Ancient-Egypt-Magazine-Issue38 by elzaeem2020



                                                              features             ANCIENT EGYPT

                                                                                    October/November 2006
            From our Egypt Correspondent                                          VOLUME 7, NO 2: ISSUE NO. 38
     9      Ayman Wahby Taher with the latest news from
            Egypt and details of a new museum at Saqqara.                                    EDITOR:
                                                                               Robert B. Partridge, 6 Branden Drive
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            Renée Friedman looks at the presence of Nubians                     Email
    19      in the city at Hierakonpolis, and their lives there, as
            revealed in the finds from their tombs.                                    ASSISTANT EDITOR:
                                                                                           Peter Phillips
                                                                                      CONSULTANT EDITOR:
            The New Tomb
                                                                                  Professor Rosalie David, OBE
    26      in the Valley of the Kings                                               EDITORIAL ASSISTANTS:
            The fourth update on the recent discovery and the
            final clearance of the small chamber.                                Victor Blunden, Peter Robinson,
                                                                                          Hilary Wilson
                                                                                     EGYPT CORRESPONDENT
            ANOTHER new tomb in the Valley                                            Ayman Wahby Taher
    31      of the Kings?
            Nicholas Reeves reveals the latest news on the                               PUBLISHED BY:
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    35      A brief report on the opening of the second
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            Pam Scott, in the first of three major articles, gives a
    36      practical guide to enable AE readers to read and
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            understand the ancient texts written on temple and
            tomb walls, statues and stelae.
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ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006                                                                                      3
From the EDITOR
          y schedule of articles for inclusion in AE was         duced some remarkable discoveries, so we wish all the

          completely disrupted this year by the discovery
          of a new tomb in the Valley of the Kings, tomb
                                                                 expeditions well for another productive season.
                                                                    Whilst foreign missions only work in Egypt for rela-
                                                                 tively short periods, the work of the Egyptian Supreme
   I am not really complaining, for I was as fascianated as      Council of Antiquities is an all-year-round operation and
anyone to find out what the contents of this tomb might          often the opportunity is taken in the quiet season, when
be. Thanks to the splendid cooperation of members of             tourists are limited, to carry out much routine mainte-
the University of Memphis Team and with images sup-              nance and inspection of the sites. It is always fascinating
plied by them and the Egyptian Supreme Council of                when returning to Egypt to spot the many changes and
Antiquities, I have been especially pleased to have been         improvements being made.
able to include a total of four articles in consecutive edi-        You will have all read about the huge amount of civil
tions, telling readers of the progress of the excavation.        engineering and archaeological work being undertaken
   The fourth and final account of the discovery and             in the centre of Luxor and around the temples of Luxor
clearance of the tomb is included in this edition, and I         and Karnak. Most of the work is due to be completed by
am surprised to find that this means we have devoted a           the start of the tourist season. I am looking forward to
total of twenty-five pages to the discovery, undoubtedly         seeing what has been going on when I make my planned
the best and fullest account of the find so far, and sec-        visits at the end of this year.
ond-best only to any official and more formal book pub-             One of these visits will be our magazine trip to Cairo
lished by the team (in the not too distant future we hope).      in September (this issue had to be completed before the
   Work on the contents of the tomb will continue when           trip, so I will bring you news of it in the December issue).
the new season begins and if there are any new develop-             If this trip goes well (and there is no reason to assume
ments, I hope to be able to bring them to you. I am sure         otherwise) we will consider other trips in the future, pos-
you will have found the articles of interest. My main frus-      sibly a week in Luxor.
tration was the time delay in getting the latest news to            Prices for trips to Egypt and to Luxor in particular
you, which is always the problem with a bi-monthly pub-          have been remarkably cheap this summer and I know a
lication date.                                                   number of people who have taken advantage of this. For
   Almost literally as I was putting the finishing touches to    those willing to put up with the building works in Luxor
the last KV63 article came news of another possible              and the very high temperatures, the rewards are great,
previously unknown tomb in the Valley of the Kings.              notably being able to visit the main sites without the
Nicholas Reeves, Director of the Amarna Royal Tombs              huge numbers of visitors there in the peak season.
Project has written an article on the information avail-            Tourist numbers have increased dramatically, although
able at this stage. The prospects are exciting, but also, as     on-going concerns about the political stability of coun-
you will see from his article, challenging. The news has         ries around Egypt may have influenced the decision of
already caused some interest and debate and rather than          some to travel at this time. It is, however, nice to see the
make my own comments here, I will let you read both              sites full of people, and if you happen to be there at a
the KV63 article and the article by Nicholas Reeves first        busy time you just need to bear in mind that most groups
and add my comments and observations (for what they              spend a surprisingly short time there, and it is quite easy
are worth) after. No doubt AE readers will have their            to find some peace and quiet at the larger sites.
own views.                                                                                                              RP
   I know some of you have noticed (and commented
favourably upon) the fact that our “News from Egypt”                                Detailed Map of Thebes
section has been spreading over an increasing number of
pages in recent issues.
   I was squeezing Ayman’s reports into a fixed and lim-
ited number of pages, and they really warranted more
space. I have now decided that the quality and amount
of information from Ayman deserves as much space as I
can manage. The number of pages allocated is not now
set in concrete and will vary depending on the amount of
news and photos available.
   Most articles are not time-critical; I suppose it is one of
the “joys” of being Editor that, having reached the stage
when an issue is full, I often find out about new discov-
eries and information. If it is clear that readers would
want to share this news as soon as possible, some shuf-
fling around of articles is inevitable.
   By the time this October issue lands on your doorstep,
the excavation season in Egypt will be back in full swing,
with the onset of the cooler weather. The last season pro-

4                                                                ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006
MAP of EGYPT                                             Time-line



                               Maps and Time-line
                               by Peter Robinson.

ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006                                                  5

News and views from the world of Egyptology
News of an award                                                Professor Gaballa Ali Gaballa of the University of
                                                             Cairo spoke on the work of Ahmed Fakhry, an Egyptian
        ongratulation to Professor Gaballa Ali Gaballa,      archaeologist who pioneered research in the desert and

C       who has just been awarded one of the highest
        honours in Egypt, the 2005 “State Prize for
Social Sciences”. This is awarded by the Higher Council
                                                             was amongst the first to realise the importance of the
                                                             sites, as well as the problems they faced.
                                                                Tony Mills and other members of the Dakhleh Oasis
of the Supreme Council of Culture.                           Project covered their long-term work at the Oasis, and
                                         Professor           other speakers covered communication between the
                                      Gaballa worked         Oases and the Nile valley.
                                      for many years at         It was clear from the presentations that, far from being
                                      the University of      provincial backwaters, the Oases were an important
                                      Cairo and from         part of Egypt; over the last few years, our knowledge of
                                      1997 to 2002 was       the area has increased dramatically.
                                      the      Secretary        Many of the sites are remote, some are being dam-
                                      General of the         aged by simple erosion, others are in close proximity to
                                      Supreme Council        modern towns and villages and are in danger of being
                                      of Antiquities. He     lost beneath modern buildings, and others are being
                                      is now a Professor     deliberately damaged and vandalised.
                                      at the University         It was, however, in the closing remarks by Rudolph
                                      of Cairo and is a      Kuper from the University of Cologne, that the real
                                      special consultant     problems facing the many sites were highlighted.
                                      and advisor to the     Tourism in the Oases has increased, and this presents
                                      Minister         of    real problems at many of the sites, which are often less
                                      Culture.               than secure and open to anyone.
                                         The award is in        An increased population in the “New Valley”, with
                                      recognition of his     people being encouraged to move to the Oases from the
                                      many years of          Nile Valley, has meant that, whereas the local inhabi-
                                      work, especially in    tants were familiar with their monuments and appreci-
                                      the area of cul-       ated them, others new to the area often realise the
                                      ture and antiqui-      “value” of them, and damage and looting has increased.
                                      ties.                  The presence of more archaeologists often exacerbates
                                                             this problem, for the implication is that there must be
                                                             something of value there. The discovery of a hoard of
British Museum Colloquium                                    gold in the temple of Dush in Kharga Oasis a few years
and Sackler Lecture, 2006                                    ago did not help. Only recently at least two mud-brick
                                                             temples have been flattened by a bulldozer, in an
    f you are ever planning a holiday in the UK and          attempt to discover such treasure.

I   want to guarantee a sunny week, then you can do lit-
    tle better than choose the same dates as the annual
British Museum Colloquium and Sackler Lecture, held
                                                                Further south, one of the most remote hieroglyphic
                                                             inscriptions has been deliberately vandalised, and this
                                                             has to have been done by someone in a tour group vis-
each year in mid-July, which invariably enjoys (or suffers   iting the area, for that is the only way anyone can get
from) the hottest and sunniest weather of the year.          there.
  This year was no exception; on one of the days                This news was quite depressing, but on the positive
London experienced its hottest July temperature on           side, measures are now being put in place to secure the
record. The air-conditioned lecture theatre was proba-       sites, and the Gilf Khebir, in the south west corner of
bly the best place to be for the evening lecture and two-    Egypt, is to be made a National Park, which will restrict
day Colloquium.                                              and control visits to the site.
  The Sackler Lecture, given this year by Dr Laure              In Dakhla, there are plans for a new museum dedicat-
Pantalacci, set the scene for the theme of the               ed to the Oases of the Western Desert and it is hoped
Colloquium, “Egypt’s Great Oases: the Archaeology of         that a programme of education will encourage all the
Kharga, Dakhla and the Roads of the West”.                   people who live in the area to see the antiquities as part
  At the Colloquium, a series of lectures by experts from    of their own heritage, important for their livelihood and
around the world presented papers on various aspects of      for tourists, rather than something to be plundered.
the archaeology of the Oases, and much new informa-             The annual British Museum Colloquium and Sackler
tion and research was revealed.                              Lecture is open to anyone. Tickets usually go on sale in

6                                                            ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006
                                                                                bits and pieces
June each year. Details of the 2007 Colloquium will be        included a photograph of the best preserved example,
included in AE, when available.                               and it is the second lion that was cast), reveals this to be
                                                                Hourig was not certain when the plaster cast was
More on the Lion of Amenhotep III                             made, or when the lion was placed at the Citadel. Older
                                                              guide books about the citadel state that two lions were
    n AE 33 (Dec. 2005/Jan. 2006) an article featured         located there at the base of the steps of the Police

I   a “new “ lion of Amenhotep III, at the Citadel in
    Cairo, which was very similar to the two well-known
lions of Amenhotep III from Soleb, now in the British
                                                              Museum, but only one is there now. Perhaps casts of
                                                              both lions were once located there?
                                                                The Soleb lions came into the collection of the British
Museum in London..                                            Museum in 1835. It does seem an extraordinary amount
   Two other similar lions of Amenhotep are known             of work to mould the lions in the UK and to send a cast
from Tanis, but the question was raised, where did this       (or casts) to Egypt, so it is possible that the lions were
example come from? One of the Tanis lions was moved           cast when they were still in Egypt, en route to the UK.

to Cairo and I did wonder if this was the one now at the        However, at the end of the nineteenth century and in
Citadel.                                                      the early years of the twentieth, many international
  In AE issue 34 (Feb./Mar. 2006), the lion was men-          museums exchanged plaster casts of some of their best-
tioned again as, following a visit to Cairo, the Tanis lion   known objects. This was a time when few travellers went
was spotted in a garden at Zamalek, in Cairo, leaving         to Egypt and when there were hardly any books on the
the issue of the original location of the Citadel lion wide   subject; museums were quite happy to display casts. The
open.                                                         British Museum sent casts of many of its objects all
  I am pleased to say that the problem has been solved,       around the world, as far afield as Australia. In return,
thanks to Hourig Sourouzian, the Director of the              casts of objects in other collections were sent back and,
Colossi of Memnon and Amenhotep III Temple                    in the main sculpture gallery, the Museum displayed for
Conservation Project.                                         many years a number of casts of statues from the
  Hourig saw the article in the magazine, and her             Egyptian Museum in Cairo.
knowledge of the sculpture of Amenhotep III meant               As museums filled up with newly-excavated statues,
that she knew that the “Citadel lion” was actually a cast     the casts were removed and placed in storage.
of one of the British Museum Soleb lions! Close exam-           It is most likely, therefore, that the lions were cast as a
ination of the less-well preserved of the two lions (I        special request from the Egyptian Museum, in return for

ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006                                                                                      7
    bits and pieces
                                          examples       of      The original
                                          their      main     lion was dam-
                                          exhibits. The       aged and in
                                          casts of the        several pieces,
                                          Soleb       lions   and has been
                                          (and other stat-    repaired in the
                                          ues) may have       British Mus-
                                          been sent to the    eum (the best-
                                          Egyptian            preserved lion
                                          Museum.             is still in one
                                            When such         piece). Parts of
                                          casts       were    the statue have
                                          removed from        been restored,
                                          display, they       but an ancient
                                          were often sent     repair to the
                                          to other institu-   base, visible in
                                          tions and this is   the original, is
                                          probably how,       not part of the
and when, the Soleb lion casts were moved to the              cast.
Citadel.                                                         The question remains, though … what has happened
  I am not sure what sort of plaster was used, but it is      to the other cast? There have been many improvements
clearly very hard, for the Citadel example is undamaged       and restorations at the Citadel and if the other lion has
(other than ancient damage seen on the original). The         survived, perhaps it is still there somewhere. The Citadel
exposure to the air and the pollution in Cairo over a peri-   is a fascinating place to visit and there is now a great
od of a hundred years, or possibly even more, has given       deal to see there; AE readers should keep their eyes
the lion a unique and well-weathered patina, which is         open for the missing lion!
why I thought it was carved from limestone (unlike the
originals, which are carved in pink granite).                                                                      RP

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8                                                             ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006

News from Egypt
Touring Exhibition in Japan from the                       Re-Opening of the Coptic Museum
Egyptian Museum in Cairo                                   in Cairo

      special Exhibition has been put together that will           t the end of June, President Hosni Mubarak for-

A     tour ten Japanese cities over a period of two
      years. This is a token of gratitude for Japan’s
major support for the establishment of the new Grand
                                                           A       mally re-opened the Coptic Museum in Cairo,
                                                                   following a major refurbishment that has cost
                                                           over £E30 million.
Museum of Egypt to be built at Giza.                         In his address during the opening ceremony, the
                                                           Minister of Culture Farouk Hosni said the Coptic
                                                           Museum is one of Egypt’s most important museums,
                                                           with a collection of over one thousand three hundred
                                                           objects on display in twenty-six galleries.
                                                             Secretary General of the Supreme Council of
                                                           Antiquities (SCA) Zahi Hawass said, during a tour of
                                                           the museum conducted by the President, that the
                                                           restoration project included the addition of a new
                                                           gallery devoted to the history of churches in Old Cairo
                                                           and that a special gallery for temporary exhibitions has
                                                           also been built.
                                                             The restoration began in 2003 and meant that the
                                                           museum was closed for almost three years.
                                                             The Museum has an important collection of manu-
                                                           scripts, some of which date back to the fourth century
                                                           AD, including thirteen bibles. The collection also fea-

  The Egyptian Minister of Culture Farouq Hosni            tures textiles, icons and woodwork, as well as many large
explained that the Exhibition of over three hundred        pieces of stone sculpture and carvings from sites around
pieces would include many objects discovered during        Egypt.
the last forty years by the Japanese Waseda University’s
archaeological mission to Egypt.
  One of the objects, a Middle Kingdom cartonnage          New Appointment by the SCA
mask (shown above, photo: J. Rutherford) was temporarily
on display in the new Imhotep Museum at Saqqara.                   r Zahi Hawass is pleased to announce a new
Found at South Abusir and belonging to a man called
Senw, it was in a very damaged and delicate state. To
enable it to go on the tour, it has been expertly con-
                                                           D       appointment, that of Adel Hussein Mohamed
                                                                   to the post of General Director of Sharkia. Adel
                                                           began his career with the Supreme Council of
served, by conservators Richard and Helena Jaeschke,       Antiquities in 1979, where he worked as an Inspector in
using the latest techniques for the conservation of car-   Minia; in his later career he held Directorships of the
tonnage (linen and plaster).                               New Valley, Ain Shams, Saqqara and the Giza

ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006                                                                               9
from our Egypt Correspondent
                                     Pyramids.      Adel
                                     brings much expe-
                                     rience to his new
                                     job in the Nile
                                     Delta, which is rich
                                     in antiquities. He
                                     is responsible for
                                     six missions work-
                                     ing together with
                                     Egyptian archaeol-
                                     ogists on the main
                                     sites at Tell Basta,
                                     Tanis and Qantir. I
                                     am sure many of
                                     our readers have
                                     visited these sites
and will continue to do so in the future.                                        The Serapeum at Saqqara
   Adel is extremely happy to be in his new role and he
is looking forward to his Egyptian colleagues and mis-                               n AE issue 33 (December 2005) I mentioned the
sions uncovering more ancient artifacts from this area.
   ANCIENT EGYPT magazine wishes him every success
for the future.
                                                                                 I   huge restoration and conservation project being
                                                                                     undertaken by the SCA at the Serapeum at
                                                                                   The Serapeum (the burial vaults of the sacred Apis
                                                                                 Bulls), which has been closed to visitors for many years
New Development Plan for Saqqara                                                 now, has been in serious danger of collapse and the
                                                                                 impressive and costly repair work by the SCA is still on-
      he SCA has recently announced a development                                going. The scale of the work can be seen from these pic-

T     project for Saqqara, following the opening of the
      New Imhotep Museum. The project is to be
completed in thirty months and will cost £E40 million.
                                                                                 tures. Initial restoration included the building of stone
                                                                                 arches inside the vaults to prevent the collapse of the
                                                                                 roof, but this was not enough and heavy steel girders are
The work will be in three stages:                                                now being fitted in the damaged parts of the vaults.
                                                                                 Work like this, out of sight and not noticed by visitors, is
 1.    Preparing the area for improved systems for
 2.    Building new administration offices, conservation
       laboratories and improved security systems.
 3.    Cleaning modern graffiti from tombs, providing
       humidity systems and testing equipment for

  The project will also help to improve the documenta-
tion of tombs with the help of the Italian Mission and
may involve about six hundred tombs in the area. At
present only seventeen tombs are open to visitors and
this number will be increased.
  A new storage museum with improved security will be
built to house objects from excavations. This will help
students of Egyptology and secure and conserve the

  Above left: the new General Director of Sharkia, Adel Hussein
                                                      Photo: J. Rutherford.
  Above right: the entrance to the Serapeum at Saqqara.
                                                                  Photo: RP.
  Right: view of one of the corridors inside the Serapeum, showing the new
  stone arches to support the roof, the additional scaffolding now needed as a
  temporary measure and some heavy girders waiting to be fitted into place
  as a more permanent measure.
                                                      Photo: J. Rutherford.

10                                                                               ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006
                                                                         from our Egypt Correspondent

essential to ensure the long-term survival of this impor-
tant monument and, hopefully, to allow visitor access
once more.

Neferhotep at Karnak

      n AE 32 (October 2005), I reported on the finding

I     of a statue of Neferhotep I in the temple of Karnak.
      Found beneath the foundations of the obelisk of
Queen Hatshepsut, the figure of the king had then been
only partly revealed, but it was clear that it formed part
of a double statue with the second figure of Neferhotep
still buried.
   The statue was covered up again, but new excavations
have now taken place by archaeologists from the Centre
Franco-Egyptian d’Etude des Temples de Karnak (CFEETK)
and more of the statue has been uncovered, including
the superbly preserved second figure of the king.

  Top left: one of the burial vaults in the Serapeum at Saqqara. The heavy
  girders are needed to prevent the roof of the vault from collapsing. Beneath
  the girders can be seen the wooden protective covering over one of the great
  granite sarcophagi of the sacred bulls.
                                                     Photo: J. Rutherford.
  Top right: the double statue of Neferhotep I as revealed by new excava-
  tions. The second figure of the king, to the right, is still partly buried.
  Right: detail of the face of the second image of the king.
           Photos: courtesy of the Egyptian Supreme Council of
               Antiquities and the Centre Franco-Egyptian d’Etude des
                                          Temples de Karnak (CFEETK).

ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006                                                                11
from our Egypt Correspondent
  Neferhotep is shown holding hands with a double of         Discoveries in the “Hidden Valley” at
himself, probably his ka. The statue, as can be seen from    Farafra Oasis
the photographs, is buried deeply; its large size and the
fact that it is an integral part of the foundations of the           he “Hidden Valley” is a five-hundred-metre-
temple mean that it is not certain that it can be removed
from the site.
  AE issue 34 (Feb. 2006) featured an article on
                                                             T       square valley located sixty kilometers north east
                                                                     of Farafra Oasis, and is not a well-known area,
                                                             even to people who live in the Oasis.
Neferhotep I.                                                  An Italian team from Naples University has recently
                                                             discovered there a settlement from very ancient times.
                                                             The team was headed by Prof. Barbara Barich and
More on the Foundation Deposits recently                     Giulio Lacarini and has been successful in finding shel-
discovered at Karnak                                         ters, knives and bracelets. Carbon dating of objects sug-
                                                             gests a date of around 7700 BC.
    n the last issue of AE, I reported on the discovery of     Archaeologists believe that the shelters formed a small

I   foundation deposits with objects bearing the name
    of Thutmose III and Hatshepsut.
  All the objects, which included pottery (now restored,
                                                             community of about twenty people. A cave, thought to
                                                             be sacred, was also found cut into a nearby mountain.
                                                             Inside, there were a number of rock art representations
as much of it was broken when found), models of cop-         of sheep, gazelles and ostriches, together with hand-
per or bronze chisels, and gold and faience cartouches,      prints and some graffiti.
have been removed from their find site, and I can now
bring you some photographs of them:
                                                             Treasures of Dakhla Oasis

                                                                      he Fifth International Conference of the

                                                             T        Dakhleh Oasis Project took place in the summer
                                                                      in Cairo. It was well attended with an interna-
                                                             tional gathering of scholars who have excavated and
                                                             studied at the Oasis and were able to talk about their
                                                             fields of work. Papers were also given on a range of sub-
                                                             jects from Dutch, French, German and Egyptian
                                                             experts on rock art, graffiti, pottery and studies carried
                                                             out at Kellis, the ancient Roman Period village now
                                                             called Ismant Al Kharab.
                                                                The head of the Dakhleh Oasis Project is Anthony J.
                                                             Mills, who has worked in the Oasis for nearly thirty
                                                             years – the team has carried out research in the Oasis
                                                             since 1978.
                                                                At least twenty-five Roman temples have been found
                                                             in Dakhla, the best-preserved being the Temple of Deir
                                                             el Hagar, which, under a team headed by Anthony
                                                             Mills, was restored during the 1990s. Some graffiti on a
                                                             mud-brick wall still remain there – the names of team
                                                             members from an expedition visiting the site the
                                                                To mark the opening of this year’s conference, Dr
                                                             Wafaa El Saddik, Director of the Egyptian Museum in

                                                               Left: the foundation deposits recently discovered in the Temple of Amun
                                                               at Karnak, by the Centre Franco-Egyptian d’Etude des Temples
                                                               de Karnak (CFEETK).

                                                               From top to bottom:
                                                                - Restored pottery objects from the deposit. Note the green faience car-
                                                                  touches in some of the bowls, which is probably how they were origi-
                                                                  nally buried.
                                                                - A closer view of some of the faience cartouches.
                                                                - Details of some of the many bronze or copper chisels found in the
                                                                        Photos: courtesy of the Egyptian Supreme Council of
                                                                                        Antiquities and the Centre Franco-Egyptian
                                                                                          d’Etude des Temples de Karnak (CFEETK).

12                                                           ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006
                                                     from our Egypt Correspondent
Cairo, and Dr Zahi Hawass, head of the SCA, organ-
ised an exhibition in Room 44 of the Egyptian Museum
entitled “Treasures of the Dakhleh Oasis”. Some
objects have never been on display to the public before,
so I went along to see this small but very beautiful dis-
play of objects from the Old Kingdom, Late Period and
Roman times.
  I have chosen two objects out of the collection to write
about. The first is the anthropoid coffin that was found
with four others in a single chamber of a tomb at Ein
Tirghi in 1986, and is from the First Persian Period. The
other coffins from the same tomb are in the Royal
Ontario Museum, Canada.
  It was probably a family tomb, because the inscrip-
tions on the coffin lids show a family relationship. This
particular coffin was displayed in a glass case and was
the main feature of the exhibition, due to its well-placed
position in the room. The excellent lighting attracted me
to it straight away.
  The coffin is highly decorated and brightly painted,
especially the facial features, wig and trunk of the body.
It is made out of small pieces of wood, a common fea-
ture during this period, because wood was scarce. Some
analysis of children’s bodies found at Ein Tirghi shows
that they suffered from anaemia. A small percentage of
children died at birth. Adults were short in height and
the average life expectancy was the mid-twenties.

  The second exhibit is a collection of seven glass vessels     I was informed that room 44 in the Egyptian Museum
found at the Roman village of Kellis (Ismant al-              will hold all temporary displays and exhibitions on a
Kharab). The one I want to mention is the “Gladiator          rotation basis, so be sure to check out this room on your
Jug”, which is highly decorated on all sides and is paint-    next visit to the museum.
ed in beautiful colours on pale and darker green glass. It      My thanks to Dr Hawass and the Director of the
depicts a scene of a gladiator in combat; he has dark         Egyptian Museum, Dr Wafaa El Saddik, for allowing
curly hair and is stretching out his left hand holding his    me to take photographs of this very special exhibition.
shield. In his right hand he is holding a dagger. In anoth-
er scene a gladiator is shown wearing a helmet and                Above left: the head of a painted coffin from the First Persian Period,
crouching down. The referee, depicted in white cloth-                                  found at Dakhla Oasis.
ing, waves his rod or stick. Looking at the vase closely
                                                                          Above: the glass “Gladiator Jug” also from Dakhla.
you will see many colourful floral motifs around the
neck and base of the vase. To me this is the very best of           Photos: Ayman Wahby Taher, courtesy the SCA and the
this glass vessel collection.                                                   Egyptian Museum, Cairo.

ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006                                                                                                     13
from our Egypt Correspondent
The Mortuary Temple of
Amenhotep III at Luxor
  In AE issue 35 (April 2006), we reported on the
remarkable finds made by the Colossi of Memnon and
Amenhotep III Temple Conservation Project, under the
Directorship of Hourig Sourouzian.
  Many significant finds of fragmentary statues of
Amenhotep III have been found and also a large num-
ber of granite statues of the goddess Sekhmet. The dis-
coveries were a surprise to all concerned, at a site that
has been plundered and excavated since antiquity and
that many thought would reveal nothing new.
  Hopes will be high of more discoveries when the new
excavation season gets underway at the end of the year.

  Above top:
           view of the Sekhmet statues as first uncovered.
             moving a large block.
  Right top:
            a closer view of one of the Sekhmet statues.
             lifting some heavy blocks. Note the face of a colossal
             statue of Amenhotep III.

                     Photos: courtesy of the SCA.

14                                                                    ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006
                                                     from our Egypt Correspondent
The Imhotep Museum at Saqqara                                 was also venerated in late pharaonic Egypt as a wise
                                                              man and patron of medicine.
       gypt’s first “site” museum was opened in late             I myself couldn’t wait to see this outstanding museum,

E      April this year. The idea of a series of new muse-
       ums at specific archaeological sites in Egypt was
suggested in the early 1990s but it was kept under wraps
                                                              so I went along early one morning to do my own explo-
                                                              ration tour for readers of AE.
                                                                 Built of stone, the new museum is built right at the
until 1997.                                                   base of the Saqqara plateau. Many of you will know
                                                              where the ticket office for the site is (or actually was, for
                                                              it has moved), opposite the Valley Temple of King Unas.
                                                              The new museum is to the right of the road, past this
                                                              point and on the edge of the cultivation. The ticket
                                                              office has been moved to this area too and there is space
                                                              for visitors’ coaches and cars to park.
                                                                 The architects of the new building have incorporated
                                                              elements of ancient Egyptian architecture in their
                                                              design, notably many dating to the Old Kingdom.
                                                                 Parts of the exterior and interior design pay homage
                                                              to the ancient architects and builders, but result in a
                                                              splendid modern building, spacious and attractive and a
                                                              superb setting and home for the objects it contains.

   When Dr Zahi Hawass took office some four years
ago as the Supreme Council of Antiquities’ Secretary
General, several museum projects had already been put
on hold. Dr Hawass has strong beliefs about the preser-
vation and protection of Egyptian monuments and he
wanted to pursue the idea and ensure that visitors to the
great sites could also see objects found there. In the past
objects were either moved to the Egyptian Museum in
the heart of Cairo, or simply placed in storage at the
sites. Continuous excavations and lack of space in the
Egyptian Museum meant that many objects worthy of
display, which helped to tell the history of the monu-
ments and sites, were hidden from view.
   With support from the Culture Minister, Farouk
Hosni, Dr Hawass developed the plans for the first of
the site museums, to be built at Saqqara. At the same
time, plans for the extension to the Luxor Museum were
drawn up, and the completion of this extension is some-
thing of which the SCA is justly proud.
   The new museum at Saqqara has been called the
“Imhotep Museum” in honour of the Vizier of King
Djoser. It is believed that Imhotep was the architect for
the king’s great funerary complex and pyramid and he

                                                                Top left:
                                                                            the entrance to the Imhotep Museum at Saqqara.
                                                                            the base of a statue of king Djoser.
                                                                                         Photos: J. Rutherford.

                                                                            a splendid Old Kingdom wooden head with inlaid eyes, moved
                                                                            to the Imhotep Museum from the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.
                                                                                              Photo: RP.

ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006                                                                                                  15
from our Egypt Correspondent
                                                              the early Dynastic Periods right up to Greek and Roman
                                                              times, and even beyond into the Coptic era. (I had bet-
                                                              ter mention that the last two Egyptologists on the list are
                                                              very much alive and well, and still working.)
                                                                This hall, named the “Saqqara Missions”, also has a
                                                              display of discoveries by Dr Hawass. The two of his I
                                                              would like to mention are the anthropoid painted coffin
                                                              cased with gold from the Late Period and the copper
                                                              medical instruments from the tomb of Qar the physi-
                                                                The third hall, named “Saqqara Style”, displays the
                                                              various styles of art found in the history of Saqqara, fea-
                                                              turing a collection of stone vessels used for cosmetics

  On arrival, I was asked if I wanted to see the special
documentary film before going into the museum, but I
was so keen to see the display I declined this invitation,
for the moment, and went into the museum first. The
electronic doors opened and I walked into the cool air
conditioning of the main hall.
  Firstly, you encounter the solid base of a statue of the
Third Dynasty king Djoser, on which are inscribed the
king’s name and titles and also Imhotep’s name. The
feet are shown stepping on the nine bows of Egypt,
which represent foreign countries. The base is on a four-
month loan from the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.
  The Museum’s major objective is to display the most
significant artifacts discovered on the Saqqara site, those
that help explain the history and purpose of this huge
archaeological site. Apart from one or two moved from
the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, all the objects have
come from antiquities storage magazines and have
never been on display to the public before.
  In the second hall, high up on the wall, is a list of
archaeologists who have excavated in Saqqara from
1850 to 2006. Many of the names will be familiar to
AE readers; they include some of the best known
deceased and living Egyptologists, such as Auguste
Marriette, Gaston Maspero, Jean Phillippe Lauer,
Walter B. Emery, Alain Zivie and Geoffrey T. Martin –
archaeologists who have made discoveries dating from

                                                              from the Early Dynastic period. Amongst other objects
                                                              are clay vessels and huge alabaster pots in various
                                                              shapes. More than forty thousand vases carved from
                                                              hard stone were found beneath the Step Pyramid.
                                                              Many of these are from the First and Second Dynasties
                                                              and it is believed Djoser placed them in his tomb.

                                                                Top left and above:
                                                                view of the “Imhotep Architecture” hall, which includes examples of relief
                                                                and stone architectural features from the Step Pyramid complex. Ribbed
                                                                columns are shown and also elements of a “palace façade” feature.
                                                                some of the fine alabaster vessels from the site.
                                                                                          Photos: J. Rutherford.

16                                                            ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006
                               from our Egypt Correspondent

                                         The fourth hall, named “Imhotep Architecture”,
                                      which is open-plan and the largest of the galleries, dis-
                                      plays the architectural style of Djoser’s funeral complex
                                      at the site.
                                         Items include the remains of columns, and a frieze of
                                      cobras brought from the façade of the Southern Tomb’s
                                      cult chapel for protection. When you visit the complex
                                      of Djoser, many of the elements of the building have
                                      been restored. The museum display shows original
                                      blocks, the way in which fallen blocks were pieced back
                                      together, and also how the buildings were originally con-
                                      structed. Visiting this gallery will make a visit to the
                                      pyramid complex at the top of the plateau much more
                                         Some larger objects dominate the centre of the
                                      gallery, including a headless statue of King Djoser, and
                                      an unusual “Snake Pillar” which Dr Hawass has pub-
                                      lished under the title of “A Fragmentary Monument of
                                      Djoser from Saqqara”. This publication has helped
                                      many Egyptian scholars including myself with their

                                       Above: the painted wooden head of a woman from one of the New
                                       Kingdom tombs at Saqqara, discovered by Alain Zivie.

                                       Left: a fine example of an Old Kingdom statue from one of the tombs at
                                       Saqqara. Most of the monuments open to visitors at Saqqara date to the Old
                                       Kingdom, but the site was in continuous use from before this time right up to
                                       the Roman Period.
                                                               Photos: J. Rutherford.

ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006                                                                              17
from our Egypt Correspondent
   At the back of the fourth hall stands a full-sized copy                  dedicated to him and his life’s work at Saqqara, espe-
of the blue-tiled wall of the Step Pyramid’s Southern                       cially his efforts in restoring the Step Pyramid complex.
Tomb, showing King Djoser in a ceremonial dress for                         Here there is a wonderful display of some of his per-
his jubilee, known as the Heb-Sed. The Southern Tomb                        sonal belongings, which include his hat, camera, com-
is closed to visitors, so this exhibit provides an opportu-                 pass and tools. He worked in Egypt for around seventy-
nity to see the unique reliefs of Djoser and the stunning                   five years until his death in 2001. Be sure not to miss this
blue colour of the tiles. Many of the tiles in this display                 room because it is so different from the others.
are originals.                                                                 As I walked back out of the air-conditioned museum
   I think the masterpiece of this gallery is a small bronze                into the brilliant sunshine, I decided to seek some rest in
statue showing Imhotep seated and holding a papyrus                         the Visitors’ Centre to watch the ten-minute documen-
stem. No contemporary image of Imhotep is known and                         tary film on Saqqara, produced by National Geographic in
most of the representations we have date to the Late                        conjunction with the SCA. The room is very spacious
Period of Egyptian history. His tomb, which many                            with comfortable seating on all three sides.
believe has to be at Saqqara close to that of Djoser, has                      In the middle of the room stands a small model of the
not been found, despite the efforts of archaeologists for                   Step Pyramid complex and behind this is the wide
almost two hundred years.                                                   screen. The film is in English and is narrated by the
   The fifth hall, named “Saqqara Tombs”, provides you                      Egyptian film star Omar Sharif. Dr Hawass gives a short
with information about the contents of the tombs. On                        introduction to Saqqara Museum and Dr Alain Zivie
show is a coffin with remains of blue colours, and a cof-                   talks briefly about his discoveries. I found the film very
fin text inscribed on its inner sides painted in black on a                 informative and well worth the time.
yellow base. A rowing boat was also found, and this is                         During my visit, I saw a reasonable number of tourists
on display above the coffin. This room pays tribute to                      and visitors, but in my opinion it needs many more to
the many archaeologists at Saqqara who have made dis-                       come to the museum.
coveries of funerary ware such as offering tables, false                       If you visit Saqqara with a tour, there will probably
doors and amulets, all of which can now be seen, many                       not be time to visit the museum and it is doubtful if
for the first time.                                                         many of the more popular tour companies will include
   The sixth and final hall, named “Lauer’s Library”, is                    the museum on their itineraries. Hopefully, the more
                                                                            serious and specialist tour companies will see the new
                                                                            museum as an absolute must for visitors.
                                                                               It is easy to make a special visit to Saqqara, but if you
                                                                            are making your own way there, then do make sure you
                                                                            have the time to visit the museum and can spend as long
                                                                            as you like there. The facilities are of the highest stan-
                                                                            dard, consisting of restrooms, shops, and a cafeteria.
                                                                            The complex is well designed and features a walk
                                                                            through palm-tree-lined paths to the museum entrance.
                                                                               The ticket price is £E15 for tourists for the museum
                                                                            only and I believe you can also buy a combined ticket,
                                                                            which will include the museum and the other sites at
                                                                            Saqqara. It doesn’t matter what time of the day you visit
                                                                            the museum because all the buildings are fully air-con-
                                                                            ditioned. The important thing is not to miss it.

                                                                                                        Ayman Wahby Taher
                                                                            Ayman is currently a full-time lecturer in Egyptology at
                                                                            the University of Mansura, Egypt. Prior to this he
   Above: a fine blue/green faience broad-collar from one of the tombs at   worked for the Supreme Council of Antiquities for
                    Saqqara. Photo: J. Rutherford.                          seven years under the guidance of Dr Zahi Hawass. He
                                                                            is also a qualified tour guide in Egypt.

18                                                                          ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006
      AE Suppor ting Eg yptolo gical
            Causes: 2006
               The Friends of Nekhen
                         AE bringsyou the fifth report on the excavations and research
              at Hierakonpolis (ancient Nekhen), supported by the Friends of Nekhen.
              Renée Friedman, the Director of the Hierakonpolis Expedition, looks at
                                   Nubians at Hierakonpolis.

            hen embarking on a project at a site as large          cate diamond pattern, which thanks to modern consoli-

W           and at least superficially featureless as the desert
            portion of Hierakonpolis, the first order of
business is to conduct a surface survey and figure out what
                                                                   dants, we were able to recover still in position.
                                                                     Despite the disturbance of the graves, we found a sur-
                                                                   prising amount of new information about the appearance
you’ve got. This is exactly what Walter Fairservis and             and profession of the Pan Grave people. Many graves still
Michael Hoffman did in the early years of the Expedition           contained remnants of leather garments, often dyed red
beginning in 1964, making inventories of, and assigning            and occasionally decorated with charming leather tassels,
locality numbers (HK6, HK29, etc.) to, the various fea-            in addition to elaborately woven fringed cloth with which
tures identified throughout this immense site. These sur-          they apparently lined their leather kilts. Large quantities
veys revealed not only interesting facets of the
Predynastic occupation, but also the presence of three
discrete cemeteries of the Nubian inhabitants of
Hierakonpolis in the Middle Kingdom and Second
Intermediate Period: HK21A and HK47 located at oppo-
site edges of the site; and HK27C in the centre, near the
   All three were assumed to belong to the Pan Grave cul-
ture – Nubian mercenaries, probably the Medjay of
Egyptian sources, who were brought in to defend Egypt
during the troubled times of the Second Intermediate
Period. Cemeteries of this distinctive culture have been
detected all along the Nile Valley, but the people remain
a mystery. We still do not know for certain who they were,
where they came from, and where they went when the job
was done. They were first discovered by Flinders Petrie,
who coined the name “Pan Grave” because their shallow
round graves resembled frying pans, and indeed some of
them do.
   Test excavations at HK21A in 2001 uncovered six of
these pan-like graves, all unfortunately badly plundered,
but with enough of the characteristic incised pottery and
jewellery to mark their presence.
   Far richer and better preserved were the graves at
HK47, which had been dug deeply into the loose white
sand and lined with multi-coloured goat and cow skins.
Although all of the burials had been plundered, the funer-
ary offerings left outside the graves escaped untouched.
These above-ground offerings are typical of Nubian
funerary practices and here included a number of pots
(Egyptian and Nubian) and baskets as well as a little bot-
tle, which had been deposited together with a leather bag
containing a kit for making carnelian beads. The leather
of the bag had deteriorated, but still preserved was the
band of woven beads that once adorned it. White, blue,
and dark blue faience beads were used to create an intri-              Excavating a pan-shaped grave in the Pan Grave cemetery at HK21A.

ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006                                                                                                        19
                                                                  Left: an offering deposited outside one of the Pan Graves included a little jar and a
                                                                                       leather bag containing a bead-making kit.
                                                                                                  Photo: J. Rossiter.
                                                                            Above top: the C-Group cemetery in the shadow of the Fort.
                                                                                                  Photo: J. Rossiter.
                                                                   Above: a Thirteenth Dynasty scarab, our first find from the C-Group cemetery.
                                                                                                  Photo: J. Rossiter.
                                                                  Below left: the woven bead pattern on the leather bag from the Pan-Grave offering.
                                                                                                  Photo: J. Rossiter.
                                                                                   Below: the plaque bead armlet after conservation.

of beads were also found, some still on their string, thus     little doubt about their day jobs. Examination by physical
preserving the original pattern. These included a com-         anthropologists shows that the people interred here were
plete bracelet of stunning garnet beads, and an armlet of      mainly young men, seventeen to twenty-five years of age,
rectangular mother-of-pearl plaque beads, one of the           of over-average Egyptian stature, (171 to180 centimetres;
most characteristic elements of Pan Grave attire. By piec-     5' 6" to 5' 9"), with strong muscle attachments in their
ing together the bits of raw hide thong remaining in one       legs, as one might expect of military professionals.
set of beads, conservator Fran Cole was able to recon-         Colourfully adorned with tasselled leather garments,
struct the armlet revealing its original curve over the arm.   fringed kilts, and bespangled with beads at neck, arms,
  A leather bow grip, bow string and arrow shafts with the     wrist and ankle, they must have been an impressive sight.
trimmed feather fletching remarkably still in place leave         Intriguing as this Pan Grave cemetery was, it was no

20                                                              ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006
match for the surprises in store for us at HK27C, the
cemetery by the Fort. Our first surprise was the exquisite
scarab found on the first day of our test excavations in
2001. Our second revelation was that this cemetery actu-
ally belonged to the Nubian C-Group, probably the last of
its kind in existence after the waters of Lake Nasser flood-
ed the heartland of this indigenous Nubian culture.
   Although these Nubians (called Nehesy in Egyptian
sources) were also prized for their fighting skill, and in the
employ of nomarchs in the First Intermediate Period, it
seems that they either adopted Egyptian funerary prac-
tices or returned home at death. During the Middle
Kingdom, when Egypt occupied Lower Nubia to the
Second Cataract with a series of imposing forts built to
control a people they called “wretched” and “vile”, lack of
evidence for their presence suggested that these particular
Nubians were not welcome north of Aswan. Thus, a C-
Group cemetery, located over one hundred kilometres
north of the political border, was definitely an unexpect-
ed discovery.
   Excavations in 2001 and 2003 uncovered twenty-three
out of an estimated one hundred graves, revealing dis-
tinctive funerary architecture, still intact above-ground
offering places, delicate decorated pottery, exquisite jew-
ellery and colourful leather garments typical of this
Nubian culture, showing that at least in death the inhab-
itants proudly displayed their cultural links, despite being
positioned within Egyptian territory.
   Dating from the Eleventh Dynasty through early
Second Intermediate Period (2055-1700 BC), the wealth
of the graves suggests these people were not slaves or pris-
oners of war, but members of a community that was res-
ident at the site for several generations. The reason for
their presence, their lifestyle and their interaction with the
Egyptian population are issues that we are exploring and
further excavations are planned for winter 2007.
   As elsewhere, none of the graves had entirely escaped
plunder, but organic preservation in a select few was spec-
tacular. In one instance, the preservation of the skin of an
older woman allowed us to reconstruct the pattern of her
elaborate tattoos. A diamond of short dashed lines
adorned her left hand, and a pattern of dots and dashes
ran down the back of her left arm. Skin adhering to the
ribs preserved a dotted zigzag line along the front of the
torso, with a more elaborate lattice pattern of dotted
squares running down along the abdomen, up over the
hip and onto her back. Tattooing is typical of Nubian cul-
tures, and it is from Nubia that the Egyptians adopted the
practice in the Middle Kingdom. Who would have imag-
ined we would have a cemetery of such trend-setters!
   The same tomb also contained copious amounts of
leather. Unique to this burial were delicate fragments of
cut-work leather of differing quality. One mass of leather,
perforated with a pattern of parallel rectangles (c. 5mm x

      Right top: feather fletching still in place on the Pan Grave arrows.
   Right centre: the tattooed skin of a Nubian dancer(?) from the C-Group
     Right bottom: the remains of leather garments with carefully made
        perforations; a loincloth on the left and a hairnet on the right.

ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006                                          21
2mm), looked so incredi-                                                                                 Other garments made
bly fragile, yet turned out                                                                            of a patchwork of brown,
to be sufficiently supple                                                                              beige, pink, red and yel-
for Fran Cole to examine                                                                               low leather panels were
the construction of the                                                                                found in several graves,
garment from which it                                                                                  but almost exclusively
originated. Composed of                                                                                those of women; they
a patchwork of pre-cut                                                                                 probably derive from
panels with a specific                                                                                 their multicolour skirts.
number of cut-out rec-                                                                                 Leather kilts with blue
tangles per row, it appears                                                                            faience beads sewn at the
most similar to a loin-                                                                                seams and edges were
cloth, a light but hard-                                                                               found in the graves of
wearing garment worn by                                                                                men.
soldiers, sailors and work-                                                                              In addition to typical
men to protect their linen                                                                             Nubian clothing and tat-
kilts, and again is a fashion that the Egyptians adopted             toos, we also observed characteristic Nubian funerary
from Nubia. Although generally a garment restricted to               architecture.The most elaborate was the well-built ring or
the male wardrobe, there are some exceptions.                        tumulus of mud-brick, four courses high, around Tomb
  A Ramesside ostracon depicts a dancing girl wearing a              17. After its construction, several large boulders were
cut-work loincloth, apparently as her special (and only)             rolled in, and between them a platform or offering chapel
performance costume (see above).The similarities between             of specially selected bright yellow fieldstones was erected.
the tattoos that adorn this dancer and those found on our            As was the Nubian custom, numerous offerings of pottery
Nubian lady are certainly intriguing, and, despite the time          were left above ground on all sides of the tumulus. We
difference, this combination of loincloth and tattoos may            found pots, both Egyptian and Nubian, under almost
be more than coincidental. Although our lady was well                every rock, nestled in brick cists or simply left up against
into her forties and had lost all of her upper teeth, a              the side of the brick ring. The final appearance must have
localised injury to her lower back suggests that in her              been a dazzling tribute to the young man, twenty to thir-
youth she may well have done a back flip or two.                     ty years of age, buried within.
  Age apparently also brings modesty, as our lady was                  But it wasn’t just pottery that they left as above-ground
buried with far more clothing that the girl on the ostra-            offerings. A short length of beads just below the surface
con. Impressions on the skin of the ear and chin suggest             soon revealed itself to be part of a string of over one
that finer-quality leather, with perforations less than 4mm          thousand six hundred tiny blue faience beads wrapped
in length (making for an astonishing forty-two slashes per           around an iridescent shell pendant. Painstakingly collect-
square centimetre), may be the remnant of a leather hair             ed in small clusters for restringing in their original order,
net that was tied under the chin. Her other garments                 they produced a result that is an elegant addition to any
include a leather top with brown and white, horizontally             outfit.
striped, flaring sleeves that connected to a bodice of pink            Despite being so far north in what we consider to be
leather with yellow appliqué. A colourful combination                Egyptian territory, the occupants of the cemetery appear
indeed!                                                              to have made few concessions to Egyptian influence other

         Above: a Ramesside ostracon of a tattooed dancing girl.
                        (ostracon IFAO 3779).
   (After W.H. Peck, Egyptian Drawings, New York 1978, pl. 68).
        Below left: a typically Nubian tumulus around Tomb 17.
      Below right: a hand-made Nubian pot with incised decoration;
                 a hallmark of the C-Group Nubians.

22                                                                    ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006
                                                                     Left and above: an offering of a beautiful shell pendant wrapped round
                                                                       with beads appears, just below the surface in the C-Group cemetery.
                                                                       Below: the shell pendant restrung – an elegant addition to any outfit.

than a general use of Egyptian pottery, mud-brick instead         “Let us take for her feathers of the back(s) of ostriches,
of stone for their tumuli, and in some cases simple wood-         which the Libyans slay for you with their throw sticks …”
en coffins. In death, at least, they dressed like Nubians,          With this hymn as well as graphic representation from
constructed Nubian funerary architecture, and deposited           the site itself of an ostrich and throw stick, it is not hard
Nubian grave goods above ground in traditional Nubian             to imagine this ostrich-feather deposit as an offering from
fashion. The population of the cemetery, which includes           the Nubian tribesmen who were celebrating the annual
an even spread of men, women and children, was obvi-              return of Hathor. The unique discovery of the actual
ously a wealthy one, with most of the inhabitants living          remains of this popular celebration is an exciting new
into their forties and beyond in relatively good health.          explanation for the activities at the site and of the Nubian
Caries and abscesses with relatively minor arthritis are the      population, be they resident or mobile.
most common pathologies. The Egyptian pottery indi-                 The return from the south of the distant goddess was a
cates a date ranging from the Eleventh Dynasty into the           popular celebration also for the Egyptians and corre-
Second Intermediate Period, suggesting a long-term pres-          sponded with the coming of the Nile flood in late
ence at the site and this is not the only evidence for            June/early July. While a desert location such as HK64
Nubians at Hierakonpolis                                          seems an odd place to celebrate the inundation, it was in
   Other evidence for C-Group presence is found at an             fact the natural place to greet it. The millennia of silts
isolated sandstone knoll on the northern edge of the site         deposited by the Nile on its banks meant that the flood
known as HK64. Adorning this hillock is a vast array of
incised petroglyphs, many of which can be attributed to
the Nubian C-Group culture, as well as one of the rare
examples of rock painting north of Aswan, depicting a
boat and a quadruped in black pigment (see overleaf).
   Surrounding this rock-art hill was a series of superim-
posed campsites/fireplaces containing Nubian pottery
and quartz cobbles, suggestive of Nubian lithic technolo-
gy. What exactly this all meant remained a mystery until
the excavation of one campsite revealed a rounded pit,
fifty centimetres in diameter and twenty centimetres deep,
containing a carefully laid mass of ostrich feathers. The
long tail feathers lined the pit, while filling it were several
layers of smaller feathers. Carefully nestled between these
layers was a small stone with an inscription that provides
an intriguing explanation for this deposit and the recur-
rent visits to this remote site. The stone reads: “The
Golden One, she appears in glory” and is a reference to
the goddess Hathor in her solar function.
   As the Eye of the Sun, Hathor left Egypt after her
drunken humiliation while trying to exterminate
mankind, and still angry she roamed the deserts of the far
south in the form of a bloodthirsty lioness. Various deities
sought her out and tried to entice her back to Egypt.
Ritual texts relate that when Hathor finally agreed to
return, a large entourage was assembled. Among those
who escorted her back to Egypt were various Nubian
tribesmen. They danced for her and made specific offer-
ings in her honour. A stanza from a ritual papyrus reads:

ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006                                                                                                             23
plain was actually higher than the low desert that sur-        growth of desert flora induced by the rising ground water,
rounded it. Before the Nile flooded its banks, a rise in       were responsible for the remains at HK64. This may still
ground water would be noticeable in the low desert. Even       be the case, their arrival acting as a potent signal of the
today at HK64 the high water table is evident and there        coming flood to their urban kinsmen as well as the
is a perennial well nearby, whose waters are reputed to be     Egyptian population. The ritual texts suggest that,
effective in curing skin complaints. Old habits appear to      although officially despised, Nubians eventually became
die hard, as those who make use of the well are still in the   symbols of Hathor’s return and came to play key roles in
habit of leaving behind offerings of soap and combs.           this and other celebrations.
   Prior to the discovery of the C-Group Cemetery, it was        All the evidence indicates that a good time was had at
suggested that desert-pastoralists, attracted by the rapid     this place; a hearty feast, song and dance, and perhaps
                                                               even a little rock music. Recent research in Sudan has
                                                               demonstrated that the quartz cobbles with abraded ends
                                                               found around many petroglyphic sites were not used to
                                                               make the rock art, but to play the rock art. While the sand-
                                                               stone of our hill may not respond to a percussion beat as
                                                               musically as Sudanese granite, such a usage would
                                                               explain the large number of quartz cobbles in the camp-
                                                               sites at HK64. Clearly a bit of experimental archaeology
                                                               is called for in the near future to find out for sure.
                                                                  Such celebrations may have served as a way for the
                                                               Nubian population to renew its ethnicity by interacting
                                                               with kinsmen; it also may have acted as a recruiting
                                                               ground, or job market, as inscriptions of several senior
                                                               army and caravan leaders at this rock suggest far more

                                                                    Above: the painted boat at HK64, one of the rare examples of rock
                                                                                        painting north of Aswan.
                                                                    Left: dedicated to Hathor, a deposit of remarkably preserved ostrich
                                                                                  feathers and an inscribed offering stone.
                                                                                            Photo: J. Rossiter.

24                                                              ANCIENT EGYPT August/September 2006
interaction between Nubians and
Egyptians than the official documents
have hitherto allowed us to acknowl-
   The C-Group cemetery at
Hierakonpolis is the northernmost
one now known. In New Kingdom
times, Hierakonpolis was adminis-
tered as part of Nubia under the con-
trol of the Viceroy of Kush. The rea-
son for its inclusion in the land of
Nubia may well have been because of
its sizable and varied Nubian popula-
tion. As work continues we hope to
understand more fully the relations
between the different Nubian peoples,
their place within Hierakonpolis and,
indeed, all of Egypt.

Excavation and study of the Nubian
localities was made possible by grants
from the National Geographic
Society and the Michela Schiff-
Giorgini Foundation, with additional
funds from the Friends of Nekhen.

                   Renée Friedman
Unless otherwise stated, all photo-
graphs and images are by the author.
                                                                              School of Archaeology & Ancient History
About the Friends of Nekhen
Please help support the work of the Hierakonpolis
Expedition by becoming a member of the Friends of                             Explore the               distance learning
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Expedition.                                                                   Undergraduate Diploma in Archaeology
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                               Above right:
                                                                                A Leading Research
     a petroglyph of a hunted ostrich from near the ostrich feather deposit
                                  at HK64.                                    and Teaching University

ANCIENT EGYPT August/September 2006                                                                                                       25
     KV-63 Update: the final stage
  AE brings you the fourth and final article on the latest tomb discovered in the Valley of the
 Kings. Will we finally know the answer to the question “is this a tomb or a funerary cache?”

       ince March this year, when the discovery of the                                   mally the closed season for work in Egypt, temperatures

S      new tomb in the Valley of the Kings (KV-63) was
       formally announced, the team from the University
of Memphis and their Egyptian colleagues have been
                                                                                         soared in the Valley of the Kings, and the few fans intro-
                                                                                         duced into the shaft and chamber will have done little
                                                                                         more than circulate hot air. For the excavators it was
working hard to clear the small chamber and to make                                      hot, uncomfortable and dusty work.
some sense of the contents.                                                                 The appalling condition of the woodwork in the tomb
  The excavating season, which should have ended in                                      was perhaps more apparent in the TV programme. Four
the Spring, was extended. The Director of the excava-                                    of the coffins had been badly attacked by termites and
tion, Dr Otto Schaden, was the last member of the team                                   were in an extremely fragile condition. The termites had
to leave Egypt, at the end of July, for a well-deserved                                  treated the thick black coating on the coffins like tree
break, having overseen a season that lasted a record                                     bark, and had tunnelled into the wood beneath this
seven months.                                                                            layer.
  The last report ended with the chamber cleared of all                                     The result was that the black pitch was in some cases
the storage jars and with just two of the seven coffins                                  all that was keeping the powdery wood together. This
remaining. Up to that point no bodies had been found,                                    situation was not helped by the fact that the coffins were
although the coffins and jars contained a wide range of                                  packed with heavy items, which exerted pressure on the
objects and materials, which included pottery, linen,                                    coffin walls from the inside, causing them to split and
natron, stone fragments, six feather-filled pillows or                                   the lids to collapse inwards. Interestingly, the faces of
cushions and a small gilded coffin.                                                      five of the coffins are relatively well preserved and are
  The clearance of the tomb was filmed by the                                            not affected by termite damage. The faces were not cov-
Discovery Channel and many AE readers may have                                           ered in black pitch, just yellow paint on the carved wood
had the chance to see the first programme, if not both.                                  surface.
It is unusual for an excavation of this type to be record-                                  The unsung heroes and heroines of archaeology are
ed and presented in this way, and it gave a unique (if, of                               the conservators, and their work often goes unnoticed.
necessity, selective) view of the work.                                                  Chief Conservator Nadia Lukma faced an amazing
  The programmes highlighted three aspects of the                                        challenge – to conserve the wood in situ, so that the
work that are not necessarily apparent from the written                                  coffins could be removed from the tomb.
accounts and the photographs released so far.                                               It was important to keep the coffin fragments togeth-
  It was clear that work in the confined space was far                                   er in panels or sections as far as possible. A number of
from easy, and that the working conditions were equally                                  techniques were used, which included the use of
bad. When the excavation extended into what is nor-                                      Japanese tissue paper. This is very thin, but very strong

  Above left: plan showing the layout of the tomb contents. All the storage jars have been given reference numbers and each of the coffins allocated a reference letter.
                                                Plan: courtesy of the University of Memphis Mission.
                                        Above right: view into the tomb, showing the coffins and storage vessels still in situ.
                                           Photo: courtesy of the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities.

26                                                                                       ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006
and was carefully stuck to the wooden surfaces, proba-                             concern, as many of the coffins included natron in their
bly using something like a water-soluble cellulose-based                           contents. This absorbs moisture, expanding in the
adhesive. This paper can easily be removed at a later                              process and potentially causing further damage.
time.                                                                                 Perhaps the most interesting thing that the TV docu-
  Gaps in the wood were carefully packed with cotton                               mentary showed was the excitement and pure delight of
wool, soaked in a special solution that hardened. Both                             the team members when they made their discoveries. It
techniques enabled the damaged fragments to be                                     is easy to forget, when reading a formal excavation
removed in larger pieces and will enable further conser-                           report, that archaeology can be exciting, and any find,
vation and possible restoration of the coffins at a later                          be it a piece of pottery or something more substantial,
stage.                                                                             can be a source of delight and wonder and an amazing
  Such a major attack by termites is not necessarily rare,                         experience for those few trained experts privileged,
but is a first for a tomb in the Valley of the Kings. Just                         experienced and lucky enough to be in the right place at
imagine (though perhaps it is better not to) the conse-                            the right time.
quences if similar damage had occurred in the nearby                                  With just two coffins left, the small infant coffin (coffin
tomb of Tutankhamun or the almost contemporary                                     D) and the larger coffin (E) against the rear wall of the
tomb of Yuya and Thuya, also filled with many splendid                             chamber, hope remained that there might be bodies in
funerary items and coffins.                                                        the chamber. Both coffins, unlike all the others, still
  The conditions inside the chamber did not help the                               appeared to be sealed.
work of conservators. From the moment the tomb was                                    The team used an endoscope (a small camera with a
opened, the team had to work quickly, but as safely and                            light attached) to look through holes in the last two
diligently as possible. The wood would begin to suffer                             coffins to see if they could determine what, if anything,
from the changes in temperature and the increased                                  might be inside. The results were disappointing: it was
humidity in the confined space. The latter was a major                             possible to see only bits and pieces of flowers, pottery
                                                                                   shards and dirt.
  Above: view of coffin E with the lid removed, revealing the floral collars.         The infant coffin was empty. It was discovered that
  Note the Japanese tissue paper applied to the outside of the coffin to hold it   this well-made coffin was covered in gold and later
together and also the cotton wool used to fill and consolidate some of the gaps.   painted with a thick layer of black pitch, which virtual-
Photo: courtesy of the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities.                    ly obscured all the details. The face and head area

ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006                                                                                                          27
appear to be in good condition and elaborately execut-                             The coffin base was too large to be lifted from the
ed, but the remainder of the wood is in poor condition                          chamber with all the contents in place, as its fragile state
due to termite damage. The coffin measures around                               meant that it could not take the weight of the contents;
forty-six centimeters in length, just a little longer than                      they were much heavier than a mummy would have
the gilt coffinette found inside coffin G.                                      been.
   Attention turned then to the final coffin. Lying close                          There was little choice but to clear the coffin in the
to the wall, at the head and feet of this coffin, two more                      tomb, an excavation in its own right, and then to remove
pillows or cushions were found, bringing the total found                        its base from the chamber. The coffin was carefully emp-
in KV63 to eight.                                                               tied, revealing more of the same types of objects found
   The exterior of the base and parts of the lid were cov-                      in the other coffins, but no mummy or any human
ered in Japanese tissue paper, to strengthen it before the                      remains.
lid was carefully removed. A carved inscription deco-                              Once the coffin was removed it was possible to sweep
rates this coffin, but it is covered by thick black pitch and                   the floor of the chamber to ensure that nothing had
has not yet been read.                                                          been missed and to be certain that there were no other
   Everyone was hoping for a mummy, but what was                                chambers to be found.
revealed was a coffin packed full to the brim with the                             Now that the chamber has been cleared, a new
same variety of objects found in the other coffins.                             perimeter or enclosure wall has been built around the
However, on top of the debris were a number of elabo-                           shaft and the tomb has effectively been closed.
rate floral collars. Made using real flowers, stitched onto                        All the objects were removed to the nearby tomb of
a papyrus backing, they also incorporated beads and                             Amenmesse, used as a laboratory and storage area dur-
gold. They had been laid rather carelessly in the coffin                        ing the excavation (although a few of the larger objects
and were crumpled and partly squashed by the coffin                             have been moved to the SCA storage magazine in
lid. These delicate objects will present another huge                           Luxor), where they will be safe until the new season
challenge for conservator Nadia Lumka.                                          starts early next year, when conservation work and study
   Similar collars have been found before in the Valley, in                     of the objects can continue.
1907/08 in the so-called embalming cache of                                        All the evidence from the tomb points to a date during
Tutankhamun, which also contained pottery, linen, and                           the reign of Tutankhamun, though speculation and a
jars and bundles containing natron.                                             variety of theories abound as to why and when this

                           Above: view inside the coffin, showing the crumpled floral collars, beads and the glitter of gold.
                                   Photo: courtesy of the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities.

28                                                                              ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006
chamber was filled. The hard evidence from the tomb is
limited and frustratingly fragmentary – an inscription
on a jar mentions Year Five of a king’s reign, but with
no name, and elsewhere the end of a name “… pa
Aten”, Ankhesenpaaten perhaps?
  The cache of objects, for it is clearly not a tomb, con-
tains unique artifacts, and there may be more surprises
to come when the detailed study of them continues.
  It is possible that the chamber once contained a bur-
ial, for the doorway was sealed. This original sealing was
broken down when, possibly, some or all of the original
contents were removed. The chamber was then filled
with the coffins and storage jars and the doorway re-
sealed for the last time.
  The mass of material clearly comes from a burial or
an embalming cache and the indications are that they
were not simply swept up from the floor of this small
chamber, but were brought from elsewhere. Fragments
of one pot were found in two separate coffins, which
would indicate a fairly rushed clearing-up process. If all
the objects were from an important burial, then this
might explain why they were treated so respectfully.
  We know Tutankhamun acquired objects for his own
burial that may have come from the royal tombs at
Amarna; perhaps when these tombs were cleared and
the burials moved back to Thebes, the items of little or
no intrinsic value were also collected and moved to this

  Top right: Dr Zahi Hawass visited the tomb when the final coffin was
                  opened; here he examines the contents.
       Photo: courtesy of the Egyptian Supreme Council of
  Right: Dr Otto Schaden, the Director of the excavation, shown holding
                         the small gilded coffin.
                       Photo: Elise van Rooij.
   Below: comparable material – pottery and a floral collar – from the
  “Embalming Cache of Tutankhamun” discovered in the early twentieth
    century and now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.
                               Photo: RP.

ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006                                       29
chamber. The coffins appear to have been used simply           Kings and a fascinating era of ancient Egyptian civilisa-
as storage chests, though they could not have been low-        tion.
ered down into the chamber full. The work in filling this        A special study season will begin early next year when
chamber would have been extensive and indicates the            more work and conservation on the objects will be car-
importance the objects had, to someone.                        ried out by the Memphis team.
  There will no doubt be many theories about where
these objects came from and who they were made for. If                                                                            RP
we are lucky, the answer may be revealed by the study of
the material. This does, of course, pose an intriguing           AE would like to thank Dr Otto Schaden and the
question. If this chamber is a cache of funerary equip-        KV-63 team for providing information and photographs
ment and items from Amarna, then where are all the             of their work, and in particular Roxanne Wilson, who
bodies? There is the distinct possibility that the Valley of   wrote the second and third articles on the discovery.
the Kings is far from exhausted and there may, as some           AE has made a donation to the expedition’s funds for
people have argued, be Amarna cache tombs still to be          each article published.
found there.                                                     Visit the official Websites:
  The Memphis team and their Egyptian colleagues                   and
have laboured long and hard on this tomb and are to be
congratulated on their work. Inevitably in the world of           Below (and main cover image): the face of coffin F, the best-pre-
Egyptology, the excavation has posed more questions                served in the tomb, and nicknamed “The Princess” by team Chief
than given answers, but has nevertheless added a new                                  Conservator, Nadia Lukma.
                                                                   Photo: courtesy of the University of Memphis Mission.
and important chapter to the history of the Valley of the

30                                                             ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006
   Is ther e ANOTHER new tomb in
  the Valle y of the Kings – “KV64”?
Just as the clearance of tomb KV63 in the Valley of the Kings has been completed comes news from
     Dr Nicholas Reeves, Director of the Amarna Royal Tombs Project, of another
                            possible new tomb in the heart of the Valley.

         n Friday 10 February 2006, Egypt’s Supreme                              new tomb to have been found in the royal Valley since the

O        Council of Antiquities made public at last what
         had been rumoured among Egyptologists for
many months: the discovery of a new and completely
                                                                                 discovery of Tutankhamun by Lord Carnarvon and
                                                                                 Howard Carter in 1922.
                                                                                   Six months later and the KV63 chamber stands fully
undisturbed tomb in the Valley of the Kings, located                             cleared, revealed (to evident media disappointment) not
beneath ancient workmen’s houses outside the entrance to                         as a burial proper but as an embalmers’ cache of surplus
the long-known sepulchre of pharaoh Amenmesse.                                   coffins and mummification refuse dating from the very
   KV63, as it soon became known, represented the first                          end of the Amarna period. It is an interesting find – and


                                   Rameses VI

   Plan of the central part of the Valley of the Kings, showing the areas excavated by the Amarna Royal Tombs Project and the approximate position of “KV64”
        as established by the ground radar survey. Map by Shin’ichi Nishiyma, copyright and courtesy of the Amarna Royal Tombs Project.

ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006                                                                                                                            31
     far more significant than the commentators seem to have
     realised. For what KV63 clearly signals is the existence in
     the Valley of the Kings of yet another tomb – one con-
     taining the burial(s) to which these embalming materials
     relate. And this further tomb is one upon which the
     Amarna Royal Tombs Project (ARTP) is potentially able
     to shed some intriguing light.
        Observant followers of the KV63 story will have
     noticed that ARTP had some small involvement in that
     particular find – not as the tomb’s physical discoverers,
     who were of course a University of Memphis mission led
     by Dr Otto Schaden, nor as KV63’s excavators, but as the
     team that first pinpointed the existence of an anomaly at
     this spot in 2000, using ground-penetrating radar (GPR).
        The KV63 anomaly looked to us at that time very much
     like a void – a tomb – but we could not be certain. Time,
     we believed, would tell: it was a feature we had earmarked
     for future investigation as and when our project, working
     systematically, reached that particular part of our conces-
     sion. But then – crisis! Politics intervened, and ARTP
     found itself out in the cold.
        However disappointing it was for ARTP to have missed
     the chance of excavating KV63, the physical location of
     that tomb by Schaden’s team was for our project
     immensely helpful. Not only did it confirm that the theo-
     ry of further Amarna burials, which had been driving us
     these past years, was indeed soundly based, but it provid-
     ed also the vital corroboration needed properly to evalu-
     ate the output of our 2000 GPR survey. After the uncov-
     ering of KV63, it was possible to assess, with a great deal
     more insight than previously, what our team’s GPR had
     and had not revealed.
        The practicalities of GPR survey are straightforward
     enough; the key to the process is a sober analysis of the
     data generated. ARTP were lucky: through friends and
     colleagues in Japan, we were able to enlist the services of
     Hirokatsu Watanabe, one of the most experienced GPR
     specialists in the field, with impressive results to his credit
     at sites in Japan itself and at the rich royal cemetery-site
     of Sican in Peru. Watanabe’s radar survey was not only
     systematic and thorough, taking in most of the ARTP
     concession and other parts of the Valley also, but
     extremely measured in its conclusions.
        The GPR equipment Watanabe employed for the
     ARTP Valley survey was a customized 400 MHz system.
        The way the technology works is as follows: an electro-
     magnetic wave is emitted downwards (at pulse intervals of
     six nanoseconds) from a boxed antenna dragged along the
     ground; the reflection echo is received and displayed on a
     monitor as a traverse profile.
        This raw data is recorded for subsequent laboratory
     processing – the disentangling of what is actually there
     from a multitude of confusing reflections.
        The images generated do not represent the actual form
     or dimension of the object detected, but are mere pat-
     terns, to be analysed as aggregates of arcs with the display
     colours varying according to the force and velocity of the
     various reflection echoes. The basic trick is that different
     types of underground features produce distinct screen
     patterns: a pipe, for example, will generate a couple of

32    ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006
nested arcs; a ditch a cross-pattern above a couple of nest-    drawn, either for the preparation of his own burial, or for
ed arcs; and a void or underground chamber a distinctive        the refurbishment of Akhenaten’s, before the young king
pattern of radiating arcs.                                      re-interred the ladies’ bodies close by.
   The most recent of ARTP’s GPR readings to be                   It is a question bound to be asked: could it be that the
analysed by Watanabe is shown opposite. It is an image          radar image now before us represents not only a tomb,
that has caused much excitement in recent weeks because         but a tomb containing the body or bodies of one or more
its radiating arcs clearly indicate a void – which in a ceme-   of these missing Amarna women – the burials for which
tery context almost certainly means a tomb. The feature         ARTP had been searching since 1998? It is at least a pos-
itself is located not far distant from KV63, at a significant   sibility, and all the more fascinating since the site has
depth adjacent to the southeast corner of the modern            clearly not been disturbed since antiquity.
flood-barrier erected around Tutankhamun. For ease of             The temptation to investigate this new and potentially
reference ARTP has labelled this void “KV64” – the              significant feature in the Valley of the Kings will undoubt-
inverted commas acknowledging the obviously tentative           edly be strong. If Egyptology decides to do so then let it
nature of the identification at this stage.                     be cautiously, in the right way and at the right time, and
   The possibility of yet another tomb in a cemetery which      not at the expense of the immensely important overlying
was merely presumed to be exhausted should cause no             stratigraphy.
surprise: Belzoni wrongly declared the Valley to be               The work requires a strategy; there is an obvious need
worked out in 1820; several tens of tombs later Theodore        to consult widely in advance; and the excavators – who-
Davis incorrectly ventured the same opinion in 1912; and        ever they may be – must be certain, before any work
it is an assessment most have tended tacitly to assume          begins, that they are physically capable of attaining all
since the finding of Tutankhamun in 1922.                       possible objectives, with adequate funding, expert staff,
   By 1997, I had become convinced, from a library-based        and access to every sort of technology.
analysis of the situation, that beneath the Valley floor          The Valley of the Kings is no ordinary site; the stakes
were concealed still one or more additional Amarna-peri-        here are incredibly high. It was the fifth Earl of
od reburials – reburials analogous to that of the heretic       Carnarvon, Carter’s sponsor, who commented that you
pharaoh Akhenaten discovered in 1907 in tomb KV55 in            either find great things in the Valley, or nothing at all.
the central part of the Valley. This belief inspired me to      ARTP may have found nothing – that possibility surely
set up the Amarna Royal Tombs Project to investigate            exists; but then again we might, in all seriousness, be in
selected parts of the site afresh, beginning in 1998.           the presence of a second Tutankhamun – another find of
   My particular quarry at that time (though priorities         quite extraordinary importance, containing a wealth of
changed when we discovered the extraordinary state of           magnificent burial equipment; a tomb hermetically sealed
preservation of the archaeological record beneath the           and preserving air samples, smells, pollen, insects,
tourist paths) was the burial place of Nefertiti,               microbes, dust – an entire ancient environment of ines-
Akhenaten’s wife and co-regent, but also the whereabouts        timable scientific value. We should recall that in the case
of Akhenaten’s secondary consort Kiya and his second            of Tutankhamun the treasure was rescued, but the poten-
daughter Meketaten. These were all women upon whose             tial of the tomb’s more fugitive data was lost forever when
funerary furniture, I had concluded, Tutankhamun had            the excavators excitedly broke through the sealed door-

          Opposite top:
 Hirokatsu Watanabe, the GPR
 specialist, with his equipment in
    the Valley of the Kings in

     Opposite bottom:
   “KV64” as revealed by the
  ARTP’s 2000 radar survey.
   Images copyright, and
  courtesy of, the Amarna
    Royal Tombs Project.                                                        Rameses VI
    the entrance to the tomb of      “KV64”?                                    Tutankhamun
  Rameses VI and the retaining
 wall around the entrance to the
 Tomb of Tutankhamun, show-
 ing the approximate location of
     possible tomb “KV64”.
 This photo was taken before the
 latest flood-protection measures
  were introduced and a “roof ”
     built over the entrance to
      Tutankhamun’s tomb.
            Photo: RP.

ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006                                                                                     33
way to peer in. In 1922 they knew no better; Egyptologists                Dr Nicholas Reeves is Director of the Amarna Royal
today have no such excuse.                                              Tombs Project, which excavated in the Valley of the
  If there is to be another Tutankhamun, then we must be                Kings between 1998 and 2002. His books include Valley of
prepared. Whatever “KV64” eventually turns out to be,                   the Kings: the decline of a royal necropolis (KPI, 1990) The
we have, for the present, to take it seriously; we cannot               Complete Tutankhamun (Thames and Hudson, 1990) and
risk selling it short.                                                  (with Richard H. Wilkinson) The Complete Valley of the Kings
                                                                        (Thames and Hudson, 1996).
                                         Nicholas Reeves                  For further information on the excavations and work of
                                                                        the ARTP in the Valley of the Kings, visit the web site

  Editor’s Comments
  This news, and Nicholas Reeves’s views, seem, so far at least, not    clear and, today, clearing a similar tomb could well take longer.
  to have created as much interest as might have been expected.            Conservation of objects would be critical, and all the resources
  There have been the beginnings of a healthy debate on the sub-        necessary would need to be in place from day one. Carter used a
  ject in some of the on-line Egyptology chat rooms, and reports        nearby tomb as a “laboratory” for his conservation work, and the
  have appeared in the press, although not everyone is necessarily      Memphis team also had to do this. Conditions and facilities in
  in agreement.                                                         such temporary laboratories are less than ideal, and it could be
     There is, of course, the possibility that the radar images may     argued that there would be the need for a purpose-built, state-of-
  be misleading, and there may be no tomb at all, or that any tomb      the-art conservation laboratory to be provided before any work
  might be empty, so perhaps no one should get their hopes up too       is started.
  much at this stage, pending further investigations.                      There would be a desire for any objects to be put on display as
     The news, though, has to be good for the SCA. Further exca-        soon as possible, as was done with the Tutankhamun objects.
  vation in the Valley of the Kings is probably inevitable, especial-   This may not be possible now, for there is limited room in the
  ly after the discovery of KV63, and to be able to plan and under-     current or planned museums – another factor that needs to be
  take future work, with the knowledge that there might be a tomb       allowed for; and, of course, all of this will take time and cost a
  (possibly intact) in the area, can only be helpful.                   great deal of money.
     The first decisions to be made are if and/or when any investi-        One way forward might be for further surveys to take place. A
  gation or excavation should take place. There is even the time        painstakingly thorough open excavation of the overlying area is
  and the opportunity to arrange, as some people have suggested,        essential before digging down to any tomb – the information
  an international conference of archaeologists and experts to pool     within the stratigraphy is crucial, arguably more important than
  ideas and opinions.                                                   another tomb, although excavations by Carter in this area may
                 Should “KV64” be Investigated?                         have already disturbed some of the historical layers.
  Although there may be a new tomb in the Valley, it has lain there        If a sealed tomb is found, it might be possible to drill into it
  untouched for over three thousand years, and a decade or more         without disturbing any air-tight seal for tests on the ancient air
  of delay in excavation is but the blink of an eye in the historical   and for any micro organisms, although this would be a difficult
  context. There will undoubtedly be, however, pressure and a           exercise. (It was done at the sealed second boat pit at Giza sever-
  genuine desire to excavate to see what is there. The nature of the    al years ago.) It would also be possible, in theory, for cameras to
  contents of an Egyptian tomb are well known and our knowl-            be used to look into the tomb without demolishing any doorways
  edge of the likely state of preservation of any contents means        or breaking seals.
  that the necessary archaeological techniques and technical skills        In this way, it would be possible to see what, if anything, the
  are substantially available now worldwide.                            tomb contained and then to plan a more leisurely excavation,
                  When Should it be Excavated?                          with better knowledge about the tomb contents and their condi-
  Whilst, therefore, it might be possible to excavate now or in the     tion and with all the above problems addressed in full.
  near future, the matter is not that simple.                              The SCA could pull together a team of Egyptian and inter-
     The eyes of the world would, quite literally, be on any excava-    national archaeologists and technicians and there would proba-
  tion. Over eighty years ago, the media caused the excavators of       bly be no shortage of people willing to offer their professional
  the tomb of Tutankhamun many problems and the media fren-             skills.
  zy would undoubtedly be worse today, given the desire for                In the meantime, the knowledge that something might be
  “instant” and “live” news.                                            there may, for example, help to plan any future developments in
     There would be the practical problems of access to the Valley      the centre of the Valley and the efforts there to ensure water run-
  and any excavation, and of allowing visitors to still see at least    off avoids tomb entrances.
  some of the other tombs. The location of the new tomb, its prox-         To excavate or not to excavate? It is, and will be, a difficult
  imity to Tutankhamun, and its depth could pose a physical threat      decision to make. Caution and planning should be the watch-
  to that tomb in the event of a flash flood.                           words, but the temptation will be strong to see what this radar
     If the tomb is opened, and is found to be intact, then it could    scan really shows ... and what a tomb at the heart of the Valley,
  conceivably contain many more objects than the recently-found         close to the tomb of Tutankhamun, might reveal about the fas-
  KV63. This tomb was cleared in a matter of months, but the            cinating history of the end of the Eighteenth Dynasty.
  Tomb of Tutankhamun took Howard Carter over four years to                                                                           RP

34                                                                       ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006
 Royal Mummies in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo
        he second Royal Mummy room in the Egyptian           rent museum, built in 1902. Many of the major pieces

T       Museum in Cairo has recently been opened and
        several mummies that have not been on view to
the public for many years, if at all, are now included.
                                                             from this collection will, in a few years’ time, be moved
                                                             back to Giza, to the new Grand Egyptian Museum,
                                                             where building work has just started.
  Some mummies have been moved from the first room,            The smaller photo, taken in the current museum in the
which now houses the mummies from the Eighteenth             early years of the twentieth century, shows the
and Nineteenth Dynasties. On view are: Sequenenre,           unwrapped mummies of Yuya and Thuya, the in-laws of
Amenhotep I, Queen Meritamun, Thutmose I, II and             Amenhotep III. Their virtually intact tomb was discov-
III, Amenhotep II, Thutmose IV, Sety I, Rameses II and       ered in the Valley of the Kings in 1905. These mummies
Merenptah.                                                   have been on and off display too, but have not been on
  In the new room are mummies from the Twentieth             view to the public now for many years. They remain in
and Twenty-first Dynasties: Rameses III, IV, V and IX,       their coffins in the museum.
Pinudjem II, Queens Istemkheb, Maatkara and                                                                      RP
Henttawy,      Princess     Nesikhonsu       and    Priest
  A separate entrance charge is made for each of these
rooms. The plan is for all the royal mummies to be
moved in a few years’ time to a new museum of the his-
tory of Egypt, currently being built at Fustat, not far
from the Citadel.
  The royal mummies have been on display intermit-
tently since they were discovered at the end of the nine-
teenth century. Most were found in the two famous
caches, one at Deir el-Bahri in 1881 and one in the tomb
of Amenhotep II in 1898.
  The photograph below (supplied by AE reader Brian
Playfair) shows the display of the royal mummies in a
room in the old museum, which was housed in a royal
palace at Giza. This replaced an earlier museum at
Bulaq. The Giza museum was later replaced by the cur-

ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006                                                                               35
          The Ancient Stones Speak
 In the first of a three-part series, Pam Scott offers an approachable introduction to reading
                   hieroglyphic inscriptions on monuments and museum objects.

     Finely-carved hieroglyphs from the Middle Kingdom “White Chapel” of King Senusret I, in the Open Air Museum at the Temple of Karnak. Photo: RP.

         nyone visiting Egypt or museums with Egyptian                          script probably did begin as simple pictures. In some

A        collections, or even reading magazines such as
         ANCIENT EGYPT, cannot fail to be aware of the
huge number of hieroglyphic inscriptions to be found
                                                                                instances this pictographic use of signs continued, so

                                                                                that the symbol of a bull                  , for example, could be
both on the monuments and on objects of all kinds.
  Since the decipherment of the hieroglyphic script in                          used to represent the word “bull”. Early on, however,
the early nineteenth century, these texts have added                            the technique was developed of using pictures to repre-
immeasurable to our knowledge of the ancient Egyptian                           sent other ideas that were not as easily expressed in pic-
civilisation. For most people, however, these inscriptions                      torial form, but happened to have a similar sound. A
remain a tantalising mystery. In this three-part series, I
will introduce the basic principles of the hieroglyphic                         good example of this is the familiar ankh sign                     . It is
script and show you how you too can begin to make “the
ancient stones speak”.                                                          actually the picture of a sandal-strap (imagine the loop
                                                                                going around the ankle, the crossbar across the instep
                                                                                and the post between the toes), the word for which was
The signs                                                                       ankh in ancient Egyptian. However, the word ankh (or
To the uninitiated, the hieroglyphic script appears to be                       something very similar) also meant “live” and other
a series of unrelated pictures – birds, animals, human                          related words so, in order to express this rather more
figures and objects – and indeed the ancient Egyptian                           complex concept, the ancient scribes used the picture of

36                                                                              ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006
a sandal strap to spell out the sound of the words for          In order to know where to start reading an inscription
“live”, “life” and so forth.                                  you simply need to remember that signs representing
  Hieroglyphic is therefore known as a mixed script,          people, animals or parts of these almost always face the
with signs being used both pictographically to repre-         beginning of the word. In other words you read into
sent objects, and phonetically to represent sounds.           the front or faces of the signs.
Signs which are used pictographically are known as              Look at the lintel of Senusret III, now on display in
ideograms or sense signs; those which are used                the Open Air Museum in the Temple of Karnak (see
phonetically are called phonograms or sound signs.            below, Photo: Pam Scott) on which you will see two lines
Some signs, however, like the ankh symbol, can be used        or registers of text.
both as ideograms and as a phonograms, depending
upon the text.

The hieroglyphic script shows only the consonants that
make up a word; vowels are not written. Of course vow-
els would have been essential in the spoken language, so
some words, although they may look the same, would
probably have been pronounced quite differently.
Imagine writing the word “cat” without its vowels: as
well as “cat” it could mean “cot”, “coat”, “cut”, “cute”
or even “acute”. Only by looking at the context of the
word could we establish the meaning.                             It is the two pintail ducks on the lower register that
   A study of Coptic, the language and script used by the     give us the clue to the orientation of the text. Since they
early Egyptian church, has been useful in supplying the       are facing the beginning of the text we see that there are
likely pronunciation of some Egyptian words, but for          two inscriptions, each beginning in the centre with the
practical purposes we usually supply a short “e” in order     ankh sign, like mirror images of each other. Thus the
to be able to pronounce the consonants represented by         decoration of this architectural feature would have pre-
the signs. Thus “p+r” is pronounced “per”; “n+b” is           sented a pleasing, harmonious symmetry when in situ
pronounced “neb”.                                             above a doorway.
                                                                 The same piece also demonstrates that the ancient
                                                              Egyptians rarely strung out their inscriptions in a long
Direction and layout of inscriptions                          line in the way that we do in English. Instead, signs were
As a monumental script, hieroglyphic was extremely            grouped to fit neatly into imaginary rectangles with
flexible, fitting into the available space and changing its   signs of different sizes carefully placed so as to give bal-
orientation to suit to the scenes it accompanied.             ance to the whole.
   So, for example, the name of the god Osiris could be          Notice, for example, how the circle representing the
written in four different directions:                         sun god Ra is tucked in neatly above the back of the
                                                              duck, and how in the upper register the three pairs of
                                                              raised arms in the oval cartouche are arranged in a tight
  In a vertical column, reading from top
  to bottom, facing left:                                     triangle        , making a compact group.

                                                                Although this arrangement of signs gives a much
                                                              more aesthetically pleasing effect, it makes it a little
                                                              more difficult to decide in which order the signs should
  In vertical columns, reading from top                       be read.
  to bottom, facing right:                                      As a general rule of thumb, however, upper signs
                                                              are read before lower ones. Hence the name of the

                                                              god Ptah, written                 , should be read in the
  In horizontal lines, reading
  from right to left:
                                                              order                   , while that of the god Amun,

  In horizontal lines, reading                                written                 , should be read in the order
  from left to right:

ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006                                                                                   37
                                                            words could have been written using only these signs,
                      .                                     but in practice only a limited number were.

  Unfortunately for us, the Egyptian scribe did not leave
any space between individual words. As we shall see,        Transliteration
however, there are clues to be found from the context       In order to record what consonant(s) each symbol rep-
and in the structure of the words themselves.               resents, scholars use a process known as translitera-
                                                            tion, which involves writing the appropriate sound
                                                            value of each sign using the equivalent letters of the
The Egyptian “alphabet”                                     alphabet.
As we have seen, hieroglyphic signs fall into two broad       The sign of a horned viper,           , for example, is
categories – phonograms (sound signs) and                   transliterated as “f ”, its nearest equivalent sound.
ideograms (sense signs). Like the ankh sign, howev-         Sometimes the sound represented by a hieroglyphic sign
er, some symbols can, and often do, play the role of both   cannot easily be represented using only the letters of the
ideogram and phonogram, depending upon the word in          alphabet. In these cases special symbols are used for
which they appear.                                          transliteration.
  Phonograms can represent either one, two or three           In the following table of one-consonant signs each
consonants. The most frequently used are the twenty-        sign is shown with its transliteration and approximate
four one-consonant signs (also called uniliteral or         pronunciation. Although the first five appear to us to be
alphabetic signs) which make up what is sometimes           more like vowels, they were not used as such in the
called the Egyptian “alphabet”. In theory, all Egyptian     script.

38                                                          ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006
      Sign         Object                              Trans-                Sound
                   Depicted                            literation

                 Left: hieroglyphs on a funerary papyrus in the British Museum in London. Photo: RP.

ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006                                                                    39
  Here are some examples of gods’ names, written using
“alphabetic” signs, together with their transliteration:

                                                            Write your name in hieroglyphs
                                                            A popular souvenir from Egypt is a T-shirt or a pendant
                                                            bearing your name written in hieroglyphic characters.
                                                            To write modern names in hieroglyphs you can use the
                                                            “alphabetic” signs, plus one or two extras for sounds
                                                            that were not present in the ancient Egyptian language.
                                                              You will be following in the footsteps of some of
  The following kings wrote their names using only          Egypt’s later, foreign, rulers who used these phonetic
alphabetic signs (       is a late adaptation of a hiero-   signs to inscribe their names on their monuments.
glyphic character sometimes used in foreign names,
transliterated as “l”). The royal names are enclosed in      Here are a few tips:
an oval “frame” known as a “cartouche”.
                                                             Use       for “a”;     for “i”;    for “o”;       for “w”

                                                            or “u”;      for “f ” or “v”; and       for “l”.

40                                                          ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006
You can omit short “e”s or unstressed vowels altogether,                           Two-consonant signs are frequently accompanied by
                                                                                 one or two one-consonant signs that repeat all or part of
                                                                                 their sound value. These are known as phonetic com-
but if an “e” is stressed, use                or         , whichever             plements and as such are neither transliterated nor
                                                                                   The name of the god Amun, for example is written
sounds the closest, e.g.                     = “Peter”.
                                                                                                  , using the one-consonant sign                , followed

  Draw a woman               at the end of a feminine name,                      by the two-consonant sign           , mn, and another one-
                                                                                 consonant sign          , n, which is acting as a phonetic
                                                                                 complement for the second consonant in mn. The result-
and a seated man             at the end of a masculine name.                     ing transliteration is imn (not imnn, since the final n is a
                                                                                 phonetic complement and does not add to the sound
                                                                                 value of the word).
   Follow the ancient scribes’ example of writing in neat                          Some more royal and divine names written using one-
rectangles, rather than stringing the signs out in a single                      and two-consonant signs and phonetic complements
line.                                                                            are:

Two-consonant (biliteral) signs
As well as the one-consonant signs, ancient Egyptian
also used symbols that represent two and three conso-
  The sign         , for example, represents the conso-
nants “m+n”, is transliterated as mn and pronounced
“men”. Below are some of the more commonly used
two-consonant signs, with their transliteration and
approximate pronunciation.

              Opposite left: cartouche with the name of King Amenhotep II, from a block in the Open Air Museum at Karnak. Photo: RP.
        Opposite right: painted inscription from the roof of the temple of Rameses III at Medinet Habu, showing the royal titles. Photo: Pam Scott.

ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006                                                                                                                   41
Three-consonant (triliteral) signs                                                phonetic complements may be omitted altogether.
Phonetic signs representing three consonants are the                              Below are some Egyptian words that contain three-con-
least common type. Below are some of the more fre-                                sonant signs and phonetic complements
quently used ones:

                                                                                  Ideograms or Sense Signs
                                                                                  As we have seen, signs can be used to represent ideas as
                                                                                  well as sounds. These are known as ideograms or
  Like the two-consonant signs, those with three conso-                           sense-signs and these may be used in one of two
nants are often accompanied by phonetic complements.                              ways.
The sound values that are repeated vary from sign to                                   As logograms or whole-word signs, that rep-
sign. For example:                                                                   resent pictorially the object, person or animal that is
                                                                                     being referred to. The sound value of these signs cor-
      has the third consonant repeated and should be                                 responds to the name of the object they depict.
      transliterated     ,                                                           These are sometimes followed by a stroke known as
                                                                                     a stroke determinative, which indicates that here
                                                                                     we are dealing with the object depicted, or a very
             has the second and third consonants repeat-                             closely related concept. For example:
             ed and should be transliterated as nfr.
                                                                                                                   r                 pr                 ib
  Sometimes, however, for example in monumental
inscriptions, where space is frequently at a premium,                                    sun              mouth              house                  heart.

        Carved relief with elaborate hieroglyphs, from the tomb of Sety I in the Valley of the Kings, now in the British Museum in London. Photo: RP.

42                                                                                ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006
     As determinatives used to express or determine             Using the list of determinatives below, see if you can
   the general sense of a word spelled out using sound       divide the line of hieroglyphs at the bottom of this page
   signs. Determinatives are placed at the end of the        into the words listed above them.
   word and are not transliterated or pronounced.               You have now met all the types of signs that appear in
                                                             hieroglyphic texts, although of course only a small pro-
      For example, the word                  , “woman”,      portion of the seven hundred or so signs that were com-
                                                             monly in use in Middle Egyptian, the “classical” stage of
    consists of two alphabetic signs, which give its sound   the writing, have been introduced.
    value, followed by the determinative of a seated            Have a look at the photographs that are included in
    woman, which helps to define the word.                   this article (and others in this edition of AE) and see
  Many determinatives, known as generic determi-             how many signs you can identify.
natives, are used in several different words that have          One of the “tricks of the trade” when approaching
related meanings.                                            hieroglyphs is to be aware that most of the inscriptions
                                                             you come across are either names or standard formulae
  For example, the words                  , “sun”, “day”     that are repeated over and over again. In temples, for
                                                             example, it is the king’s names and titles that are ever-
                                                             present, together with those of the gods with whom he
and                     , “rise”, “shine” both have the      is shown in company.
                                                                In tombs and on funerary objects it is formulae for
sun as a determinative.                                      ensuring the continued existence of the deceased that
  In the table below are some of the more commonly           are most often found.
used generic determinatives together with the concepts
with which they are associated. As was mentioned earli-
er, in the hieroglyphic script no space was left between       In the rest of the series (there will be two more parts,
individual words. Since a determinative invariably ends      the next one in the February/March edition) we will be
a word, it can be a useful clue to identifying where one     looking at both royal and funerary inscriptions. By mas-
word ends and another begins.                                tering a few simple principles and familiarising yourself

ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006                                                                                43
with some of the most commonly occurring forms you               Faulkner, Raymond O. A Concise Dictionary of Middle
will surprised how many inscriptions you will be able to         Egyptian. Griffith Institute, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford,
read.                                                            1988. An invaluable translation tool for the more
                                              Pam Scott          advanced student.

Pam is a tutor in Egyptology at the University of                Gardiner, Sir Alan. Egyptian Grammar, 3rd edn. Griffith
Manchester, where she regularly gives courses in                 Institute, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, 1957. Rather
Egyptian hieroglyphs for the Centre for Continuing               out of date now, but for many years the standard work
Education.                                                       for the study of Egyptian grammar. The sign list is essen-
                                                                 tial if you are serious about learning to read hieroglyphs.
Inscribe 2004, by Saqqara Technology, has been used
to reproduce the hieroglyphs in this article.

Further Reading
Allen, James P. Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the
Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. Cambridge University
Press, 2000. A substantial work, this provides an up-to-
date alternative to Gardiner, complete with exercises, a
sign list and a dictionary.

Collier, Mark and Manley, Bill How to Read Egyptian
Hieroglyphs: A Step-by-Step Guide to Teach Yourself. British
Museum, 1998. One of the best and most recent books
on how to read hieroglyphs which, surprisingly, made it
into the best-seller lists! This is an extremely useful, prac-
tical introduction concentrating mostly on funerary
inscriptions. It includes several exercises, reference              An inscribed block from the Open Air Museum at Karnak. Photo: RP.
tables, vocabulary and sign lists.

44                                                               ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006
          Images of the Rekhyt from
               Ancient Egypt
The lapwing was represented in ancient Egyptian art for a period of over three thousand years, but
these images are much more than just a representation of the bird, as Kenneth Griffin reveals.

                Above: a rekhyt rebus: The rekhyt bird raises arms in adoration of Rameses II as represented by his double cartouche.
                                       Carving on a column in the temple of Amun at Karnak. Photo: RP.

                      he lapwing (Vanellus vanellus), has, for a period of over three

               T      thousand years, been abundantly represented in both Egyptian art
                      and hieroglyphs. The lapwing can be identified by its characteris-
               tic short pointed bill, rounded head, long squared tail and especially by
               the long crest on its head. To the Egyptians the bird was referred to as
               rekhyt. They were often depicted in Egyptian art in papyrus marshes,
               perching on their nests. It is generally accepted that the rekhyt people
               are to be identified as the lowest class of society in ancient Egypt and
               have been called “subjects”, “common people”, “plebeians” or
               “mankind”. However, other scholars have suggested that the rekhyt peo-
               ple were actually foreigners who had settled in Egypt.

The lapwing first makes an appearance in Egyptian art                       ars as depicting Scorpion’s victories over the people of the
during the Protodynastic Period. The bird is depicted on                    Delta, who are depicted as the rekhyt people. However, the
the deck of a boat, on a fragment of slate palette known                    scene could also depict the sovereign’s control over all the
as the “Plover Palette”, which is housed in the Egyptian                    people of Egypt.
Museum in Cairo.                                                              The earliest depiction of the rekhyt bird during the Old
  From the same period comes the limestone ceremonial                       Kingdom comes from the statue base of the pharaoh
mace-head of “king” Scorpion, on which a series of stan-                    Djoser. This base, which is on display in the Egyptian
dards with lapwing birds hanging from their necks are                       Museum in Cairo, depicts three rekhyt birds, each with
depicted. This scene has been interpreted by many schol-                    their wings intertwined, under the feet of the pharaoh. As

ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006                                                                                                     45
                                                                                          from flying, but also from walking; they
                                                                                          cannot stand properly, so consequently
                                                                                          lie on their legs.
                                                                                             Images of the rekhyt birds in the
                                                                                          mastabas of the Old Kingdom are quite
                                                                                          common. In the majority of cases, the
                                                                                          birds are depicted in the marshes, either
                                                                                          flying or sitting upon their nests.
                                                                                             One relief from an Old Kingdom
                                                                                          mastaba that does stand out comes from
                                                                                          the Fifth Dynasty mastaba of Nefer at
                                                                                          Saqqara. Here the tomb owner is
                                                                                          accompanied by his wife or daughter
                                                                                          who holds a lotus blossom in one hand,
                                                                                          while in the other she clutches a rekhyt
                                                                                          bird by its wings. It has been suggested
Above:                                     well as the three rekhyt birds there is also   by Partick Houlihan that the rekhyt in
      detail of the Scorpion macehead      a depiction of the “nine bows”, which          this depiction was a pet or plaything.
  showing rekhyt birds hanging from        were a symbol used to denote the ene-          He points out that children often carry
      the standards in the top register.   mies of Egypt; thus the rekhyt people in       their pet birds, the hoopoe being the
        Drawn by Sam Channer.
(After Cialowicz, 1997                     this instance are closely linked with          most common, while accompanying
Protodynastic Egypt.)                      Egypt’s enemies, a theme that remains          their parents.
                                           until the end of pharaonic history.               Occurrences of the rekhyt birds from
                                             Depictions of the rekhyt birds with          the Middle Kingdom are rare. with only
                                           their wings intertwined in an act of sub-      one relief worthy of comment.
Below:                                     mission, were frequent in Egyptian art.           The relief, which is on display in the
      the base of a statue of Djoser,
               showing rekhyt birds        Even in the markets of Egypt today it is       Egyptian Museum in Cairo, depicts two
           before the feet of the king.    possible to find live ducks in this posi-      images of Amenemhat I seated on his
Photo: RP.                                 tion. This prevents the birds not only         Sed-festival pavilion. Beneath the pavil-
                                                                                          ion there are seven representations of
                                                                                          the rekhyt bird in an act of praising. It is
                                                                                          likely that there were originally nine
                                                                                          birds depicted, but unfortunately the left
                                                                                          side of the relief is missing. Nine in
                                                                                          ancient Egypt was a significant number,
                                                                                          which appears many times. One cre-
                                                                                          ation myth revolves around nine deities,
                                                                                          known in Greek as the ennead, while
                                                                                          the “nine bows” symbolises the tradi-
                                                                                          tional enemies of Egypt.
                                                                                             Depictions of the rekhyt during the
                                                                                          New Kingdom are numerous.
                                                                                             Above all, the most common depic-
                                                                                          tion of the rekhyt is the rekhyt rebus,
                                                                                          which first makes an appearance during
                                                                                          the reign of Hatshepsut and continues
                                                                                          to be depicted through to the Graeco-
                                                                                          Roman Period.
                                                                                             A rebus is an artful intertwining or
                                                                                          decorative arrangement of hieroglyphic
                                                                                          and other pictorial elements. At first
                                                                                          glance, a rebus looks like a picture, but it
                                                                                          is meant to be read as a phrase or clause.
                                                                                          The use of the rebus was fairly common
                                                                                          in ancient Egypt, where writing and art
                                                                                          were never really separated. This rebus
                                                                                          appears on many of the temple
                                                                                          columns, with over one thousand exam-
                                                                                          ples in the Hypostyle Hall at Karnak
                                                                                          alone. The rebus, made up of a number

46                                                                      ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006
of hieroglyphic signs reads “all the rekhyt
people worship N” (N being the name of
the king in whose reign the relief was
   The most important element of the
rebus is the rekhyt figure itself. The figure
is usually depicted resting upon a hiero-
glyph in the shape of a basket, meaning
“all”. This reminds one of the nests
upon which the lapwing bird would
commonly be seen by the ancient
   Another element of the rebus is the
hieroglyph in the shape of a five-point-
ed star, meaning “worship”, which is
usually placed just in front of the face of
the rekhyt figure. The act of worshipping
is confirmed by the depiction of
upraised human arms which often form
part of the rebus.
   While the simplest form of the rekhyt
rebus depicts the lapwing bird with
human arms raised, in an act of adora-
tion, and wings pinned back, in an act of
submission, it was possible to have vari-       depicts a kneeling rekhyt figure that has   Above:
ants.                                           the body of a human and the head of a         a rekhyt rebus from Luxor Temple.
   The most common variations are               lapwing (see below left).                                      Author’s photo.
depicted in the temple of Rameses II at           From Luxor Temple there are also a
Abydos. These include rekhyt figures            number of depictions of rekhyt figures
                                                                                            Below left:
depicted with a human body and the              that are completely human in appear-        a column from the third tier of the
head of a lapwing; a human body with            ance and can only be identified by their    mortuary temple of Hatshepsut,
a lapwing crest; or a complete human            accompanying hieroglyphs..                  Deir el-Bahri, depicting a kneeling
with only the hieroglyphs in front of the         Perhaps the most intriguing examples      rekhyt figure.
figure identifying it as a rekhyt person.       of the rekhyt rebus come from the mor-                           Author’s photo.
These variants are not unique to this           tuary temple of Rameses III at Medinet
temple.                                         Habu. High up on the outside walls of
                                                                                            Below right:
   In fact, the earliest form of the rekhyt     the Migdol entrance gate there are sev-     detail of a rekhyt bird from the base
rebus, which is located on the third tier       eral depictions of a kneeling human fig-    of the Djoser statue.
of Hatshepsut’s temple at Deir el-Bahri,        ure who can be identified as a rekhyt by                               Photo: RP.

ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006                                                                                         47
                                                                                             Of the six temple forecourts exam-
                                                                                          ined by this author, where the rekhyt
                                                                                          rebus is located, five have hieroglyphic
                                                                                          inscriptions specifically mentioning that
                                                                                          the rekhyt people have access. This
                                                                                          includes an inscription from the fore-
                                                                                          court of the temple of Khnum at
                                                                                          Elephantine which states, “He
                                                                                          (Amenhotep II) made [this], for his
                                                                                          father Khnum, who dwells in
                                                                                          Elephantine. He made a festival hall in
                                                                                          order that all the rekhyt people may see
                                                                                          that which he makes for him.”
                                                                                             In opposition to the belief that the
                                                                                          rekhyt rebus was used to designate areas
                                                                                          accessible by the “common people” it
                                                                                          was observed that of the four hypostyle
                                                                                          halls, and five inner sanctuaries or
                                                                                          shrines, where the rekhyt rebus was locat-
Above:                                      the lapwing’s crest projecting from the       ed, only the great hypostyle hall at
       the “People’s Gate” at Luxor         back of his head. The hands of the fig-       Karnak has a direct inscription stating
    Temple, which has a depiction of        ure are raised in adoration, as is the case   that it was accessible to the rekhyt people.
 a number of kneeling rekhyt people.        in the previous examples, and the five-          If the function of the rekhyt rebus was
     Note the small lapwing between
                      the two figures.      pointed star hieroglyph is placed in          not to signify the areas of the temple
Author’s photo.                             front. What is intriguing about these         accessible to the rekhyt people, what was
                                            images is that the depictions seem to         its function?
                                            depict the pharaoh Rameses III as a              There are two possible answers.
                                            rekhyt person. He wears royal attributes         Firstly, it is possible that the rebus was
                                            including the nemes headcloth, divine         no more than a “filler” used by the
                                            beard, shendyt kilt and the bull’s tail.      sculptors. However, it is hard to believe
                                              So what function did the rekhyt rebus       that the Egyptians would have gone to
                                            have?                                         all the trouble of using this rebus this
                                              It has been suggested by a number of        way if it had no significance whatsoever.
                                            Egyptologists, including Bell, Wilkinson         The other possible function of the
                                            and Brand, that the function of this          rebus, and the one that I believe is
                                            rebus was to indicate the areas of the        much more likely, is that it signified that
                                            temples that were accessible to the           the rekhyt people were present in the
                                            “common people”. Peter Brand, whilst          temple metaphysically and not physi-
                                            discussing the examples from the              cally.
                                            hypostyle hall of Karnak, says that the          The Egyptian temple, representing
Below:                                      rebus was “a visual sign to the public        the cosmos, needed to include all classes
        a statue base of Nectanebo II.      that they had access to this part of the      of society in order to maintain maat, cos-
      A statue of the king would have       temple” and that “the illiterate could        mic order.
   fitted into the slot in the top of the
            base. Note the rekhyt bird      easily be taught to recognise this design        Baines says that the rekhyt, along with
                 on the left of the base.   as a visual sign meaning ‘you may stand       two other classes of society known as the
Author’s photo.                             here’ ”. However, a study of the various      pat and henmemet “form a quasi-mytho-
                                                            areas of        the New       logical description of the peoples of the
                                                            Kingdom temples, where        Egyptian cosmos, excluding non-
                                                            this rebus is present, sug-   Egyptians”. Moreover, foreigners and
                                                            gests otherwise.              enemies were frequently depicted on the
                                                              It is the belief of most    temple walls, although in all cases they
                                                            Egyptologists that the        are being defeated by the pharaoh or
                                                            “common people” would         brought before the gods as captives.
                                                            have had access to only       These themes were necessary depic-
                                                            the forecourts of the tem-    tions, which maintained maat and
                                                            ples and even then it is      helped banish isfet, “chaos”.
                                                            debatable whether this           During the New Kingdom it became
                                                            was allowed all year          very common to depict the rekhyt under
                                                            round or just during festi-   the feet of the pharaoh in the same way
                                                            vals.                         as the “nine bows”.

48                                                                       ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006
                                             A large number of faience tiles depict-
                                          ing the rekhyt, many originating from the
                                          temple of Rameses III at Medinet
                                          Habu, have also been found. These tiles
                                          were believed to have decorated the
                                          floors of the palace of the pharaoh or
                                          perhaps the dais from where the king
                                          would greet his people.
                                             The theme of these depictions was
                                          thus to emphasise that the pharaoh was
                                          in complete control and that the rekhyt
                                          people were subjugated and inferior.
                                             This theme of control can also be seen
                                          throughout the temples of the New
                                          Kingdom where there are images of the
                                          pharaoh holding a rekhyt bird in his
                                          hand. The bird is usually directed
                                          towards the deity facing the king who in
                                          turn presents the emblems of kingship
                                          to the pharaoh, his reward for maintain-
                                          ing maat.
                                             During the Graeco-Roman Period, it
                                          became common to depict the rekhyt fig-
                                          ures as part of a frieze around parts of
                                          various temples. These friezes consist of
                                          a large number of rekhyt figures, each
                                          with their hands raised in adoration and
  There were various different methods    sitting on the nb sign, similar to the rebus
of doing this. Statues of the pharaohs    discussed earlier. However, the appear-
often had the rekhyt depicted on their    ance of the birds is most striking and it
bases, a practice which continued         is often difficult to tell for certain if they
through to the Late Period.               represent the rekhyt people. The birds
  Tutankhamun depicted the rekhyt on      are usually very stout in appearance,
the footstool of one his thrones now in   highly decorated and often missing the
the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.             distinctive crest of the lapwing bird.
  A relief from the tomb of Kheruef       Clearly the artists of the period were
depicts Amenhotep III and his wife Tiye   trying to duplicate the New Kingdom
seated under a canopy, the base of        examples, but in their own style.
which has fourteen depictions of the         With the emergence of Christianity
rekhyt rebus.                             the Egyptian temples were shut down

                                                                                           Above left:
                                                                                           a painted relief from the Temple of
                                                                                           Sety I at Abydos, showing the king
                                                                                           receiving the emblems of kingship from
                                                                                           Amun-Ra. Note that the pharaoh is
                                                                                           holding a rekhyt bird in the direction
                                                                                           of the god.
                                                                                                                Author’s photo.

                                                                                           Above right:
                                                                                           a coloured faience tile depicting a
                                                                                           rekhyt rebus, from the temple of
                                                                                           Rameses III at Medinet Habu and
                                                                                           now in the Egyptian Museum in
                                                                                                                       Photo: RP.

                                                                                           a frieze of rekhyt birds in
                                                                                           the Temple of Deir el-Haggar,
                                                                                           Dakhla Oasis.
                                                                                                       Photo: Cheryl Hanson.

ANCIENT EGYPT June/July 2006                                                                                                49
                                                                                         deliberate damage inflicted on many
                                                                                         reliefs, despite the fact that they would
                                                                                         have contradicted Christian ideology.

                                                                                                           Kenneth Griffin
                                                                                         Kenneth is a Student of Egyptology at
                                                                                         the University of Wales, Swansea,
                                                                                         where he recently completed his
                                                                                         Masters in Ancient Egyptian Culture.
                                                                                         His area of study was the rekhyt rebus in
                                                                                         New Kingdom temples.
                                                                                           He will be continuing his study of the
                                                                                         rekhyt for his Ph.D., also at Swansea.

                                                                                         Further reading:
                                                                                         Bell, Lanny (1998) “The New Kingdom
                                                                                         ‘Divine’ Temple” in Temples of Ancient
                                                                                         Egypt, ed. Byron E Shafer. London:
                                                                                         Cornell University Press. Pp.127-84.
                                                                                         Houlihan, Patrick F and Goodman,
                                                                                         Steven M. (1988) The Birds of Ancient
  A relief from the Migdol Gateway              and images of the gods and pharaohs      Egypt. Cairo: American University in
    in the Temple of Rameses III at             were mutilated. Surprisingly though,     Cairo Press. 93-6.
             Medinet Habu, showing              images of the rekhyt, with the appear-   Nibbi, Alessandra (1986) Lapwings and
        the king as a rekhyt person.
Author’s Photo.
                                                ance of a bird complete with human       Libyans in Ancient Egypt. Oxford: DE
                                                hands, seem to have been spared the      Publications.

      a particularly fine representation of a rekhyt bird on a block now in
             the Open Air Museum at the temple of Amun, Karnak.
                                    Photo: RP.

50                                                                            ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006
                                                        DEAR A NCIENT E GYPT

                                                                                      readers’ letters
Dear AE,                                                     the application of heat to wine makes brandy (over-sim-
I was very interested to read Dylan Bickerstaffe’s article   plification, I know!), which even today tends to be drunk
(Issue 36) about the confusion he uncovered between the      out of fancier glassware than wine. Could the mysteri-
lids of two sarcophagi, those of Rameses III and Setau.      ous shedeh therefore have been a (?mulberry-based)
It is fascinating to see how errors that crop up are then    brandy?
repeated in other publications.                                I’m not in the habit of writing letters to editors, but
   I personally get quite amused when I read in              this one bugged me. Sorry!
Egyptology books published in English, that the word
“cartouche” comes from a French word which means                                                            Joan Alam
cartridge; this is then followed by some theory about                                      North Cave, East Yorkshire.
Napoleon’s soldiers supposedly thinking that they
looked liked their own cartridges. I am not sure that sol-   Ed: There is no doubt from scientific testing that the
diers, particularly at that time, would have been at all     jars in Tutankhamun’s tomb contained wine and shedeh,
interested in un-deciphered texts.                           and that both were made from grapes.
   In fact the “Robert” French dictionary has cartouche as     I can understand your comments about the image I
two separate words and entries:                              selected for use in the article. It comes from the tomb of
   1. Cartouche, masculine noun, first appears as “car-      Sennofer and is a very stylised version of a grape vine
toche” in 1547. It describes a “sculpted or drawn orna-      and bunches of grapes (see below).
ment ... designed to receive an inscription, a motto or        The artists have painted life-sized bunches of grapes
coats of arms”. Later, it came to refer to the “elliptical   and very simplified vine leaves on the rough ceiling of
frame” containing hieroglyphs.                               the underground chamber, where lumps of rock, too
   2. Cartouche, feminine noun, first appears as “car-       hard to cut away, protrude from the surface. The grapes
tuche” in 1571. It describes the “conical or cylindrical     are represented by a coloured base with the individual
cardboard or metal wrapper for the charge of a               grapes shown on top. The scale shows they are grapes,
firearm”.                                                    but if one didn’t know the size, as reproduced to a small-
   In other words, these are two words which merely look     er scale in the magazine, they do look like mulberries.
alike; their different gender (and date) is the proof that
they are not the same word.
   Sorry to disappoint you about Napoleon’s Grande
Armée.                                                       Dear AE,
   Please keep up the good work of unearthing and            I read with great interest the article on Ancient Egyptian
exposing inaccuracies.                                       Wine in your June/July issue, but surely the mystery sur-
                                                             rounding the drink named shedeh is easily explained?
                               Micheline Edwards                Its not all that different from wine – it’s actually a very
                                    Sittingbourne, Kent.     superior kind of sherry, that was served only in upper-
                                                             crust households, as in “May deah, would you care for a
Ed: Thanks, Micheline. As someone who has used muz-          glass of shedeh before dinnah?”
zle-loading muskets and paper cartridges, I have never
been convinced by the connection. Thanks for putting                                                     Mick Oakey
the record straight and showing that those who selected                                      Sussex Egyptology Society.
the word for the frame for royal names actually knew
what they were doing.

Dear AE,
In the recent article on Egyptian wine (Issue 36) on page
18, “bunches of grapes” are illustrated. I’m only an
interested layperson in Egyptological terms, but I have
to say that I’m not seeing bunches of anything; I’m not
even seeing grapes – since when do grapes have their
seeds on the outside? Seriously, the fruit looks far more
like mulberries to me.
   Now, the mulberry is heat-tolerant (I lived with it in
Pakistan) and its juice makes a very pleasant and refresh-
ing drink. Most fruit juices can be made into wine, and

ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006                                                                                    51
readers’ letters

Dear AE,                                                           We spent several months discussing the detail of the itin-
We were intrigued by the article in Issue 36 entitled              erary with our guide.
“Visiting Middle Egypt”, particularly as I and my wife
had made a similar journey in April this year. The major                                  Tony & Margaret Marson
difference between our visit to Middle Egypt and Ann                                                       Boreham, Essex.
Eglintine’s was that ours was part of an itinerary taking
in selected sites in Upper Egypt around Luxor as well as           Ed: Unless you travel with a specialist tour company
Middle Egypt. We embarked on our trip from Cairo,                  that organises tours to Middle Egypt, this is a good way
driving down from Cairo on the first morning, spending             of getting there, and the services of Egyptian guides are
a day and a half in Minya.                                         essential. Many of the tour guides for tour companies
   This was only our third visit to Egypt, so we are not as        will undertake private tours like this, too.
comfortable with independent travel as Ann is and we
used an English-speaking tour guide who is also a qual-
ified Egyptologist, called Mahmoud. After testing him              Dear AE,
out last year, we decided to arrange a custom itinerary            I was so interested in your lead editorial in this month’s
taking in sites in Middle and Upper Egypt.                         magazine (Aug./Sept.). Having tried to read some of
   Mahmoud arranged all transport (an air-conditioned              Christian Jacques’ works I have wondered if many of
minibus), access to sites, security and accommodation.             the problems encountered were due to poor translation.
The security included obtaining the pre-requisite per-             However, having researched extensively in ancient
missions to cross from one Governate to another, Tourist           Egyptian medicine, I can only wonder at his fantastic
Police escorts (for our minibus) and a plain-clothed               knowledge and “discoveries” that we, the plebs, have not
policeman who accompanied us to all the sites we visit-            yet unearthed (Beneath the Pyramids)!
ed around Minya. In Minya we stayed at the Mercure                    I find it quite common for people to accept every word
Minya, (otherwise known as the Nefertiti Hotel), which             they read, or programme they see or hear on TV and
is located on Corniche El Nil Street, for two nights. The          radio as the gospel truth. We have all seen this exhibited
Mercure Minya is comfortable hotel, set in lush green              recently in Dan Brown’s Da Vinci Code, a rip-roaring
grounds. Our room had a view of the Nile. During our               yarn, but yarn only!
day and a half in Middle Egypt we visited Beni Hasan,                 I find some WEA learners and groups I give talks to,
Tuna el-Gebel, Hermopolis and Tell el Amarna.                      new to Egyptology, often have confused fact with fiction
   We visited Beni Hasan after arriving in Minya. This             – “Well, they said on that programme ...” – so I encour-
was the busiest of the sites we visited; there were two            age them to read my copies of the magazine, or better
groups of tourists (ourselves and a French couple) visit-          still to subscribe themselves.
ing the tombs at the same time. Apparently these two                  I am reminded of a story my father told me as a child
groups (the French and ourselves) were the only tourists           many years ago (back in the 50s) concerning an episode
that had visited Beni Hasan all day, although there were           in the Archers when Grace was killed in the stable fire.
a number of tourists staying at the Nefertiti.                     Scores of floral ributes and wreaths were delivered to
   The next day, we set off early to visit Tuna el-Gebel,          the BBC for her funeral. People didn’t understand then
Hermopolis and Tell el Amarna. At Tuna el-Gebel and                the difference between fact and fiction anymore than
Hermopolis we saw no other tourists. At Tell el Amarna             many of the populous today.
we visited the Northern Tombs (Ahmose, Meryre, Pentu                  Keep up the good work dispelling these silly fables and
and Panehesey), The Royal Tomb, Boundary Stela, The                dumbing-down of facts.
Small Aten Temple, Thutmose’s Studio and the Tomb
of Ay. We were escorted around by the Supreme                                                       Christine Humber
Council of Antiquities’ Inspector in charge of the                                                        Herne Bay, Kent.
Amarna site. At Tell el Amarna, there was another
group being shown around but we had the impression
that they were not tourists, but visiting archaeologists.          Dear AE,
   The day after we set off for Luxor via Abydos; this trip        In the absence of any Egyptology Societies or meetings
took us twelve hours, with at least eight changes of               in the North East of England, if there is enough inter-
Tourist Police escort.                                             est I would like to form an Egyptian interest
   It is difficult to put a cost to our time in Middle Egypt       group/Egyptology Society in the Durham area. Please
as it was part of a larger trip; I can only say that it is like-   contact me at
ly to be more expensive than travelling by rail from                                   33 Alder Park,
Luxor.                                                                                   Brandon,
   This type of arrangement provides a more “comfort-                              DURHAM DH7 8TU
able” alternative, and takes the pain and uncertainty out                         or phone 0191 378 2047.
of independent travel. It is certainly not an approach
that can be embarked upon on the spur of the moment.                                                  Kelly Thompson

52                                                                 ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006
                                Coming in future issues of
                                       ANCIENT EGYPT
 – Dying to be Egyptian                                                  – Ancient Hierakonpolis
     Elisabeth Kerner looks at some of the lesser-known                         In the last of her series of six articles on work at
     funerary monuments of London.                                              Hierakonpolis supported by the Friends of Nekhen,
                                                                                Renée Friedman looks at the numerous finds from the
 – The Tomb of Harwa at Thebes                                                  site, at how they have been conserved and how they can
     Christopher Naunton reports on excavation and con-                         reveal much about life in the ancient city.
     servation work being undertaken in one of the largest
     tombs in the Theban necropolis. Harwa was an important
     official of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty and his splendid tomb          – The Ancient Stones Speak
     reflects his high status.                                                  Pam Scott continues her series of articles on how to read
                                                                                and understand ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs. The second
 – Technology Innovators                                                        article looks at royal names.
   of Ancient Egypt
     or “How did they do that?” Denys Stocks has adopted a
     hands-on approach to ancient technology, which, coupled             – Ancient Egypt and The Bible
     with his engineering background and detailed research,                     Michael Tunnicliffe investigates the closely intertwined
     now means that he can re-create the ancient technology to                  history of ancient Egypt and the Holy Land and the ways
     cut and carve some of the hardest of stones for statues,                   any evidence can be interpreted.
     jars, sarcophagi and buildings. This, the first of what will
     be a series of three articles, looks at the earliest periods of
     Egyptian history up to the beginnings of the Dynastic
     Period.                                                                     Plus Reviews ... Events ... etc., etc.

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ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006                                                                                                        53

for younger readers
                Pomegranates                                           It seems that pomegranates were first grown in Egypt in
                                                                     the early New Kingdom but, since models of the fruit
         hese days we are encouraged to eat and drink sen-           have been found in Middle Kingdom tombs, travellers

T        sibly and some foods are advertised as being more
         healthy than others: pomegranates for instance.
   The pomegranate is a fruit in a category all of its own.
                                                                     must have known about it for some time before it was suc-
                                                                     cessfully grown in Egyptian gardens.

It is neither a citrus fruit, like an orange, nor a stone fruit,
like a peach. On the outside it might look a bit like a rosy
apple, but on the inside it is completely different, even
though the German word for pomegranate is granatapfel.
In French it is known as grenade. You might think that this
is because the fruit resembles an old-fashioned grenade or
hand-held bomb, like the badge of the Grenadiers’
Regiment, but of course, it is the other way round. The
pomegranate was around for thousands of years before
the invention of gunpowder, so the hand grenade was
named after the fruit.
   When I was a child, you only saw pomegranates in the
shops around Christmas time, and then they were bought
as a special treat. My grandmother remembered picking
out the red seeds with a hatpin. We were always warned
not to get the juice on our clothes because it stained and
the bitter-tasting pith could turn your fingers yellow.
   The Egyptians knew a thing or two about pomegran-
ates, though the tree was not a native of Egypt. It origi-
nated in the region south of the Caspian Sea and the first
evidence for its cultivation comes from places like Turkey,
Syria and Iran. The Israelites were familiar with the
attractive shape and colour of the fruit, and it was used in
decorative weaving or embroidery on the hems of priest-
ly robes, (Exodus 28:33) as well as in the carved capitals of          The first mention of a pomegranate tree in Egyptian
columns in the Temple of Solomon, (I Kings, 7:20).                   inscriptions comes from the tomb of Ineni, an official at
                                                                     the court of Thutmose I, who recorded all the different
                                                                     types of tree that he wanted to have planted on his estate.
                                                                     A dried pomegranate was found among the food offerings
                                                                     left in the tomb of Djehuty, a butler who served Queen
                                                                     Hatshepsut. Thutmose III recorded many plants and
                                                                     trees at the Karnak Temple, in a room now known as the
                                                                     Botanical Gallery because of these scenes. Unfortunately
                                                                     there are no inscriptions with these reliefs, and the paint
                                                                     has gone, so we can only guess at what some of the plants
                                                                     are. However, the pomegranate tree is quite distinctive.
                                                                       In the famous tomb painting of Ipuy, showing a gar-
                                                                     dener working a shaduf to raise water, several trees and
                                                                     plants are clearly shown, with leaves and flowers of the
                                                                     right shapes and painted the correct colours. The pome-
                                                                     granate tree is identified by its trumpet-shaped red flow-
                                                                     ers. The tree blooms in the hottest part of the year and
                                                                     the bright scarlet flowers were ideal for use in floral
                                                                     wreaths and bouquets.
                                                                       Beads shaped like pomegranate flowers were threaded
                                                                     into multi-coloured necklaces and collars. In
                Above: a pomegranate. Photo: HW.                     Tutankhamun’s tomb, pomegranate leaves were woven
       Above right: a silver vessel in the shape of a pomegranate,   into a garland and an elaborate funerary collar made
            from the tomb of Tutankhamun. Photo: RP.                 entirely of natural materials.

54                                                                    ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006
                                                                                                        per mesut
  Tutankhamun also owned a large silver vase in the dis-
tinctive shape of the pomegranate fruit. Engraved around
the body of this vase is a frieze of pomegranate flowers.
The fruit’s shape is easily recognised among the offerings
of food presented at temples and in tombs. At the Abydos
Temple of Sety I, the king is shown offering to the gods a
tray of bread, fruit and roast ducks. In the centre of this
tasty meal is a pomegranate, painted in realistic colours.
  The pomegranate has a thick rind, yellow blushing to
red. There is a bitter pithy layer between the tough outer
skin and the mass of seeds inside. Each seed is surround-
ed by a deep pink or red jewel-like capsule of juicy flesh.
Pomegranate tastes of pomegranate – there is no other
way to describe its flavour. It has a slightly acid sweetness
that is very refreshing.                                                  Above: a faience collar from the tomb of Tutankhamun,
  Now, with all the pomegranate health drinks on the              with beads representing pomegranates (the round yellow ones). Photo: RP.
market, you can taste it for yourself. The ancient                         Below left: modern products made from pomegranates.
                                                                        You can taste the fruit enjoyed by Tutankhamun. Photo: HW.
Egyptians also drank pomegranate juice and it is still a
favourite drink in Cairo. The cordial or syrup made from
pomegranate juice is known as grenadine and this, or an         low. The bark and root of the tree were recommended in
artificial version of it, traditionally provides the red part   medicinal prescriptions for getting rid of parasitic worms.
of a “tequila sunrise” cocktail. Dried pomegranate seeds,         It seems that the pomegranate, once it had become
used as a spice, and a thick, brown syrup, made from            established as an Egyptian tree, quickly earned a place
under-ripe fruit, are popular ingredients in some Middle        among the sacred plants of Egypt. The red colour of the
Eastern and North African cookery. The syrup is used to         fruit was the colour used for the sun’s disc crown, emblem
give a sweet-and-sour flavour to dishes and is particularly     of Ra. The many seeds it contains were symbolic of plen-
good with chicken or duck.                                      ty and fertility. In the setting of the tomb, the offering of
  It has been suggested that the ancient Egyptians made         pomegranates would be seen as a way to promote the
a wine from pomegranates as a cheaper alternative to            rebirth of the dead person to life in the next world. All in
grape wine. This drink, known as shedeh, is mentioned in        all, the pomegranate tree was a useful and significant
love poems where a girl’s kiss is said to be sweeter than       plant as well as being very attractive.
shedeh, but the link between pomegranates and shedeh has
not yet been proved (see AE36). The skin and pith of the        Further reading:
pomegranate fruit were used as dyes to turn leather yel-        The Garden in Ancient Egypt by Alix Wilkinson
                                                                An Ancient Egyptian Herbal by Lise Manniche

                                                                                                                  Hilary Wilson

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     at Akhmim                Gerf Hussian and                 Sphinxes                  Rock types in             Valley of the Kings             Wine                   Karnak Temple
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   Replica tomb of           The Royal Mummy               Ancient Egyptian            A soul of Nekhen              who are they?          Early Christianity in          Thutmose III
   Thutmose III in           A Victorian view of               Medicine                Ancient Egypt in             Did the ancient                Egypt                 A new coffin for
     Edinburgh                      Egypt                      A Lion of                    Madrid                  Egyptians reach        Belzoni and the Royal            Menkaura
                                                            Amenhotep III                                                Malta?                 Sarcophagi

                                                                                  LATEST NEWS
         Each new issue of Ancient Egypt is now available in PDF format for the bargain price of £3.25 - more details on the website.
                 In addition, the much sought after Issue 9 (Nov/Dec 2001) is now available as a FREE PDF download from
 The Cat in Ancient Egypt                                        many cat mummies (and indeed other animal mummies)
 by Jaromir Malek.                                               were made in ancient Egypt.
 Published by the British Museum Press.                             This book is beautifully illustrated throughout and is a
 ISBN 978 0 7141 1970 6. Papercover, price £9.99.                delight to read, and you don't have to be a cat-lover to
                                                                 enjoy and benefit from reading it.
                                                                    As the author points out, the cat has remained essential-
First published in 1993, this is a revised and updated edi-      ly unchanged since antiquity and perhaps our own modern
tion and earlier reviewers have called it “the definitive        attitudes, feelings and prejudices towards cats are not dis-
account of the feline in Egypt”.                                 similar to that of the ancient Egyptians. It begs the ques-
   Most modern cats are thought be descended from the            tion, “Are we very different, in spite of time, geography,
cats of ancient Egypt, providing a living link between the       language and technology?”
ancient civilization and modern times, and the author
looks in some detail at the significance of cats in Egyptian
life, religion and art.
   The first chapter “Running Free” looks at the various         Cairo Cats: Egypt’s Enduring Legacy
wild cats found in ancient Egypt and indeed still present        by Lorraine Chittock.
today. The ancient Egyptians’ closeness to the natural           Published by Camel Caravan Press.
world makes it no surprise that cats were closely associated     ISBN 977 17 2431 2. Papercover, price US$ 18.95.
with people, and that the ancient Egyptians may have even
encouraged this link, seeing the usefulness of cats for pest
control. It is not surprising that the cat (probably descend-    This is really a gift book for the cat-lover, who will enjoy the
ed from wild “swamp cats” finally entered the home, and          fine photographs of cats in modern Egypt, with their
the chapter “Together at Last” looks at the domesticated         Egyptian owners and in their city environment. Lovers of
cat.                                                             ancient Egypt and cats will delight in the images of mod-
   Although there is only limited evidence before the New        ern cats amongst the ancient ruins.
Kingdom, we have a wealth of information from this peri-            It clearly is written by a cat-lover, for fellow cat-lovers, for
                                        od to show the           it is the positive aspects
                                        domesticated cat as a    of      cats throughout
                                        loved and pampered       ancient Egypt that fea-
                                        pet, but also one that   ture in the short text; it
                                        would keep the home      concentrates on the
                                        free of rats and mice.   ancient          Egyptians’
                                        Cats are shown           apparently genuine love
                                        under their owners’      and respect for cats,
                                        chairs and even          which were considered
                                        hunting      in    the   special and not just as
                                        marshes with their       domestic pets. (No men-
                                        owners.                  tion here of the mass-
                                           The         ancient   murder of millions of
                                        Egyptians adopted        cats in the later periods of ancient Egyptian history, to pro-
                                        the attributes and       vide offerings to the gods.)
                                        appearance of many          Whilst this book may be of limited use to anyone want-
                                        animals into the pan-    ing to find out about cats in ancient Egypt, as a gift for
                                        theon of deities and     friends or relatives who dote on cats, then it would be ideal.
the cat was no exception. “A Poor Man’s Lion” looks at the       If they happen to have a passing interest in ancient Egypt,
many aspects of cats as divine beings in the often- complex      too, then that will be a bonus.
world of Egyptian mythology.
   “Pride Goes Before a Fall” is a fascinating chapter that
looks at the representations of cats in a series of drawings
on papyri and ostraca, most of which date to the New              Photographing Egypt: Forty Years Behind
Kingdom and probably come from the Workmen’s Village              the Lens
at Deir el Medina. In cartoon-type drawings, cats are
shown undertaking various human activities, seated on             by John Feeney.
chairs, feasting, preparing their make-up and being waited        Published by the American University in Cairo Press.
on by mice (the original Tom and Jerry!) These delightful         ISBN 977 424 891 0. Papercover, price£8.50.
scenes tell us much about real life in ancient Egypt and the
attitudes of the poorer members of the population to the         This small booklet (48 pages) features the photographs of
wealthy.                                                         John Feeney, who visited Egypt in 1963, intending to stay
   The final chapter, “Buried With Full Honours!”, looks at      one year, but who actually remained there for forty years.
mummified cats, both those that were domestic pets and             The photographs are excellent. They are accompanied
the large number that were mummified as votive offerings.        by minimal text and captions, but they need nothing more,
The author puts forward a number of theories why so              for they speak volumes in themselves, reflecting various

58                                                               ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006
                                                                                         book reviews
                                      aspects of Egypt, the        Egypt’s Sunken Treasures
                                      people        (including     Edited by Franck Goddio and Manfred Clauss.
                                      Dorothy Eady “Omm            Published by Prestel.
                                      Sety” taken in 1980),        ISBN 3 7913 3545 6. Hardback, price £30.
                                      deserts, buildings and
                                      the River Nile.
                                         Of particular interest   This large and impressive volume is the catalogue of the
                                      are some photographs        “Egypt’s Sunken Treasures” exhibition, currently on show
                                      taken during the last       in Germany and coming to Paris at the end of the year. (A
                                      inundation of Egypt in      UK venue for 2007 is possibly on the cards, too).
                                      September 1964, with          The exhibition comprises over four hundred and fifty
                                      one particularly evoca-     objects, many recovered from the sea bed at the sites of
                                      tive and splendid image     Alexandria, Herakleion and East Canopus. The range of
                                      of the Colossi of           objects is impressive, from granite colossal statues to gold
                                      Memnon at Thebes,           jewellery and small coins. Most date to the end of
                                      reflected in the still      Egyptian history and the time we know as the Ptolemaic
                                      flood waters.               Period, although some New Kingdom objects were clearly
  Photographers will love this book, but visitors to Egypt        moved to these sites in Ptolemaic times to decorate the
will enjoy seeing views of things that have changed forev-        towns.
er, but also, thankfully, those that remain timeless – one of       As a catalogue, this is an excellent publication with pho-
the enduring joys of this fascinating country.                    tographs and descriptions of all the objects and back-
                                                                  ground information to put them in their historical context.
                                                                    Exhibition catalogues such as this, featuring a wide range
                                                                  of objects, always become major reference books for any-
 Clothing Culture: Dress in Egypt in                              one interested in the subject or period, and this will cer-
 the First Millennium AD                                          tainly be the case with this book with its four hundred and
                                                                  sixty-four packed and informative pages.
 by Frances Pritchard.                                              The fact that the archaeological sites are all under water
 Published by The Whitworth Art Gallery, University               has meant that, unlike land sites, they have not been dis-
 of Manchester.                                                   turbed or plundered since they first first covered by the
 ISBN 0 903261 57 X. Papercover, price £25.                       waters of the Mediterranean; it is only in recent years that
                                                                  underwater archaeology has revealed them again.
Issue 37 of AE (August 2006) featured an article by                 The book is full of information about the excavation and
Frances Pritchard on the Exhibition at the Whitworth Art          conservation process, complete with some amazing under-
Gallery; this is the full catalogue of the exhibits.              water images of the objects as they were first found and
  Space in the magazine allowed only a glimpse of the             also of the process of lifting them from the depths back on
richness of the exhibition, and this large, superbly illustrat-   to dry land again for the first time in almost two thousand
ed book is the first in-depth study of the textiles at the        years.
Whitworth from this period.                                         Impressive as many of the objects are, it is perhaps the
  Many of the items were discovered by Flinders Petrie in         images of them lying on the sea bed, surrounded by fish or
Egypt and are unique survivors of costume.                        seaweed that are most fascinating and almost haunting.
  Egypt in the first Millennium was a rich cultural melting-        Divided into sections and illustrated with general photo-
pot and this diversity is reflected in the clothing actually      graphs as well as photographs of the exhibition objects (not
worn by people and taken with them to their graves.               in their exhibition number order), with full descriptions
  This book is an absolute must for anyone interested in          and details of them, part I looks at “The Religion and its
the history of textiles and clothing. Some of the textiles are    History”, part II looks at the many aspects of “Religion
stunning in their richness, colours and intricacy of design,      and Beliefs” and part III at “Trade and Everyday Life”.
                                          as the large-scale        The       discovery
                                          colour       photo-     and conservation of
                                          graphs in this cata-    the objects is cov-
                                          logue admirably         ered in part IV,
                                          show. The way the       “From Excavation
                                          cloth was made          to Exhibition”, and
                                          and cut for the gar-    there is a full
                                          ments is really fas-    numeric catalogue
                                          cinating and is         of the works in the
                                          explained concisely     exhibition, listed
                                          and clearly. If you     and illustrated in
                                          were not able to see    part V. Part VI
                                          the exhibition, do      (Appendices) lists
                                          not miss the cata-      the     contributors
                                          logue.                  and           various

ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006                                                                                       59
book reviews
acknowledgements, though what is sadly missing form this           A Velvet Silence – Pinhole
otherwise excellent volume is a bibliography for further           Photographs of Egypt and Israel
                                                                   by David Wise.
                                                                   Published by Urban Fox Press.
                                                                   ISBN 1 905522 11 8. Price, papercover £14.
                                                                   Special Edition (in purpose-made linen bag, dyed red
 Karanis: An Egyptian Town in Roman                                with earth from Mount Sinai, with a bag of spices, a
 Times                                                             pinhole photograph and a bookmark) £24.
 Edited by Elaine K. Gazdaby.                            
 Published by the Kelsey museum of Archaeology,
 University of Michigan.                                           This is a fascinating book and
 ISBN 0 974187 3 0 5. Price US$10.                                 whilst not “Egyptology” with a
                                                                   touch of Israel as one would
Visitors to Egypt heading to the Faiyoum or Meidum                 expect, is rather more about
invariably stop, en route, at the Roman town of Karanis,           modern images taken in a sim-
which is just off the modern paved road.                           ilar fashion to the early camera
   The site is large and impressive with two small but well-       obscura photographs. It is an
preserved Roman Period stone temples and the remains of            interesting insight to photogra-
houses clearly visible; the outlines of stone and mud-brick        phy as used by Flinders Petrie,
walls emerge from mountains of sand, debris and pot-               alongside which an interesting
sherds.                                                            narrative transports the reader
   Karanis can be a very confusing site to the visitor – what      to the expanses of the desert
was the town really like, why was it situated there, when          and ancient sites as well as
was it excavated and what was found there? The small               revealing some interesting
museum at the site displays some fine objects, but it is dif-      thoughts in the mind of the
ficult to understand them in their context.                        author.
   This is, therefore, the publication you have been waiting          The original idea for David Wise’s trip was a chance hit
for (although it is a re-printed/slightly revised version of an    on a website citing that the oldest pinhole camera photo-
                                               earlier publica-    graphs were taken by William Flinders Petrie around the
                                               tion of 1983,       1880s in Egypt and that in 1906 he was “pinholing” the
                                               which fell out of   pyramids at Giza. This led David to follow in Petrie’s foot-
                                               print), and it      steps.
                                               details the dis-       So follows a beautifully produced book, full of excellent
                                               coveries of the     camera obscura photographs, taken and developed by David
                                               University of       en route. They transport the reader back a hundred years,
                                               Michigan            whilst displaying the beauty and magic of Egypt’s birthright
                                               Expedition to       with a panorama of dunes, fossil outcrops and oases.
                                               Egypt        from      Much of the narrative is based on the dozen visits David
                                               1924 to 1935.       has made to Egypt over the past years and whilst this is not
                                                  All the ques-    in a continuous format, more in a diary style, there are illu-
tions you may ever have asked about Karanis are answered           minating concepts and impressions his experiences have
here, and, as a frequent visitor to the site, I find that it now   yielded. I especially enjoyed his encounters with the empti-
makes much more sense, having read this book.                      ness of the desert and its peace. His comments on his alto-
   The contents cover the rural economy of the area in             gether different reception in Israel are also intriguing and
Roman times, the excavations at the site, domestic life in         enlightening.
the town, and the temples. Karanis was an important trad-             The book’s presentation is slick and the end papers are
ing centre, probably mostly concentrating on exports to            nicely produced from antique printing plates of an Arabic
Rome of grain grown in the fertile Faiyoum.                        poem, translated at the beginning of the volume. The
   The archive images of the houses and temples as exca-           amount of work needed to produce this interesting publi-
vated are excellent. (Many of the houses are now choked            cation has very obviously been a labour of love. One can-
with sand and impossible to see.) The scale of some hous-          not fail to feel the passion of David’s work, which manifests
es is remarkable – many were three stories tall, often being       itself in every photographic plate. I found this truly gives
built directly over the remains of earlier houses.                 another dimension to those of us who love and have jour-
   The book is richly illustrated (all in black and white) with    neyed into Egypt, whether as Egyptologist, holidaymaker
photographs, line drawings and plans. These are truly fas-         or armchair traveller.
cinating. Most interesting are perhaps the small finds from                                               Chris Humber
the site, which include textiles, furniture, personal items,       Chris works at the Herne Bay Museum for Canterbury
tools and toys, all of which help us to visualise Karanis as       City Council Museums, is a tutor in Ancient Egyptian
a thriving, bustling centre of activity and trade in the           studies for the WEA, is undertaking post-graduate research
Roman Period.                                                      in Egyptian medicine and researching Egyptian law –
                                                           RP      crime and punishment.

60                                                                 ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006
                                                                                          book reviews
 The Middle Kingdom of Ancient                                     Lost Nubia: A Centennial Exhibit of
 Egypt                                                             Photographs from the 1905-1907
 by Wolfram Grajetzki.                                             Egyptian Expedition of the University
 Published by Duckworth Egyptology.                                of Chicago
 ISBN 07156 34356. Paperback, price £16.99.                        by John A. Larson.
                                                                   Published by the The University of Chicago.
The period we know as the Middle Kingdom (2055-1630                ISBN 1-885923-45-7. Paperback. Price US$19.95.
BC) is regarded by many as one of the most important in
the history of ancient Egypt, when the arts flourished and
Egypt began its expansion and the beginings of the                This is a catalogue produced for a recent exhibition held in
Egyptian Empire, reaching its peak in the New Kingdom.            the Oriental Institute Museum in Chicago.
   Objects from this period are plentiful, but monumental            The display of of fifty-two historic photographs from the
structures are more rare and are often overshadowed, in           Oriental Institute Archives coincided with the new perma-
the eyes of most visitors to Egypt, by the Old Kingdom            nent installation of objects from ancient Nubia.
pyramid sites and by the New Kingdom and later temples.              These photographic images document a variety of
In histories of Egypt, the Middle Kingdom is often not            archaeological sites in Nubia, some of which have disap-
given the space and coverage it deserves.                         peared under the waters of Lake Nasser and others that
   The ancient Egyptians themselves saw the Middle                are so remote that few tourists have ever seen them.
Kingdom as a classical period of art, history and literature.        These documentary images, taken during the consecu-
   In the last two hundred years of excavations, more has         tive winter field seasons of 1905-1906 and 1906-1907, rep-
been discovered about this important period in ancient            resent just a small part of a corpus of nearly twelve hun-
Egyptian history, and the author has brought together in          dred black-and-white negatives that were made by the
this new book all the latest information to produce a com-        Egyptian Expedition of the University of Chicago, under
prehensive and detailed history.                                  the direction of James Henry Breasted.
   The book is divided into three main sections. The first           The original glass-plate field negatives for the first season
gives a detailed history of the Middle Kingdom, starting          of the expedition, 1905-1907, were made by German pho-
from the end of the Old Kingdom, to set the scene,                tographer Friedrich Koch. For the expedition’s second field
through the First Intermediate Period, to the formation of        season up the Nile, 1906-1907, Breasted decided to sup-
the Middle Kingdom. There then follows a reign-by-reign           plement the professional glass-plate photography of Horst
account of the kings of the Middle Kingdon, detailing             Schliephack with a second camera that used roll-film. The
their exploits, their military campaigns and their building       smaller-format film negatives were used to take ethno-
works.                                                            graphic photographs, as well as candid photographs of the
   The second section looks at the “Archaeology and               expedition members at work.
Geography” of Egypt, nome by nome, and at the temples,               All the photographs included in the exhibition are in this
tombs and towns that survive. Excavations at many of              book, complete with a full description. Archive photogr-
these sites are described; they are why, and how, we now          pahs such as these are always important and in the case of
know so much about this period. Houses at sites such as           many of the sites illustrated here are of special importance.
Elephantine and Kahun have revealed many domestic                 Many of the Nubian temples were moved to save them
items which, along with many objects found in tombs               from the rising waters of Lake Nasser, and the plates here
along the length of the Nile Valley, mean that we have a          show them in the original location and condition. Some
detailed, fascinating and sometimes intimate glimpse of life      temples could not be moved and these images are some of
at this time.                                                     the few records we have of them today.
   The chapter on “Society” brings all the archaeological            The importance of photographs is admirably shown in
evidence totgether and also introduces the literature of the      one image of a splendid and intact colossal granite head of
period. Important documents give a rare insight into how          a king found at Gebel Barkal in the Sudan. Although
                                 the Egyptians organised          unfinished, the head
                                 their society and how they       came from one of the
                                 saw their lives.                 largest granite statues to
                                   Useful appendices give a       be found at this site,
                                 full list of Kings and their     and stood over eighteen
                                 various names and another        feet tall. The face of the
                                 of Viziers and Treasurers.       statue was superbly fin-
                                 There is also a good and         ished.
                                 extensive bibliography.             Some time after the
                                   The author has produced        photo was taken and
                                 a very readable, informative     before      the     statue
                                 and scholarly book, which        arrived in Khartoum,
                                 will be ideal reading for any-   the nose was broken off
                                 one wishing to study or just     and lost.
                                 understand the importance
                                 of the Middle Kingdom.                                RP

ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006                                                                                           61
Egyptology Society Contact Details
Societies Within the UK           Egyptian Cultural Bureau               North Yorkshire Ancient Egypt         Sudan Archaeological Research
                                  Embassy of the Arab Republic of        Group                                 Society
Ancient Egypt & Middle East       Egypt,                                 Secretary: Jo Hirons.                 Chairman: Derek Welsby.
Society                           4 Chesterfield Gardens,                26 St James Street, Wetherby,         c/o The British Museum,
Secretary: Mrs Sue Kirk.          LONDON W1J 5BG                         LEEDS LS22 6RS                        Great Russell Street,
2 Seathorne Crescent,             Tel: 0207 491 7720                     Tel: 01937 580703                     LONDON WC1B 3DG
Lincolnshire PE25 1RP         
                                                                                                               Sussex Egyptology Society
Tel: 01754 765341                                                                                              Secretary: Carol Woods.            Essex Egyptology Group                 Northampton Ancient Egyptian
                                                                         Historical Society                    Overlee, Bracken Lane,                   c/o Lesley Kelly.                                                            Storrington,
                                  69 Links Avenue, Gidea Park,           Secretary: Linda V. Amas.
                                                                         52 Back Lane, Hardingstone,           SUSSEX RH20 3HS
The Ancient World Society         ROMFORD,                                                                     Tel: 01903 743525
                                                                         NORTHAMPTON NN4 6BY
Secretary: Sandy Davey.           Essex RM2 6NH                                                      
                                                                         Tel: 01604 761519
The Post Office, Main Road,       Tel: 01708 760330
Sibsey,                                                                         Tameside Egypt Group
BOSTON,                                                               Secretary: Anne Marie Lancashire.
                                                                         Norwich Egyptology Society.
Lincolnshire PE22 0TN                                                    (Inaugural Meeting 30th September.)   152 Victoria Street, Newton,
Tel: 01205 750201                 Friends of the Egypt Centre –          Contact Dee Mason,                    HYDE,            Swansea                                        Cheshire SK14 4AS
                                  Secretary: Carolyn Graves-Brown.                                             Tel: 0161 366 6810
Association for the Study of      The Egypt Centre,                                                  
                                                                         Plymouth & District Egyptology
Travel in Egypt & the Near East   University of Wales, Singleton Park,                               
Secretary: Dr. Patricia Usick.    SWANSEA SA2 8PP                        Secretary: Jane Wearing.
32 Carlton Hill,                                                                                               Thames Valley Ancient Egypt
                                  Tel: 01792 295960                      Crossfields, 72 Tavistock Road,
LONDON NW8 0JY                                                                                                 Society
Tel: 0207 328 2735                                                                                             Secretary: Philip Wickens.
                                  Cornwall PL17 7DU                     467 Basingstoke Road,                Friends.htm                            Tel: 01579 382097                     READING RG2 0JG
                                                                              Tel: 0118 987 2878
Bolton Archaeology and            Friends of the Petrie Museum              
Egyptology Society                Secretary: Jan Picton.
Chair: Sara Vernon.               Petrie Museum of Egyptian              Poynton Egypt Group                   The Three Counties Ancient
13 The Hollies,                   Archaeology,                           Secretary: Liz Sherman.               History Society
Breightmet Fold Lane,             University College London,             7 Craig Road,                         Roy Jenkins,
BOLTON BL2 6PP                    Gower Street,                          MACCLESFIELD,                         Episcopi Cottage, Upper Wick,
Tel: 01204 362273                 LONDON WC1E 6BT                        Cheshire SK11 7XN                     WORCESTER WR2 5SY
                                    Tel: 01625 612641                     Tel: 01905 425742
The Egypt Exploration Society
Secretary: Dr Patricia Spencer.                                          Wessex Ancient Egypt Society
3 Doughty Mews,                   Horus Egyptology Society                                                     Chairman: Angela Dennett.
LONDON WC1N 2PG                                                          RAMASES (North Kent                   4 Maclean Road,
                                  Secretary: Christine Fishwick.
Tel: 020 7242 1880                                                       Egyptology Society)                   BOURNEMOUTH,
                                  53 St James Road, Orrell,              Secretary: Annette Jones.                                                                                              Dorset BH11 8EP
                                  WIGAN WN5 8SX                          7 Gordon Avenue,                      Tel: 01202 241973                     Tel: 01942 517958                      QUEENBOROUGH,               
                                     Kent ME11 5BD
The Egypt Exploration Society –
Northern Branch                                                          Tel: 01795 663475                     Wirral Ancient Egypt Society
                                  Leicestershire Ancient Egypt                  Secretary: Mrs Brenda Bridge.
Secretary: Prof. Rosalie David.
                                  Society                                                                      9 Woodfield Road,
KNH Centre of Biomedical
                                  Secretary: Carol Walters.              SELKET (South Yorkshire               BEBINGTON,
                                  1109 Elizabeth House,                  Egyptology Society)                   Wirral CH63 3DX
School of Biological Sciences,
                                  Waterloo Way,                          c/o Adam Cadwell.                     Tel: 0151 334 6721
The University of Manchester,                                                                        
                                  LEICESTER LE1 1QP                      37 Windermere Court,
Oxford Road,
MANCHESTER M13 9PT                Tel: 0116 262 8807                     North Anston,
Tel: 0161 275 2634                                                       Nr SHEFFIELD S25 4GJ
                                  The Manchester Ancient Egypt           Tel: 01909 563629                     Societies Outside the UK:
Egypt Society of Bristol                                                                                       AUSTRALIA
Chairman: Dr Aidan Dodson.        Secretary: Colin Reader.
                                  54 Rigby Road,                         Society for the Study of Ancient      Ancient Egypt Society of
c/o Department of Archaeology,
                                  MAGHULL,                               Egypt                                 Western Australia
University of Bristol,                                                   Secretary: Keith Lucas.
43 Woodland Road,                 Merseyside L31 8AZ                                                           President: Colin Simcock.
                                  Tel: 07932 665216                      25 Norton Lees Lane, Norton Lees      PERTH,
BRISTOL BS8 1UU                                                          SHEFFIELD
Tel: 0117 942 1957                                                        WESTERN AUSTRALIA
                                                Yorkshire, S8 9BA                                                     Tel: 0114 2581856                                 
                                  NEMES (North East Manchester                                                 CANADA
Egyptian Society (UK)             Egypt Society)                                                               The Society for the Study of
Secretary: Linda King.            Chairman: Alan Fildes.                                                       Egyptian Antiquities
                                                                         Southampton Ancient Egypt
Hatton Villa, Westleigh,          65 Kersal Road, Prestwich,                                                   /Société pour l'Étude de
TIVERTON,                         MANCHESTER M25 9SN                     Secretary: Norman Pease.              l’Égypte Ancienne
Devon EX16 7HY                    Tel: 0161 773 2877                     Brambletye, Whitenap Lane,
                                                                                     – Head Office, Toronto.
Tel: 01823 672649 (evenings)                                             ROMSEY SO51 5ST                       P.O. Box 578                              Tel: 01794 516352.                    Postal Station “P”
Egyptology Scotland               North East Lincolnshire                Staffordshire Egyptology Society      Ontario M5S 2T1
Contact: Mrs Eleanor Robertson,   Egyptology Association                 Secretary: Carole Dawes.              CANADA
29 Dalmahoy Crescent,             Chairman: Steve Johnson.               Grange Farmhouse,                     Tel: 416-906-0180;
BRIDGE OF WEIR,                   Grae-Mor, Church Lane,                 Whitgreave Lane, Whitgreave,          Fax: 416-978-3305
Renfrewshire PA11 3HZ             TETNEY,                                STAFFORD ST18 9SP.           or           Lincolnshire DN36 5JX                  Tel: 01785 226570                     

62                                                                        ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006
                These societies offer a range of lectures, slide shows, trips & activities to anyone interested in the subject.

– Montreal Chapter/                       REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA         The ARCE has “Chapters”              North Texas (Dallas) Chapter
Chapitre du Québec à Montréal                                              throughout the USA:                  President: Rick Moran.
                                          The Ancient Egyptian Society                                
C.P. 49022, Succ. Versailles              Chairman: Eric Swanepoel.        Arizona (Tucson) Chapter
MONTREAL,                                 P.O. Box 48407,                  President: Suzanne Onstine.          Northwest (Seattle, Washington)
Quebec, H1N 3T6                           ROOSEVELT PARK,                  585 S. Stephanie Loop,               Chapter
CANADA                                    2120,                            TUCSON,                              President: Scott Noegel.
                                          REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA                                              Dept. of Near Eastern Languages &
tél./fax: 514-353-4674                                                     AZ 85745, USA
                                                                                 Civilizations,                                                             University of Washington,      The Egyptian Society of South       Box 353120,
                                          Africa                           ARCE_AZ.htm                          SEATTLE,
                                          Chairman: Keith Grenville.                                            WA 98195, USA
                                          P.O. Box 246,                    Georgia (Atlanta) Chapter
– Calgary Chapter                                                                                     
                                          PLUMSTEAD,                       President: Vincent Jones.  
President: Dr William D. Glanzman,        7801,                                        /ARCE_Northwest_Chapter.html
Department of Behavioural Sciences        REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA
                                                                           Illinois (Chicago) Chapter           Orange County Chapter –
Mount Royal College
                                          SWEDEN                           President: Emily Teeter.             California
4825 Mount Royal Gate S.W.                                                       President: John Adams.
CALGARY, Alberta                          The Egyptological Society of          481 S. Country Hill Rd.
CANADA                                    Stockholm                                                             ANAHEIM,
Tel: (403) 440-6437/Fax: (403) 440-6659   c/o Eva Olinder,                 Massachusetts (Boston)               CA 92808, USA
                                          Cypressvägen 4                   Chapter                    
                                          S-18248 ENEBYBERG,               President: Dr Kathryn Bard.             SWEDEN                                          egypt.htm
                                                      New Mexico (Albuquerque)             Oregon (Portland) Chapter
                                                                           Chapter                              President: John Sarr.
MALTA                                                                                                           P.O. Box 15192
                                          USA                              President: Mae Araujo.
The Egyptological Society of                                                                                    OR 97214, USA
                                          American Research Center in
Malta                                     Egypt                            New York (New York City)   
President: Helen Foster.                  1256 Briarcliff Road NE          Chapter
                                                                                                                Pennsylvania (Philadelphia)
Flat 6 Block B,                           Building A, Suite 423W           President: Billy Morin.              Chapter
Olive Court,                              ATLANTA, Georgia 30306, USA.                    Nick Picardo.
Triq il-Bahhara,                          Tel: 404 712 9854                                           
                                          Fax: 404 712 9849                Northern California (Berkeley)
QAWRA,                                             Chapter                              Washington, DC Chapter
MALTA                              President: Bob Busey.                President: Samir Gabriel                          aboutarce.html         

ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006                                                                                                             63
 Many Societies arrange regular lectures and events that are open to the public. Although            Deadline for submission: all events
 every effort is made to ensure that the details below are correct ANCIENT EGYPT cannot               entries should be received by 31st
 be held responsible for the accuracy of the information provided. As events may be sub-            October for inclusion in the next issue.
 ject to change or cancellation, or tickets may be required, please ensure that you contact          To add an event to the AE Events
     the appropriate body (as listed on our “Society Contacts” page) before attending.                 Diary, please contact the Editor.

                                                 14th      Egypt Exploration Society –            4th       Wessex Ancient Egypt
      OCTOBER 2006                                         Study-Day.
                                                 The Sacred Animal Necropolis at North Saqqara.
                                                                                                  Patricia Usick: An Architect’s Progress –
                                                 (See details on page 65.)                        Charles Barry’s Travels in Egypt.
1st         Essex Egyptology Group.
Charlotte Booth: Current Research in             14th       Egyptology Scotland –                 5th       Essex Egyptology Group.
Egyptology.                                                 Glasgow Branch.                       Rosalind & Jac Janssen: The Ancient
                                                 Simon Eccles: Ancient Egypt in the Newly         Egyptian Market – A Practical Session.
2nd         Tameside Egypt Group.                Refurbished Kelvingrove Art Gallery and
Michael Tunnicliffe: Egypt & the Bible. Who      Museum.                                          6th        Tameside Egypt Group.
do you believe?                                                                                   John Johnson: Tombs & Buildings of the
                                                 14th     Society for the Study of                Village of Deir el Medina.
4th       Staffordshire Egyptology                        Ancient Egypt –
          Society.                                        Nottingham Venue.                       6th        University of Bristol –
Joyce Tyldesley: Crime & Punishment in           Chris Naunton: Watercolourists at the EES.                  Amelia Edwards Memorial
Ancient Egypt.                                                                                               Lecture.
                                                 17th     Egypt Society of Bristol.               David Singleton: The Qasr Ibrim Taharqo
5th      North East Lincolnshire                 Tom Hardwick: Monarchs and Miners –              Wall-Painting Rescue Project.
         Egyptology Association.                 What went on in Sinai?                           At 5.15 pm in the Reception Room,
“Study evening” at Cleethorpes Navy                                                               Wills Memorial Building, Queen’s Road,
Club.                                            20th     Poynton Egypt Group.                    Bristol 8.
                                                 Lecture TBA.                                     Contact The Egypt Society of Bristol for
7th      Plymouth & District                                                                      further details.
         Egyptology Society.                     21st      Leicestershire Ancient
Julie Hankey. Lecture TBA.                                 Egypt Society.                         7th        The Egypt Exploration
                                                 Martin Davies: The Rescue of the Monuments                  Society – Northern Branch
7th     RAMASES (North Kent)                     of Nubia.                                        Neil Spencer: On Egypt’s Western Delta
        Society.                                                                                  Frontier – New Results from Kom Firin.
Study Day on the Amarna Period.                  21st    Southampton Ancient Egypt                7pm in Lecture Theatre 1, Stopford
                                                         Society.                                 Building (Medical School), The University
                                                 Mark Walker: Mummies at the Movies.              of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester,
7th      Thames Valley Ancient
         Egypt Society.                                                                           M13 9PT.
                                                 28th       Sussex Egyptology Society –
Society AGM, followed by Lecture TBA.
                                                            Horsham Venue.                        11th        Egyptology Scotland –
                                                 Cathie Bryan: Tales of the Crypts – The                      Glasgow Branch.
7th       Wessex Ancient Egypt
                                                 Egyptiansing Tombs of Paris & London.            Campbell Price: Living in the Past? Elite Self-
Jaromir Malek: Some Unexpected Aspects of                                                         Preservation in the Twenty-fifth Dynasty.
                                                 28th       The Bloomsbury Academy
Egyptian Art.
                                                            – Conference.                         11th     Thames Valley Ancient
                                                 Mysteries of Amarna                                       Egypt Society.
9th      Manchester Ancient Egypt
                                                 (See details on page 65.)                        Lecture TBA.
Michael Rice: Egyptian Hounds.
                                                                                                  11th        University of Bradford –
9th       Wirral Ancient Egypt                                                                                Saturday Day-School.
          Society – Afternoon                     NOVEMBER 2006                                   Daily Life in Ancient Egypt.
          Lecture.                                                                                (See details on page 66.)
Tony Judd: When the Desert was Green –
Hunters and Herdsmen in Egypt’s Savannahs.       1st&2nd The British Egyptian                     13th       Manchester Ancient Egypt
                                                             Society – Conference.                           Society.
11th       Friends of the Egypt                  50 Years Since Suez: from Conflict to            George Hart: Alexander the Great and his
           Centre – Swansea.                     Collaboration.                                   Conquest of Egypt.
Lucia Gahlin: Purity & Order in an Egyptian      (See details on page 66.)
Household.                                                                                        13th     Wirral Ancient Egypt
                                                 1st       Staffordshire Egyptology                        Society – Afternoon
14th        Ancient Egypt & Middle                         Society.                                        Lecture.
            East Society.                                                                         Liverpool University Bursary Award
                                                 Bob Roach: Pharaonic Stones – The Rocks of
Elaine Leachman: The Life of Howard Carter                                                        Student: Report on Fieldwork.
                                                 Egypt & their Uses.
& John Bimson: Now you see them, now you
don’t – the strange case of David and Solomon.                                                    14th       Egypt Society of Bristol.
                                                 4th       Plymouth & District                    Paul Nicholson: Egypt in the Third Dimension
14th      Egyptian Society (UK).                           Egyptology Society.                    – Stereophotography in Egyptology and
Paul Nicholson: The Berenike Project (with       Kasia Szpakowka: Nightmares & Other              Archaeology.
3D slides).                                      Ancient Egyptian Demons in the Dark.             (Note: This lecture will be in 3D.)

64                                                                         ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006
                                                                                                    events diary
15th      Bolton Archaeology and              2nd      Wessex Ancient Egypt                  9-10th    University of Wales,
          Egyptology Society.                          Society.                                        Swansea – Conference.
Shirley Addy: Rider Haggard and Egypt.        AGM and Grand Christmas Party, fol-            The Exploited and Adored – Animals in Ancient
7.30pm at Bolton Town Hall.                   lowed by a lecture by Christine el Mahdy.      Egypt.
                                                                                             (See details on page 66.)
16th     North East Lincolnshire              3rd      Essex Egyptology Group.
         Egyptology Association.              Christmas Party.                               11th     Manchester Ancient Egypt
Study Evening.                                                                                        Society.
                                              4th      Northampton Ancient                   Lecture TBA.
17th     Poynton Egypt Group.                          Egyptian Historical Society.
John Johnson: The Wars of Kamose.             Dylan Bickerstaffe: Strong Man, Wrong Tomb     11th   Wirral Ancient Egypt
                                              – The Mystery of Belzoni’s Sarcophagus.               Society.
18th      Egyptian Society (UK).                                                             AGM & Christmas Party.
Irving Finkel: Board Games in Egypt.          4th      Tameside Egypt Group.
                                              Christmas Party.                               12th     The Ancient World Society.
18th         Leicestershire Ancient                                                          Christmas Party.
             Egypt Society.                   5th       The Egypt Exploration
Colin Reader: Saqqara – A Personal                      Society – Northern Branch            12th       Egypt Society of Bristol.
Perspective.                                  Judith A. Corbelli: Funerary Decoration in     George Hart: The Art and Myth of Kingship
                                              Graeco-Roman Egypt.                            in Ancient Egypt.
                                              7pm in Lecture Theatre 1, Stopford
18th       Southampton Ancient Egypt
                                              Building (Medical School), The University
           Society.                                                                          16th      Leicestershire Ancient
                                              of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester,
Martin Davies: The Drowned Land of Nubia                                                               Egypt Society.
                                              M13 9PT.
and the Rescue of its Monuments.                                                             Charlotte Booth: Parallels between Ancient
                                                                                             Egyptian Religion and Modern Hinduism.
                                              6th        Friends of the Egypt
18th    Sussex Egyptology Society –                      Centre – Swansea.
        Worthing Venue.                       Kim Ridealgh: Hatshepsut – Puppet, Martyr
Pamela Rose: Recent Work at Qasr Ibrim.       or Usurper?
21st      Egyptology Scotland –
                                                                                                 MAJOR EVENTS
                                              6th        Society for the Study of
          Aberdeen Branch.                               Ancient Egypt – Derby
Kenneth Kitchen: Foreigners in Egypt and                 Venue.                              14th October, 2006
Egyptians Abroad?                             Penny Wilson: Hearts, Birds and Bas– A         STUDY-DAY –
                                              Flight of Fancy.                               THE EGYPT EXPLORATION
22nd      Friends of the Egypt
          Centre – Swansea.                   6th      Staffordshire Egyptology              SOCIETY
Wolfram Grajetzki: A Forgotten Period – The            Society.
Egyptian Thirteenth Dynasty.                  Christmas Event.                                        THE SACRED ANIMAL
                                                                                                     NECROPOLIS AT NORTH
25th      North East Lincolnshire             8th      North East Lincolnshire                                 SAQQARA
          Egyptology Association –                     Egyptology Association.                  Speakers:
          Day-School.                         Study Evening.                                 Dr Jeffrey Spencer: Patterns of Development
Amenhotep III, Amarna & Mummies.                                                             in the Saqqara Necropolis;
Speakers: Joanne Fletcher & Stephen           9th      Egyptian Society (UK).                Professor Harry Smith: The Late Period
Buckley.                                      Christmas Party, followed by Aidan             Development of the Saqqara Necropolis into a
                                              Dodson: Saites, Sand a Scottish Pretender.     City of Sacred Animal Cult Temples and
25th    RAMASES (North Kent)                                                                 Catacombs;
        Society.                              9th      Egyptology Scotland –                 Mrs Sue Davies: Aspects of the Sacred Animal
Wine & Wisdom Evening.                                 Glasgow Branch.                       Necropolis as revealed by the Material Finds and
                                              Ian Shaw: The Harem Palace in Ancient Egypt.   Documentary Evidence;
30th        Horus Egyptology Society.                                                        Dr Paul Nicholson: The North Ibis Catacomb,
Charlotte Booth: Sex, Marriage and            9th        Society for the Study of            and the Sacred Bronzes.
Childbirth.                                              Ancient Egypt – Derby                  At the Brunel Gallery Lecture Theatre,
                                                         Venue.                              School of Oriental and African Studies,
                                              Penny Wilson: Hearts, Birds & Bas – A          Thornhaugh St, Russell Square,
                                              Flight of Fancy.                               London, WC1H 0XG.
 DECEMBER 2006                                9th       Southampton Ancient Egypt
                                                                                                Admission by ticket (£25 standard, £15
                                                                                             student) only; apply to the EES London
                                                        Society.                             Office.
                                              Christmas Social and Lecture.
2nd       Ancient Egypt & Middle
                                              Michael Feeney: Akhenaten, Heresy, and
          East Society.                       Symbolism – a New Perspective.
Christmas Lectures & Dinner.                                                                 28th October, 2006
Speakers: Martin Davies: The Drowned          9th        The Egypt Exploration
                                                                                             CONFERENCE –
Land of Nubia & the Rescue of its Monuments              Society.                            THE BLOOMSBURY
& Joyce Filer: Mummies I have Met.            AGM, lecture and reception in the after-       ACADEMY
                                              noon/early evening in the Khalili Theatre,       The Bloomsbury Academy stages a
2nd      Thames Valley Ancient                Main Building, SOAS, London.                   major conference, involving eminent
         Egypt Society.                       Ian Shaw: The Royal Harem in Ancient Egypt.    Egyptologists, in May and October each
Lecture TBA.                                  Details in the EES Autumn mailing.             year. The next event will be: (cont. over)

ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006                                                                                                       65
events diary
       MYSTERIES OF AMARNA                           11th November, 2006                                 Cost £40 for both days, £25 for one.
                                                     DAY-SCHOOL –                                      Optional special conference “Tapas”
   From 10.30 - 17.30, 28th October,                                                                   evening £25.
2006, at the UCL Bloomsbury Theatre,
                                                     THE UNIVERSITY OF                                   Contact:
University College London.                           BRADFORD                                          The Egypt Centre, University of Wales
   Speakers:                                           DAILY LIFE IN ANCIENT EGYPT                     Swansea, Singleton Park, Swansea,
Dr Elzabeth Frood: Assessing Belief and                Lectures by Joyce Tyldesley and Steven          SA2 8PP;
Practice – the Origins and Developmemnt of the       Snape.                                            Tel. 01792 295960
Aten Cult.                                             Held at John Stanley Bell Lecture             
Dr Aidan Dodson: Father and Son – Did                Theatre, Richmond Building, University
Amenhotep III and IV Rule Together? and                                                                20th - 24th February, 2007
                                                     of Bradford.
Decline and Fall – the Enigma of Tutankhamun’s         Ticket price £17.50 (concessions £14).
                                                                                                       CONGRESS –
Last Years.                                          Tickets available from                            IN LANZAROTE
Dr Christian Loeben: In Search of Primeval           Short Course Unit, School of Lifelong
Unity – the Reasons for Akhenaten’s Persecution of                                                           VI WORLD CONGRESS ON
                                                     Education and Development, University                         MUMMY STUDIES
Amun.                                                of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP.
Dr Marion Eaton-Krauss: Ankhesenamun –               Enquiries: (01274) 233217 or 233213.                 In Teguise, Lanzarote, Canary Islands,
Sister, Wife and Widow of Tutankhamun.               Email:                         Spain, the congress will look at mummifi-
   Tickets £34, from:                                                                                  cation of the dead in antiquity (not just in
The Box Office,                                      9th - 10th December, 2006                         ancient Egypt) and papers from experts
The UCL Bloomsbury, 15 Gordon Street,                CONFERENCE –                                      from around the world will present their
London WC1H 0AH                                      THE EGYPT CENTRE,                                 latest findings and research.
Tel: 020 7388 8822                                   UNIVERSITY OF WALES,                                 Topics covered will include:                                                                    History of Mummy Research,
                                                     SWANSEA                                           Research Methods,
                                                       THE EXPLOITED AND ADORED:                       Conservation of Mummies,
1st - 2nd November, 2006                                 ANIMALS IN ANCIENT EGYPT                      Funerary Archaeology,
CONFERENCE –                                            The Conference seeks to explore the            Paleopathology and Paleoparasitology,
                                                     role of animals in Egypt from ancient             Applied Technology and
IN LONDON, PRESENTED                                 times up to and including the Islamic             Mummification Methods and Animal
BY THE BRITISH                                       Period. Themes include: defining and cat-         Mummies.
EGYPTIAN SOCIETY AND                                 egorising the animal; the relationship               The historic town of Teguise is located
THE LONDON MIDDLE                                    between people and other animals; the             in the centre of the Island, about ten kilo-
EAST INSTITUTE                                       influence of animals upon Egyptian socie-         metres from the coast. An attractive pro-
                                                     ty and religion; modern costructions of           gramme of parallel activities will be pro-
  50 YEARS SINCE SUEZ: FROM                          animals in ancient Egypt.                         vided for persons accompanying delegates.
 CONFLICT TO COLLABORATION                              Around twenty international speakers              For more information, visit the web site:
                                                     will include:                               
   A landmark forum on the evolving rela-            Miriam Bibby (University of Manchester),
                                                     Harold Hays (Leiden University),                  23rd - 24th June, 2007
tionship between Egypt and the United
Kingdom.                                             Angela McDonald (University of Glasgow),          CONFERENCE –
   At the School of Oriental and African             Michael Rice,                                     IN LONDON
Studies, University of London,                       Hilary Wilson (University of Southampton),
                                                     Alan Lloyd (University of Wales, Swansea).            THE EGYPT EXPLORATION
Thornhaugh Street, Russell Square,                                                                       SOCIETY 125TH ANNIVERSARY
London WC1H 0XG.                                        The Conference will be open to all and
                                                     aims to encourage research into the role of                   CONFERENCE
   Senior politicians and the Ambassadors
from both countries, as well as experts in           animals in ancient Egypt as well as to              At The School of Oriental and African
economics, business, cultural heritage and           increase public awareness of issues.              Studies, University of London. Contact
relations, Egyptology, the arts and educa-                                               (continued)   the EES for details.
tion will consider how Egypt and the UK
can develop closer ties in these areas,
through government and the public and                    Found: Back Issue
private sectors.
                                                        In the last issue it was mentioned that AE 9 (Oct/Nov 2001) had sold
   Also taking part will be Vivian Davies,
                                                     out sometime ago, and that it remains the only back issue not available.
Keeper, Department of Ancient Egypt                  There was also an appeal for any readers with “spare” copies to get in
and Sudan at the British Museum, Dr                  touch with the Editor.
Gaballa Ali Gaballa (Professor of
                                                        As if on cue, there is now a downloadable version of this long lost
Egyptology, ret. Cairo University);
Nicholas Warner (Gayer Anderson                      gem available free from our website in a handy pdf format.
Museum, Cairo); and Professor Fekry                     Just visit:
Hassan (Professor of Archaology, UCL).
                                                          ANCIENT EGYPT is owned, and published bi-monthly, by Empire Publications.
   For further information please contact
McKenna Campaigns (Forum publicity                      The contents of this magazine are protected by copyright and nothing may be reproduced
agents): Carol McKenna: 01962 793003;                                           without the permission of the Editor.
07979 805169 or Andrew McKenna:                          The Publishers and Editor are not liable for statements made and opinions expressed in
01962 793007; 07748 793041.                                   this publication. Unless otherwise stated all images are from the Editor’s
Email:                                    collection. Any articles not specifically attributed are by the Editor.
See also the British Egyptian Society web-
site,                                                           For information on back issues and subscriptions, visit our Web site:              - Email:

66                                                                              ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006
      ANCIENT EGYPT explores the WORLD WIDE WEB ...

                                   THE MIDDLE KINGDOM – PART TWO
    This month’s NETFISHING continues its look at the history of Egypt by seeing what the World Wide Web has to say about
                the Middle Kingdom, a period of history that often gets overlooked when compared with the magnificence of
                                                   the Old Kingdom and the New Kingdom.
 In the last issue we gave an historical outline of the Middle Kingdom, whilst in this issue we look at some other aspects of the Period,
        concentrating on the literary, artistic and military heritage that the Middle Kingdom (c. 2055-1650 BC) has left behind.

         he Old Kingdom is often referred to as “The Pyramid Age”, because of the huge monuments that survive at Giza, and the

 T       New Kingdom is renowned for its fabulous wealth, the treasures of Tutankhamun, and the beautiful temples that still stand
         in Luxor today, but what remains of the Middle Kingdom? Unfortunately, remarkably little. Its pyramids (referred to in the
 previous issue) were made of mud-brick rather than stone and so they have not survived at all well. Its temples were dismantled and
 rebuilt by later pharaohs, and its great fortresses in Nubia have all been covered by the waters of Lake Nasser. What survives from
 this Period is, therefore, largely the literature and the artwork.
   More than anything else, the Middle Kingdom is renowned for its great literature, and the Period is often spoken of as being
 “Egypt’s Shakespearean age”. Two of the most famous stories of this period are:

 The Tale of Sinuhe –      in translation:
                           in hieroglyphs:
 The Eloquent Peasant –    in translation:
                           in hieroglyphs:

   In addition, the quality of the jewellery of the Middle Kingdom is so exquisite that it set a standard that was never surpassed.
 Indeed, the trinkets of the New Kingdom seem crude in comparison. Much of the MK jewellery was found in the pyramids of the
 kings’ daughters, buried in the Faiyum. To see some of these impressive jewels visit:
 and then click on a piece that captures your eye. The pectoral of Princess Mereret is stunning; it shows her father, Senusret III, as a
 griffin, crushing the enemies of Egypt beneath him. The anklet of Mereret is also interesting as, at 34cm, it seems far too large to fit
 around a young girl’s ankle – but it is not. Some of my students made a copy at Manchester University and found it was a perfect fit,
 with the gold claws hanging down on either side of the foot to warn away any intrusive scorpions!

    The tombs of the Middle Kingdom were largely undecorated, all the emphasis being placed on the coffins and the “tomb mod-
 els”, which accompanied the deceased. The best examples of these come from the tomb of Meket-Ra, refer to:
 and for a close-up of some of the details of the boat models visit:

   Two other famous tombs of the Period are to be found at Aswan. As these tombs belong to the Nomarchs (governors) of the region,
 they are well decorated and are good examples of the artwork of the Period. For Sarenput I; refer to:
 (Be sure to scroll through the pictures to see the carvings of his favourite dogs.)
 Also visit the tomb of Saranput II, which features a rare depiction of an elephant:

   One of the measures that Egypt took to maintain its security was to annex the lands to the south of Aswan, the lands of Nubia.
 Military fortifications were erected to control the river traffic and to act as trading posts and transshipment points for the large
 amounts of gold (nub) that were mined in this area. The largest of these “forts” was the one built at Buhen, which had very elaborate
 defences; refer to:
 and to:
 for a “Virtual Tour”.

    One of the most important sites to have survived from the Middle Kingdom is the town of Kahun, built to house the workers who
 constructed the kings’ pyramids. The town appears to have been suddenly abandoned, leaving behind much evidence of the daily
 lives of the inhabitants: their tools, domestic goods and even children’s toys. Refer to:
 for an outline and to the “Virtual Kahun Project” site for more detailed information:

                                                                                                               Victor Blunden

ANCIENT EGYPT October/November 2006                                                                                                    67
We offer unique itineraries to major cultures throughout the
world. We specialize in Egypt where we are the field leader
visiting more areas than any other company. We visit all the
classic sites and also go off the beaten track, exploring remote
ruins and current excavations. Most of our tours are
accompanied by leading experts.

 ancient world tours
                                     On November 11th 2006 we are proud to offer a truly unique departure
                                     to Egypt with the Earl and Countess of Carnarvon. This journey is
                                     based on the renowned excavations of the 5th Earl and Howard
                                     Carter. Sites visited include Tell el Balamun and Simbellawein in the
                                     Delta and a private visit to the Tomb of Tutankhamun along with many
                                     other classic West Bank sites.

On October 28th 2006 Professor Kent Weeks accompanies a very
special tour ‘Unknown Egypt’ exploring the rarely visited sites
of Abu Sir, Tanis, The Faiyum, Amarna, Mo’alla, El Tod and of
course the Valley of the Kings!
Check our website for Rock Art and Libya tours.

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020 7917 9494 UK +44 20 7917 9494 INT                              The air holiday shown is ATOL protected by the Civil Aviation Authority
                                                                   and provided by Kuoni Travel Ltd.

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Ancient World Tours, PO Box 838, Guildford GU3 3ZR UK e-mail

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