1. For Vina, cigarettes reduce feelings of tension and anxiety. Because of her heavy
smoking, however, she has a bad morning cough and breathing difficulties. How
can the principles of operant conditioning help to explain the development and
continuation of Vina's self-defeating smoking habit? Explain the extent to which
the reinforcement for Vina's habit is positive or negative, primary or conditioned,
immediate or delayed, partial or continuous.
2. Many people are concerned about the effects of the use of physical punishment to
modify the undesirable behavior of children.
A. Basing your answer on psychological knowledge, apply each of the
following in an argument against the use of physical punishment:
Classical conditioning of fear
B. How would psychologists use the following processes to modify children's