The Foreign Policy of Theodore Roosevelt Racism Ideology of American Expansionism Religion Nationalism I. The Man- He wrote the four volume “Winning of the West.” His senior thesis on the war of 1812 is still considered the definitive work on the topic. He wrote close to 20 volumes, history, natural history, literary criticism, autobiography, political philosophy, and military memoirs. He habitually read 1-3 books per day. He was: a boxing champion contestant, 5th Avenue Socialite, New York State Assemblyman, Dakota Cowboy, a deputy sheriff, US Civil Service Commissioner, Police Commissioner of NYC, Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Colonel of the Rough Riders, Governor of NY, and President of the United States. All by the age of 42. II. The Accidental President- He became VP as a way to neutralize his political appeal. The head of the New York Republican party (Platt) wanted him out of the Governor’s Mansion, so they made him the VP candidate. McKinley made it clear he had no use for TR. II. Theodore Rex’s foreign policy- A. Construction of a Navy to carry out the “large view” of national obligations. 1. Roosevelt realized the United States could no longer rely on the protection of the British Navy. 2. Policing the Caribbean. Roosevelt’s foreign policies, Venezuela debts owed to the Europeans. German shelling of Venezuelan ports. 3. The USA had a new empire. The Congress did not want to pay for two navies. The solution is a central American canal. Hay- Pauncefote Treaty. Acknowledged the sole right of the United States to solely build an isthmian canal. TR agreed to purchase the French canal company’s assets for $40 million (half what the French were asking). TR offered Colombia $10 million and 250,000 annually which the Colombian government refused. TR let it be known that he would smile on a Panamanian independence movement. B. Roosevelt Corollary- The United States would not interfere with Latin American nations that conducted their affairs with decency, but that “brutal wrongdoing” might require intervention by civilized powers, and the USA could not ignore their duty. C. The Balance of Power- Civilized powers were responsible for maintaining a balance of power 1. Japan in Korea, Russia in Manchuria. 2. Moroccan crisis of 1904-1905. The Kaiser wanted TR to intervene on behalf of Germany. TR chose to support the Entente Cordial (Britain & France) to act as a lynchpin for stability against German aggression. a. Germans believed England was attempting to draw Germany and France into a war so the British could destroy the German fleet. b. TR accepts the idea of an Anglo-American Empire to rule the world. c. 1903 Alaskan Boundary Dispute. The British appeased the United States to keep them on the British side. 3. Russo-Japanese War- Gave TR the opportunity to act as an international peacekeeper. Japan took the Southern half of Sakhalin, Port Arthur, and Manchuria. Manchuria was to stay open to outside trade, but administered by the Japanese. Japan’s primacy in Korea was also recognized. a. At the treaty TR realizes that Japan has the strongest fleet in Asia. He is able to secure Japanese recognition of American sovereignty in the Philippines for recognizing the Japanese in Korea. D. Gentlemen’s Agreement- American Japanese relations might have stayed on more stable footing if it was not for the San Francisco public school district. The school district attempted to segregate Japanese students into separate schools. The Japanese saw this as an insult to their honor and prestige. Roosevelt diffused the situation by desegregating the schools as long as the Japanese government agreed to only allow skilled workers to emigrate to the United States. E. The Great White Fleet- Its first stop was Japan (symbolic?). Root-Takahira Agreement- 1908- Respect Japan’s control of Manchura, the Open Door in China, and the status quo in Asia.
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