the invitation. It is always a rich and rewarding experience for me to take a brief
             break from the day-to-day demands of our struggle for freedom and human
             dignity and discuss the issues involved in that struggle with college and university
             students and concerned people of goodwill all over this nation and all over the
             world. And so I can assure you that it is a great privilege to be here with you
             tonight.
         b. This device is used to cause the listeners to feel happily and creates a very
             positive atmosphere
         c. Martin Luther King Jr. delivered 1984


Anecdote
   1. Anecdote
         a. In [Ralph Waldo] Emerson's later years his memory began increasingly to fail. He
            used to refer to it as his 'naughty memory' when it let him down. He would forget
            the names of things, and have to refer to them in a circumlocutory way, saying,
            for instance, 'the implement that cultivates the soil' for plow. Worse, he could not
            remember people's names. At Longfellow's funeral, he remarked to a friend, 'That
            gentleman has a sweet, beautiful soul, but I have entirely forgotten his name.'
            Perhaps most touching was his term for umbrella--'the thing that strangers take
            away.'
         b. This makes an effect of more evidence to support his argument because its an
            actual example, which makes it more believable.
         c. Clifton Fadiman 1985
   2. Anecdote
         a. And I will carry this: It is the police shield of a man named George Howard, who
            died at the World Trade Center trying to save others. It was given to me by his
            mom, Arlene, as a proud memorial to her son.
      b. He uses the story of George Howard to demonstrate the valor of the all the men
         and women who died in 9/11
      c. President Bush-September 20th 2001
3. Anecdote
      a. “And while sitting there autographing books, a demented black woman came up.
         The only question I heard from her was, "Are you Martin Luther King?" And I
         was looking down writing, and I said, "Yes." And the next minute I felt
         something beating on my chest. Before I knew it I had been stabbed by this
         demented woman.”
      b. He is telling a personal story that relates to the topic he is speaking on in order to
         help the audience better understand where he is coming from.
4. Anecdote
      a. While studying here, my father met my mother. She was born in a town on the
         other side of the world, in Kansas. Her father worked on oil rigs and farms
         through most of the Depression. The day after Pearl Harbor my grandfather
         signed up for duty; joined Patton’s army, marched across Europe. Back home, my
         grandmother raised a baby and went to work on a bomber assembly line. After the
         war, they studied on the G.I. Bill, bought a house through F.H.A., and later moved
         west all the way to Hawaii in search of opportunity.And they, too, had big dreams
         for their daughter. A common dream, born of two continents.
      b. He used this story throughout the speech to personalize his speech and connect
         with the audience
      c. Barack Obama 2004
5. Anecdote
      a. As a child -- As a child, I stuttered, and she lovingly would look at me and tell
         me, "Joey, it's because you're so bright you can't get the thoughts out quickly
         enough." When I was not as well-dressed as the other kids, she'd look at me and
         say, "Joey, oh, you're so handsome, honey, you're so handsome." And when I got
         -- when I got knocked down by guys bigger than me -- and this is the God's truth -
         - she sent me back out and said, "Bloody their nose so you can walk down the
         street the next day." And that's what I did. You know -- and after the accident, she
         told me, she said, "Joey, God sends no cross that you cannot bear." And when I
         triumphed, my mother was quick to remind me it was because of others. My
         mother's creed is the American creed: No one is better than you. Everyone is your
         equal, and everyone is equal to you.
      b. He uses this technique by using his own personal experience to connect with the
         audience and teach the lesson that everyone is equal.

6. Anecdote
      a. It wasn't all romantic. I didn't have a dorm room, so I slept on the floor in friends'
         rooms. I returned coke bottles for the five cent deposits to buy food with, and I
         would walk the seven miles across town every Sunday night to get one good meal
         a week at the Hare Krishna temple. I loved it. And much of what I stumbled into
         by following my curiosity and intuition turned out to be priceless later on.
      b. He uses this technique in the form of a personal experience to show the audience
         what he endured and what life lessons he learned through the experience.
      c. Steve Jobs; 2005
7. Anecdote
      a. It was a little cocker spaniel dog in a crate that he'd sent all the way from , black
         and white, spotted. And our little girl Tricia, the six year old, named it
         "Checkers." And you know, the kids, like all kids, love the dog, and I just want to
         say this, right now, that regardless of what they say about it, we're gonna keep it.
      b. He’s relating to the audience in the fact that many people have dogs and most
         have good feelings about kids and how they love animals.
      c. Richard M. Nixon -- 1952
8. Anecdote
      a. My first job after college was as a teacher in Cotulla, Texas, in a small Mexican-
         American school. Few of them could speak English, and I couldn't speak much
         Spanish. My students were poor and they often came to class without breakfast,
         hungry. And they knew, even in their youth, the pain of prejudice. They never
         seemed to know why people disliked them. But they knew it was so, because I
         saw it in their eyes. I often walked home late in the afternoon, after the classes
         were finished, wishing there was more that I could do. But all I knew was to teach
         them the little that I knew, hoping that it might help them against the hardships
         that lay ahead.

       b.    President Johnson uses a personal experience of teaching to show the reality of
            racism and to show emotions and feelings behind it. The use of a real example
            also helps his audience better understand the issue he is discussing, racism.

       c. Lyndon Baines Johnson, 1965
9. Anecdote
       a. And even some of the youngest understand that we are living in historic times.
          Last month a girl in Lincoln, Rhode Island, sent me a letter. It began, "Dear
          George W. Bush. If there's anything you know, I, Ashley Pearson, age 2, age 10
          [sic], can do to help anyone, please send me a letter and tell me what I can do to
          save our country." She added this P.S.: "If you can send a letter to the troops,
          please put, 'Ashley Pearson believes in you.'"
       b. He shows an anecdote from a little girl to induce emotional reactions from the
          audience.
       c. George W. Bush; 2004 State of the Union Address; delivered 20 January 2004
10. Anecdote
       a. You know, and what a place, Washington, DC, to grow up in. I used to walk these
          streets as an aimless teen, young adult; walk by ABC News over on DeSales,
          daydream; stare up at the Washington Post newsroom over on 15th Street; look up
          longingly, knowing I'd never get in -- didn't go to the right schools, never enjoyed
          any school, as a matter of fact, didn't come from a well-known family -- nor was I
          even remotely connected to a public -- a powerful publishing dynasty.
       b. To make the speech feel more personal and the audience feel more close to him.
       c. Matt Drudge;1998
11. Anecdote
          a. And I want to commend the preachers, under the leadership of these noble men:
              James Lawson, one who has been in this struggle for many years; he's been to jail
              for struggling; he's been kicked out of Vanderbilt University for this struggle, but
              he's still going on, fighting for the rights of his people. Reverend Ralph Jackson,
              Billy Kiles; I could just go right on down the list, but time will not permit. But I
              want to thank all of them. And I want you to thank them, because so often,
              preachers aren't concerned about anything but themselves. And I'm always happy
              to see a relevant ministry.
          b. This is an anecdote because MLK tell s about a situation or a story, and he does
              this by summarizing the main ideas he wants to say.
          c. Martin Luther King jr in 1968
   12. Anecdote
          a. Public health issues are very personal to me. My father died with diabetes and
              hypertension. My older brother, and only sibling, died at age 44 of HIV-related
              illness. My mother died of lung cancer, because as a young girl, she wanted to
              smoke just like her twin brother could. My Uncle Buddy, my mother's twin,
              who's one of the few surviving black World War II prisoners of war, is at home
              right now, on oxygen, struggling for each breath because of the years of smoking.
          b. Regina M. Benjamin uses a personal story to tell us why she wanted to be
              nominated as United States Surgeon General.
          c. Regina M. Benjamin, 2009
   13. Anecdote
          a. Sometimes, without warning, the future knocks on our door with a precious and
              painful vision of what might be. One hundred and nineteen years ago, a wealthy
              inventor read his own obituary, mistakenly published years before his death.
              Wrongly believing the inventor had just died, a newspaper printed a harsh
              judgment of his life's work, unfairly labeling him "The Merchant of Death"
              because of his invention -- dynamite. Shaken by this condemnation, the inventor
              made a fateful choice to serve the cause of peace. Seven years later, Alfred Nobel
              created this prize and the others that bear his name .
          b. It emotionally connects with the listeners
          c. Albert A. Gore, 2007
   14. anecdote
          a. And you know, if I were standing at the beginning of time, with the possibility of
              taking a kind of general and panoramic view of the whole of human history up to
              now, and the Almighty said to me, "Martin Luther King, which age would you
              like to live in?" I would take my mental flight by Egypt and I would watch God's
              children in their magnificent trek from the dark dungeons of Egypt through, or
              rather across the Red Sea, through the wilderness on

Analogy
  1. Analogy
        a. “For thousands of years we’ve been burning, forging, soldering, melting, and
           heating inert material from the earth’s crust. We’ve been using pyro-technologies,
           fire-technologies and we’ve refashioned the earth using fire. We’ve created steel,
           glass, cinnabar, cement, synthetics and plastic. The culmination of the fire-
           technology era is the industrial age, the burning of fossil fuels and nuclear
           power.”
        b. He uses this analogy to show how something people felt the same way about as
           they do cloning ended up being one of the most amazing discoveries.
        c. Jeremy Rifkin, 1998.
2.   Analogy
        a. In San Jose, in the heart of the high-tech world, sits what’s known as the
           Winchester Mystery House. It started out in the late 1880s as a small farmhouse
           and by the 1920s was transformed into a 160-room, seven-story Victorian
           mansion with doors and stairways that lead no where, dead-end hallways, and
           mazes that can leave you lost for hours. The house grew that way -- with no logic
           or plan -- because the owner just kept adding, adjusting and adding again as needs
           or desires required; the result is an architectural white elephant. In the world of
           communications policy, we have our own version of the Mystery House.
        b. To compare chaos to the radio act Tom is talking about to help prove his point
        c. Tom Tauke, 2010
3.   Analogy
        a. Instead of us airing our differences in public, we have to realize we’re all the
           same family. And when you have a family squabble, you don’t get out on the
           sidewalk. If you do, everybody calls you uncouth, unrefined, uncivilized, savage.
           If you don’t make it at home, you settle it at home; you get in the closet ——
           argue it out behind closed doors. And then when you come out on the street, you
           pose a common front, a united front. And this is what we need to do in the
           community, and in the city, and in the state. We need to stop airing our
           differences in front of the white man. Put the white man out of our meetings,
           number one, and then sit down and talk shop with each other. [That’s] all you
           gotta do.
        b. Malcolm X uses an analogy to compare the concept of a family who quarrels in
           public and the black community showing their differences in public. He uses this
           analogy because most people know what it feels like to fight with their family in
           public, and how it affects people’s point of view toward the family.
        c. Malcolm X, October 10, 1963
4.   Analogy
        a. But I know, somehow, that only when it is dark enough can you see the stars.
        b. He is using the idea of the stars only coming out in the dark to help the reader
           understand how there is only hope in a time of darkness. Therefore this is an
           analogy.
        c. Martin Luther King, Jr. ; 3 April 1968
5.   Analogy
        a. For we have learned from recent experience that when a financial system weakens
           in one country, prosperity is hurt everywhere. When a new flu infects one human
           being, all are at risk. When one nation pursues a nuclear weapon, the risk of
           nuclear attack rises for all nations. When violent extremists operate in one stretch
           of mountains, people are endangered across an ocean. When innocents in Bosnia
           and Darfur are slaughtered, that is a stain on our collective conscience.
           b. He is using analogies of history in order to emphasize the lesson gained from
              them. By keeping all the analogies in the same structure, they are more
              understandable to his audience.
           c. Barack Obama. 2007

Opponent’s POV
  1. Opponents point of view
         a. I have a few years on my opponent, so I am surprised that a young man has
            bought in to so many failed ideas. Like others before him, he seems to think
            government is the answer to every problem;
         b. John McCain uses this device to acknowledge and refute some of Obama’s ideas.
         c. John McCain-June 3rd 2008
  2. Opponent’s Point- of- View
         a. A leading Douglas democratic newspaper thinks Douglas's superior talent will be
            needed to resist the revival of the African slave trade. Does Douglas believe an
            effort to revive the African slave trade is approaching? He's not said so. Does he
            really think so? If it is, how can he resist it? For years he's labored to prove it a
            sacred right for men to take negro slaves into the new Territories. Can he possibly
            show that its less a sacred right to buy them where they can be bought cheaper?
            Unquestionably they can be bought cheaper in Africa than in Virginia. He's done
            all in his power to reduce the whole question of slavery to one of a right of
            property; and as such, how can he oppose the foreign slave trade -- how can he
            refuse that trade in that "property" shall be "perfectly free"? -- unless he does it as
            a protection to those who are home producers. Well, then, as the home producers
            will probably not ask for that the protection, he shall be wholly without any
            ground of opposition.
         b. This is an example of opponent’s point-of-view because Abraham Lincoln is
            acknowledging his opponent’s point-of-view and makes it seem very
            unintelligent.
         c. Abraham Lincoln-June 16th 1858
  3. Opponents Point of View
         a. And it has been so interesting now to watch the aftermath of the Massachusetts
            Chowder Revolution. The White House blames the candidate -- their candidate.
            And Nancy Pelosi, she blamed the Senate Democrats. And Rahm Emanuel, he
            criticized a pollster. And yet again, President Obama found some way to make
            this all about George Bush. You know, considering the recent conservative
            election sweep, it’s time that they stop blaming everyone else. When you’re 0-for-
            3, you’d better stop lecturing and start listening.
         b. She uses this technique to show how ridiculous her opponent’s point of view of is.
         c. Sarah Palin; Tea Party Keynote Speech
  4. Opponent’s POV
         a. “But with all of these great benefits in store for us, a nagging question remains: At
            what cost? Will the artificial creation of cloned, chimeric, and transgenic animals
            mean the end of nature and the substitution of a bio-industrial world from the
            laboratory? Will the mass release of thousands and thousands of genetically
           engineered life forms into our biosphere cause genetic pollution and irreversible
           damage to our planet?”
        b. Rifkin answers these questions later in the speech (making the questions
           rhetorical). The opponent (anyone who is against his platform) would ask these
           questions in retaliation.
        c. Jeremy Rifkin, 1998.
5.   Opponents’ POV
        a. The church has ever opposed the progress of woman on the ground that her
           freedom would lead to immorality. We ask the church to have more confidence in
           women. We ask the opponents of this movement to reverse the methods of the
           church, which aims to keep women moral by keeping them in fear and in
           ignorance, and to inculcate into them a higher and truer morality based upon
           knowledge. And ours is the morality of knowledge. If we cannot trust woman
           with the knowledge of her own body, then I claim that two thousand years of
           Christian teaching has proved to be a failure.
        b. Margaret Sanger, 1921
6.   Opponents’ POV
        a. Now, there are some who question the scale of our ambitions -- who suggest that
           our system cannot tolerate too many big plans. Their memories are short. For they
           have forgotten what this country has already done; what free men and women can
           achieve when imagination is joined to common purpose, and necessity to courage.
                   What the cynics fail to understand is that the ground has shifted beneath
                   them -- that the stale political arguments that have consumed us for so
                   long no longer apply. The question we ask today is not whether our
                   government is too big or too small, but whether it works -- whether it
                   helps families find jobs at a decent wage, care they can afford, a
                   retirement that is dignified. Where the answer is yes, we intend to move
                   forward. Where the answer is no, programs will end. And those of us who
                   manage the public's dollars will be held to account -- to spend wisely,
                   reform bad habits, and do our business in the light of day -- because only
                   then can we restore the vital trust between a people and their government.
        b. President Obama addressed the opponents’ point of views by stating their opinion,
           then makes a strong and firm argument stating how the “ground has shifted”, that
           things have changed, and what they believe no longer applies.
        c. Barack Obama, 2009
7.   Opponent’s point-of-view
        a. Supporters of this conference report have argued we should hold our noses and
           support this legislation because it is not going to get any better.
        b. He shows the opponent’s point of view so that he can effectively counter it and
           make the viewer believe that he is right, not the opponent.
        c. Barack Obama; Senate Floor Speech on the PATRIOT Act; delivered 15
           December 2005
8.   Opponents Point of View
        a. Making these false statements to federal agents was an incredibly stupid thing for
           me to do, and I am responsible fully for my actions. I have no one to blame but
           myself for what I have done.
         b. By showing the other view, it makes people feel bad for her because she is telling
            them that she did wrong.
   9. Opponent’s Point of View
         a. And now I've noticed a pattern with our opponent. And maybe you have, too.
            We've all heard his dramatic speeches before devoted followers.
            And there is much to like and admire about our opponent. But listening to him
            speak, it's easy to forget that this is a man who has authored two memoirs but not
            a single major law or even a reform, not even in the state senate.
            This is a man who can give an entire speech about the wars America is fighting,
            and never use the word "victory" except when he's talking about his own
            campaign. But when the cloud of rhetoric has passed, when the roar of the crowd
            fades away, when the stadium lights go out, and those Styrofoam Greek columns
            are hauled back to some studio lot -- when that happens, what exactly is our
            opponent's plan? What does he actually seek to accomplish, after he's done
            turning back the waters and healing the planet? The answer -- The answer is to
            make government bigger, and take more of your money, and give you more
            orders from Washington, and to reduce the strength of America in a dangerous
            world. America needs more energy; our opponent is against producing it.
            Victory in Iraq is finally in sight and he wants to forfeit. Terrorist states are
            seeking nuclear weapons without delay; he wants to meet them without
            preconditions. Al Qaeda terrorists still plot to inflict catastrophic harm on
            America and he's worried that someone won't read ‘em their rights?
            Government is too big. He wants to grow it. Congress spends too much money.
            He promises more. Taxes are too high and he wants to raise them. His tax
            increases are the fine print in his economic plan and let me be specific.
            The Democratic nominee for President supports plans to raise income taxes, and
            raise payroll taxes, and raise investment income taxes, and raise the death tax, and
            raise business taxes, and increase the tax burden on the American people by
            hundreds of billions of dollars.
         b. Opponent’s Point of View acknowledges and refutes opponent’s argument.These
            paragraphs uses this rhetorical device because it states Sarah Pailn’s opponent,
            Barrack Obama’s argument. It is saying what Barack Obama is for and what he
            wants to do.
         c. Sarah Palin (2008)
Symbol
   1. Symbol
         a. In Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress" you may recall the description of the Man with
            the Muck Rake, the man who could look no way but downward, with the muck
            rake in his hand; who was offered a celestial crown for his muck rake, but who
            would neither look up nor regard the crown he was offered, but continued to rake
            to himself the filth of the . In "Pilgrim's Progress" the Man with the Muck Rake
            is set forth as the example of him whose vision is fixed on carnal instead of
            spiritual things. Yet he also typifies the man who in this life consistently refuses
            to see aught that is lofty, and fixes his eyes with solemn intentness only on that
            which is vile and debasing. Now, it is very necessary that we should not flinch
            from seeing what is vile and debasing. There is filth on the floor, and it must be
            up with the muck rake; and there are times and places where this service is the
            most needed of all the services that can be performed. But the man who never
            does anything else, who never thinks or speaks or writes, save of his feats with the
            muck rake, speedily becomes, not a help but one of the most potent forces for
            evil.
         b. A symbol is an image, object or character that stands for something intangible
            beyond its literal meaning. In this case, the man with the muck rake smbolizes
            the public that only looks for people who have done bad. Not everyone is
            perfect, and nobody should have to have thier character criticized by the public.
            Though a man with a muck rake isn't always bad, when they focus on finding
            people that are bad all the time, he/they (man/oublic) start to become evil. Teh
            public should not be so quick to judge people and try to find faults in famous
            people is the point that Mr. Roosevelt is trying to get across here.
         c. This speech was delivered by Franklin (Teddy) Roosevelt on April 14, 1906.
   2. Symbol
         a. That is the house upon the rock -- proud, sturdy, unwavering in the face of the
            greatest storms. And we will not finish it in one year. We will not finish it in
            many. But if we use this moment to lay that new foundation, if we come together
            and begin the hard work of rebuilding, if we persist and persevere against the
            disappointments and setbacks that will surely lie ahead, then I have no doubt that
            this house will stand and the dream of our founders will live on in our time.
         b. He uses the symbol of the house to compare our nation and how they should
            both have a good foundation to stand strong
         c. Barack Obama delivered 14 April 2009

Simile
   1. Simile
         a. “…genes are the raw resource of the Biotech Century, just as metals,
             minerals, and fossil fuels were the raw resource of the industrial century…”
         b. Rifkin uses the compares genes and the new Biotech Century to something that
             everyone uses daily (oil, natural gas, etc.) to make it seem like cloning/ working
             with genes is just as important and safe as filling your car with gas.
         c. Jeremy Rifkin, 1998.
   2. Simile
         a. worrying is as effective as trying to solve an algebra equation by chewing
             bubblegum.
         b. It was comparing gum and algebra and how chewing gum won't solve anything.
         c. Baz Luhrmann Everybody's Free (To Wear Sunscreen) delivered 1998 by Baz
             Luhrmann

Metaphor

   1. Metaphor
         a. “And sometimes in the midst of these storms, the future that we’re trying to build
            for our nation”
         b. He emphasizes the bad things that have happen by calling them storms.
         c. Barack Obama, Address to the Nation on the End of Operation Iraqi Freedom,
            2010
   2. Metaphor
         a. My dad was our rock. And although he was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis in
            his early 30s, he was our provider. He was our champion, our hero.
         b. She is comparing her father to a steadfast rock when he was diseased. This
            comparison is an analogy.
         c. Michelle Obama- August 25, 2008
   3. Metaphor
         a. And, if a beachhead of cooperation may push back the jungle of suspicion, let
            both sides join in creating a new endeavor.
         b. JFK is comparing the suspicion of the coorperation to a jungle, saying that it is as
            tangled as a jungle.
         c. John F. Kennedy

Bandwagon
   1. Bandwagon
         a. We all agree we need legislation to make it harder for suspected terrorists to go
            undetected in this country. And we all agree that we needed to make it harder for
            them to organize and strategize and get flight licenses and sneak across our
            borders. Americans everywhere wanted to do that.
         b. He claims that “we all” and “Americans everywhere” agree with him, making the
            listener believe that he should be part of everyone, part of the norm.
         c. Barack Obama; Senate Floor Speech on the PATRIOT Act; delivered 15
            December 2005
   2. Bandwagon
         a. We have faced serious challenges together, and now we face a choice. We can go
            forward with confidence and resolve, or we can turn back to the dangerous
            illusion that terrorists are not plotting and outlaw regimes are no threat to us. […]
            All of us have been partners in a great enterprise.
         b. He includes all the American’s in order to influence their decisions and make
            them believe that they have always agreed with him.
         c. George W. Bush; 2004 State of the Union Address; delivered 20 January 2004

Flattery
   1. Flattery
          a. “I have the distinct honor today…”
          b. This was flattery because he is complimenting the audience, by telling them that
              he is honored to be there. And then goes into his speech.
          c. Barack Obama, 2008
   2. Flattery
          a. “And then let us leave here tonight and take that message of hope from Denver to
              every corner of our land, and do everything we can to serve our nation, our world,
              and our children and their future, by electing Barack Obama President of the
              United States of America.”
         b. He uses extremely positive and rewarding adjectives to describe Obama and the
             actions he will do to improve America as president.
         c. Al Gore, 2007
3.   Flattery
         a. “Through hard work and perseverance my father got a scholarship to study in a
             magical place, America,”
         b. He says America is a magical place while talking to Americans, so he is
             complimenting the audience.
         c. Barack Obama, 2004 Democratic National Convention Keynote Address, 2004
4.   Flattery
         a. I stand here today humbled by the task before us, grateful for the trust you've
             bestowed, mindful of the sacrifices borne by our ancestors.
         b. This is an example of flattery because Obama compliments his audience in his
             speech. This gets the audience on his side at the beginning.
         c. Barack Obama, January 20, 2009
4.   Flattery
         a. Mr. President, your generation rose to the occasion, first to defeat Fascism and
             then to vanquish the Soviet Union. You left us, your children, a free and strong
             America. It's why we call yours "The Greatest Generation." It's now my
             generation's turn. How we respond to today's challenges will define our
             generation. And it will determine what kind of America we will leave our
             children, and theirs.
         b. He uses this technique as an exaggeration of the accomplishments of the previous
             generation both to boost the morale of the current generation and also to flatter the
             older generation in order to get their support.
         c. Mitt Romney; 2007
5.   Flattery
         a. I'm delighted to see each of you here tonight in spite of a storm warning. You
             reveal that you are determined to go on anyhow.
         b. This gains the audiences attention and makes them feel good about themselves. It
             also imposes a certain unity on the audience, making them closer and have respect
             to each other as well as getting the audience on Martin Luther King’s side.
         c. Martin Luther King, Jr. --April 3, 1968
6.   Flattery
         a. I'm honored to be with you today for your commencement from one of the finest
             universities in the world.
         b. To please the listeners and make them want to listen more to Steve Jobs
         c. Steve Jobs, 2005
8.   Flattery
         a. As we gather tonight, hundreds of thousands of American servicemen and women
             are deployed across the world in the war on terror. By bringing hope to the
             oppressed, and delivering justice to the violent, they are making America
             more secure. […] Americans are proving once again to be the hardest working
             people in the world. The American economy is growing stronger. The tax relief
             you passed is working.
           b. He praises the audience, making them more likely to agree with him and
              sympathize with him.
           c. George W. Bush; 2004 State of the Union Address; delivered 20 January 2004

Bribery
   1. Bribery/economy
         a. “Tonight we are a country awakened to danger and called to defend freedom. Our
            grief has turned to anger, and anger to resolution. Whether we bring our
            enemies to justice, or bring justice to our enemies, justice will be done.”
         b. Not only is this security, but this is also bribery because he is convincing the
            audience that if they do their parts, they will have a better country (a benefit)
         c. George W. Bush, 2001

Name Calling
  1. Name Calling
         a. The third are those irresponsible and reckless ones having little regard for the
             consequence of their acts, or whose religious scruples prevent their exercising
             control over their numbers. Many of this group are diseased, feeble-minded, and
             are of the pauper element dependent entirely upon the normal and fit members of
             society for their support. There is no doubt in the minds of all thinking people
             that the procreation of this group should be stopped. For if they are not able to
             support and care for themselves, they should certainly not be allowed to bring
             offspring into this world for others to look after.
         b. The name calling of the “third” group of people as “irresponsible”, “mindless”,
             “diseased”, and “feeble minded” by Margaret Sanger was intentionally used to
             defame the people who were said to belong to that group, which will cause some
             of her audience to look down upon them, thus agreeing with Margaret Sanger
             more.

           c. Margaret Sanger, 1921

Security
   1. Security
         a. “Now is the time to give American workers security and independence that no
             politician can ever take away.”
         b. He is saying that if they don’t vote for him then they will not get the security that
             he is offering.
         c. George W. Bush, GOP Nomination Acceptance Address Philadelphia, PA, 2000
   2. Security
         a. And also in the human rights revolution, if something isn't done, and done in a
             hurry, to bring the colored peoples of the world out of their long years of poverty,
             their long years of hurt and neglect, the whole world is doomed.
         b. If something is not done, the world will not be doomed, but saying that it will be
             exaggerates the fact and creates emphasis on it, making the audience believe they,
             in this case, have to do something.
         c. Martin Luther King, Jr. --April 3, 1968
3. Security
      a. You know, four years ago, following the most devastating attack in our history,
          this Senate passed the USA PATRIOT Act in order to give our Nation's law
          enforcement the tools they needed to track down terrorists who plot and lurk
          within our own borders and all over the world; terrorists who, right now, are
          looking to exploit weaknesses in our laws and our security to carry out
          attacks that may be even deadlier than those that took place on September
          11.
       b. He claims that if they do not agree with him then extremely deadly attacks against
          America will succeed, endangering the security of American citizens.
       c. Barack Obama; Senate Floor Speech on the PATRIOT Act; delivered 15
          December 2005

								
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