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Helsinki Open Office Survey Translation

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					                            OpenOffice

        Survey report




                       City of Helsinki
         Economic and Planning Centre
                            IT Division
                           12.28.2011




Translation provided by Microsoft Corporation
CONTENTS
1   YHTEENVETO SELVITYKSESTÄ................................................................................ 1

2   SELVITYKSEN LÄHTÖKOHDAT ................................................................................. 4

3   HELSINGIN KAUPUNGIN TOIMINTAYMPÄRISTÖ..................................................... 5

    3.1 Helsinki-vakio työasemaympäristö ......................................................................... 5
    3.2 Toimintaympäristön ydinpalveluiden elinkaarinäkymät .......................................... 6
4   KÄYTETTÄVYYSPROJEKTI ........................................................................................ 8

    4.1 Käyttäjäkysely ........................................................................................................ 8
    4.2 Ohjelmien käyttö jakaumina ................................................................................... 8
    4.3 Täydentävä kysely ................................................................................................. 8
    4.4 Käyttäjäluokitus ...................................................................................................... 9
5   TYÖASEMAPROJEKTI .............................................................................................. 10

6   LASKENTAPROJEKTI ............................................................................................... 11

    6.1 Laskennan taustatiedot ........................................................................................ 11
    6.2 Kustannuslaskenta Gartnerin mallin mukaan ....................................................... 12
    6.3 Kustannusanalyysi ............................................................................................... 13
7   JOHTOPÄÄTÖKSET .................................................................................................. 14

8   LISÄTIEDOT ............................................................................................................... 15

    8.1 Gartnerin näkemys avoimen lähdekoodin toimistojärjestelmiin siirtymisestä ....... 15
    8.2 Avoimen lähdekoodin käyttöönottojen analyysi .................................................... 15
            8.2.1      Oikeusministeriö ............................................................................................. 16
            8.2.2      Ranska............................................................................................................ 16
            8.2.3      München ......................................................................................................... 16
            8.2.4      Suur-Kööpenhaminan alueen sairaanhoito ..................................................... 17
            8.2.5      Lauritsalan koulu ............................................................................................. 17
            8.2.6      Wien, Bristol, Reykjavik, Turku ja Naantali ...................................................... 17
1   SUMMARY OF THE SURVEY

       The OpenOffice survey was conducted as a result of the proposal on reducing the
       city's IT costs submitted by councilor Johanna Sumuvuori and 60 other councilors
       on April 21, 2010. The City Council processed the matter for the first time on
       November 24, 2010, and again on May 11, 2011. The IT Division of the Economic
       and Planning Centre has conducted a survey on the use of office suites as notified in
       the report 2-2011 of the City Council meeting on 11 May 2011. The purpose was to
       evaluate whether it would be economically feasible to replace Microsoft Office,
       which is currently used in the city's branches of administration, with OpenOffice, and
       how and on what scale.

       The survey covered three areas:

             In the workstation project, OpenOffice was installed next to Microsoft Office
               in all workstations in the city administration (approximately 21,000
               workstations), and automatic distribution, administration and updates were
               configured for OpenOffice. User support services were surveyed as well.

             The usability project examined how the features of the office suites support
              working efficiency and productivity. The project also examined dependencies
              between various software packages. The data was collected from
              employees using a questionnaire. The replies were used to classify users'
              needs and requirements. It was assumed that this classification would reveal
              which user groups absolutely need Microsoft Office and which user groups
              can migrate to OpenOffice.

             The calculation project used the practical measures above and performed a
              cost analysis based on Gartner's calculation models. The purpose of the
              calculations was to determine whether it would be economically feasible for
              the city to start using OpenOffice.

       In the workstation project, OpenOffice suite was technically distributed to
       approximately 21,000 workstations in the city's IT environment in May 2011. It was
       assumed at the start of the survey that an office application installed in the
       workstation is:

             a standalone application that is used to write text, perform calculations and
              create presentations;

             the office applications are alternatives to each other and they contain the
               same basic features; and

             replacing an office suite with an equivalent one does not require anything
              other than the installation itself.

       As the survey progressed, it became apparent that the situation is not this simple. It
       became clear that office applications are also used by entities other than employees
       in the IT environment of the organizations. Other tools and IT systems in the city's IT
       environment rely on the office suite and its technical specifications when
       communicating with users and each other. The survey indicated that there are
       approximately one hundred systems in the city's IT environment that utilize the
       technical specifications of Microsoft Office and that the specifications of the office
       suites are not identical. Many tools and IT systems that take advantage of the
       functionality are at the early phases of their lifecycle and they have a significant
       effect on the city's IT users.
User surveys were conducted in association with the usability project to identify
organizational units or working communities that could stop using Microsoft Office.
The current status was surveyed using questionnaires and software usage
measurements. The measurement results indicated that office suites are used in all
21,000 computes of the administrative network. The administrative network serves
30,000 users. The survey could not identify any clearly defined units or working
communities that could rely on OpenOffice alone.

The investment costs of the migration project were estimated using the "Gartner
Toolkit: The Cost to Upgrade Microsoft Office or Move to OpenOffice.org" model.
The reference period was seven years. The calculation model takes into account
both direct and indirect costs. The model compares the costs associated with a
migration project and the rewriting and decommissioning of other IT systems and
system interfaces to the maintenance costs of Microsoft Office licenses. The
calculations indicate that during the first three years, the migration project is
significantly more expensive than the current license maintenance. Moreover, the
savings incurred during the second three-year period will not cover the costs caused
by the need to decommission and modify other basic systems and system
interfaces.

The survey indicates that the city would not gain any financial benefits from
migrating to an open source office suite, and the migration cannot be implemented
unless the city launches a significant and wide-ranging overhaul of its current IT
environment.

In the survey, the investment costs of the OpenOffice migration project have been
estimated as EUR 4.5 million as a one-off cost. In addition, it is estimated that
indirect costs would amount to EUR 3.4 million a year. Indirect costs are mainly
caused by using two different office applications in parallel. The migration project in
the Gartner calculation does not include the project costs of the system interface
modifications.

The calculation model and the survey indicate that in the operating environment of
the City of Helsinki, the migration to an open source office suite would be 74% more
expensive during the seven-year reference period than continuing the maintenance
agreement and widespread use of MS Office.

The calculation model and the survey indicate that during the seven-year reference
period, the most cost-effective alternative for the City of Helsinki's standard
environment is to stay in the Microsoft Office environment.

Observations from other OpenOffice projects support the conclusions of the survey:
switching from one office suite to another has been successful when no significant
dependencies have existed between the office suite and the organization's other IT
systems or when the switch has taken place simultaneously with the overhaul of
other basic systems.

Many of the city' system investments are still at the beginning of their life cycles,
which is why the migration to an open source office suite would require time, a
long-term commitment, and financial investments. If we chose this alternative, it
would be uncertain whether we would reach our goals and attain a sustainable
outcome. New alternatives are currently making headway into the market as various
mobile technologies and cloud services. These changes will challenge the current
providers' market position; they will also promote competition and will offer the City
of Helsinki new opportunities to develop its own services and improve cost
efficiency.
The Chief Information Officer states that the survey is not in favor of changing the
office suite. Cost-efficiency in IT must be sought by different means. The City of
Helsinki manages the use and development of IT using an IT program. Its main
goals include improving the city's productivity and IT efficiency. New terminal
solutions required by mobile work will be implemented and deployed in a controlled
manner during the new program period. At the same time, new solutions are sought
to reduce the city's dependency from individual workstation product technologies.
The proposal and the results of the survey will be taken into account in the city's IT
program and its follow-up activities.
2   STARTING POINT OF THE SURVEY

        The survey was conducted as a result of the proposal on reducing the city's IT costs
        submitted by councilor Johanna Sumuvuori and 60 other councilors on April 21,
        2010. The first processing of the proposal in the council took place on November 24,
        2010, and the proposal was returned for re-preparation. The re-prepared proposal
        was processed in the City Council on May 11, 2011, based on a statement in report
        2-2011. The City Council decided that the matter was closed.

        An extract from the report that described the matters belonging to the survey:

        "The City Council states that the IT Division of the Economic and Planning Centre
        has started a survey that will evaluate the total economic feasibility of replacing
        Microsoft Office, which is currently used in the city's branches of administration, with
        OpenOffice, and how and on what scale. A project manager has been appointed to
        the survey. The survey will be executed as a centralized program that includes the
        branches of administration.

        The survey has three main areas. In the workstation project, OpenOffice will be
        installed next to Microsoft Office in all workstations in the city administration
        (approximately 21,000 workstations) at the end of March and early April. While the
        project is running, automatic distribution, administration, and update policies will be
        configured for OpenOffice and the user support services will be surveyed.

        The usability project will examine how the features of the office suites support
        working efficiency and productivity, and will also examine dependencies between
        the suites. The data will be collected from employees using a questionnaire. The
        replies will be used to classify users' needs and requirements. This classification will
        reveal which user groups absolutely need Microsoft Office and which user groups
        can migrate to OpenOffice. The identified user groups will be investigated on a more
        detailed level by each administrative branch and the obtained results will be verified.

        The calculation project will use the practical measures above and will also perform a
        cost analysis based on Gartner's calculation models. The calculations will be used to
        determine whether it is economically feasible for the city to start using OpenOffice in
        parallel with Microsoft Office. The calculations will describe the results of the survey
        from a comprehensive economic perspective and in a clear euro-based format.

        An economic and functional summary will be created from the surveys in the fall
        2011. The summary will be the basis for decisions on further actions.”

        This survey reports the tasks and actions that have been implemented in
        accordance with the decision taken by the City Council on May 11, 2011.
3   OPERATING ENVIRONMENT OF THE CITY OF HELSINKI

           The City of Helsinki has about 40,000 employees. Helsinki is divided in to 35
           branches of administration, seven of which are enterprises. The primary criterion in
           the selection of an office suite is how well it fits into the organization's entire IT
           environment.

           Figure 1 is a rough schematic of the stakeholders, user roles, and interfaces
           associated with the current office suite.

                                                                     Administrative
                           Other cooperating                           Services
                                parties                                                                    Intranet services
                          (Capital Region, the                                             Published
                                                                                            material
                                                                                          Document
                   Municipal                                                                libraries
                                                  File attachments       Settings
                   residents                                                                 eForms
                                                     Workgroup          Automatic
                                                                                          Workgroup
                                                    collaboration      installation
                                                                                         collaboration             E-mail and
                                         Attached files                                       E-mail            calendar services
                                                                                             Calendar
                                                               Office suite
                                                                                      Instant messaging
          Helsinki Standard             Continuous use                                Video conferencing
              WS users
                                                                                                           Instant messaging and
                                           Random use                                                        video conferencing
                                                                              Support Interfaces                  services
                                                Installation
                                                                 Orders       services
                                                  Support
                                                               Architecture Administratio
                                                             Standardization     n
                                                                 policies
                          Other staff          Support persons                                                      Systems
                                                                              Service providers and                integrated
                                                             IT Management      system suppliers              with office software



           Figure 1: User roles and interfaces to other IT systems

           About 30,000 employees use Helsinki Standard. The remaining 10,000 employees
           work in a school environment or do not use a computer in their current tasks.

           The city has about 1,100 systems, of which about one hundred have one or more
           office suite integrations currently in production. The most common systems
           integrations are integrations to Excel (spreadsheet); there are a lot of these. There
           are several integrations to Word (word processing) and PowerPoint (presentations
           graphics) and Outlook (e-mail). The Access database application is primarily used in
           fairly small standalone solutions in several branches of administration.

           There are many external stakeholders and the methods of cooperation are diverse.
           Cooperation in the Capital Region is intensive in many branches of administration,
           and this is where the effects of software choices also manifest themselves.

    3.1    Helsinki Standard workstation environment

           When making technology choices, the City of Helsinki uses proven solutions and
           mainstream technologies. This is the best way to manage technological risks.

           A city-wide workstation environment has been developed and standardized since
           the 1990s, and the standardization has been implemented using Microsoft
           technology. The range of applications in the city’s workstations has increased and
      developed over the years to its current state. The city's workstation environment has
      about 100 systems that use the features offered by Microsoft Office; OpenOffice
      cannot be used in these systems without extra tailoring.

      To remove a central part from this whole and replace it with a product based on
      another technology would mean that several IT systems would have to be changed
      and some systems would have to be replaced entirely with other systems.

      Figure 2 shows the main parts of basic services in the standard environment. The
      yellow highlighting indicates applications and services that are functionally
      integrated with the office suite.



         Operating environment
           Directory service,
           security and user
           settings (MS Active
           Directory)


           System
                                        Standardized workstation
           administration
           (MS System Center)

           Intranet and extranet
           services




                                                                                                                                                                                             (Windows native and Winzip)
           (MS SharePoint)
                                        (MS Windows 7, transition




                                                                                                                                             Instant messaging and video
                                                                      (MS Internet Explorer 8)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                           (Windows Media Player)
           E-mail services
                                                                                                                    E-mail and calendar
                                                                                                                    (MS Outlook 2007)




           (MS Exchange)
                                        Operating System




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Antivirus and firewall
                                                                                                                                                                                             File compression
                                                                                                                                                                           (Adobe Acrobat)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Multimedia player
                                                                                                 (MS Office 2007)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              VPN connection
                                                                      Web browser




                                                                                                                                                                           PDF reader
          Instant messaging and
                                                                                                                                             conferencing
                                                                                                 Office suite




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     (F-Secure)
          video conferencing
                                        phase)




                                                                                                                                             (MS Lync)



          services




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Cisco)
          (MS Lync)

          Printing services
          (MS Windows Server)




      Figure 2:Operating environment

3.2   Lifecycle of the core services in the operating environment
      Figure 3 shows a timeline of the lifecycle of the most important and most frequently
      used applications. The lifetime of core services is about 10 years. In practice, a core
      system or infrastructure service can remain viable and efficient even longer, of
      which there are several examples in the city. This long-term lifecycle model requires
      constant development and updating of the environment.

      The MS Office suite has diverse and powerful functional interfaces to the
      infrastructure services on the upper part of Figure 3. In addition, the total license
      package that belongs to the licensing model used by the city creates synergy
      benefits.



                                                                           2009–2019
                                                           E-mail and calendar services (MS Exchange)
                                                                                  2010–2020
                                                             Intranet and extranet services (MS Office SharePoint)


                              Present                                                    2011–2019
                                day                                 Instant messaging and video conferencing services (MS
                                                                                            Lync)



              Agreement                                              Agreement                                                                                   Agreement                                                                      Agreement                                      Agreement?
                Period                                                 Period                                                                                      Period                                                                         Period




                                                                                                                                     2011–2021
                                                                                                                            Case management system (Ahjo)

                                                                                                                                                      2012–2022
                                                                                                                                          Financial management system (SAP)
Figure 3:Service lifecycles 2009–2022

In recent years, the City of Helsinki has deployed two long-term system solutions
used by the entire staff: e-mail and digital desktop.

Outlook, a desktop application of the Exchange e-mail system, is part of the
Microsoft Office software suite. The digital desktop known as Helmi is based on
SharePoint technology and it uses Microsoft Office features widely. The deployment
of Helmi is still in its first phases. Moreover, the new Ahjo case management system
uses InfoPath for preparing cases. InfoPath is an application in Microsoft Office.

The new financial management system (SAP) will be deployed at the beginning of
2012 and its features include built-in two-way integration solutions to Microsoft
Office Excel, among others.
4   USABILITY PROJECT

    4.1   User Survey
          A user survey was conducted in the spring 2011 to support the OpenOffice survey.
          In addition to information gained from technical monitoring tools, the survey also
          investigated the ways the city’s employees use office applications.

          The survey was conducted as a randomized Web questionnaire sent to 7,246 users.
          This is approximately 24% of the users of the Helsinki Standard environment.

          A sufficient number of replies was received from the users in various branches of
          administration. The reply percentage was 48%, which is an excellent result in a
          survey like this. The high response percentage indicates that users are interested in
          the tools they use and that they want to have an influence on them. The results from
          various branches of administration resemble each other. The differences were
          mainly in the need to communicate outside the branch, either with other branches or
          completely external parties.

    4.2   Application usage as distributions

          The results of the survey indicate that e-mail is the most commonly used office
          application in the City of Helsinki. Nearly all respondents used e-mail regularly.
          Nearly three quarters of respondents use word processing and half of the
          respondents use spreadsheet applications. Less than a quarter of users use
          presentation graphics regularly. The following graphs illustrate the results of the user
          survey. Figure 4 shows how often the most important office applications are used.




                                 More often than once a month   Occasionally        Does not use at all   Cannot say
          Figure 4:Use of office applications
                       E-mail,
             desktop application (Outlook)



              Word processing (Word)



                Spreadsheet (Excel)



          Creation of presentation graphics
                    (PowerPoint)


             E-mail, browser interface
                       (OWA)


             Image processing software
            (MS Office Picture Manager)




                                                                % of respondents (3,449)


          The most widely used information system that interfaces with the office suites is
          Helmi, a digital desktop (MS SharePoint environment) that is used by 91% of the
          respondents. Other interfacing systems are Excel reporting of the HR system (used
          by 23% of respondents) and case management system (AHJO) (used by 23% of
          respondents).

    4.3   Complementary questionnaire
          In addition to the user questionnaire, a so-called branch of administration
          questionnaire was sent to all persons in charge of IT in each branch of
          administration. Workshops were used in some branches of administration to provide
      more details on the use of office applications. This gave us more information on file
      volumes and systems to integrate as well as on the use of the Microsoft Access
      database application.

      The starting premise was that the possible migrators to OpenOffice would be found
      in large offices whose basic operations do not consist of office work, and whose
      basic information systems are not strongly integrated to office suites. Such offices
      are not engaged in extensive collaboration with the city's other offices or external
      organizations either.

      Large offices have users who use an office application only to read files. In spite of
      this, we did not discover units within these offices where every user uses the
      applications the same way. Every unit contains several types of users. In addition,
      the operations in these offices are changing: all users will be given a personal e-mail
      address and access to the digital desktop and its workspaces, which will result in a
      widespread utilization of the features of Microsoft Office.

      None of the offices or enterprises contained obvious and sufficiently large user
      groups that would be good candidates for OpenOffice migration.

4.4   User classification

      The questionnaires enabled us to create profiles of the city’s employees as office
      suite users. Profiling is one of the basic data inputs for cost calculation.

      Figure 5 shows the user classes. The Basic User class consists of users who use
      data (Data Entry Users) and users who process data (Structured Task Workers).
      The Power User class consists of users who refine data (Knowledge Workers) and
      users who analyze data (High Performance Users).

      Figure 5:User classification

                       % of Helsinki Standard users
                                 (30 000)
                                                         Users viewing
                                                         data


                                                         Users processing
                                                         data
5   WORKSTATION PROJECT

       Preparations for the workstation installations were started in March 2011, when the
       latest version of OpenOffice.org suite was selected for trial. The reason for the
       selection was that the suite is stable and commonly used. A new OpenOffice version
       3.3.0 was published in January 2011. The alternative, LibreOffice, was not selected,
       because the first version 3.3.0 that was published in January 2011 was not geared
       towards enterprise use.

       Adjustments and testing of the basic installation continued until May, when the
       actual installation errors and basic settings were fixed. The adjustment consisted of
       implementing the language versions and spell checking (Finnish, Swedish, and
       English). The suite was also configured to fit the standard environment: quick start,
       automatic updates and add-ons were deleted, among other things. Installation of
       add-ons is done in a centralized way in the standard environment, but the suite did
       not have a solution for this. Limitations in the installation of add-ons were
       implemented separately using other management tools.

       The installations to all workstations (21,000) were completed by the end of May. The
       installation itself worked well, since all phases of installation could be automated
       with the MS System Center management system. The installations were nearly 100%
       successful.

       Systematic testing revealed problems in intranet and extranet use. Opening a
       document that is shared in MS SharePoint caused a software error and completely
       prevented the starting of other OpenOffice.org applications. This was an extremely
       critical error and a solution was sought intensively. The OpenOffice.org support site
       or discussion boards did not contain information related to the problem, since the
       widespread use of OpenOffice.org in an MS SharePoint environment is rare. A
       temporary solution was found that involved changing a normal basic setting of the
       suite. Confirmation and comments for this temporary solution were requested from
       OpenOffice support, i.e. the discussion board. No replies were received.

       When this problem had been temporarily fixed, we could evaluate the general status
       of SharePoint functionalities. There were features that slowed down or interfered
       with work in, for example, processing of shared documents. To change the
       configuration in the temporary solution would have required yet another separate
       solution, which would have posed a functional risk in our case. Since the trial period
       reserved for investigations was running out, the temporary patch was not automated
       or distributed widely. The problem prevented a planned larger-scale user testing.
6   CALCULATION PROJECT

          The cost effects of the migration to an open source office suite were estimated using
          a cost calculation model published by Gartner for this purpose. The tool used was
          the "Gartner Toolkit: The Cost to Upgrade Microsoft Office or Move to
          OpenOffice.org" model that uses a seven-year reference period. Basic data for the
          calculation model was collected using a user survey.

          The background data in the model include:

                Classification of the users into basic users and power users

                Number of user-specific templates and files

                Number of stakeholders and the need to communicate

                Software integrations affecting the user's work

          The calculation takes into account both direct and indirect costs. Direct costs are
          costs that show up in IT costs, such as license costs, user support and other work
          performed by IT staff. Indirect costs are incurred by an increased workload and the
          decreased productivity of the users.

          The workstation environment of the City of Helsinki is constantly updated to ensure
          functionality and safety. This results in regular software updates, for example. In
          practice, MS Office must remain installed parallel to OpenOffice, since OpenOffice
          does not offer all functionalities that are critical to the City of Helsinki.

          Two alternative calculations were created on the basis of these requirements. The
          first alternative examines the parallel use of OpenOffice and MS Office, and the
          second one examines the use of MS Office alone.

    6.1   Background data for the calculation

          The above calculations for a seven-year period assume that the deployment project
          proceeds as planned and the circumstances are favorable. The timeline for a
          deployment project is short (approximately 12–24 months).

          Basic data for the calculation:

                only a little user training is needed (2 hours)

                the software version changes only twice during the period and safety remains
                  up to date

                the file format (MS Office file format) is preserved

                the number of system integrations is the same as estimated and the
                  integrations are replaceable

                only a third of the users experience random conversion problems.

          If this plan does not actualize – for example, if the environment turns out to be more
          complex than assumed and the project has to be extended – the calculations
          indicate that the costs of the deployment project might almost triple.

          The direct costs in the calculation include:
            MS Office license costs and maintenance fees

            work in the migration project, training and other purchased services during
             the project

            even though the file format is not switched, a mass conversion is used to
             check, convert, and test the jointly used files in both office suites

            the calculations include year 2011, where the maintenance costs in both
              scenarios are the same (MS Office maintenance agreement).

      The indirect costs in the calculation include:

            the conversion of a user's files

            working hours the users spend in training

            working time spent in solving problems resulting from file conversions.

      This calculation does not take into account the following extra costs that are likely to
      be incurred:

            separate projects for larger systems integrations

            purchasing continuous user support and technical support as a service

            provision of additional user training for, for example making spreadsheet
             macros compatible

            extra costs incurred by the possible switch to another file format

            cost of the additional licenses for an e-mail, instant messaging and forms
             application, as well as license tracking and procurement

            extra work caused by processing documents in the SharePoint environment

            increased volume of file conversions if two software suites are used in
              parallel.

6.2   Cost calculation in the Gartner model
      The results of the Gartner model indicate that in the operating environment of the
      City of Helsinki, the migration to an open source office suite would be 74% more
      expensive during the seven-year reference period than continuing the maintenance
      agreement and widespread use of MS Office.

      In the open source option, the investment costs for the two-year migration project
      have been estimated to be at least EUR 4.5 million. Continuous indirect costs
      consisting of the conversion problems and other extra work that the users will
      experience as a result of having two office suites would be EUR 3.4 million a year,
      and that is a moderate estimate. The migration project in the Gartner calculation
      does not include the project costs of the system interface modifications.

      Based on the Gartner model, the most cost-effective alternative for the City of
      Helsinki's standard environment is to stay in the Microsoft Office environment during
      the seven-year reference period.
6.3   Cost analysis

      The survey started from the assumption that the usability of the open source office
      suite is good, system integrations work on a general level, and the system interfaces
      implemented for the Microsoft Office products can be replaced or removed.

      Since some users will nevertheless need Microsoft Office, the cost analysis started
      from the principle that only power users would have Microsoft Office installed in their
      workstations (5,500 workstations). Other workstations will contain, in addition to the
      open source office suite, other applications from the Microsoft Office suite that are
      required for using the basic systems.

      The Gartner model was used to estimate the costs of the migration project. In
      addition, an estimate was created on the decommissioning costs of the system
      interfaces. The total sum obtained was compared to the maintenance costs of
      Microsoft Office licenses. During the first three years, the migration project will be
      significantly more expensive than the license fees. During the second three-year
      period, the savings obtained in maintenance costs will not yet cover the costs of
      decommissioning the system interfaces. Based on the cost analysis, a six-year
      period does will not yet bring about cost savings, but the decommissioning of system
      interfaces would require an additional investment of about EUR 2 million.
7   CONCLUSIONS

       Whether or not an organization has the possibility of migrating to an open source
       office suite depends heavily on the IT environment of the organization: the
       applications and systems used, how the procurement of workstations is arranged,
       what kinds of support services are available, and what kinds of license agreements
       are used for the desktop applications. As a result, there are organizations where the
       migration has been a success both financially and functionally, but also
       organizations where the migration has been deemed uneconomical.

       The migration from one office suite to another is usually successful when the system
       interfaces can be modified and no extra costs are incurred from the migration. Such
       points in time occur particularly when the basic systems of an IT environment are
       about to be replaced with completely new systems.

       The survey indicates that it is not economically feasible to migrate to an open source
       office suite in the operating environment of the City of Helsinki, since the workstation
       environment and the information systems have been built to utilize the features of
       Microsoft Office.

       The largest costs would be caused by the changes to the operating environment and
       other systems. The changes would be extensive and would take a long time, even if
       a lot of money and other resources would be implemented in the projects. The time
       spans of similar projects have been long and it has often been uncertain whether the
       goals will be met.

       The migration to an open source office suite would require long-term commitments
       and economic investments, since changes would be needed in the entire operation
       environment. There is a risk that the goal would not be reached, so the investments
       would not pay themselves back. The survey is not in favor of migrating to an open
       source office suite at the moment.

       In the next few years, the workstation-based operating environment will undergo a
       major change. New solutions for technology and architecture will enable us to
       reduce our dependency on workstations and adopt services that are independent of
       the OS, browser, and terminal, and work the same way on all platforms.

       The City of Helsinki is actively looking for ways to reduce its dependency on desktop
       applications. This will be reached by investing in IT system architectures,
       streamlining workstation services, and developing terminal-independent services.

       The application and development of IT is managed using an IT program. The result
       of this survey will be taken into account in the execution of the program and it will be
       followed annually as part of the program.
8   FURTHER INFORMATION

    8.1   Gartner's vision on the migration to open source office systems
          According to Gartner, the following factors in the user organization's IT environment
          either help or hinder the migration from Microsoft Office to alternative office suites
          (Figure 6):




          Figure 6:Conditions That Make Alternative Office Products More or Less Viable

          The factors that hinder the migration to an open source office suite in the IT
          environment of the City of Helsinki include:

                the Enterprise Agreement terms and conditions

                the widespread use of SharePoint and Office Communications Server (now
                  called Lync)

                the use of the Exchange/Outlook e-mail system throughout the city

                the extensive use of macros and templates

    8.2   Analysis of the deployments of open source solutions

          The survey looked at office suite deployments and workstation solution deployments,
          including the sites mentioned in the proposal to the council and other fairly large
          sites or sites that had received publicity in the media. The starting point and
          environment of these sites was very different to the current situation of the City of
          Helsinki. In practice, many of the projects we know of have followed a similar
          lifecycle: decisions in principle were made in 2001, deployments were started in
          2004–2007; in some projects the deployment is complete, whereas in others it is still
          underway. The review is based on the situation in the summer 2011.
        The infrastructure of the sites is usually based on, for example, LDAP directory
        service (City of Helsinki uses Microsoft AD), IMAP e-mail (City of Helsinki uses
        Microsoft Exchange), and the intranet solutions use technologies other than
        SharePoint, which is used by the City of Helsinki. Furthermore, the starting situation
        may have been unstable, i.e. there was no standardized workstation environment
        that would be supported with a management system. The MS licenses had been
        purchased individually or the office suite used was at the end of its lifecycle.

8.2.1   Ministry of Justice
        The OpenOffice deployment in the Ministry of Justice (12,000 workstations) was a
        project implemented in a Windows workstation environment. The starting point of
        the project was the need to standardize and upgrade the existing office suites. The
        project had two phases: preparatory phases in 2003–2006 and the deployment
        phase in 2007–2010, so the schedule is fairly lengthy.

        When the project was started, the Ministry of Justice used the Lotus SmartSuite
        office suite (69% of the workstations), that needed to be upgraded. It was also
        integrated with document management systems. In addition, there were several MS
        Office versions (28%) and WordPerfect 5.1 (3%). At the time this survey report was
        written, the City of Helsinki has mostly completed its investments in MS Office
        licenses; this is also where our situation differs from the situation at the Ministry of
        Justice. The Ministry of Justice is not a multidisciplinary organization like the City of
        Helsinki, which is why the need for office suite integration is smaller than in the
        organizational structure of the City of Helsinki with its extensive IT system
        environment.

        An exclusive OpenOffice environment could not be attained at the Ministry of Justice
        either - 1,500 workstations use Microsoft Office in parallel with OpenOffice in, for
        example, customer service desks that have a lot of external contacts. At the Ministry
        of Justice, the office suite integration in, for example, document management has
        been made to the OpenOffice suite.

8.2.2   France
        The French State and the City of Paris use many open source solutions, just like the
        City of Helsinki. We could not determine how widely the OpenOffice.org and
        LibreOffice suites are used. In the project conducted by the French National Police,
        tangible savings were obtained from the deployment of a management system and
        standardized workstations. In the City of Helsinki, the benefits of management
        systems and standardized workstations were already obtained in previous projects.

8.2.3   Munich
        The City of Munich uses a Linux solution "Limux", and the deployment project is still
        underway. The purpose is to deploy Limux to 80% of the 15,000 workstations in the
        city. The investigation phase took place in 2001–2004. The migration phase started
        in 2004 and, by the end of 2010, the project was at the halfway stage: 5,500 had
        been transferred to the new environment. In parallel with the Linux project,
        OpenOffice, Firefox, and Thunderbird were deployed in 15,000 workstations, but
        there are some cases where the use of MS Office is necessary. The city has
        migrated to use the odf file format within its organization, and has developed a freely
        distributable add-on called Wollmux to solve problems related to macros.

        The costs of the long project have increased from the preliminary estimates, and
        original calculations in 2003 estimated the length of the migration project to be a little
        over two years. The City of Munich has a fairly large number of IT employees
        (around 1,000 experts). The expert and outsourcing partner in the Limux project was
        IBM.
        At the start of the project, the workstation environment in the City of Munich was not
        standardized and there was a need for centralized management of workstations. In
        Helsinki, the management of the workstation environment has already been
        centralized and the administration automated. Based on the Munich project it can be
        estimated that a very long-term commitment would be needed in Helsinki as well,
        and a significant amount of time and resources would have to be allocated to the
        project.

        As an additional piece of information, it is worth noting that a Microsoft Windows 7
        migration project covering 28,000 workstations is underway in the Munich school
        environment, and it is estimated to be completed by the middle of 2012. The Munich
        school environment uses Microsoft's economic license rental agreement that
        includes both the operating system and the MS Office suite.

8.2.4 Medical care in the Greater Copenhagen area

        The latest release in August 2011 is the deployment of LibreOffice to 25,000 users
        in medical care in the Greater Copenhagen area. It is based on a strategic choice to
        use the VMware virtual desktop. The assumption is that as desktops are virtualized,
        Greater Copenhagen avoids the need to purchase a significant number of new
        Microsoft Office licenses. The current agreements of the City of Helsinki include
        virtual desktops so, at present, virtualization does not seem to require purchases of
        Microsoft Office licenses.

8.2.5   Lauritsala School
        Calculations made at the Lauritsala school in Lappeenranta, Finland, in 2007
        indicated that savings of 70% could be obtained from Linux terminal solutions
        (LSTP). Other estimates related to terminal use have been published.

        The systems, centralized systems, and desktop applications related to the
        enterprise resource planning of the City of Helsinki's branches of administration
        work primarily in the Windows environment. The Helsinki Standard environment and
        its management services already form a centrally managed environment, which is
        one of the stated benefits of the terminal solution.

8.2.6   Vienna, Bristol, Reykjavik, Turku, and Naantali
        There have also been reverse projects where experiments with OpenOffice or Linux
        were discontinued. Such projects have taken place in Vienna, Bristol, Reykjavik, and,
        in Finland, in Turku and Naantali. The most common reason for discontinuation has
        been the support and maintenance costs of two environments, since it has not been
        possible to stop using Windows-based solutions altogether, and MS Office has had
        to remain in use along with the other office suite.

        The open source projects of Vienna and Bristol have received much publicity. In
        Vienna, the deployment of "Wienux" started in 2005 and continued until the end of
        2008, at which point 1,000 installations were complete and the standard was
        deemed obsolete. In 2009, Vienna decided to return to the Windows and MS Office
        environment. Bristol made the same decision in 2010. Production use in the Linux
        environment started in 2005 ended. The reason was that Bristol could not work with
        external organizations, since the stakeholders, such as local actors and rest of the
        government, use so-called Microsoft Office standards.

				
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