tomato data by patil.deeps234


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Guidelines A-I
Guidelines A-I         Model Bankable Scheme for Organic Cultivation of Tomato in
Cost of Cultivation A-
II                     Jharkhand
Cost of Cultivation A-                                                                                Investment
II                                                                                                    Credit
Assumption A-III                                                                                      This is a long-
Assumption A-III                                                                                      term refinance
Economics A-IV                                                                                        facility, it is
Economics A-IV                                                                                        intended for
Financial Analysis A-V                                                                                Investment in
Financial Analysis A-V                                                                                agriculture
Repayment Schedule A-                                                                                 and allied
VI                                                                                                    activities
Repayment Schedule A-
VI                                                                                                    Technical
Download               1. Introduction :                                                              Services
Download                                                                                              Department
                       Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) belongs to the genus Lycopersicon             This division
Guidelines A-1         under Solanaceae family. Tomato is a herbaceous sprawling plant growing        is the service
Guidelines A-1         to 1-3 m in height with weak woody stem. The flowers are yellow in colour      provider on
Cost of Cultivation A- and the fruits of cultivated varieties vary in size from cherry tomatoes,      technical
II                     about 1–2 cm in size to beefsteak tomatoes, about 10 cm or more in             issues
Cost of Cultivation A- diameter. Most cultivars produce red fruits when ripe. Tomato is a native to
II                     Peruvian and Mexican region. Though there are no definite records of when
Assumptions A-III      and how it came to India , the Portuguese perhaps introduced it to India.
Assumptions A-III
Economics A-IV         Tomato is one of the most important "protective foods" because of its
Economics A-IV         special nutritive value. It is one of the most versatile vegetable with wide
Financial Analysis A-V usage in Indian culinary tradition. Tomatoes are used for soup, salad,
Financial Analysis A-V
Repayment Schedule A-    pickles, ketchup, puree, sauces and in many other ways It is also used as a
VI                       salad vegetable. Tomato has very few competitors in the value addition
Repayment Schedule A-    chain of processing.
Download                 2. International scenario :
                         Tomato is the world's largest vegetable crop after potato and sweet potato,
Guidelines A-I           but it tops the list of canned vegetables. The total global area under tomato
Guidelines A-I           is 46.16 lakh ha and the global production is to the tune of 1279.93 lakh
Cost of Cultivation A-   tonnes. The major tomato producing countries, area, production,
II                       productivity and percentage share in the world production is given in Table
Cost of Cultivation A-   1.
Assumptions A-III             Table 1. Area, production, productivity and percentage share
Assumptions A-III                                 of world production
Economics A-IV
Economics A-IV
Financial Analysis A-V        Country      Area     Production     Productivity     % share of
Financial Analysis A-V                     (000’      (000’t)        (t / ha)         world
Repayment Schedule A-                       ha)                                     production
                               Brazil       61          3453           56.61            2.70
Repayment Schedule A-
VI                             China       1305        31626           24.23            24.71
Download                       Egypt       195          7600           38.97            5.94
Guidelines A-I                  India      535          9362           17.50            7.31
Guidelines A-I
Cost of Cultivation A-          Iran       139          4781           34.40            3.74
Cost of Cultivation A-          Italy      139          7187           51.71            5.62
Assumptions A-III              Mexico      119          2800           23.53            2.19
Assumptions A-III
Economics A-IV                  Spain       72          4810           66.81            3.76
Economics A-IV
Financial Analysis A-V         Turkey      260         10050           38.65            7.85
Financial Analysis A-V
Repayment Schedule A-           USA        167         11043           66.13            8.62
Repayment Schedule A-          Others      1624        35281           21.72            27.56
Download                      TOTAL        4616        127993          27.73
                         Source : NHB Data base (2005-06)
Guidelines A-I
Guidelines A-I           The world trade in tomato consists of an export of 49.50 lakh tonnes valued
Cost of Cultivation A-   at 50802.88 lakh US$ and imports are to the tune of 47.30 lakh tonnes
II                       estimated at 50415.26 lakh US$
Cost of Cultivation A-
II                       3. National scenario :
Download                 The state wise area, production and productivity of tomato is given in Table
Cost of Development A-
I                      Table 2. State wise scene Area, Production and Productivity of Tomato
Cost of Development A-                                  in India
Assumptions A-II              STATE/UTs            Area        Production      Productivity
Assumptions A-II                                 (000’ ha)        (000’t)          (t/ha)
Economics A-III
Economics A-III            ANDHRA                  76.50         1453.50      19.00
Financial Analysis A-      PRADESH
IV                         BIHAR                   46.00          727.20      15.81
Financial Analysis A-
                           CHHATTISGARH            29.20          365.80      12.53
Repayment Schedule A-      GUJARAT                 29.30          650.00      22.18
V                          HARYANA                 17.10          257.30      15.05
Repayment Schedule A-
V                          KARNATAKA               44.50         1188.10      26.70
                           ORISSA                 100.40         1332.20      13.27
Cost of Development A-     MADHYA                  20.40          306.70      15.03
VI                         PRADESH
Cost of Development A-
VI                         MAHARASHTRA             35.00          987.00      28.20
Assumptions A-VII          TAMIL NADU              22.00          277.70      12.62
Assumptions A-VII
                           WEST BENGAL             50.00          857.20      17.14
Economics A-VIII
Economics A-VIII           OTHERS                  64.10          959.10      14.96
Financial Analysis A-      TOTAL                  534.50         9361.80      17.52
Financial Analysis A-
                       Source : NHB Data base (2005-06)
Repayment Schedule A-
                       The major tomato growing tracts in India are given in Table 3.
Repayment Schedule A-
                                 Table 3. Major tomato growing tracts of the country
Download(all)               State                            Major tomato growing
i Arabica
i Arabica                   Uttar Pradesh                    Varanasi, Mirzapur
                          Himachal Pradesh   Shimla, Kullu, Solan
ii Robusta
ii Robusta                Punjab             Amritsar, Ropar, Jalandhar,
Guidelines A-I            Haryana            Rohtak, Sonepat, Jhajjarr,
Guidelines A-I                               Faridabad, Karnal
Cost of Cultivation A-
II                        Rajasthan          Jaipur, Dholpur, Alwar, Tonk,
Cost of Cultivation A-                       Bharatpur
Assumptions A-III         Bihar              Vaishali, Sitamarhi,
Assumptions A-III                            Bhagalpur, Patna, Aurangabad,
Economics A-IV                               Nalanda, Bhojpur, W&E
Economics A-IV                               Champaran
Financial Analysis A-V
Financial Analysis A-V    Jharkhand          Ranchi, Lohardaga ,
Repayment Schedule A-                        Hazaribagh, Godda
Repayment Schedule A-     Maharashtra        Nashik, Ahmednagar, Pune,
VI                                           Nagpur
Download A-VI
Download A-VI             Gujarat            Surat, Valsad, Baroda,
                                             Ahmednagar, Gandhinagar,
Guidelines A-I                               Kedha, Jamnagar
Guidelines A-I
Assistance - XI Plan A-   Madhya Pradesh     Satna, Sagar, Jabalpur,
Assistance - XI Plan A-   Chhatisgarh        Raipur, Durg, Bastar, Bilaspur,
II                                           Raigarh, Surguja
Cost of Cultivation A-
III                       Orissa             Bolangir, Kendrapada,
Cost of Cultivation A-                       Dhenkanal, Ganjam,
III                                          Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar
Download                  Andhra Pradesh     Rangareddy, Mehabubnagar,
                                             Prakasam, Vishakapattanam,
Guidelines A-I                               Chittor
Guidelines A-I
                          Karnataka          Kolar, Bangalore, Bellary,
Assistance - XI Plan A-
                                             Dharwad, Belgaum
Assistance - XI Plan A-
                          Tamil Nadu         Thiruvannamalai, Salem,
                                             Dharmapuri, Coimbatore,
Cost of Cultivation A-
                                             Erode,, Trichy, Madurai,
Cost of Cultivation A-
Download                  Tomato is mainly grown as Rabi crop in the plains of India. However in the
Download                  hilly region it can also be grown as a summer and rainy season crop.

Guidelines A-I            4. Status of tomato in Jharkhand :
Guidelines A-I
Assistance - XI Plan A-   In Jharkhand, tomato is extensively cultivated in the vegetable belts
II                        covering districts like Ranchi, Lohardaga , Hazaribagh and Godda and
Assistance - XI Plan A-   covers approximately 13.9% of the area under vegetable cultivation. At
II                        present, the estimated area and production under tomato is 7290 ha and
Cost of Cultivation A-    131220 t respectively.
Cost of Cultivation A-    5. Organic farming :
Download                  Organic agriculture consists of a system of farm design and management to
Download                  create an eco-system, which can achieve sustainable productivity without
                          the use of artificial external inputs such as chemical fertilizers and
Cost of Cultivation A-I   pesticides. The major aims of organic agriculture are production of quality
Cost of Cultivation A-I   agriculture products which contain no chemical residues, the development
Assumptions A-II          of environment friendly production methods and the application of
Assumptions A-II          production techniques that restore and maintain soil fertility. These are
Economics A-III           achieved by suitable crop selection and rotation, recycling of plant and
Economics A-III           animal residues, proper tillage and water management.
Financial Analysis A-
IV                        Organic farm products are, generally more expensive than inorganic crops.
Financial Analysis A-     Yields drop sharply during the phase of conversion as it take some time for
IV                        the soil and plants to reach equilibrium. However, yields rise again, once
Repayment Schedule A-     management systems get established.
Repayment Schedule A-     As the present level of farming is less intensive with lower levels of
V                         application of chemical fertlisers and pesticides transition to organic
Download                  farming in the State will be comparatively easier.
                          The guidelines for organic farming are enclosed in Annexure I
Cost of Cultivation A-I
Cost of Cultivation A-I   6. Organic production :
Download                  6.1 Climate and soil

   1 Mango                The crop is grown from almost MSL to an altitude of 1500 m in tropical
                          and subtropical regions, with an annual rainfall of 60-150 cm. Very high
   2 Banana
                          rainfall during its growth is harmful. When grown under hot weather, it is
   3 Grapes               cultivated as an irrigated crop. The winter crop is planted from August to
   4 Passion Fruit        September. For organic farming of tomato winter crop has been found to be
   5 Tomato
6 Coffee          Well drained sandy loam soil with high level of organic contents is best
                  suitable for tomato cultivation. Soils with high acidity are not suitable for
7 Cardamom        tomato cultivation. Three to 4 q of suitable lime can be applied in the field
8 Ginger          in an interval of three years to reduce the level of acidity to tolerable limits.
9 Turmeric        There is a need to go for soil testing at the beginning of the crop season.

10 Chilli         6.2 Rotation
11 Safed Musli
                  Crop rotation is a major component of organic farming, affecting both soil
12 Basmati Rice   conditions and pest cycles. Tomato belong to the Solaneceae family which
Disclaimer        includes tobacco, potato and bell pepper. Rotation with non-solanaceous
                  crops like pulses/legumes are usually recommended to avoid pests and
                  diseases affecting tomato and also to enrich the nitrogen status of the soil.

                  6.3 Buffer zone

                  In order to cultivate tomato organically a buffer zone of 7.5 to 15 m shall be
                  maintained if the neighbouring farms are non-organic. The produce from
                  this zone shall not be treated as organic.

                  6.4 Land preparation

                  The land may be ploughed and harrowed 3 or 4 times to obtain a fine tilth.
                  About 10 tonnes of Farm Yard Manure (FYM) or vermi compost/compost
                  @ 1-1.5 t per acre is applied at the last ploughing. Green manuring is
                  recommended for areas with assured rainfall and also for irrigated crop.
                  Beds are prepared against the slope and after levelling the bed, field
                  channels of 50 cm breadth are prepared at intervals of 1 m.

                  6.5 Planting material

                  Tomato is propagated by seeds. Seed selection is an important aspect in
                  organic tomato production. For raising nurseries, seeds of high yielding
                  varieties with tolerance to pests and diseases may be used. They should be
                  carefully selected from certified organic farms or from own seed plot which
                  is raised organically. To start with, chemically untreated seeds from local
                  high yielding varieties could also be used, in the absence of organically
                  produced seeds.

                  6.6 Varieties

                  For organic farming of tomato, Open Pollinated Varieties (OPV) are
                  preferred. The local varieties developed by Horticulture & Agro-Forestry
                  Research Programme (HARP), Plandu, Ranchi viz., Swarna Lalima and
                  Swarna Naveen are suitable for organic cultivation of Tomato. Lakshmi NP
                  5005 is also popular in the State as it is resistant to bacterial wilt and leaf
mosaic virus.

6.7 Seed treatment

Seeds should not be treated with any chemical fungicides or pesticides.
Prior to sowing, the seeds should be treated with Trichoderma at the rate of
1 g per 150 g of seeds.

6.8 Nursery development

In order to grow saplings in the nursery, beds of 1m X 3m are prepared with
a height of 20 cm. Twelve to 15 beds are required for raising nursery for
planting 1 acre of tomato. Soils are exposed to high temperatures, to
prevent possible pest and diseases attack in the plants. After the beds are
prepared 20 to 25 kg of farm yard manure along with 1.2 kg Kanranj/Neem
cake is applied per bed. After necessary application of water the beds are
covered with thin white plastic sheets for raising the temperature without
loss of moisture. Such practice will further eradicate harmful bacteria and

For cultivation of tomato during Rabi season, seeds should be sown in the
nursery during the month of August/September. The requirement of seed
/acre is approximately 150 g. Sowing of the seeds should be done in straight
lines drawn at an interval of 5 cm with 2 cm spacing between successive
seeds implanted. Seeds are to be planted at a depth of 0.5 cm to 1 cm. After
sowing the seed, a thin layer of soil should be used as covering . Then beds
should be covered by thin nylon nets keeping a gap of one foot from the
bed and fully secured from all sides by placing adequate soil on the borders
of the net. This practice will prevent pest infestation in the saplings.

6.9 Planting

20 to 25 days old seedlings are used for transplantation. They are
transplanted in the main field in rows with a spacing of 60 cm between
rows and 50 cm distance between two successive plants. Transplantation is
done on one side of the channel keeping a distance of 30 cm. In the initial
period, irrigation from the field channel is found to be adequate.

6.10 Irrigation

Irrigation should be provided once in 7-10 days depending on the soil and
weather conditions

6.11 Cultural practices

Effective, non-chemical weed management begins with well planned,
diverse crop rotations, especially those including competitive cover
(smother) crops. Attention is to be given to careful site selection to avoid
introduction of weed seeds and other propagules. Weeds are a big nuisance
as they take up the nutrients in the soil and can also harbor insects and
diseases that cause harm to tomatoes. These weeds start growing four to
five weeks after transplanting the tomato saplings. Hence focus has to be on
extensive weed control during this period. Weeds should not be allowed to
grow in numbers. Organic weed control can be achieved by using organic
matter as mulches as these restrict weed growth. Crop rotation, mulching,
sanitation, and shallow tilling also help in controlling the weeds.

After transplantation, regular weeding is required to be done to remove
harmful weeds from the field. The plants can be provided support with the
help of small bamboo sticks to increase the production.

6.12 Manuring

In order to maintain a fertile soil, organic matter should be added to it
regularly. If organic farming is being performed on own land since many
years, the soil will have a good nutrient content. Compost / Farmyard
manures can also be added to further enrich the soil. Application of organic
manure is very important for tomato cultivation. Farm yard manure of 10 t
or 1-1.5 t of vermicompost per acre is generally applied. To prevent
contamination, FYM can be treated with trichoderma at the rate of 500 g
per a tractor load of manure. After mixing the required amount of
trichoderma the manure should be allowed to remain in a heap covered with
wet gunny bag for proper culturing.

6.13 Plant protection

It is a long-drawn observation that insect pests and diseases first strike the
well nourished plants. Therefore the objective of organic methods, is to
grow crops which naturally resist the onslaught of pests and diseases.
Management of soil tilth, moisture and nutrient status is the first step in
effective pest and disease management.

6.13.1 Pests

Crop rotations, which assist in breaking life cycles of insects and pests, is a
traditional means of pest control. Control of tomato pests require careful
monitoring and integration of cultural practices and biological control. A
wide range of biological pesticides are available to keep pests below the
thresh hold level.

It has been observed that organic tomato plants have fewer pest and insect
problems than the conventional chemically grown tomato plants. Moreover,
practicing crop rotation aids in breaking the life cycle of insects and pests
thus reducing the pest menace. Trap crops are also effective in controlling
pests. An example of a trap crop is sweet corn. Sweet corn attracts tomato
fruit worm and thus protects the tomato crop when inter-planted with it.

Fruit Borer is one of the major threats to tomato crop. In order to prevent
damage to the crop from fruit borer, marigold should be raised in the
adjoining plot to divert the attention of the fruit borer. In case eggs of the
insect are found on the leaves of the plant trichocard can be applied. In
case, the intensity of pest attack increases, 4% solution of neem seed extract
can be sprayed on plants at 15 days interval to control the insect.

Among the alternatives, biological control of pests is one of the important
means for checking pest problems in tomato. Biopesticides include living
organisms which can destroy pests. Use of biopesticides is one of the most
appropriate and promising methods of pest management.

Ha NPV (Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus) is used against the Heliothis
armigera (fruit borer) in tomato. Trichoderma is the most widely used
fungal biopesticide. It is useful against root fungi. They are ideal for seed
treatment also. Trichogramma belongs to a large group of egg parasitoids
and success has been achieved against the lepidopteran pests of commercial
crops like tomato. Tricho cards are used against the fruit borers. Neem
based pesticides like neem cake, neem seed kernel extract (NSKE), neem
leaf extract, neem oil etc., act as a repellent and antifeedent and its oil is
effective against fruit borer.

6.13.2 Diseases

Despite good management practices, diseases usually occur, presenting one
of the greatest challenges to organic tomato growers. The degree of
occurrence is regionally based and largely dependent on environmental
conditions. Tomatoes are injured by pathogenic diseases caused by fungi,
bacteria, as well as physiological disorders such as cat facing and blossom
end rot, which are caused by environmental / abiotic stress. Pathogenic
diseases develop through soil borne and above ground infections, and, in
some instances, are transmitted through insect feeding.

Major tomato diseases include those that attack the root system (fusarium
wilt, verticiliun wilt, bacterial wilt, rhizoctonia), above-ground stems and
foliage (early blight, leaf spot, bacterial canker, late blight), and fruit
(bacterial spot, bacterial speck, anthracnose). Thus, the disease control
programme is important at each stage of growth. Organic tomato disease
control programs are based on a combination of organic soil management
practices, IPM practices and natural remedies.
In order to prevent bacteria borne diseases, the resistant varieties can be
adopted and as a preventive measure regular crop rotation may be adopted
with non solanaceous crop. Accordingly, tomato, potato, chilli and brinjal
should not be cultivated successively along with tomato.

6.14 Harvesting

The crop will be ready for harvest in about 2- 3 months after planting. The
harvesting of the tomatoes is done as per the requirement of the market and
in a typical season 8 to 10 harvesting is done to feed the market as per its

6.15 Yield

The yield of irrigated tomato varies from 15 to 20 t /acre. In the present
model, a conservative yield @ 10 t per acre has been assumed

7. Linkages :

      Government of Jharkhand has signed a MOU with NAFED,
       International Panacea Ltd. and Panacea Organic Foods Pvt. Ltd.
       New Delhi for harnessing agriculture through the application of
       organic farming principles and practices. While NAFED is involved
       in activities related to supply of seeds, planting material,
       procurement, storage, grading, processing, packing etc. International
       Panacea Ltd. and Panacea Organic Foods Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, is
       involved in the manufacture and marketing of organic farm
      Promotion of production and use of Organic and Bio fertilizers by
       Dept. of Horticulture Under this programme, it is envisaged to train
       about 500 farmers and develop infrastructure and demonstration
       plots (200 compost pits) with a total financial allocation of Rs.50.00
      Networking of project on organic farming is being done by Birsa
       Agriculture University (BAU), Ranchi
      The Capital Investment Subsidy Scheme for Commercial
       Production Units of Organic Inputs under "National Project on
       Organic Farming" is under implementation in the state and subsidy
       is made available for setting up bio-fertilizers / vermi-compost /
       fruit & vegetable waste compost units.

8. Financial aspects :

8.1 Sale price

The farm gate price of tomato has been considered at Rs. 5.00 per kg .
              8.2 Cost of cultivation

              The cost of cultivation for 1.0 acre organic tomato cultivation is Rs. 24300/-
              per acre. The detailed cost of cultivation is given in Annexure -II.

              8.3 Margin

              The percentage of margin / down payment to cost of development
              prescribed is 5, 10 and 15% for small, medium and large farmers
              respectively. The rest of the cost of development will be provided as bank
              loan. Margin considered in the present model is 10%.

              8.4 Bank loan

              Bank loan of 85 - 95 % shall be available from the financing institution.
              Bank loan considered in the model is 90%.

              8.5 Rate of interest

              The rate of interest to be charged to the ultimate borrower would be guided
              by RBI guidelines issued from time to time. However, the ultimate lending
              rate has been considered as 12 % for working out the bankability of the
              model scheme.

              8.6 Security

              Banks are guided by RBI guidelines issued from time to time in this regard.

              9. Conclusion

              The net income from organic cultivation of tomato is Rs. 23000/-. The
              activity is technically feasible, financially viable and bankable.


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                                   Climatic Requirements

Tomato is a warm season crop, it requires warm and cool climate. The plants cannot
withstand frost and high humidity. Also light intensity affects pigmentation, fruit colour, fruit
set. The plant is highly affected by adverse climatic conditions. It requires different climatic
range for seed germination, seedling growth, flower and fruit set, and fruit quality.
Temperature below 100C and above 380C adversely affects plant tissues thereby slow down
physiological activities. It thrives well in temperature 10 0C to 300C with optimum range of
temperature is 21-240C. The mean temperature below 160C and above 270C are not
desirable. The plant doesn’t withstand frost, it requires low to medium rainfall, and does
well under average monthly temperature of 21 to 230C. Avoid water stress and long dry
period as it causes cracking of fruits. Bright sunshine at the time of fruit set helps to
develop dark red coloured fruits.

                                 Temperature Requirement

                  Sr. Stages                          Temperature (0C)
                  No.                            Minimum Suitable Maximum
                  1.   Seed germination          11         16-29   34
                  2.   Seedling growth           18         21-24   32
                  3.   Fruit set (day)           10         15-17   30
                       (night)                   18         20-24   30
                  4.   Red colour development 10            20-24   30

                                         Soil Requirement

Tomatoes do very well on most mineral soils, but they prefer deep, well drained sandy
loams. Upper layer of soil should be porous with little sand and good clay in the subsoil. Soil
depth 15 to 20cm proves to be good for healthy crop. Deep tillage can allow for adequate
root penetration in heavy clay type soils, which allows for production in these soil types.

Tomato is a moderately tolerant crop to a wide pH range. A pH of 5.5- 6.8 is preferred.
Though tomato plants will do well in more acidic soils with adequate nutrient supply and
availability. Tomato is moderately tolerant to acid an soil that is pH of 5.5. The soils with
proper water holding capacity, aeration, free from salts are selected for cultivation.

Soils extremely high in organic matter are not recommended due to the high moisture
content of this media and nutrient deficiencies. But, as always, the addition of organic
matter to mineral soils will increase yield.

                                         Choice of seeds

After seed production, diseased, broken seeds are discarded. The seeds for sowing should
be free from inert matter. Early germinating, bold, uniform in shape and size, seeds are
selected for sowing. Hybrid seeds from F1 generation are advantageous for sowing as it
gives early and high yield uniform fruity, resistant to adverse environmental conditions.
a) Seed and sowing

Tomato is generally cultivated by transplanting seedlings on ridges and furrows. At the time
of transplanting seedlings are harder by exposing to open weather or by withholding
irrigation. A seed rate of 400 to 500g/ha is required.

Seeds are treated with Thiram @ 3g/kg of seed to protect from seed born diseases. Seed
treatment with B. naphthoxyacetic acid (BNOA) at 25 and 50 ppm, gibberllic acid (GA3) at
5-20 ppm and chlorophenoxy acetic at 10 and 20 ppm was found to improve the growth and
yield of tomato.

Seeds are sown in June July for autumn winter crop and for spring summer crop seeds are
sown in November. In the hills seed is sown in March April. The spacing recommended for
the autumn winter crop is 75 x 60cm and for spring summer crop 75 x 45cm.

                              Nursery Preparation and Care

The ideal seedbed should be 60cm wide, 5-6cm long and 20-25cm high. Clods and stubbles
should be removed from the seedbed. Add sieved FYM and fine sand on the seedbed. Bring
them to fine tilth. Drench the bed with Fytolon/Dithane M-45 @ 2-2.5 g/lit of water. Draw
the lines 10 to 15cm apart throughout the length of the seedbed. Sow the seeds thinly
spaced in lines, press gently, cover with fine sand and then cover the bed with straw.
Irrigate with rose can. Irrigate the seedbed twice a day till the seeds germinate. Remove
the straw after the seeds germinate. Apply a little Thimet at 4-5 leaf stage. Spray the
seedlings with Metasystox/Thiodan @ 2-2.5 ml/lit water and Dithane M-45 @ 2-2.5 g/lit


As the fruit production and quality depends upon nutrient availability and fertilizer
application so balance fertilizer are applied as per requirement. The nitrogen in adequate
quantity increases fruit quality, fruit size, color and taste. It also helps in increasing
desirable acidic flavor. Adequate amount of potassium is also required for growth, yield and
quality. Mono Ammonium Phosphate (MAP) may be used as a starter fertilizer to supply
adequate phosphorus during germination and seedling stages. Calcium availability is also
very important to control soil pH and nutrient availability. Sandy soils will require a higher
rate of fertilizer, and more frequent applications of these fertilizers due to increased
leaching of essential nutrients. The seedlings are sprayed with starter solution of
micronutrient. Before planting farm yard manure @ 50 ton per hectares should be
incorporated. Normally tomato crop requires 120kg Nitrogen (N), 50kg Phosphorus (P 2O5),
and 50kg Potash (K2O). Nitrogen should be given in split doses. Half nitrogen and full P2O5
is given at the time of transplanting and remaining nitrogen is given after 30 days and 60
days of transplanting.

Soil and tissue analyses should be taken throughout the growing and production season to
insure essential nutrients are in their proper amounts and ratios. Tissue analysis of a
nutritionally sufficient plant will show the following nutrient status:

                Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Calcium Magnesium Sulphur
             % 4.0-5.6    0.30-0.60   3.0-4.5     1.25-3.2 0.4-0.65     0.65-1.4

                ppm       Manganese Iron          Boron     Copper      Zinc

                          30-400      30-300      20-60     5-15        30-90

In the present situation it has been realized that the use of inorganic fertilizers should be
integrated with renewable and environmental friendly organic fertilizers, crop residues and
green manures.


Tomatoes have been observed to withdraw water from depths up to 13 feet in a well
structured soil. Tomato plants require adequate moisture throughout their growth period.
First irrigation is required soon after seedlings are transplanted. Frequent water is necessary
in root zone when plants are small. In summer irrigation at intervals of 3-4 days and 10-15
days water is necessary to maintain wet soil. Erratic moisture conditions can cause radial
and concentric cracking on fruit.

                       Implements for Interculturing Operations

Generally interculturing operations like hand hoeing, weeding, mulching, staking is followed
in tomato. Implements like hand-hoe, khurpi, land leveller etc. are used.

                                 Inter Culture Operations

Pre-emergence applications of herbicides like metribuzin at 0.35 kg/ha, fluchloralin 1.25
kg/ha has been found effective to increase the tomato yield significantly in comparison to
traditional method of hand weeding. Also plastic mulching (black or transparent) can be
used to control the weeds. Weeds can be controlled successfully by mulching plus use of
herbicides (pendimethalin @ 0.75kg ai/ha or oxyflorophen @ 0.12kg ai/ha).

Spraying of PCPA at 50 ppm, IAA at 50 ppm or borax 1% gave the fruit set in summer
season. PCPA spray at flowering stage was observed to create favorable conditions for fruit
set in low as well as high temperatures.

                                    Staking of Tomato
Due to staking there is better growth of tomato plant and branches, increased fruit bearing,
and improved quality of fruits. Cultural operations like fruit picking, spraying, weeding,
fertilisers application and earthing up etc. for staking can be done by two methods. In first
type, at each plant sticks of 1.5-2meter length and 2.5cm thickness are placed and plant of
tomato is staked as it is growing. In second type, a network of wire and bamboo is form and
with the help of sutali (small rope) branches of plant is spread. Secondary branches should
be cut upto 30 cm and from 30 cm height keeping two main branches plant should be allow
to spread on this network.


Tomato is well fitted in different cropping systems of cereals, grains, pulses and oilseeds.
Cropping systems rice-tomato, rice-maize, okra-potato-tomato, tomato-onion are popular in
various parts of India. Cauliflower- okra –sunflower –cabbage –tomato –maize -tomato-
watermelon and paddy-peas-tomato have been proved economical systems. Palak or radish
can be grown as inter-crop in tomato successfully.
                                     Pest Management

Following are the few major pest of tomato :

Control measures of tomato pest is given as below: -

      Leaf eating caterpillar

       Control measure

       Spraying of cypernethrin at the rate of 3-4 ml or for Phosphamidon (85 SL) 5 ml per
       10 litre of water at the interval of 8-10 days.

      Tomato fruit eating catre piller/tomato fruit borer

       Control measure

       Spraying of monocrotophos (36 SL) 5 ml/ 10 litre of water at the interval of 8-10

       Trichograma and campoletic cloride as a predator and heliocil as biological control.

      Aphids

       It can be control by spraying dimethoate (30 E.C.) 10 ml/10 litre of water.

       The controls vary from state to state and region to region. The local agricultural
       chemical manual will list controls and rates for each pest.

                            Fungicides / Incidence of diseases

   Following are the diseases of tomato, which control by following methods of fungicide
                                       application: -

  Disease            Symptoms                         Fungicide            Method of
  Anthracnose        Recognized by its sunken spots Rotation is the        -
  (Colletotrichum    on the fruit                   major control for
  phomoides)                                        this disease.

  Bacterial fruit    On leaves small, water soaked, Streptocycline     Spraying
  spot               brown spots appear on the      (100PPm) or copper
                     older leaflets. Under          fungicides
                     favourable conditions these
                     spots may coalesce to form
                 dark streaks. The affected
                 leaves turn yellow and
                 blighting of the foliage may
                 take place.
Tomato leaf curl Leaf curl disease is             Disease is            Soil
                 characterized by severe          transmitted by        application,
                 stunting of the plants with      whitefly hence to     treating the
                 downward rolling and crinkling   check the whitefly    nursery beds
                 of the leaves. The newly         population use        with granular
                 emerging leaves exhibit slight   insecticides fuadan   insecticides.
                 yellow colouration and later     or disyston @1kg
                 they also show curling           ai/ha.
                 symptoms, older leaves
                 become leathery and brittle.
Tomato big bud   The youngest fruit truss,        Metasystox (0.02%) Spraying
                 instead of becoming recurved     or nuvacron
                 as in normal plants, assumes     (0.05%) at ten days
                 an upright position. The buds    intervals to control
                 on the truss also point in a     the insect vector
                 vertical direction, the calyx    (leaf hopper)
                 segments remain united           population.
                 almost to the tips, and the
                 whole calyx enlarges to a form
                 like a bladder with a toothed
                 opening at the top.
Early blight     On established plants, dark      Mancozeb @ 0.2%       Foliar spray
                 brown spots with concentric
                 rings develop first on old
                 leaves. Spotted leaves die
                 prematurely leading to early
Late blight      Leaves and fruits are affected. Mancozeb @ 0.2%        Foliar spray
                 Irregular greasy greyish areas
                 develop on leaves. Under
                 moist conditions these areas
                 expand rapidly and a white
                 downy growth appears on the
                 lower surface of the affected
                 leaves. Affected leaf dries and
                 shrivels quickly.
Septoria leaf    Appearance of numerous,          Mancozeb @2 g/kg. Seed treatment
spot             small, grey coloured circular
                 leaf spots with dark margin is   0.2% Dithane Z-78     Foliar spraying
                 the characteristic symptom of
                 the disease.
Leaf             It is recognized by the          Mancozeb @ 0.2%       Foliar spray
mould/black      presence of a yellowish area
mould            on the upper leaf surface with
                 brown mouldy growth on the
                      lower surface. As the lesions
                      develop, the leaves wilt and
  Wilt                It is characterized by yellowing 0.1% carbendazim      Soil drenching
                      and wilting of leaves and        or benomyl
                      finally the entire plant wilts
                      and dies prematurely. Often
                      the stem tissue is discoloured
                      throughout the plant.
  Powdery mildew A white talcum like covering   Dinocap at 0.1% or           Spraying
                 on the lower surface of the    Wet sulphur at
                 leaves while the corresponding 0.2%
                 upper surface turns yellow.
                 Premature dropping of infected
                 leaves are common.
  Bacterial wilt      Infected plant parts when cut    Streptocycline        Seed treatment
                      and immersed in clear water, a   (1g/40 lit)           for 30 min.
                      white streak of bacterial ooze
                      coming out from the cut ends     Bleaching powder @ Dusting/soil
                      is visible.                      15 kg/ha.          application.

(Caution:-This is a general information and you are requested to read the product
information carefully before use and you should consult a expert if you have any doubt or

                                Harvesting Time and Method

The harvest of tomatoes is dependent on the closeness to the market. Stages of tomato
harvesting: -

        Mature green fruit:- Fruits are bulk packed in ventilated containers for shipment.
         Those picked to be shipped are picked at the mature green stage and sprayed with
         ethylene 48 hours prior to shipping. Immature green tomatoes will ripen poorly and
         be of low quality. However, tomatoes harvested at the mature green stage will ripen
         into a product indiscernible from vine-ripened fruit. A simple way to determine
         maturity is to slice the tomato with a sharp knife. If seeds are cut, the fruit is too
         immature for harvest and will not ripen properly.
        Pink colour fruits :- For Local sale of tomatoes may be vine ripened to a firm ripe or
         a full red color before harvesting.
        Vine-ripened tomatoes should be harvested at the breaker stage to ensure the best
         quality. Fruit at the breaker stage, which have some interlocular gel and a pinkish
         red color on the inside, are sure to be mature. Such fruit can be handled and shipped
         better than that which has more color, and it will often bring a higher price than less
         mature tomatoes. If tomatoes are to be vine-ripened, fields should be harvested
         often and thoroughly to narrow the range of ripeness.
        Fully ripe:- Processing tomatoes are picked fully ripe.

Harvesting every day may be desirable during the peak of the season. Remove all diseased,
misshapen, and otherwise cull tomatoes from the vines as soon as they are discovered.
Remove discarded tomatoes from the field to avoid the spread and buildup of diseases and
insect pests.

                                 Means of Transportation

Tomatoes are highly perishable in nature hence quick means of transportation is necessary.
Tomatoes are transported by road through tractors, trucks and also by rail and air to distant
markets. Village produce is transported to the near by towns and city market only by road.
The cargo services are also available for transportation. Processed tomatoes are having high
export potential hence transported to different countries like USA, Saudi Arabia and Japan


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Home » Projects » Tomato Products: Tomato Juice, Tomato Puree, Tomato Ketchup, Tomato
Chutney, Tomato Sauces, Tomato Powder. Tomato Ready-To-Eat Products, Tomato Paste,
Instant Tomato Soup and Tomato Processing
Tomato Products: Tomato Juice, Tomato Puree, Tomato Ketchup, Tomato
Chutney, Tomato Sauces, Tomato Powder. Tomato Ready-To-Eat Products,
Tomato Paste, Instant Tomato Soup and Tomato Processing

Tomato in India occupies second position amongst the vegetable crops in terms of production. Another
encouraging trend has been that India's production level of processed tomato has risen by 50 per cent. The
main objective of processing is to supply wholesome, safe, nutritious and acceptable food to consumers
throughout the year. Tomatoes and tomato-based foods are considered healthy for the reason that they are
low in calories, but possess a remarkable combination of antioxidant micronutrients.

A number of tomato products e.g. ketchup, juice, puree, paste, sauce, pickles are available in the market.
These are items of common use in households, hotels, restaurants, institutions. Tomato puree is used as a
substitute to fresh tomato during cooking. Ketchup is a sweet spicy food. Tomato juice is nutritious and
appealing juice in taste. Tomato sauce tastes sweet and sour. Both sauce and ketchup are consumed with
food and snacks. Tomato is a valuable raw material used for processed products such as juice, puree, and
paste, ketchup/sauce, and canned whole. The recent scientific advances have revolutionized tomato
processing industries.

India ranks first in the world in production of fruits and second in vegetables, accounting roughly 10 and 15
per cent, respectively, of total global production. India have a strong and dynamic food processing sector
playing a vital role in diversifying the agricultural sector, improving value addition opportunities and creating
surplus food for agro-food products. Presently, a mere 2.2 per cent of fruits and vegetables are processed,
even as the country ranks second in the world in terms of production. This is comparatively low when
compared to other countries like Brazil (30 per cent), USA (70 per cent) and Malaysia (82 per cent).The
National policy aims to increase the percentage of food being processed in the country to 10 per cent by
2010 and 25 per cent by 2025. Food processing adds value, enhances shelf life of the perishable agro-food
products and encourages crop diversification. The market size of the food processing industry is likely to
increase from Rs 4600 billion in 2003-04 to Rs 8200 billion in 2009-10, and to Rs 13,500 billion in 2014-15.In
the coming years India’s share in the global processed food industry will get a raise from one per cent to
three per cent.

However, over the last few years, there has been a positive growth in fruit and vegetable processed products
such as ready-to-serve beverages, fruit juices and pulps, dehydrated and frozen fruits and vegetable
products, tomato products, pickle, convenience veg-spice pastes, processed mushrooms and curried
vegetables. As per the data maintained by Food Safety and Standards Authority of India under Ministry of
Health and Family Welfare, the installed capacity of fruits and vegetables processing units (FPO licensed
units) has increased from 26.38 lakh tones as on 01.01.08 to 30.89 lakhs tones as on 01.01.09.

Due to increasing standards of living in the cities and the rapid urbanization taking place in the rural areas,
consumption of tomato based products is expected to go up steadily. At present, the market of
ketchup/puree, especially in the urban areas, is dominated by brands likes MAGGI and KISSAN. Some
Medium and Small Companies are also engaged in its production. The Indian Food processing industry will
continue to prosper, thanks to the rising income levels and modernized food retail stores. The food
processing sector is likely to be the driving seat for the Indian economy.

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      Name                                   Capacity                            Cost *

      Idli mix, Dosa mix, Sambhar mix, Vada
      mix, Gulabjamun mix, Tomato Soup      -                                    0.00     0.00
      mix (Instant food)

                                             Tomato Ketchup- 9000 Kgs Tomato
      Jam Group, Tomato Sauce and
                                             Sauce- 9000 Kgs Peach-Orange        0.00     0.00
      Tomato Ketchup
                                             Pineapple Jam-15000 Kgs/Year

      Tomato Paste (Tomato Concentrate)      12 Tons/day                         466.79 44.20

      Tomato Powder                          -                                   0.00     0.00

      Tomato Products                        Tomato Sauce 50 MT Tomato Ketchup   50.00    53.50
                                             50 MT Tomato Puree 50 MT
                                             Orange/Apple Jam 50 MT/Year

       Papaya & Tomato                                                                 0.00     0.00

       Pouches Filling and Making for
                                             1 Lakh Pouches/Day                        46.00    26.80
       Tomato Sauces

       Pouches Filling and Making for
                                             -                                         0.00     0.00
       Tomato Sauces

       Tomato Processing Unit                                                          0.00     0.00

       Tomato Processing for Concentrate /
                                             -                                         0.00     0.00

       TOMATO PULP                           -                                         0.00     0.00


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       T.C.I is Total Capital Investment
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