Forest Management

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					 Forest Management
       Diseases and Pests
that effect a good harvest stand
         What is a Disease?
 Definition            Types of Diseases…
   disorder that is
                        Abiotic
                          nonliving agent cause
    caused by
    something           Biotic
    specific with         living agent causes


    consistant               • fungus, bacteria,
    symptoms.                  parasite, virus,
                               nematodes
Fungus
 Most destructive in forests
 Threadlike plants that do not make their
  own food.
 Parasitic- when taking food from a living
  tree
 Saprophytic- when taking food from dead
  trees to aid in humus production.
Biotic Diseases of Trees
 Wood Rots
 Cause:
                                2 Types
   Fungus decay in trees
                                White Rot- break
   Break down cellulose
                                 down of cellulose and
    and lignin in cell walls
                                 lignin in the cell
   Very harmful because
                                 walls.
    they are hard to
                                Brown Rot- only
    detect from the
                                 break down cellulose
    outside of a living
    tree.                       70% of all timber
                                 lost
 Biotic Disease continued...
 Symptoms                    Prevention
    Conk- specialized           Prevent scaring of

     growth on outside            trees
     containing fungal           Rotate harvest age
     spores spread when          Harvest more
     opened.                      frequently in mixed
      • Look like                 age forests
        mushrooms                Using these methods
        growing on the            doesn’t give fungus
        sides of the trunk        the chance to grow.
  Canker
 Cause                    Symptoms
   fungus entering           weak trees

    through wounds in         decay for no apparent
    the bark                   reason
   cause lesions that        lesions may be present
    produce callus tissue
    and damage the
    woody tissue of the
    tree, making it less
    valuable
  Canker
 Treatment
   Eliminate infected

    trees from the stand

 Prevention
    avoid scaring trees

    discard infected trees
   Rust
 White Pine Blister
   fungus disease that
                              Fusiform
    contain different            fungal disease that

    spores; effects trees,        affects Southern
    currents, and                 Pine and some
    gooseberries.                 Oak.


      White Pine and Oak
       is very susceptible
   Rust continued...
 Symptoms                     Treatment/Prevention
    spotted red or brown        fungicidal treatments

     discoloration of stems      plant resistant

     and/or leaves                varieties
    may infest in cones,        rid host plants

     needles, and stems of
     conifers
                                   ** All fungi that
    infest only leaves of
                                    causes rust spends its
     certain hardwoods              live on two different
                                    unrelated host plants
   Wilt
 Cause                        Treatment/Prevention
   fungus invades and           Eliminate insects as

    grows in the vessles of       they spread disease
    the xylem tissue.            discard infected trees

   Why is this harmful?         be award of root graft

                                   • tree roots grow
      EX) Dutch Elm                 together
       Disease is a form of          underground
       wilt.
** Notice that the oak
trees affected by wilt
will drop their leaves
in the middle of
summer.


All three trees in
picture show signs of
wilt
Sunscald
 Cause                    Symptoms
   direct sunlight for       bark damage

    extended amount           color change
    of time                Prevention/Treatment
   freezing temps
                              None
    followed by a few
                              weather related
    days of hot sun in
    late winter/early
    spring
                 Insects
 Types of Damage
   Bark Borers

   Defoliators

   Root Feeders

   Terminal Feeders

   Sucking Insects
Bark Borers
 Bore tunnels into bark and
  woody parts
 Female lays eggs in tunnels
 Larvae feed on xylem and
  phloem tissues

 Why is this a big deal?
Defoliators
 Insects feed off leaves and needles
 Few insects can completely remove foliage
  from tree in a single season
 How does this affect the tree?

 Birch, Maple (both black and sugar)
Root Feeders
 Destroy the rooting tissue when tender
  and prevent growth.
 Insects include: wireworms, grubs, weevil
 Why is this a concern?
Terminal Feeders
 Insects that feed on terminal leaders
     terminal leaders determine which way a
      branch will grow
 Cause deformities in branches and
  quality of trunk is reduced.
 Insects include: Pine moth and weevil
  Sucking Insects
 Insects equipped with mouthparts
  that imbed into the leaves and suck
  out all the chlorophyll and produce
  honeydew.
 Why is this bad??
 Insects include: Aphids, mites,
  leafhoppers, lice, scales, cicadas,
  spittlebugs
 Affects all trees
Air Pollution
 Abiotic disease caused by Sulfur and
  Nitrogen compounds given off by exhaust
  fumes and factories

 Damage occurs in leaves and effects
  photosynthesis
How can we control these
problems?
 Mechanical/Biological Control
     remove dead, decayed trees
     invite birds into territory
     introduced predator insects ex)ladybug, ants
 Chemical Control
     insecticides, fungicides
     must be careful when applying
Integrated Pest Management
 IPM makes use of all methods in a safe
  way
 depends on the use of natural insects first
  then adds other defense mechanisms
 Encourages genetically engineered
  resistant crops to be planted

				
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