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    JUSTICE
Issue 75
ISSN 1680-8169
                                       “If you want peace, work for justice”
                        The Newspaper of the Transformation Resource Centre       October 2006




        In this issue
                                            LESOTHO AT


                                                               40
  Comment: 40 years of
  fragile democracy
  Four decades of de facto one-
  party rule, military dictatorship,
  uneasy democracy and untested
  electoral reform.




  Collection: 1966-2006
  Where were you when important
  events happened? Check out our
  compilation of historic facts and
  images.




  Debate: Between
  state- and nationhood
  Independence should enable the
  state to shine by the reßection of
  nationhood                                   W ith   Public Eye
                                                                                                                    WORK FOR
  2                                                     Issue 75 — Lesotho at 40                                           JUSTICE

   Transformation Resource
           Centre                           Work for JUSTICE                                     some of our contemporary nation-states were
                                                                                                 not so lucky to avoid.
                                                                                                     We expected our politicians to draw lessons

                                            May the next
                                                                                                 from such skillful statesmanship as they led
                                                                                                 the nation into modern-day statehood. Instead,
                                                                                                 they let go of the opportunity and plunged the

                                            40 years be
                                                                                                 nation into 40 years of political turmoil and
    An ecumenical resource centre for
                                                                                                 economic decline. It is hoped that the unity that
     justice, peace and participatory                                                            this nation’s founding father built it on will be

                                            happier than
               development.                                                                      evoked as we chart our future.
                                                                                                     We make reference to the fact that the de-
              P. O. Box 1388
    1 Oaktree Gardens, Qoaling Road,                                                             mocracy which came with independence has

                                            the last
    Old Europa, Maseru 100, Lesotho                                                              never been given a chance to generate for this
           Tel: +266 2231 4463                                                                   nation-state the freedom to progress and realize
          Fax: +266 2232 2791
           Email: wfj@trc.org.ls                                                                 its true potential. While our independence con-
         Internet: www.trc.org.ls                                                                Þrmed our status against that of many of our
                                            The new generation of youth is chal-                 pre-colonial peers, the progress achieved by our
                                            lenged to lead the nation into a future of           high-commission peers should leave us with
         Work for Justice                   progress and renewal                                 humbling envy. For, even when opportunities
         Editorial Board                                                                         came, notably in 1986 and 1993, we still thrust
        Prof. ‘Femi Dele Akindele
                                            Just as Christmas is an occasion for the fam-        upon ourselves unnecessary divisions where
             Mr. Stephen Gill               ily to celebrate together, independence brings       none existed or could thrive.
                                            us together as a nation to acknowledge all that          Work for Justice traces a reasonably balanced
                                            binds us in unity over any which may or may          but by no means exhaustive chronology of
          TRC Team Members                  have divided us. This new-look Work for Justice,     events since 1966 to give proof that our 40 years
          Matšeliso Ntsoelikane
          ‘Makananelo Lekaka                takes us on a journey of evolution as a nation       of independence have been more about regres-
           Tiisetso Madikgetla              since our birth in 1966 into a modern state. It is   sion than about development. As each year was
           Seithati Mokhomo                 a poignant reminder that while the birth was a       researched, it was found that it provided more
            Mothusi Seqhee
             Eric Khophoche
                                            happy occasion, as all births are, it soon drifted   event entries of a negative political kind than
             Nthatua Mohapi                 into a series of unprecendented if sustained pe-     those showing positive socio-economic devel-
             Mpinane Khabo                  riods of embarrassing madness. Periods where         opment. The best judges of this are the youth
              Katleho Pefole
                                            a nation which should have been united against       who lament the state of the country and society
              Peter Lahann
               Jacob Lenka                  worse evils of oppression and discrimination,        that they are born into. A society always play-
               Lintle Letsie                instead visited upon itself untold suffering and      ing catch-up with others in the fast developing
               Mosa ‘Muso                   violence. During these periods, some members         world but with no-one but itself to blame for
                Lira Theko
                                            of the nation, by being forcibly ejected out of      not using positively the independence opportu-
                                            the land of their birth ended up stateless and       nity of 1966.
      Our Appreciation to our               not able to enjoy the many happy times which             Cruel though it may be seen to the inde-
       donors and partners:                 independence celebrations bring.                     pendence liberators of this country, by whose
                                               For some people, independence should be           heroism, the country avoided incorporation,
    Evangelischer Entwicklungsdienst        celebrated on March 11, the day when we hon-         the nation’s young people today seem to de-
                 Christian Aid
           Open Society Initiative          our the founder of the Basotho nation. Unlike        sire exactly that which cost sweat and blood to
              in Southern Africa            our modern-day politicians, Moshoeshoe enjoys        achieve - incorporation into South Africa. Who
          Global Greengrants Fund           timeless reverence for founding this nation on       can blame them? After all, they live in a world
        International Rivers Network
  Institute for Democracy in South Africa
                                            strong pillars of nationhood. Through masterful      where economic opportunity is the name of the
       Mennonite Central Committee          statecraft he brought together many disparate        game. Sadly, our 40-year independence history
                Canadian Fund               groups together into one nation. As a nation,        failed to provide enough. The challenge lies
                                            the Basotho were able to cultivate a strong feel-    with the same youth, though, to face modern
  Our Board, our members and all            ing of brotherhood and nationhood. As such           day challenges such as HIV-AIDS, poverty and
  who continue to make our work
             possible.
                                            we were able to survive testing times of brutal      unemployment with fortitude to make the next
                                            attempts at invasion and incorporation which         40 years better than the last.
   WfJ Invites Contributions
Articles: A maximum of 4000 words.
                                                                              In this issue
The editors will also accept longer
articles if in their opinion they cover a
                                                                                  A time o great excite-
single subject which may be covered
                                            40 years of fragile de-                                                     Where were you? A
in a single issue.                                                                ment: Retired Diplo-
                                            mocracy: A summary                                                          chronology of events
Letters: A maximum of 250 words.                                                  mat Percy Mangoaela
Letters are expected to be accompa-
                                            of Lesotho’s political                                                      since the hoisting of
                                                                                  takes us back to
nied ny a full name and contact ad-
                                            history since 1966                                                          the independence flag
dress of the author.                                                              independence day in
                                                                   3                                                    on 4th October 1966
Pictures: Only digitalised pictures in                                            1966                                                        5
jpeg format will be accepted.
Footnote/ Citations: should be avoid-
                                                                                                         4
ed unless they are absolutely neces-
sary. Acknowledgement of sources is,
however, essential.
Copyright: Once material is accepted        Some in pyjamas,
by WfJ, it becomes the property of the
                                            others under hats.                    Another coup another
the newspaper. Articles and pictures                                                                                    What the young peo-
                                            Towards a celebration                 flag after 20 years of
may be reproduced provided the                                                                                          ple say
sources are clearly acknowledged.           of real                               independece                                             11
Submissions: contributions may              nationhood                                                10
be sent in hard copy in MS Word
to Work for Justice, P.O. Box 1388                             12
Maseru 100 or sent by e-mail to
wfj@trc.org.ls
            WORK FOR
                       JUSTICE                                                Issue 75 — Lesotho at 40
                                                                                                                                                                                          3




Changing Lesotho’s history: Prime Minister Leabua Jonathan explains his 1970 coup to the press.                                                               Photo: Drum Magazine, March 1970.




Comment: 40 years of fragile democracy
Four decades of de facto one-party rule, military dictatorship, uneasy democracy and untested electoral reform.

    By Khabele Matlosa                       generally marked by                           beginning of various types of   Lesotho, albeit rather weak,     regular holding of general
    Despite the four decades                 legitimate and constitutional                 violent conßict that became     fragmented and relatively        elections despite various
of post-independence                         rule, political stability, rule of            the hallmark of Lesotho’s       disorganised to mount any        types of election-related
existence following its                      law and political tolerance.                  instability.                    meaningful political lobbying    conßicts.
political independence                            However, the positive                        The de facto one-           and advocacy for democratic          Given that much of the
on the 4th October 1966,                     political development of the                  party rule was followed         governance and respect for       election-related conßicts
Lesotho today still remains                  Þrst Þve years of political                   by the epoch of military        human rights.                    have been associated with
an enfeebled and fragile                     independence were reversed                    dictatorship between 1986           However, despite their       the British style Þrst-past-
democracy. In the immediate                  by what can best be termed                    and 1993. Although the          weaknesses civil society         the-post electoral system
aftermath of political                       the era of de facto one-party                 political culture of military   organisations played             (FPTP), the government
independence up to the 1970s                 rule spanning 1970-1986.                      rule has never been a feature   an important role in             and the Interim Political
(1966-1970 period) political                 Lesotho held its Þrst post-                   of the political systems        contributing to Lesotho’s        Authority (IPA) agreed
development in Lesotho                       independence election in                      of southern Africa, it is       historic return to multi-party   that the electoral model be
was marked by what can                       January 1970, which, to all                   interesting that only Lesotho   democracy in 1993 through        changed to a new system
be termed an embryonic                       intents and purposes became                   experienced this extreme        the overall coordination         known as the Mixed Member
democracy with the new                       an embarrassing political                     form of authoritarian           of the LCN. The military         Proportional (MMP) system.
government constituted by                    Þasco for the country.                        governance. The same            relinquished state power and     This new system was put
the Basotho National Party                   Fearing an impending                          security establishment upon     retired back to the barracks     to the test during the 2002
(BNP), following a highly                    political defeat by a fairly                  which the BNP based its         in the early 1990s. This         general election and keen
contested election of 1965.                  strong and well-organised                     one-party iron rule turned      process ushered in the new       observers of Lesotho’s
    Embryonic as it was then,                opposition - the Basutoland                   against the same party          era of a fragile democracy       political scene are agreed
Lesotho’s young democracy                    Congress Party (BCP), the                     dislodging it from state        in Lesotho that has been         that it has delivered a
did not experience any                       ruling BNP disrupted the                      power and grabbing power        a feature of the political       desirable outcome for
major political turbulence                   election process mid-stream                   on its own behalf.              system between 1993-2002.        Lesotho’s democracy judging
and there were all signs                     and declared the whole                            Needless to say, this       Fragile because, although the    for instance by the broadly
that a democratic culture                    process null and void.                        situation further entrenched    transition to democracy has      representative nature of the
was surely in the offing.                           Consequently, official                     authoritarian governance        been achieved, but various       new parliament
Thus, there was enormous                     results were never publicly                   and moved Lesotho further       forms of conßicts between             Be that as it may, the
optimism among keen                          announced and published,                      and further away from           and among key institutions       electoral system alone is
observers of Lesotho’s                       although anecdotal evidence                   democratic governance.          have generated so much           not a panacea for Lesotho’s
political process that                       suggests a landslide                          There is also no gainsaying     instability to the extent that   multivariate political woes.
political independence and                   victory for the BCP in                        that the worst forms of         the very consolidation of        Much more still needs to
its immediate aftermath                      that election race. But the                   human rights abuses in          democracy itself has been        be done especially in terms
presented a golden                           BCP did not assume state                      Lesotho were experienced        severely threatened.             of institutionalisation of
opportunity for building Þrm                 power as the ruling BNP                       during the one-party and            Fragile though it is, this   democratic governance and
foundations of democratic                    entrenched a one-party rule                   military authoritarian rule     is democratic governance         the entrenchment of a culture
governance premised upon                     predicated upon politics                      between 1970 and 1993.          all the same and there are       of human rights in the
a Westminster Constitution                   of accommodation and                              Interestingly too, the      encouraging signs that it is     country.
inherited from the British                   repression at the same time.                  era of authoritarian rule       likely to be nurtured and
colonial administration.                     It is certainly to this era of                of a military variety was       hopefully consolidated in            Dr. Khabele Matlosa is Sen-
This optimism was further                    de facto one-party rule that                  indeed the period that          future. The most encouraging     ior Lecturer in Political Science
reinforced by the positive                   the roots of Lesotho’s major                  witnessed the mushrooming       signs of Lesotho’s democratic    at NUL and Research Direc-
developments of the Þrst                     political problems can best be                and vibrancy of the civil       governance between 1993          tor at the Electoral Institute of
Þve years of independence                    traced for this heralded the                  society organisations in        and 2002 has clearly been the    Southern Africa.
                                                                                                                                           WORK FOR
   4                                                           Issue 75 — Lesotho at 40                                                            JUSTICE

                                     A time of great excitement
Let’s go down memory lane to                                                                                                                     be reßective. Really, inde-
1966. What was the mood like?                                                                                                                    pendence for us should have
    The mood was one of                                                                                                                          meant that we see ourselves
great excitement. As events                                                                                                                      as one uniÞed nation. We
approached independence,             In an exclusive interview with Work for Justice, former journalist and                                      are celebrating the Basotho
there was great expectation
that Þnally Basotho would
                                     now retired diplomat, Percy Mangoaela takes us back to relive the mo-                                       nation, the Basotho people.
                                                                                                                                                 I think you’re aware that
achieve their political inde-        ments of 1966.                                                                                              as Basotho we have differ-
pendence from the colonial           British had a differ-                                                         countries. For the BCP         ent clans, we have different
masters. There was a great           ent system of coloni-                                                        it was a way to usher in       chiefs.
deal of excitement that inde-        alism to the French                                                          African political power            At independence for the
pendence had come. Among             and the Portuguese                                                           on Nkurumah’s famous           Þrst time, we then started to
some people independ-                and the Belgians. The                                                        dictum, “Give me Þrst          feel that we are one people.
ence meant a huge step for           British were very                                                            the political kingdom          We started to take cognizance
us. In the past, governance          aloof and they left                                                          and everything else            of ourselves as a nation with
had been thought of as the           us alone to do our                                                           would follow”. But the         its own culture, language
preserve of the white people.        own things. They                                                             BNP on the other hand          and common aspirations as
But here we were about to            just did not actively                                                        was determined to keep         a nation. One of the victories
step into those very shoes           promote and develop                                                          the communists at bay.         of independence was the
and experience the pride of          their colonies. This                                                                                        assurance that we felt strong
conducting our own affairs.           was what was called                                                           Other than the well known     to resist incorporation into
                                     indirect rule. They                                                           authoritarian repression      South Africa, something that
Let’s focus on the day itself. Can   ruled through our                                                             that characterized BNP        we had hitherto feared the
you describe the people’s feel-      chiefs and did not                                                            rule since 1970, are there    British would easily do and
ings on October 4, 1966?             themselves have a di-                                                         any positives that we can     hand us over to the Republic.
    Certainly there was a big        rect inßuence in our                                                          identify in that period?
expectation that now that            own lives. In mat-                                                                The period between        How is the message of a uniÞed
colonial rule was leaving we         ters that affected our                                                         1970 and 1993 was the         nation received by other na-
were going to run our own            daily lives, such as                                                          darkest in this country.      tions?
affairs. That generated a tre-        getting a site, getting                                                       It was characterized by           I always emphasize that
mendous amount of excite-            your child to school,                                                         unprecedented brutal-         the Basotho are a polyglot
ment. People believed that           sending someone                                                               ity. The repression was       nation. We are a combina-
we were going to become              to hospital, getting                                                          total. From 1970 to say,      tion of different clans and we
masters of our own destiny.          public transport,                                                             1985, it was continuous       make only sweeping refer-
But the dominant feeling             the atmosphere of                                                             downward decline of           ence to our differences in a
was not just of removing the         colonial administra-                                                          this nation. Business was     light hearted manner. So our
British colonial masters as it       tion did not really                                                           going down. The edu-          unity as the Basotho nation
was of getting some freedom          impinge on us.                                                                cational system was in        has never been shaken by
from Apartheid rule. In day                                             with our Apartheid neigh-             tatters. All the euphoria that     anything. Other nations envy
to day life, Basotho could not       Let’s look at the period between   bours. This shows that we             we had in 1966 was gone. We        us.
go to the Maseru Club, to the        independence and 1970.             were never a united nation at         were too much embroiled in
Lancer’s Inn.                            I think that was an inter-     the political front.                  internecine wrangling and              Are we a) promoting this
    But more importantly we          esting period. The Basotho             If independence did not           recrimination and brutality        unity enough and b) how should
felt that we were going to be        went to the 1970 polls with        yield political unity, wouldn’t       that there wasn’t any room         we promote it?
a beacon of hope in south-           a lot of enthusiasm and            the view be correct that Afri-        left for us to utilize our ener-       I was on television speak-
ern Africa. We felt that we          excitement. The aim was to         cans could not rule themselves,       gies to moving the country         ing about the Morija Arts
were going to throw away             consolidate the economic and       peacefully?                           forward.                           and Culture Festival. We
apartheid before even the            political gains made at inde-          This was merely nor-                                                 were saying that the Festi-
South Africans did. Indeed,          pendence and soon there-           mal political rivalry. I don’t        Could 1986 therefore be viewed     val started in 1999 after the
soon after independence you          after. So the 1970 elections       think it could be viewed as a         as a having been a rebirth? How    turmoil of 1998 when it was
could see the pillars of racial      were very intense. So the          manifestation of our inability        does it compare with 1966 in       felt that we needed a vehicle
discrimination beginning to          stage was set for an exciting      to rule ourselves. Even those         terms of euphoria?                 to reinforce our unity as a
crumble. We could see that           power contest between the          who were opposed to More-                 Even though I was not          nation through our arts and
we were going to free our-           two main political parties,        na Leabua did not feel that           present in 1986, I have been       our culture, promoting a feel-
selves of the yoke of racial         the BNP and the BCP.               he had been such a terrible           told that the jubilation was       ing of oneness, “Kaofela re
oppression.                               So it was interesting to      ruler in the years that he’d          greater than 1966. 1966 was a      chabana sa khomo”.
                                     see who would lead Lesotho         been in power hitherto. He,           happy occasion but normal.             Apart from Morija, I
How did this yoke manifest           into its future political des-     in fact, became a bad ruler           It had happened in other           think we need to promote
itself?                              tiny. The BNP saw the 1970         after 1970. You’ll be amazed          countries and was destined         our language especially in its
    To be quite honest, I really     election as an opportunity to      to discover that even amidst          to happen here. 1986 was a         literary form. I’m also trying
do not think that the yoke           vindicate itself while on the      that bitter, stiff political con-      relief from certain disaster,      to create a theatre associa-
was felt that much. Let me           other hand the BCP looked to       test, parliamentary debates           inevitable doom. Any nation        tion. My dream is to see the
give you an example that             prove that in fact they’d been     were conducted in a jovial,           delivered from brutality           impact of theatre or the arts
illustrates that it was, in fact,    robbed in 1965.                    amicable mood, with jokes             would greet that change with       in general using the Sesotho
the opposite of the yoke.                                               and teasing and that sort of          unrestrained happiness.            medium having a powerful
Under the British colonial           How much space did this politi-    thing. There was really no                For instance I partici-        role in promoting national
administration, getting a            cal contestation Þnd in the na-    malice among the political            pated in the Mozambican            unity. I’d like to hear Sesotho
passport was just a routine          tional unity supposedly gained     parties where political differ-        independence celebrations          spoken well and used by
matter. You’d go to the office,        from the departure of the whites   ences were well expressed.            in 1975. You’ll recall that        many people.
Þll out a form, get a passport       at independence?                                                         Mozambique had been under
and go. After independence               There was no unity. The             What promise did these po-       a brutal colonial regime and            As we celebrate state inde-
it became more difficult to            diversity between the BCP          litical parties see political power   the Mozambican people had          pendence, what is the role of the
get a passport. There were all       and the BNP was so strong in       as holding for them?                  fought a very bitter war.          state in promoting unity?
sorts of conditions to satisfy       1970 that it drew clear lines           It was political power           So the difference between               To many people the state
to before you could get a            of political following among       for its sake. For the BCP             our independence and the           is a mere construct. So I don’t
passport. But this adminis-          the nation. You should not         in 1965, it was mainly the            Mozambican independence            think we should celebrate
trative efficiency could not           forget the tensions that           lifting of the colonial yoke.         was stark. The Mozambican          the ßag, the stamps, the coat
compare with the freedom,            existed between the Prime          For the BNP there had been            people had suffered enor-           of arms, the national anthem
the pride of having your own         Minister and the King. This        a belief that the BCP was a           mously under the Portuguese        and so on. We should instead
government.                          included the King being sent       front organisation for Com-           colonial administration and        focus on those things that
                                     into exile in about 1974 if I’m    munism. So beating the BCP            when they overthrew that it        bring us together as a nation.
Would you also say that we           not mistaken. So, you had          meant beating communism.              was so emotional.                  The state only provides the
were merely ßoating in Harold        monarchists, African nation-       It became a classical polari-             What elements of the nation    frame within which we can
Macmillan’s famous “Winds of         alists and the conservatives       zation of the political space         state, should we, in your view,    do these things. So, state-
change”?                             on the political landscape.        between the left and the right        celebrate at independence?         hood for me comes second to
   You will recall that the          The BNP was closely aligned        which you get in many other               You are now asking me to       nationhood.
           WORK FOR
                      JUSTICE                                            Issue 75 — Lesotho at 40
                                                                                                                                                                                                              5




Independence Day 4 October 1966. King Moshoeshoe II review the guard of honour.                    King Moshoeshoe II with Prime Minister Leabua Jonathan before the coup of 1970. Jonathan first put the King under
                                             Photo: Lucas Smits from Lesotho, Kingdom in the Sky   house arrest and later forced him into exile in Holland.                                Photo: Drum, March 1970




1966
                                                         Where were you?
                                           A Chronology of events since the hoisting of the Independence flag on
Royalty: Prince Seeiso, the                4 October 1966
second son of King Moshoe-
shoe II is born on April 16.              1967                                       PM sends condolences to
                                                                                     King family on the assassi-
                                                                                                                                 Independence
                                                                                                                                 Constitution
Politics: On 4 October 1966,
the former High Commi-                    Education: Lesotho Science                 nation of Dr. Martin Luther                 and Parliament
sion Territory of Basutoland              Teachers’ Association formed;              King Jr.; Lesotho becomes a                 suspended and
becomes the Independent                   Culture: Maseru Drama soci-                member of IMF and IBRD                      rule by Council
                                                                                     (later World Bank)                          of Ministers sub-
democratic Kingdom of                     ety established;
                                                                                     Environment: Hailstorm caus-                stituted; Jonathan
Lesotho, ending 98 years of               News: More Africans in                     es severe damage to crops                   declares state
British rule; Lesotho becomes             the Civil Service; National                and stock; About 132 houses                 of emergency;
a member of the United Na-                Anthem Bill Passed; Central                destroyed by a cyclone at                   Hundreds of
tions Organisation (UNO)                  Planning Office established;                 Thupa Kubu                                  BCP supporters
and the Organisation of                   Religion: Bishop Fortescue                 Economy: Plans to extend                    are arrested and
African Unity;                            Makhetha consecrated Angli-                electriÞcation to Mazenod,                  harassed; Britain
Civil Service: A population               can Suffragan Bishop of Le-                 Roma and Morija announced,                   suspends aid as
census is conducted from                  sotho; Archbishop Alphonsus                to cost R75, 000.00; About                  a reaction to the
April 14- 23;                             L. Morapeli consecrated;                   10 000 people welcome the                   coup but resumes
Economy: Work on a $4.1m,                 Entertainment: Miss Lesotho                train into Lesotho once more                it in June; King
                                                                                     since 1963; Candle factory                  Þrst placed under
100 mile tarred road from                 Beauty Contest held;
                                                                                     opened in Kolonyama; Ma-                    house arrest and
Matsieng to Leribe begins.                Health: SA Medical Mission                 seru Airport officially opened                sent into exile in
Environment: One of the                   visits Lesotho;                            and named Leabua Jonathan                   Holland; Jonath-
worst droughts to hit the                 Economy: No less than 1030                 Airport;                                    an declares Þve
country since 1933 is experi-             digging licences have been is-             Entertainment: American Mu-                 year moratorium
enced at the beginning of the             sues for Kao; Record number                sician “Doc” Watson arrives                 on politics; the
year.                                     of diamonds (29 787 carats)                in Lesotho on African tour.                 press is gagged;
Health: A mass immunisa-                  mined;                                     Religion: Anglican Bishop                   News: A group of
tion against TB and smallpox                                                         Fortescue Makhetha re-elect-                Basotho diamond
is conducted; 8 January, the              1968                                       ed President of the Christian               diggers call-       BCP leader Ntsu Mokhehle is arrested after the coup. The

new Nurses Home and Hos-                                                             Council of Lesotho.                         ing themselves      policeman in the picture is carrying a tear gas pistol.
                                          Royalty:Prince Mohato goes                                                                                                                       Photo: Drum March 1970
                                                                                     Sport: Motsapi Moorosi,                     Liphokojoe (Jacka-
pital Extensions are officially             to Iketsetseng Private School.
                                                                                     holder of multiple athlet-                  las), take over
opened by Prime Minister                  Politics: 7 Jan, Ntsu Mokheh-
                                                                                     ics titles picked for athletics             Malibamats’o valley; Police             1971
Leabua Jonathan;                          le, leader of the opposition
                                                                                     competitions in Ireland.                    carry out Þrst air raid in              Economy: Customs Union
Education: Sir Seretse khama,             criticises the presence of the
                                                                                                                                 Lesotho to attack diamond               Meeting in Maseru;
                                          Peace Corps in Lesotho at a
Prime Minister of Botswana
                                          Pitso in TY; PM gives Þnal                 1969                                        diggers;                                Sport: Lesotho Sports Council
succeeds Sir Hugh Stephen-                                                                                                                                               becomes member of Interna-
                                          warning to King to abide by                Politics: Voter registration for
son as Chancellor of UBLS;                constitution or face action;                                                                                                   tional Gymnastic Federation;
                                                                                     1970 elections begins;
                                                                                                                                                                         Kao Mine taken over by Ma-
                                                                                     News: Chief S.S. Matete
                                                                                                                                                                         luti Diamond Corporation;
                                                                                     dies; Thomas Mofolo, son
                                                                                     of famous authour, elected                                                              1972
                                                                                     President of Senate;                                                                    Politics: A.C Manyeli resigns
                                                                                     Business: Maseru tyre com-                                                              as Minister of Works and
                                                                                     pany starts operations;                                                                 Telecommunication
                                                                                     Media: Journalist Joe Mole-                                                             News; SA Opposition leader
                                                                                     Þ’s court appeal for refugee                                                            visits Lesotho; Maseru Post
                                                                                     status is heard;                                                                        Office extended;
                                                                                                                                                                             Religion: Members of the
                                                                                     1970                                                                                    Baha’i faith visit Lesotho;
                                                                                     Environment: Terrible                                                                   Sport: Lesotho Youth Service
                                                                                     drought followed by steady                                                              organises cross-country
                                                                                     rains in Lesotho; Choking                                                               race;
                                                                                     dust hits Lesotho; A brown                                                              Economy: Automatic tel-
                                                                                     hyena killed by villagers at                                                            ephone in Botha-Bothe;
                                                                                     Sekubu after it has killed 32                                                           Water Supply Project inau-
                                                                                     sheep and goats in the area;                                                            gurated;
                                                                                                                                 King Moshoeshoe II with his wife and
                                                                                     Politics: General Election;                 daughter under house arrest. He was
                                                                                                                                                                             Sport: Motsapi Moorosi fails
                                                                                     BCP win 36 seats, BNP 23                    later forced into exile in Holland.         to qualify for 100m Þnal at
The Basotho Hat in 1969.                          Photo: 1969 Postcard Calendar      and MFP 1;                                                   Photo: Drum, March 1970    Olympics;
                                                                                                                                                                           WORK FOR
   6                                                                          Issue 75 — Lesotho at 40                                                                                  JUSTICE
                                                                                                                                       Sport: Maseru United beat
                                                                                                                                       Notwane of Botswana in Af-
                                                                                                                                       rica Cup of Cup Winners at
                                                                                                                                       National Stadium; Matlama
                                                                                                                                       defeats Desportivo of Mapu-
                                                                                                                                       to 1-0 at National Stadium;
                                                                                                                                       Religion: Father Donald Nes-
                                                                                                                                       tor elected Anglican bishop
                                                                                                                                       suffragan of Lesotho;

                                                                                                                                       1980
                                                                                                                                       Politics: Lesotho forges closer
                                                                                                                                       relations with China; PM                      Edgar Mahlomola Motuba, editor of
                                                                                                                                       congratulates Robert Mugabe                   Leselinyana was abducted and killed in
                                                                                                                                       on becoming new Zimbabwe                      1981.      Photo: Drum, November1981
                                                                                                                                       PM;
                                                                                                                                       Education: NUL awards Nel-                    1982
                                                                                                                                       son Mandela with honorary                     Politics: SADF raids Lesotho
                                                                                                                                       Doctor of Laws degree; Dr.                    killing 42, 12 Lesotho nation-
                                                                                                                                       Anthony Setsabi becomes                       als and 30 South African
                                                                                                                                       new NUL vice-chancellor;                      refugees; Koenyama Chakela
                                                                                                                                       ‘Mabathoana High School                       dead; Lithabaneng home
                                                                                                                                       registers record 20 Junior                    of refugee Chris Hani is
                                                                                                                                       CertiÞcate passes;                            bombed; Minister Jobo Ram-
                                                                                                                                       Media: Mike Pitso not al-                     peta killed;
                                                                                                                                       lowed to enter RSA; Lesotho                   News: Barclays Bank em-
                                                                                                                                       television feasibility study                  ployees go on strike; Morena
                                                                                                                                       presented to parliament;                      ‘Mako Moliboea Molapo
Botswana’s President Seretse Khama visiting Lesotho for the 7th Anniversary of Independence.                                           News: ‘Malineo Tau becomes                    dies; Businessman Elias. M.
                                                                                     Photo: Times special edition on 7th Anniversary                                                 Nqoko dies;
                                                                                                                                       Lesotho’s Ambassador to
                                                                                                                                                                                     Economy: Central Cank of
1973                                         1975                                         1977                                         the US; New Radio Lesotho
                                                                                                                                       studio opened;                                Lesotho replaces Lesotho
Politics: Parliament restored                 Royalty: King Moshoeshoe                    Economy: Water Supply                                                                      Monetary Authority; Sam
in the form of an Interim Na-                                                                                                          Economy: New Lesotho Bank
                                              II leaves to study at Corpus                Project inaugurated at                                                                     Monts’i resigns as Manag-
tional Assembly; G.P. Ram-                                                                                                             building opens; Fire destroys
                                              Christi, Oxford;                            Lits’oeneng;                                                                               ing Director of LNDC; R11
oreboli breaks away from                                                                                                               Morija records at Thabeng;
                                              Politics: 49 alleged BCP sup-               Media: Lesotho Weekly starts                                                               million Maluti Mountain
Mokhehle;                                                                                                                              First Kokoptjoe ea Mara bus
                                              porters charged with treason;               to publish;                                                                                Brewery opened;
News: Botswana’s President                                                                                                             bought; New Loti currency
                                              Media: Photographer,                        Sport: Photographer Ramaka-                                                                Business: LNDC Centre
Seretse Khama is visiting                                                                                                              introduced;
                                              Mohlouoa Ramakatane                         tane awards goalkeeper Ron-                                                                opens; New shopping Centre
Lesotho to celebrate the 7th                                                                                                           Entertainment: Ray Charles
                                              awarded UNESCO Award;                       nie Malefetse for outstanding                                                              opened in Maseru; New
Anniversary of independ-                                                                                                               performs in Maseru;
                                              Journalist Joe MoleÞ’s home                 performance; Priscilla Katu                                                                Lakeside Hotel extension
ence.                                         ransacked;                                  wins ladies singles Þnal;
Environment: A caracal is                     Economy: De Beers signs                     Entertainment: Dizzy                         1981                                          opened;
                                                                                                                                                                                     News: Perez de Cuellar
killed on the plateau above                   agreement to invest R23,                    Gillespie at Holiday Inn                     Royalty: Queen ‘Mamohato                      becomes New UN Secretary
Matsieng and sent to Bloem-                   000.00 in Lesotho diamond                                                                attends Prince Charles’ wed-                  General; New LPF headquar-
fontein for taxidermy;                        minig; R135, 000 Molimo                     1978                                         ding in London; King’s call to                ters named after Makoan-
                                                       Nthuse Mountain                    Entertainment: 4th Interna-                  churches for day of prayer;                   yane; Basotho Shield gutted
                                                       Hotel opened; China                tional Holiday Inn Dance                     Politics: PM calls for elec-                  by Þre;
                                                       Garden Restaurant                  Festival is held                             tions; Lesotho celebrates 15                  Sport: Maseru Brothers win
                                                       opened in Maseru;                  Sport: Lesotho sends con-                    years of Independence;                        “Top 8”; Likila of Botha-
                                                       Construction of                    tinget to All-Africa Games;                  Economy: Clothing factory                     Bothe promoted to A-divi-
                                                       Hilton Hotel starts on             Lesotho takes on Mauritius                   opened at Maputsoe;                           sion;
                                                       Mpilo Hill                         in soccer international with                 Education: NUL gets compu-
                                                       Education: National                Styles Phumo as coach                        ter; Student Liberation Front
                                                       Teacher Training                   Economy: Stone Crushing                      and Students Democratic
                                                       College starts offer-               plant inaugurated at Ha Foso                 Front contest NUL student
                                                       ring courses to 75 Þrst                                                         leadership in court;
                                                       group;
                                                       Entertainment: Ipi                 1979                                         Sport: Styles Phumo gets
                                                                                                                                       FIFA coaching diploma; Rov-
                                                       Ntombi comes to                    Politics: Decision to establish              ers is Top 8 champs;
                                                       Holiday Inn; Thandi                regular army from PMU                        Entertainment: Ipi Ntombi
                                                       Klaasen performs at                tabled before National as-                   performs at Hilton Hotel;
A worker fashions clay at the Kolonyama pottery fac-   the National Stadium
tory.     Photo: Natal Mercury, 14 December 1973
                                                                                          sembly;                                      Hugh Masekela releases
                                                       Sport: First Interna-              News: Moabi Mapetla, PS Fi-                  “Live in Lesotho”; Palesa
                                                       tional Table Tennis                nance, killed in road accident               Kalele crowned Miss Le-
1974                                          Competition held at Airport                 in the Free State; ‘Mathabiso                sotho; Buffalo Rally comes to
                                                                                                                                                                                     Koenyama Chakela, the BCP General
                                                                                                                                                                                     Secretary who returned to Lesotho under
                                              Hotel;                                      Mosala, President of Lesotho                 Lesotho;                                      the amnesty was gunned by the LLA.
Royalty: Prince Seeiso re-
                                              Judiciary: Chief Justice J. T               Womens Institute appointed                                                                            Photo: Drum, November 1982
ceives green belt in Taek-
                                              Mapetla dies;                               to Board of Bedco; Bassie
wondo
Politics: 32 alleged BCP sup-                 1976                                        Mahase, notorius hoodlum,
porters charged with treason                  Royalty: Queen Mother ‘Ma-                  killed in gun battle with
Economy: New Lesotho Bank                     bereng Seeiso dies after short              police in Mapoteng; Parcel
Headquarters opened; Oil                      illness; New Royal Palace                   bomb explodes at Central
well opened in Mahobong,                      presented to King                           Post Office; Maseru Cafe is
Leribe; First Mosotho pilot,                  Politics: Chief Sekhonyana                  gutted by Þre;
Karohano Ntlaloe begins ßy-                   ‘Maseribane leaves cabinet;                 Deadline to switch to new
ing Lesotho Airways Corpo-                    Economy: Electricity supply                 blue Mokorotlo car registra-
ration Aircraft; First bottling               reaches Botha-Bothe; Mobutu                 tion plate, Sept. 30; 1 police
factory opened; Stadium                       Sese-Seko visits Lesotho;                   officer and two civilians
Hotel begins operations as                    Likhapha Sehlabo appointed                  killed at Hendriks’ Drift
Airport Hotel                                 Lesotho’s Þrst woman am-                    Border Post by suspected
Education: King Sobhuza II of                 bassador to Britain; Lesotho                BCP/LLA insurgents;
Swaziland becomes Chancel-                    forges relations with Com-                  Economy: Lesotho Airways
lor of UBLS;                                  munist East Germany;                        makes maiden ßight to Dur-
Sport: PMU, captained by                      News: 50 die in tragic bus ac-              ban;
Ernest “Ribo” Ramakau wins                    cident near Tsoaing                         Environment: Record Snow-
the United Tobacco Com-                       Culture: J.P Mohapeloa cel-                 fall hits Lesotho highlands
pany Cup Final;                               ebrates 45 years as a com-                  Entertainment: Maseru Sing-
Media: Radio Lesotho cel-                     poser; London Shakespeare                   ers perform a Henry Purcell’s
ebrates 10 years;                             Group performs in Maseru                    “Dilo and Aenas” at Prep
Religion: Bishop F. Makhetha                  Education: L.B.B.J Machobane                School; Letta Mbulu tours
attends All African Council                   becomes Þrst Mosotho His-                   Lesotho with concert at Na-
of Churches;                                  tory Lecturer at NUL;                       tional Stadium                               Graphic of bombings in Lesotho (Drum, 1981)
         WORK FOR
                  JUSTICE                                         Issue 75 — Lesotho at 40
                                                                                                                                                                                        7

1983                                                                                                                                                         Lekhanya in court over Ra-
                                                                                                                                                             mone’s death; Mass cleanout
News: Lesotho hosts SADCC
                                                                                                                                                             of staff at Moeletsi oa Basotho;
conference; German Ambas-
                                                                                                                                                             18 soldiers die in tragic air
sador dies; Bomb destroys
                                                                                                                                                             crash; King calls for Þght
Caltex depot in Maseru;
                                                                                                                                                             against AIDS;
Education: LOIC opened;
                                                                                                                                                             Religion: Archbishop
                                                                                                                                                             Morapeli dies; Popular Dean
1984                                                                                                                                                         Israel. P. Qwelane leaves Le-
Royalty: Prince Mohato gradu-                                                                                                                                sotho after 8 years at Angli-
ates from NUL;                                                                                                                                               can cathedral;
News: Four people die and six                                                                                                                                Economy: Electricity ex-
injured as government tanker                                                                                                                                 panded to Semonkong; New
overruns them; Bishop Tutu                                                                                                                                   Central Bank Building inau-
awarded Nobel Peace Prize;                                                                                                                                   gurated;
Well-known businessman                                                                                                                                       Health: No of conÞrmed
Pitso Makhoza is jailed for                                                                                                                                  AIDS cases rises to 8;
3 years for cutting off one of                                                                                                                                Civil Society: Save the Chil-
Mqedlana’s testicles for alleg-                                                                                                                              dren boss Winifred Coaker
edly having a love affair with                                                                                                                                dies;
his wife; Bill Fraser dies after                                                                                                                             Entertainment: Sankomota
long illness;                                                                                                                                                release album “The Writings
Politics: Detente not in sight                                                                                                                               on the Wall”
in Lesotho-SA relations; BCP
pushes for elections; Lesotho                                                                                                                                1990
receives Zambian PM Nalu-                                                                                                                                    Royalty: King Moshoeshoe II
mino Mundia; PM receives                                                                                                                                     is banished to London by the
Dag Hammarskjold Award;                                                                                                                                      Military government on 26
Economy: Discussions on                                                                                                                                      Oct.; Prince Mohato is sworn
proposed Lesotho Highlands                                                                                                                                   in as King, 12 Nov.;
Water Project in jeopardy as                                                                                                                                 Religion: Archbishop Bernard
SA threatens to withdraw its                                                                                                                                 Mohlalisi is consecrated
support for the project unless                                                                                                                               Archbishop of Maseru;
Lesotho signs a Nkomati-type                                                                                                                                 Sport: Arsenal beats SA Sun-
peace accord;                                                                                                                                                downs FC;
Health: New maternity ward                                                                                                                                   Politics: Cols. Sekhobe Letsie,
at Queen II opened; 1115                                                                                                                                     Khethang Mosoeunyane, Mo-
die in Lesotho hospitals due                                                                                                                                 nyane Mokhants’o arrested;
to intestinal and infectious                                                                                                                                 Lekhanya announces move
diseases;                                                                                                                                                    to democratise, gets praise
Education: 16, 502 pass std 7.                                                                                                                               from Ntsu Mokhehle; Order
Entertainment: Caiphus Se-                                                                                                                                   no 14 removes King from
menya and wife Letta Mbulu                                                                                                                                   Throne; National Consituent
receive golden disc awards                                                                                                                                   Assembly established;
at Maseru Casino Hotel;v                                                                                                                                     Economy: LHDA contracts
Sankomota records Þrst al-                                                                                                                                   awarded;
bum, “Sankomota”;                                                                                                                                            News: Nelson Mandela is
Civil Society: Vocational                                                                                                                                    released from prison; Lengau
Centre for Lesotho National                                                                                                                                  is sold; Sekhobe appears in
Council of Women inaugu-           Prime Minister Leabua Jonathan and Major General Metsing Lekhanya. In 1986 the General lead a coup against Jonathan.      court over Lekhalong-la-
rated;                                                                                                                                                       Baroa murders; ANC’s Alfred
                                                                                                                                                             Nzo and Jacob Zuma visit
1985                               60 ANC supporters deported                  1987                                        Politics: Government meets        Lesotho;
Politics: 9 die in another         from Lesotho; All Basotho                   Environment: Severe snow                    BCP delegation; King meets        Education: NUL Students
SADF raid on Lesotho;              political prisoners and                     disaster hits the mountain                  PW Botha;                         boycott classes; Teachers
Media: Plans to establish          citizens in exile are granted               areas;                                      Education: Prof. Adamu            continue strike; NUL con-
Lesotho television an-             amnesty; 6 to 6 curfew im-                  Religion: President of LEC                  Baikie becomes new NUL            fers honorary LLD on Ntsu
nounced; First ever Lesotho        posed; Order no. 4 banning                  Church charges that takeo-                  vice-chancellor;                  Mokhehle;
daily newspaper, The Nation        political activity imposed;                 ver of church by 18 clerics                 News: Lekhanya declares           Health: Scott Hospital turns
published but to last only         Ministers Sixishe and Ma-                   unconstitutional; dissident                 state of emergency against        50;
two months                         khele murdered with their                   group of 20 LEC clergymen                   crime; New Moshoeshoe 1
Economy: Lesotho receives          wives at Lekhalong-la-Baroa                 occupy church headquarters;                 International Airport inau-       1991
R161m in customs revenue;          on 16 Nov.;                                 Politics: New ßag hoisted on                gurated; Government talks         News: Public uprising in
Lesotho receives M30m loan         News: Brigadier B.M Ramot-                  Jan. 19;                                    with heards of churches sus-      protest against the death of
to develop Maseru water            sekhoane and Colonel Seh-                   Entertainment: Sankomota                    pended; Bus hijacked during        Mrs ‘Manthabiseng Senatsi,
supply;                            labo die in detention; Steve                records new album “Dreams                   papal visit; Lengau suspends      allegedly killed by security
Entertainment: Singer Yvonne       Kekana’s “Fats’e la Bo-Ntata                do come true”;                              ßights to Seychelles; Student     guards for stealing from a
Chaka Chaka warned not             rona is played regularly                    Economy: Boeing 707                         George Ramone‘s fatal shoot-      Chinese owned store. White
to go on with Lesotho show         as prelude to news bulle-                   “Lengau“ bought;                            ing suspicious, Lekhanya          foreigners targeted by angry
in solidarity with “Black          tin, making it an unofficial                  News: Jonathan dies on April                implicated;                       public;Sekhobe Letsie found
December”                          “anthem”. Lt. Col. J.L Dingis-              5; C.D. Mofeli arrested; Ag-                Health: Makoanyane Military       guilty in Lekhotla-la-Bafo
                                   wayo acts as Police commis-                 ric Bank is gutted by Þre;                  Hospital opened;                  Murders;
1986                               sioner;                                     Environment: Snow disaster                  Environment: 8 die in snow        Politics: Maj. Gen. Lekh-
Politics: SA imposes border        Economy: Lesotho Highlands                  in highlands; Army Day                      disaster; Very wet summer         anya is forced to resign and
blockade on Lesotho on New         Water Project negotiations                  celebrated;                                 Media: Mirror editor Johnny       replaced by Col. Phisoana
Year’s Day; Khaketla, Moseli       start; LHWP Treaty signed                                                               wa ka Maseko arrested;            Ramaema;
                                   on 24 October;                                                                          Entertainment: Boswell Wilkie     Economy: New incomplete
and Ramoreboli meet SA on
strained relations between         Civil Service: Population                   1988                                        Circus comes to Lesotho;          Agric Bank Building inaugu-
the two countries but de-          Census conducted; Tom                       Religion: Pope John Paul II                                                   rated; Malibamats’o Bridge
tained upon return; PM’s           Thabane, former PS Interior                 visits Lesotho on      15 Sept.;            1989                              inaugurated;
offices surrounded by troops         and chieftainship Affirs,                     Royalty: King                               Royalty: Prince Mohato be-        News: Khoabane Letsie The-
amid rumours of a coup; A          becomes Þrst secretary to the               Moshoe-                                     comes chief of Matsieng;          ko brießy removed as Chief
confrontation is reported          Military Council;                           shoe II                                     Politics: Britain increases aid   of Thaba Bosiu and Ratau;
between Jonathan and Major-        Health: Immunisation of all                 receives                                    to Lesotho to M23.5 million;      Spate of strikes characterise
General Lekhanya, head of          children by 1990 launched                   honor-                                      More political exiles return;     1991;
Lesotho Pramilitary Force;         Education: NUL Maseru                       ary                                         King congratulates SA Presi-      Sport: Smirnoff sponsors
Talks to diffuse tension            campus opens; WFP school                    Doctor                                      dent F.W. de Klerk’s move to      Top 8 for M55,000; Thabiso
between Lesotho and SA are         feeding project launched;                   of Laws                                     end apartheid;                    Moqhali breaks 32km mara-
held in Pretoria; Lekhanya         Religion: Inter-denomination-               degree                                      News: 18 soldiers die in plane    thon record in “Pro Nutro
leads bloodless coup against       al national prayer for peace                from                                        crash in Qacha’s Nek; New         20 Miller” Competition;
Jonathan; New Military             and reconciliation held;                    University                                  M2, M5 M50 legal tender           Moalosi Tjela wins silver in
Council and cabinet sworn          Judiciary: Justice Peter Mofo-              of New          Pope John Paul II           introduced; Guilbeault Hall       42.2km marathons “All-Af-
in;                                keng dies;                                  Brunswick;                                  gutted by Þre at NUL;             rica Games”
                                                                                                                                                      WORK FOR
   8                                                                      Issue 75 — Lesotho at 40                                                              JUSTICE

                                                                                     1996                                                                    News: New Maseu Post
                                                                                     Royalty: King Moshoeshoe II                                             Office opened; Highlands
                                                                                     dies;                                                                   Water Delivery begins; Vet-
                                                                                     Politics: Matsoso Bolofo and                                            eran businessman and Civil
                                                                                     Lelingoane Jonathan stage                                               Rights Activist Robert Matji
                                                                                     phoney coup; Ruling party                                               dies;
                                                                                     divided into “Majelathoko                                               Education: O’level exam re-
                                                                                     and “Pressure Group”; Ntsu                                              sults show poor performance
                                                                                     Mokhehle falls ill creating                                             in English; Prof. V.M Bam
                                                                                     political uncertainty; Le-                                              dies; Tlepu Mahanetsa dies;
                                                                                     sotho hosts SADC Summit;                                                Religion: Bishop John Maund,
                                                                                     Information Minister Pakane                                             Þrst Anglican Bishop of
                                                                                     Khala dies;                                                             Basutoland dies;
                                                                                     News: Makotoane and                                                     Civil Society: Highlands
                                                                                     Matebesi convicted of em-                                               Church Action Group peti-
                                                                                     bezzlement; Unrest in rural                                             tions World Bank on LHWP;
                                                                                     areas; ‘Manthabiseng Bus-                                               Health: AIDS Þgures rise;
                                                                                     stop closed; Commisson of       The new UN building was handed to
                                                                                     Inquiry into King’s death;      government in 1997.        Photo: TRC
Prime Minister Ntsu Mokhehle welcomes Botswana’s Prime Minister Ketumile Masire at
Moshoeshoe I International Airport. Masire and Zimbabwe’s President Robert Mugabe    British Army Training Team
came to Lesotho in 1994 to help restore political order.                Photo: TRC   leaves Lesotho; Maj. Gen. Bo-   New UN building handed to
                                                                                     lutu Makoaba becomes new        governent; Veteral politician
                                                                                                                     Stephen Motlamelle dies;
1992                                       Dr. Senaoana appointed                    Police Commissioner;
                                                                                     Population census held;         preparations for General
                                           Finance Minister; Demon-
Royalty: Letsie III officially                                                        LHDA strike; Death Sen-         Elections begin; LHDA CE
                                           stration held to demand re-
installed as King; King                                                              tences for murderes of Bank     Masupha Sole faces fraud
                                           instatement of King Moshoe-
Moshoeshoe II returns from                                                           Manager Kimane; Some            suit in High Court; Former
                                           shoe II to throne; King Letsie
                                                                                     LHDA strikers killed by         Maseru Mayor, Sobhuza
London exile;                              leads a Palace Coup; 2-day
                                                                                     police; BCP-Vlakplaas links     Sopeng dies;
Education: ‘Masechele                      stayaway in protest against
                                                                                     reported;                       Media: Matsepe Massa dies;
Khaketla loses ownership of                Palace coup; BCP govern-
                                                                                     Economy: Makase Marumo          Lesotho Today closes; Attack
Iketsetseng Private School;                ment restored to power;
                                                                                     becomes new L.H.D.A Chief       on MoAfrika Newspaper,
Environment: Severe drought;
                                                                                     Executive; First cellular       Candi Ramainoane; New
News: Ex-Minister Miletsane
Mokoroane dies;
                                           1995                                      phone services in Lesotho       Weekly, Southern Star is
                                                                                     with Vodacom (Vital Cellu-      launched;
Religion: Catholic Bishops’                Royalty: King Moshoshoe II
                                                                                     lar Link) company opening       Economy: Lesotho Airways
Conference appeas for peace-               reinstated to the throne;
                                                                                     business; World-Wide-Web        and Loti Brick privatised;
ful elections;                             Politics: Mosisili appointed                                                                                      The ruins of the resource centre for the
                                                                                     reaches Lesotho; Privatisa-     Education: Prof. RIM Molet-
Media: Journalist Mike Pitso               Deputy Prime Minister;                                                                                            visually impaired after the riots in 1998.
                                                                                     tion Unit established;          sane becomes new NUL Vice-                                              Photo: TRC
dies;                                      Members of the NSS take
                                                                                     Education: Problems selecting   Chancellor; LUTARU goes on
Sport: Arsenal beats SA’s                  Major-General Leaooa Se-
Moroka Swallows Ltd;                       oane hostage; 96 members                  new NUL vice-chancellor;        strike;                                 1999
                                                                                     Ntsu Mokhehle awarded           Health: Maseru Private Hos-             Politics: BCP leader suspends
Arsenal beats Malawi’s Silver              of BCP including Godfrey
                                                                                     honorary LLD from Fort          pital opened;                           6 senior members; Minister
Stars;                                     Kolisang return to Lesotho;
                                                                                     Hare University; Eminent        Religion: Rev Litsebe Ma-               ‘Mamoshebi Kabi dies, SADC
                                           Cabinet reshuffle;
                                                                                     Mosotho Historian, Mosebi       tooane dies; Bishop Andrew              forces move out of Lesotho;
                                           News: Lawyer Khauoe brings
1993                                       court action to declare Act.              Damane dies; Mosotho au-        Duma succeeds Bp. P.S.                  BCP squabbles result in
                                                                                     thor, B.M. Khaketla receives    Mokuku as Anglican Bishop;              expensice court case; Finance
Politics: BCP wins a landslide             no. 10 of 1994 null and void;
victory in Þrst democratic                 Police go on partial strike;              honorary DLitt.                                                         Minister Ketso resigns after
elections since 1970; Ntsu                 Signing of Extradition Treaty             Environment: Heaviest snow-     1998                                    road accident;
Mokhehle becomes Prime                     results in demonstration by               falls in nine years;            Politics: Veteran politician            News: National Convention
Minister;                                  taxi drivers; Nelson Mandela              Media: New papers, Makatolle    Khauta Khasu dies; 3 main               Centre handed over to gov-
                                           visits Lesotho; Prison offic-               and Mohlanka re-appear;         opposition parties discredit            ernment; Speaker J.T. Kolane
                                           ers go on strike; Maseru City             Entertainment: Sankomota        the election results; The op-           dies; Ntlhoi Motsamai
1994                                       Council dissolved; Account-               loses four members in car       position party alliance stage           becomes new speaker; DPP
Royalty: Princess ‘Maseeiso                ant-General D.P. Matebesi                 crash;                          a vigil at the Palace; SA send          Sipho Mdluli resigns;
dies;                                      and Assistant Accountant-                 Sport: Lesotho gives mod-       mediation mission headed                Economy: New M2 and M5
News: Makoanyane barracks                  General M.P Mokotoane                     est performance in Olympic      by Deputy President Thabo               coins minted; Lesotho banks
is disturbed by gunÞre, a                  on trial for embezzlement;                athletics                       Mbeki; Clashes take place               sheds 679 jobs in transfer to
sign of a mutiny looming; Ri-              Police officers Penane and                                                  between LCD and opposition              Standard Bank; Ex- LHDA
val factions of the army face              Ramoeletsi in police strike               1997                            supporters; College of Chiefs           CE Sole charged with mas-
each other on Mpilo hill in a              fracas;                                   Royalty: King Letsie III is     meet at Palace to calm the              sive fraud; Lets’eng Mine
shootout mutiny on 19 Nov.;                Economy: New Maseru Br-                   crowned on 31 Oct.;             situation; Commission of In-            reopens;
Major Gen. Metsing replaced                ridge opened; Impoundment                 Politics: Local Government      quiry headed by SA Deputy               Media: Catholic FM goes on
by Maj. Gen Mosakeng as                    of Katse Dam begins                       Act published;Ntsu Mokheh-      Chief Justice Pius Langa                air; MILES gains new premis-
commander of LDF; soldiers                 Education: Teachers go on                 le creates Lesotho Congress     investigates but Þnds no con-           es; MoakÞka Editor Þned M90
demand a 100% pay rise;                    strike over pay; Controversial            for Democracy breaking          clusive evidence of electoral           000;
Heads of Churches strug-                   New Education Bill passed;                away from BCP;                  fraud; Maseru and major                 Sport: Lesotho wins gold at
gle to diffuse army mutiny;                 Civil Society: National Dia-              News: Ernst Meissner, owner     towns torched by angry mob;             All Africa Games; Roof of
Police go on strike allowing               logue held;                               of Auberge Restaurant is        SADC forces enter Lesotho               Africa Rally returns after a
criminals to loot shops; Min-              Environment: Severe drought               fatally shot; Brown police      on Sept.22;                             year;
ister Mpho Malie is abducted               broken;                                   combat uniform abolished;       Economy: Agric Bank closes;             Environment: Severe storm
but later released unharmed;                                                                                                                                 causes damage;
Police kill LLA member,                                                                                                                                      Culture: Arts and Culture
Peters Motemekoane;                                                                                                                                          Festival held at Morija
Politics: BNP leader, E.R                                                                                                                                    Religion: Joseph Tsubella be-
Sekhonyana accuses BCP                                                                                                                                       comes new Anglican Bishop;
government of arming Secu-
rity Lesotho; Foreign Min-
ister Molapo Qhobela visits
                                                                                                                                                             2000
the army in barracks; Sekho-                                                                                                                                 Royalty: Royal Wedding,
nyana charged with sedition;                                                                                                                                 King Letsie marries Miss
BoÞhla Nkuebe becomes                                                                                                                                        Karabo Mots’oeneng on 18
only opposition member in                                                                                                                                    Feb; Chieftainess ‘Mampoi
65-member parliament; Cabi-                                                                                                                                  Seeiso dies;
net reshuffle; Deputy Prime                                                                                                                                    News: Year 2000 welcomed
Minister Selometsi Baholo                  The ANC colours                                                                                                   with spectacular Þreworks;
gunned down and 2 days of                  black, green and
                                           yellow were domi-
                                                                                                                                                             B.M Khaketla dies; “Fato-
public mourning observed;                  nating the streets                                                                                                Fato” renamed Fund for
Minister Moleleki resigns                  of Maseru during                                                                                                  Community Development;
from cabinet and ßees to Bot-              South African                                                                                                     Dr. K.T. Maphathe dies;
                                           President Nelson
swana claiming he feared he                Mandela’s visit to                                                                                                First pedestrian overbridg-
was next assassination target              Lesotho in 1995.                                                                                                  es opened; Lawyer G.G
after Baholo;                                      Photo: TRC                                                                                                Nthethe dies;
            WORK FOR
                       JUSTICE                                              Issue 75 — Lesotho at 40
                                                                                                                                                                                                               9

Businessman Mario “Pino”                                                                                                                                                            2006
Florio dies;
Economy: LTC sale signed;                                                                                                                                                           Royalty: King and Queen’s
Health: Disentry outbreak                                                                                                                                                           memorials unveiled;
results in fatalities;                                                                                                                                                              Politics; Chief Bereng Selala
Education: Free Education                                                                                                                                                           Sekhonyana is gunned down;
in Std 1 begins; Prof. Alan                                                                                                                                                         Lesotho gears for 40 year
Hutcheon dies;                                                                                                                                                                      Independence celebrations;
Culture: Basotho Hat reopens                                                                                                                                                        Ministers’ luxury Mercs
Media: BCP newspaper Maka-                                                                                                                                                          cause controversy;
tolle reappears;                                                                                                                                                                    News: Dr. Anton Rupert,
Sport: SA defeats Lesotho in                                                                                                                                                        Lesotho’s industrial Ad-
World Cup qualiÞer before                                                                                                                                                           viser dies; Foreign Minister
capacity crowd;                                                                                                                                                                     Moleleki shot in arm; Prof.
                                                                                                                                                                                    J.M. Mohapeloa honoured,
                                                                                                                                                                                    dies soon after; National
2001                                                                                                                                                                                Census held; Charles Jenkins
Royalty: Princess Senate is                                                                                                                                                         becomes new LRA head;
born; Wedding of Prince                                                                                                                                                             Rock star Bono visits Le-
Seeiso Seeiso;                                                                                                                                                                      sotho; Lesotho hosts SADC
News: Judge W.C.M Maqutu                                                                                                                                                            summit; New State Library
serves on Rwanda Tribunal;                                                                                                                                                          inaugurated; Proposals for
Indian Army to train LDF;                                                                                                                                                           new ßag designs unveiled;
British Council closes in                                                                                                                                                           DPS Mophethe dies;
Maseru; LHDA Chief Makase                                                                                                                                                           Economy: New shopping
Marumo dies; Sekhobe Letsie                 King Letsie III and South African President Thabo Mbeki inaugurating Mohale Dam on 16 March 2004.                      Photo: TRC       Centre opens in Hlotse;
released from gaol; Phoka                                                                                                                                                           Education: Lerotholi Politech-
Chaolana dies;                              Environment: Wettest summer                 Entertainment: Sankomota                     News: First Woman Police
                                            in over 100 years; State of                 leader Frank Leepa dies;                     Commissioner, ‘Malejaka                        nic celebrates centenary;
Politics: Leon Commission                                                                                                                                                           Prof. Ogunrinade becomes
begins hearings; Vision 2020                famine proclaimed;                          Culture: MoAfrika Culture                    Letooane appointed; Devas-
                                            Sport: FIFA President visits                Festival a success; Masitise                 tating rains hit the country                   new NUL vice-chancellor;
launched; Lekhanya con-                                                                                                                                                             Media: New Bang! newspaper
                                            Lesotho; Econet sponsors                    Cave House is restored;                      after Kings’ appeal for rain
Þrmed as BNP leader;                                                                                                                                                                on Maseru streets;
                                            New Football league;                        Sport: Lesotho out of 2006                   prayers; British High Com-
Economy: Lesotho Unit Trust
                                            Media: Southern Star ceases                 World Cup;                                   mission closes down; Ex-US
launched; Motlatsi Matekane                                                                                                          President Bill Clinton visits                  Celebration: Lesotho cel-
become Governor of Central                  publication;
                                                                                                                                                                                    ebrates 40th Anniversary of
Bank; Lesotho Revenue Au-                   Culture: Wole Soyinka’s                     2004                                         Lesotho; LRA head, Kevin
                                                                                                                                     Donovan dies; Tanzanian                        Independence on 4 October
thority is established;                     “King Baabu” performed in
                                            Lesotho;                                    Royalty: British Prince Harry                President Mkapa visits Le-                     2006.
Education: Dr. Tefetso Moth-                                                                                                         sotho;
                                                                                        arrives in Lesotho; Princess
ibe becomes new NUL-                        2003                                        ‘Maseeiso is born;
vice- chancellor; Prof. Gwen                Royalty: Queen Mother                       News: Justice Ramodibedi
Malahleha dies; NUL stu-                    ‘Mamohato Seeiso dies; King                 becomes President of Ap-
dents blockade campus gate;                 Letsie III turns 40;                        peal Court of the Seychelles;
Health: Maluti Hospital cel-                Politics: Ketso heads Public                Industrialist Peter Mokhe-
ebrates 50 years.                           Accounts                                    seng gunned down; LLA co-
Sport: Likuena defeats Bafana               Committee;                                  founder Ts’eliso Rapitse dies;
Bafana;                                     BAC splits;                                 Mphanya publishes History
2002                                        News: Cabi-
                                            net Ministers
                                                                                        of the BCP; JRL Kotsokoane
                                                                                        dies; Father A.T. Monyau
News: K.G Lieta dies: Direc-                ride in new                                 sentenced to 15 years for
torate of Disputes Prevention               luxurious                                   high treason; Old age pen-
and Resolution established;                 Mercedes                                    sions paid to over-70’s;
P.M.’s son murdered; First                  Benz E-                                     Economy: Peete Molapo be-
Ombudsman H.M Ntsaba re-                    class; VAT                                  comes LNDC Chief; Lets’eng
tires; New bus station opens                introduced; The Blue river                  Mine officially reopens;
near SeÞka; Father Mon-                     Liphapang Potloane becomes                  Religion: MissionaryAlbert                   Dancers at the Morija Arts and Cultural Festival.                    Photo: TRC
yau charged with treason;                   new LHDA chief;                             Brutsch dies; New AME
Masopha Sole found guilty                                                                                                            Health: Health Sector experi-
                                            Phakiso Molise escapes from                 Bishop Dr. Sarah Davies wel-
in bribery case; Meteorite                  gaol; Chief Khoabane Theko,                 comed to Lesotho;
                                                                                                                                     ences worst crisis;                                 Acknowledgements
                                                                                                                                     Education: COSC results
explodes in western Lesotho.                long a bachelor, marries; Dr.               Business: Hotel Victoria                     marred by leaked papers;                       The editors would like to thank
Politics: No official leader of               A.D. Lebona dies;                           reopens; CNA closes Ma-                      Economy: Street lights come
Opposition in parliament;                                                                                                                                                           the following for image and text
                                            Education; NUL closes after                 seru branch; FNB opens in                    to Hlotse, Leribe; End of
LCD wins ‘fresh’ general                                                                                                                                                            material used in the chronology:
                                            riot;                                       Lesotho;                                     Multi-Fibre-Agreement leeds
election; Impoundment of                                                                                                                                                            The Ministry of Information,
                                            Environment: ‘Blue river brief-             Media: New Our Times news-                   to closing of textile factories,
Mohale Dam begins;                                                                                                                                                                  Science and Technology for
                                            ly dries up.                                paper brießy exists;                         thousands of workers lose
Economy: Econet Ezicell be-                                                                                                                                                         access to past newspapers: Le-
                                            Media: Public Eye editor                                                                 their jobs.
gins operations; New SACU                                                               Sport:                                                                                      sotho Times, Mochochonono,
                                            Bethuel Thai, marries in                                                                 Business: Lesotho Post Bank
Treaty signed;                                                                          Lesotho                                                                                     Lentsoe la Basotho and
                                            style; Mosotho Newspaper                                                                 becomes operational;
Education: NUL embarks                                                                  at Athens                                    Media: SA Lesedi FM broad-                     Lesotho Today; The Institute
                                            launched; Journalist Joe
on transformation; NTTC                                                                 Olympics;                                    casts on Lesotho soil; Quar-                   for Southern African Studies for
                                            MoleÞ dies; Journalist Afrika
becomes LCE;                                                                            German                                       terly Motjoli’s Review makes                   permission to use press clip-
                                            Molungoa dies;
                                                                                        Football                                     debut; Spectator newspaper                     pings; Professor David Am-
                                                                                        coach ar-                                    makes brief appearance:                        brose for permission to use his
                                                                                        rives; LeFA                                  Art: TRC hosts exhibition of 4                 compilation of events; The State
                                                                                        President                                    Basotho artists;                               Library for archival material on
                                                                                        Thabo                                        Civil society: TRC publishes                   Lesotho; The Morija Museum
                                                                                        Makakole                                     “Irony of the while Gold”;                     and Archives for permission to
                                                                                        dies;          German coach Tony                                                            use archival material, The TRC
                                                                                                                                     Sport: Coach Tony Hey Þred;
                                                                                                       Hey.   Photo: TRC
                                                                                        Culture:                                                                                    library for access to historical
                                                                                        New Þlm on King Moshoe-                                                                     material. Many other people
                                                                                        shoe screened;                                                                              who have reminded us of past
                                                                                        Civil Society: SCF (UK) closes                                                              events to enhance this compila-
                                                                                        Lesotho office; TRC turns 25;                                                                 tion also deserve credit. While
                                                                                                                                                                                    all efforts have been made to
                                                                                                                                                                                    trace copyright holders of some
                                                                                        2005                                                                                        of the material used, we regret
                                                                                                                                                                                    that we have not succeeded in
                                                                                        Politics: First Local Govern-
                                                                                                                                                                                    all cases. We have however,
                                                                                        ment elections held; Chief
                                                                                                                                                                                    attempted to acknowledge all
                                                                                        Seeiso becomes new High
                                                                                                                                                                                    material used. We invite all
                                                                                        Commissioner to Britain;
                                                                                                                                                                                    copyright holders
                                                                                        Ombudsman’s hearings on
                                                                                                                                                                                    to contact us about
                                                                                        grievances about the Lesotho
                                                                                                                                                                                    their material used
                                                                                        Highlands Water Project
                                                                                                                                                                                    here.
The Cave House in Masitise was restored in 2003.                       Photo: TRC       continue in Mohale;                          A textile worker.             Photo: TRC                    Khotso
                                                                                                                                     WORK FOR
  10                                                     Issue 75 — Lesotho at 40                                                            JUSTICE

                                                                                  Over the last
                                                                                 four decades the
                                                                                 relationship between
                                                                                                           South Africa’s
                                                                                                           Lesotho
                                                                                 Lesotho and her only
                                                                                 neighbour were often
                                                                                 tense. In 1970, South
                                                                                 African perception of
                                                                                 Lesotho is displayed
                                                                                 in this cartoon
                                                                                 - a volcano ready
                                                                                 to explode. During        South Africa has always maintained and guar-
                                                                                 Apartheid times
                                                                                 the white regime
                                                                                                           anteed Lesotho’s political and economic exist-
                                                                                 tried to destabilize      ence.
                                                                                 the entire region.
                                                                                 Several attacks on
                                                                                 ANC refugees were
                                                                                 carried out.
                                                                                                           By Katleho Pefole               from queues to the local
                                                                                 Only after 1994 did                                       government polling stations
                                                                                 the relationship show                                     to their television screens to
                                                                                 signs of improve-             While the temptation        watch the match.
                                                                                 ment. However,
                                                                                 1998 witnessed a
                                                                                                           would be to place the blame         The entry of the goods
                                                                                 regression to the         for Lesotho’s slow 40 year      train into Lesotho is ac-
                                                                                 tension. Examples of      post-colonial socio-political   cepted as soul of economic
                                                                                 an improvement in         and economic development
                                                                                 diplomatic relations                                      survival, evidenced by the
                                                                                 include the signing       on the country’s leaders,       overwhelming welcome it
                                                                                 of the binational         South Africa should by no       received in 1968. Branches
                                                                                 commission and the        means be let off scot free.
                                                                                 sod turning of the                                        or extensions of South Af-
                                                                                 new South African         For, Lesotho as a southern      rican businesses maintain a
                                                                                 Diplomatic Village in     African state is in fact a      high degree of dominance
                                                                                 Maseru.                   South African enclave by        of the business space in
                                                                                  Cartoon: The Friend
                                                                                      (Lesotho Edition),
                                                                                                           virtue of its being wholly      the kingdom, a phenom-
                                                                                                   1970    surrounded by the republic.     enon only recently receiv-
                                                                                                           The entire history of the

Maseru regime tumbles
                                                                                                                                           ing competitive responses
                                                                                                           kingdom is best understood      from Chinese-owned
                                                                                                           in the mainstream of the        industrial and small-scale
                                                                                                           region’s history from the       enterprises. Even these are
                                                                                                           Lifaqane, to colonialism to
Maseru-The government of Prime Minister chief Leabua Jonathan of                                           post-apartheid. This has
                                                                                                                                           highly dependent on the
                                                                                                                                           South African manufactur-
Lesotho was toppled by the military in a bloodless coup, official Radio                                     always posed serious chal-      ing sector and sea-ports for
Lesotho Reported                                                                                           lenges to Lesotho to sur-       access to foreign markets.
                                                                                                           vive as a separate state and    The fact that South Africa
                                                                                                           nation when South Africa        acts a zone of economic
    A brief announcement,             Members of the Lesotho      martialled.                              had assumed the role of big
repeated at regular inter-        Army on several army trucks         Today’s announcement                                                 activity for Lesotho and her
                                                                                                           brother, effectively main-       peers, making the Customs
vals, said the commander of       agve the clenched Þst salute    appeared to signal that Gen.             taining and guaranteeing        Union revenue the highest
the country’s 1 500-member        in support of people who        Lekhanya had joined ranks                Lesotho’s very existence.       source of income for the
paramilitary force, Major -       marched down the main           with Col. Sehlabo.                           Indeed most, if not all     kingdom, further exposes
General Justin Lekhanya had       street.                             Pretoria has imposed a               events that happened in         this dependence. Needless
taken power immediately               Radio Lesotho said the      crippling economic block-                Lesotho since 1966 have         to say, the economic block-
and appealed for calm.            coup was aimed at restoring     ade against this tiny enclave            been directly or indirectly     ade of 1 January 1985 to
    The radio reports said        peace and national reconcili-   of 1.5 million people since              inßuenced by South Africa.      put a squeeze on the BNP
General Lekhanya would            ation in the country, which     January 1, saying it was har-            All this while the practical    government brought into
                                                                                                           motives for independence        stark focus Lesotho’s des-
govern the country under          has been subjected to a crip-   bouring guerillas dedicated
                                                                                                           were ostensibly to remove       perate dependence on the
the head of state, King           pling economic clampdown        to overthrowing the Govern-              the British yet in reality,
Moshoeshoe II, with the as-       on its borders by South         ment in SA.                                                              Republic. This, among other
                                                                                                           South African apartheid         things, reduced Lesotho’s
sistance of a military council    Africa since January 1.             The South African clamp-             was the prime evil. It          bargaining position in the
and principal secretaries of          The coup was announced      down has played havoc with               should be recalled that, in     Lesotho Highlands Water
various state departments.        in English and Sesotho by a     the local economy, bringing              fact, while Britain were the    Project (LHWP), signed a
    General Lekhanya said         radio announcer at 5.45 am,     shortages of such vital com-             colonial masters, by ruling     mere nine months after the
he had over because of the        followed by a second an-        modities as petrol, which                Lesotho through the Cape,       South African instigated
confusion in Lesotho and be-      nouncement at 6 am.             had to be rationed.                      they effectively made South      overthrow of the Lesotho
cause politicians had failed          Radio Lesotho, which            Chief Jonathan yester-               Africa the real head office of    government in 1986. The
to govern the country.            earlier today played martial    day appealed to the West to              colonial rule.                  effects of this rape are still
                                                                                                               When more than 100          felt even today when many
    Chief Jonathan was at his     music interspersed with         airlift supplies in, giving a
                                                                                                           hundred Basotho miners          of the LHWP dam-affected
home near Maseru today            repeats of the announcement     warning that if his call was             perished in one of South
after the take over.              every 15 minutes in Sesotho     not heeded he would turn to                                              people are still pushing for
                                                                                                           Africa’s numerous min-          better deals from the LHWP
    A military officer in           and English of the takeover,    Eastern bloc allies like Cuba.           ing disasters, it brought       authorities.
charge at Radio Lesotho,          later switched to playing           Ironically, Chief Jonathan           home once more the reality          It is hardly surprising
who refused to disclose his       music in place of normal        yesterday expressed his con-             of economic dependence.         that South Africa sees itself
name , said the former Prime      prgrammes.                      Þdence in General Lekhanya.              Apart from long queues of       as the de facto guardian of
Minister was not under                The announcement said           He said the army chief               migrant workers constantly      Lesotho’s democratic and
house arrest.                     “the police and foreign com-    was “a good and mature sol-              en route to the Republic,       economic survival. This was
    “In fact, it is as if noth-   panies should carry out their   dier who prefers to remain               South African cities have       again brought to the fore
ing has happened here,” he        activitiess as if nothing has   in the barracks in preference            always been the prime           when South African forces,
                                                                                                           destination for Basotho         under the SADC banner,
said. Workers manned the          happened”.                      to the attractions of political
                                                                                                           holiday makers due to           invaded Lesotho in 1998 to
radio station, “but we (the           Lesotho’s Moshoeshoe 1      power.”                                  proximity, affordability and
paramilitary force) are in        international Airport near          Chief Jonathan added                                                 “sort things out”.
                                                                                                           the assurance of a world            Since then, Lesotho has
charge”, he said.                 Maseru has been closed and      that Gen’ Lekhanya had                   class tourism package. To       increasingly had to look
    There was general rejoic-     all ßights cancelled.           refused to be subjected to               this day, Bloemfontein, in      to her sole neighbour for
ing in Maseru today.                  Meanwhile, the Lesotho      South African demands to                 particular, still remains the   answers to her many dif-
    At villages around Ma-        side of the South African       take over power because he               prime shopping destina-         Þcult economic questions as
seru, large crowds, constitut-    border remained open and        was “a highly disciplined                tion for much of Basotho’s      international aid to Lesotho
ing mainly women, ululated,       traffic ßowed normally.           man”.                                    middle class, turning border    declined, some of it ironical-
danced and screamed “Away             Yesterday, Chief Jonathan       Lesotho’s Information                crossing into something of      ly shifting to South Africa.
with Leabua!” and “Save us        said he aws still Þrmly in      Minister, Mr. Desmond Six-               a status symbol. Even South     However, the fact remains
                                                                                                           African football teams,         that the two country need
Lekhanya!”                        control of the country and      ishe, refused to discuss the
                                                                                                           Kaizer Chiefs and Orlando       each other for, in absence
    At the main bus and taxi      Government cources said         situation today.                         Pirates, for example, enjoy
terminal in Maseru, taxi          then that the leader of the         Speaking by telephone                                                of anything else, mere good
                                                                                                           tremendous support across       neighbourliness.
drivers and other motorists       attempted coup, colonel         from his office, Mr Sixishe                the border, a fact endorsed
sped around the terminal          Sehlabo of the paramilitary     said, ”I don’t know,” when               when a match between            Katleho Pefole is a Researcher
and blew their hooters and        force, had been arrested and    asked about the situation in             the two, to a large extent,     at the Transformation Resource
shook clenched Þsts.              would probably be court-        Maseru. - Sapa                           pulled some Basotho away        Centre.
        WORK FOR
                JUSTICE                                  Issue 75 — Lesotho at 40
                                                                                                                                                                   11



The people share their opinions on the sort of future they desire for Lesotho


                   “A positive vision towards
                a country rich with possibilities”
Work for Justice carried out an opinion survey to find out what 40 years of independence meant to ordinary people. Di-
verse views were shared, mostly by younger people who will be expected to grab the baton and lead the country into the
future. Many of the views expressed varied from the realistic to the optimistic.

                                                                                                                     Harteke Hloele, 18, Stu-
                        Sebina                                                                             dent. Firstly, it is a great pleasure that
                  Tlali, 35 Civil                                                                  Lesotho is celebrating its 40 years of independence.
             Servant: It means a lot.                        ‘Makatjo                         To me this means more problems to our country as there are
          It means a country which                       Khakhane, 37,                     already for example the arguments about cars sold for M4000.00.
           at this 40th independence                   student. It means                 Moreover, I see no improvements in our country when one comes to
        should have a more advanced                 that now Lesotho has              services in our public service. There is still bad management, for instance,
      technology, e.g. people should be            grown up, therefore we            one goes to Queen II Hospital only to Þnd that the queues are long and the
      able to use computers not at work            are expecting to beneÞt           services are slow. The transport fares have risen and the government does
    alone but even in their homes. It also         a lot from it in terms of            not want to meet the people half-way by at-least increasing their sala-
    means that people should be healthy            development, political                ries. At police stations thieves are caught and released, one person is
      and educated. Peace and stability             stability and equality                  caught red handed killing but the next day s/he will be sharing
     should be the motto in this country.            among us in regard                         a road with me. That is why Lesotho’s 40 years of inde-
    Gender issues should be considered.               to gender and local                            pendence means nothing but more problems to
     Clinics, schools (both technical and                   issues.                                                 me as a good citizen.
     non-technical) should cover the en-
    tire country. More industries should
    be developed so that majority of the                                                                                                                  Ama-
   people will get jobs. Agriculture as the                                                               ‘Mareitu-                                      dasul
    backbone of every country should be                                                             metse Maretlane,                                 Donald, 35,
     practised in the rural and urban ar-                                                         22, student. It means                            Instructor. It is
      eas in order to avoid this terrible                            Tiisetso                                                                      a day to com-
                                                                                                 that the new govern-
       poverty. People should be paid                         Lechaka, 50, tech-                                                                  memorate and
                                                                                               ment came to commit to
          satisfying salaries in order                    nical officer. Lesotho’s                                                                celebrate freedom
                                                                                              transforming the national
            to cope with the cost of                    40th Independence means                                                                from colonial mas-
                                                                                             economy and society to so-
                      living.                          a very crucial moment for                                                              ters. Freedom of de-
                                                                                             cialism and as more imme-
                                                    review on what has been going                                                          mocracy by the people,
                                                                                               diate task to redress the
                                                    on since attaining our independ-                                                        to the people. A day to
                                                                                                  inherited social and
                                                     ence. A lot of time has passed                                                        celebrate the price paid
                                                                                                    spatial inequali-
                                                   unproÞtably used and we are lag-                                                         by her heroes/heroines
                                                                                                           ties.
                                                  ging behind on matters of develop-                                                      in a struggle for freedom
                                                   ment. Basotho forgot to push their                                                     for the Basotho nation. A
                                                country forward and engaged much in                                                       day to appreciate leaders
                                                political conßicts for hunger of power                                                    of high repute, encourage
                   Sebolelo                      and became divided on their political                             Teboho                  citizens to be law-abid-
           Masoleng, 19, student.              affiliations. Lesotho was able to feed its                   Lelaka, 19, student:             ing, good citizens, day
       Lesotho’s 40-year independ-            people before independence but now we                      Lesotho’s 40-year in-               to appreciate one an-
      ence means a great honour to            are the most starving nation in the world.              dependence is a symbol of            other , promote friendli-
    this country because it is now not           Basotho were not conscientized about               a free society where each and            ness, peace and joy. A
   under the wing of another country.          the mines that will sometimes be closed             every Mosotho is free to share            day to plan ahead to
  It means that our country must now             in South Africa as to prepare for their         and take part in the development              make an impact in
    make improvements to do things              future now they have been retrenched            of the community. A country where                our society, com-
      on its own. 40-year independ-              in appalling numbers. Statistical data          there is liberty, equal opportunity          munities encourage
       ence brings joy and achieve-              were not used that more schools and            to each and every Mosotho. It is an            people to make an
           ments to the country.                   colleges up to universities will be      opportunity which calls for an advance-              impact on them-
                                                   needed. We are not self-sufficient             ment of the country. Furthermore it               selves and oth-
                                                      with almost everything that            implies that Basotho are now free to ex-                ers around
                                                       our independence has not              ercise their will. Not only does it confer                 them.
                                                       helped us much. In Lesot-              freedom, it also shows that Basotho as
                                                          ho, now it’s survival                a nation are capable of achieving tre-
                                                                of the Þttest.                  mendous and considerable success
                     Moliehi,                                                                     since independence has granted
                 30, student.                                                                       them this beautiful nation. A                    Joalane
              Lesotho’s 40-year                                                                        country where we create                 P. Mokoena, 28,
            independence means                                                                         our own laws suitable to              student. Lesotho’s
           nothing to me because                                                                          meet the needs of                40-year independence
        Lesotho is still poor and is                                                                          this society.                means a great achieve-
       one of the underdeveloped                                                                                                        ment in the country’s politi-
         countries. There is a high                                                                                                    cal governance. It means that
       level of unemployment and                                                                                                    indeed, the Basotho society have
                                                                                  Ntimana
      shortages of tertiary schools                                                                                                 managed and will still manage to
                                                                    Konyana, 17, student. A positive
     and our leaders are only look-                                                                                                 handle their own political issues
                                                           vision towards a country alive with possibilities.
      ing at themselves only. They                                                                                                    toward self-rule, ever since the
                                                      A discovery of quality academia back-up, professionalism
      are not interested in the eco-                                                                                               1966 when Lesotho regained its in-
                                                  put into practice. Time to look back and learn from our mistakes
     nomic growth of our country.                                                                                                  dependence. However, more has to
                                                  with the aim of making agreat good changes, giving allowance of
     They use the Þnancial aid for                                                                                                  be done in order to inßuence the
                                                justice and honesty, thus living an authentically obvious democracy.
         the beneÞt of themselves                                                                                                   political culture and socialization
                                                  Time to get up from our sleepy hours of unjust and oppression to
          not to serve the purpose                                                                                                   of the society since the attitudes
                                                     the ignorant. A great achievement of many successes which
          they were supposed to.                                                                                                          and values of the people
                                                        have made our country a prefect place to display our
              Our leaders don’t                                                                                                         towards independence and
                                                                       talents as young people.
              love our country.                                                                                                           other political activities
                                                                                                                                           seem to be deteriorat-
                                                                                                                                                    ing.
                                                                                                                                                      WORK FOR
  12                                                       Issue 75 — Lesotho at 40                                                                                JUSTICE

 Essay                                                              the last African state from


                                                                                                           ow ! TRC
                                                                    the clutches of such an ex-

                                                                                                          N n
                                                                    periment in Namibia only in
                                                                    1990, this idea can scarcely be


                                                                                                            pe
                                                                    popular even with the most
                                                                    oppressed of post-colonial
                                                                    African peoples.
                                                                        Yet, as long as the state         O                                                                                é
                                                                    is not allowed to serve the
                                                                    democratic interests of the
                                                                    country’s inhabitants, it will            30 Minutes
                                                                    be prone to abuse by state
                                                                    elites.
                                                                        Here, the nation state, at
                                                                    least in southern Africa, is not
                                                                                                           M5
                                                                    seen as a mass of homogene-
                                                                    ous population, but a social
                                                                    organisation articulated                  60 Minutes

                                                                    through a class stratiÞcation
                                                                    driven by the ownership of
                                                                                                          M10
Some in pyjamas,
                                                                    the means of production. Un-                                                1 Oaktree Gardens,
                                                                    fortunately, this understand-                                            Qoaling Road, Old Europa
                                                                    ing places state power as


Others under hats.
                                                                    well as the people’s interests
                                                                    in the hands of privileged or                                        • 4 State of the art work stations
                                                                    wealthy elites.                                                           • At the TRC Library
                                                                        Until recourse to elections                                        • Quiet working atmosphere
Independence should enable the state to                             is exercised against the elites,
                                                                    hardly any intervention
shine by the reflection of nationhood                                can be expected from more           For more information call !2231 4463
    Just as those upset with       and the nation in frenzied       powerful states or group of
the American state express         state contestation. Some state   states who themselves may


                                                                                                         www.trc.org.ls
their unhappiness by burn-         protagonists manipulated         be politically coy or legally
ing the stars and stripes or       the state to stay in power.      hamstrung to take action.
the twin towers, we came to        Their opponents exaggerate           Short of little else to do,
our senses that something          their adversaries’ excesses to   inhabitants shun state citizen-
was really wrong when the          justify their entry and stay in  ship in search of alternatives
Basotho Hat building went          power as messianic saviours,     in the markets. Even though
up in ßames in 1998.               only to sink down to similar     market rules are still set by
    The Czar’s St. Petersburg      moral decadence just as the
Palace, the Bastille Prison and proverbial pigs did in Jones’
                                                                    state players, ex- state players
                                                                    or friends of the state, ordi-
                                                                                                              Visit the TRC Library
the Berlin Wall all symbol-        bed, sheets and pyjamas.         nary market participants are                                                      for the latest

ized everything that the state         To the modern citizen, the   sure that their contribution is
came to represent. All, in         pride and honour of inde-        meant to serve them and not                                                Books
common, are at the centre of       pendence becomes hollow if       some politician.
major revolutions by peoples       it does translate into real ben-     The playing Þelds, play-                                              Journals
fed up with an attack on their     eÞts. Who wants to eat the       ing times and playing styles
nationhood. They effectively        ßag, anthem, coat of arms,       are therefore freely open.                                               Newspapers
separated nationhood from          stamps or other forms of state This, ironically, is the ac-                                                 Videos
statehood when state masters       heraldry? It may be one thing    cepted norm of state-market
had had the impression that        for the state to omit to fulÞl   interaction if not the pre-                                                DVDs



                      “                                              ”
the state was in                   its democratic responsibili-     condition. Public Holidays,
fact the soul of the               ties to the nation. It is quite           especially extended
                                                                             ones such as inde-         Open: Weekdays from 9 to 4.30 pm,
nation. In contrast
with the given Euro-              As long as the state is                    pendence will soon af-           Saturdays from 9 to 1 pm
pean examples, the               not allowed to serve the                   ford us, will also serve
Basotho Hat mirrors             democratic interests of the                 as opportunities for
much of who we are,             country’s inhabitants, it will             market players to play
                                                                           their game to the full. If
a nation uniÞed in one
small container.
                                be prone to abuse by state
                                               elites.                    shops will be closed on                          Lesotho Publications
    It is hardly surpris-                                                 October 4th, in Lesotho,
ing that the image of                                                  in nearby South African
the hat is evoked each time        another to directly starve the   cities and adjoining towns,                                                               A unique view
independence reminds us            nation of the resources and      they will certainly be ready to
that we are a nation separate      the right to exercise proÞtable welcome throngs of Basotho                                                                 on the history
                                   nationhood.                      queueing up to do business.
from others. It is even more
                                       We yearn to work to-         They are driven in this action                                                            of Lesotho!
preposterous when the hat                                                                                                               1983-2004
of nationhood is absurdly          gether, sing together, play      less by whatever political                                                                Articles from the newsletter of the
superimposed on the ßag of         together, eat together in a      gripes they may hold against                                                              Transformation Resource Centre.
statehood.                         national spirit. That spirit     the state and more by the
    The state’s inability to       is sadly drowned by state        imperative to improve their                                                               Now available at the TRC offices,
unite is exposed by the politi-    avarice when the protago-        livelihoods.                                                                              Qoaling Road, Old Europa.
cal parties’ clumsy tug at the     nists will be conveyed to the        The lesson to the state is
                                   independence celebrations in     simple and obvious: make                                                                            Published by the TRC
hat’s colour while simply
wearing the hat is enough to       solid metal leaving the rest of  the national, nation and
present the nationality in its     us by the sidelines to soak in   nationhood the referent of
fullness. Under the hat, the       tears of political betrayal.     state action and behaviour.
Mosotho speaks one lan-                It must have been Mazrui     The latter should shine by the
                                   who said that the trouble        reßection of the former and
guage, shares the same cus-
toms, draws from a common          with small (and weak) states     not the other way round.               On The Wrong Side of Development                 LHWP Revisited
historical experience and          is that their sovereign status       The good that is seen of
                                   compels them to see them-                                                                                                What are the lessons learned
shines through one culture as                                       the state should originate
                                                                                                                                                            from the Lesotho Highlands
he doffs the hat in a friendly,     selves as equal sovereigns       from the nation to give
                                                                                                                                                            Water Project? Find the answers
warm “Khotso” greeting to a        like other states yet sans       meaning to the dictum that                                                              in TRC‘s book
fellow national.                   the resources to sustain that    “a leader is a leader because                                                                 “On the Wrong Side
    Forty years and three ßags     status. He proposes that they    of the people”. The nature,                                                                     of Development”
later, the state still believes    instead be recolonised by        focus and pace of state action
it can thrust state unity onto     supranationals such as the       should be determined and                                                                Now available at the TRC offices, Qoa-
a nationhood already Þrmly         United Nations.                  dictated by the people. That                             Lessons Learned from t           g Road, Old Europa.
                                       This has the possibil-       way, independence may not                          Lesotho Highlands Water Proj
solidiÞed ages ago. It cannot.
Not when divisive state ten-       ity of neutralizing the local    appear to be a celebration of          Edited by
                                                                                                                                                                       Published by the TRC
dencies have instead divided       state protagonists’ power.       statehood but an opportunity           Mabusetsa Lenka Thamae and
                                                                                                           Lori Pottinger
                                                                                                                                                                 Transformation Resource Centre, 2231 4463
families, villages, chiefdoms      With independence freeing        to honour nationhood.

				
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