Organizational culture and Knowledge management

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					Organizational culture and
Knowledge management
     Sr Professor (T M )
The set of shared attitudes, values,
goals, and practices that characterizes
an institution, organization or group
Wilkins and Dyer (1988) suggest that
culture "is [composed] of the values,
competencies, and beliefs of a group of
people that strongly influence whether
and how organizational strategies are
implemented. (p. 522)."

Schein (1990) defines culture as, "…a) a
pattern of basic assumptions, b) invented,
discovered, or developed by a given group, c)
as it learns to cope with its problems of
external adaptation and internal integration,
d) that has worked well enough to be
considered valid and, therefore e) is to be
taught to new members as the f) correct way
to perceive, think, and feel in relation to
those problems
     Importance of culture
Karlsen & Gottschalk (2004) view culture as
important because it shapes assumptions
about what knowledge is worth exchanging;
it defines relationships between individual
and organizational knowledge; it creates the
context for social interaction that determines
how knowledge will be shared in particular
situations; and it shapes the processes by
which new knowledge is created, legitimated,
and distributed in organizations. Lack of
technology does not prevent KM activity – it
just means that KM activity must be
accomplished in different ways.
   Importance of culture
Without the benefit of a culture that
recognizes, encourages, and rewards
KM activities, consistent performance of
KM activities will not occur. Interaction
and collaboration among employees is
important when attempting to transmit
tacit knowledge between individuals or
convert tacit knowledge into explicit
knowledge, thereby transforming it
from the individual to the organizational
level (Gold, et. al., 2001).
      Model of knowledge
categories(Hedlund and Nonaka)
Knowledge       Indivi Group                    Organiz Inter
characteristics dual                            ation   organizat
Articulated          Knowing Quality circles    Organizati   Suppliers
knowledge            calculus documented        on chart     patents and
information                   analysis of its                documented
embodied cognitive            performance                    practices
Tacit knowledge and Cross        Team           Corporate    Customers
information,        cultural     coordination   culture      attitudes to
cognitive skills    negotiat     in complex                  products and
embedded            ion skills   work                        expectations
Factors in culture and impact
Information Systems
 Combine people, processes, and technology
Must be flexible and tailored to the type of
knowledge being captured, shared, or
Include formal and informal approaches
  Build networks that foster
  conversation,relationships, and trust among
  employees.Generate a collaborative environment
  in which employees know who knows what,know
  what was done before, and use this knowledge to
  resolve problems quickly and effectively.
Factors in culture and impact
Organizational Structure
  Must be permeable and minimize the focus on
  organizational silos
  Must support learning and sharing of knowledge
  Encourages the formation of teams, work groups,
  and communities of practice
  Allows the flow of knowledge regardless of
  employee role, job function, or other traditional
  boundaries. Facilitates sharing of knowledge and
  learning to create even more knowledge. Allows
  employees to bond socially and technically to
  share information, build on each others
  knowledge, and to solve problems.
  Factors in culture and impact
Reward Systems
  Consist of a balance between intrinsic and extrinsic
  Encourage knowledge sharing across role and functional
  boundaries; Must not trivialize knowledge sharing efforts
  Include a formal assessment of achievements against
  knowledge management objectives
  Encourage knowledge sharing through formal systems,
  such as financial incentives and compensation structures;
  and through informal systems such as peer-to-peer
  recognition. Acknowledge the value of sharing knowledge,
  the contributions people make, and the importance of not
  hoarding information or knowledge. Motivate employees to
  develop innovations that would help them do things right
Factors in culture and impact
  Connect people with other knowledge people
  Connect people with information
  Enable conversation of information to knowledge
  Encapsulate knowledge
  Disseminate knowledge throughout organization
  Promote collaborative problem solving, streamlined
  workload, consolidated information, and enhanced
  performance.Enable learning, sharing of cross-
  functional expertise, and sharing of worker-to-worker
  knowledge. Develop information systems that enable
  information to seamlessly cross traditional silos.
   Factors in culture and impact
   Most significant element of a knowledge management
  Employees need reassurances that they are still valued after
  they give up their knowledge
  Level of trust greatly influences the amount of knowledge
  that is shared
    Fosters an environment where employees trust that their knowledge
    is valued and ensures that the culture grows at the right pace, with
    the right people, and in the right mix. Allows employees to do a better
    job of aggregating useful information, and make it available to others
    who need it when they need it.
 Factors in culture and impact
   Provides strong and dedicated commitment to knowledge
  management initiatives
  Leads by example
   Fosters open knowledge sharing by creating an environment built on
  Fosters a belief that organizational learning and knowledge
  management are critical
  Develops a customer-centered business orientation
  Creates the vision, mission, objectives, and ethics code for the
  organization as it develops its knowledge management system.
  Endorses and sustains knowledge management initiatives by taking
  on the role of coach and mentor. Removes barriers to progress.
  Reinforces and rewards positive behaviors and promotes the right
  people.Moves the entire organization toward knowledge management.
Factors in culture and impact
Factors in culture and impact

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