REVIEW : 1
AN IMPROVED GEOCAST
FOR MOBILE Ad Hoc NETWORKS
Reg No:094501114007 Lavanya.R MCA.
• Geographic addressing of packets within mobile ad
hoc network enables novel applications,including hard
real-time engagement simulation in military training
systems,geographic command and control functions
in training and emergency communications,and
commercial messaging application as well.
• The most scalable implementation of geoaddressing
is via a geocast protocol,where nodes selectively
retransmit packets based on local decision rules.
• Well designed retransmission heuristics yield scalable
geographic flooding that outperforms alternative
• Previous geocast implementations, while effective, fall into
two categories. Approaches based on flooding are
unscalable due to the high load they generate.
• Scalable approaches, on the other hand, have trouble in
complex environments, lacking sufficient intelligence about
the necessary directionality of packet flow.
• The present paper defines a novel geocast heuristic, the
Center Distance with Priority (CD-P) Heuristric, which
both significantly improves on reliability of existing
scalable geocast and yet also remains scalable as scenario
The present paper makes three primary novel contributions:
A novel Geocast, based on a new heuristic, the Center
Distance with Priority (CD-P) Heuristic
A flexible framework for integrating geocast heuristics,
including the previously studied M and T heuristics, with CD-
P (and others)
An evaluation study comparing CD-P to existing geocast
heuristics and showing empirically that it outperforms them,
while still scaling well.
Geocast is a network protocol for sending a packet to all nodes
within a defined geographic region termed as the geocast region.
The Center-Distance (CD) Heuristic is to support the CD
Heuristic, we first arugment the statistics collection process as
follows: each time a node hears a transmission of a geocast packet
p for geocast ID I, it calculates the distance from the transmitter of
p to the center of the geocast region CGRðp.
Adding Priority Queuing is to ultimately solve this scalability
problem, the CD-P Heuristic imposes the additional condition that
each node prioritizes its transmit queue by center-distance
CD-P produces 10 transmissions, four fewer
than CD produced and generally CD-P improves
dramatically on CD for these linear scenarios.
Success% measures the fraction of feasible
geocasts that reached the target node. The goal
of a geocast implementation is high Success%
with low Latency.
The reliability difference is due to a drastic
difference in (re)transmissions per message.
Heuristic can improve success% over pure
greedy approaches, it can also select overly long
paths, resulting in high latency or packet drops
due to reaching time-to-live limits.
In Trajectory-Based Forwarding (TBF) the
sender specifies a parameterized geometric
curve as a kind of generalized “route” to the
Processor : PENTIUM IV 2.6 GHz
RAM : 256Mb and above
Hard Disk : 10 GB.
Monitor : VGA and High Resolution Monitor
Front End : Java
Operating System : Windows xp
Back End : SQL Server 2005
• Hcl founded in 1976, is one of India's original IT
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• The HCL team comprises over 59,000 professionals
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• HCL Infosystems Ltd, with revenue
(LTM) of $2.8 billion (Rs. 12,439
crores) is India's premier information
• HCL has global partnerships with
several leading Fortune 1000 firms,
including leading IT and Technology
• HCL today has India's largest vertically integrated
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& HCL desktops is the largest selling brand in the
• HCL has India's largest distribution and retail
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including Apple, Cisco, Ericsson, Kingston,
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• Java is a programming language originally
developed by James Gosling at Sun
• which has since merged into Oracle
Corporation and released in 1995 as a core
component of Sun Microsystems' Java
• The language derives much of its syntax from
C and C++ but has a simpler object model and
fewer low-level facilities.
• Java applications are typically
compiled to bytecode (class file) that can run on
any Java Virtual Machine (JVM) regardless
of computer architecture.
• Java is a general-purpose, concurrent, class-based, object-
oriented language that is specifically designed to have as
few implementation dependencies as possible.
• It is intended to let application developers "write once,
run anywhere," meaning that code that runs on one
platform does not need to be edited to run on another.
• Java is currently one of the most popular programming
languages in use, particularly for client-server web
applications, with a reported 10 million users.
• SQL-SERVER database consist of six type of objects
• 1. TABLE
• 2. QUERY
• 3. FORM
• 4. REPORT
• 5. MACRO
• A database is a collection of data about a specific topic.
• VIEWS OF TABLE:
• We can work with a table in two types,
• 1. Design View
• 2. Datasheet View
• Design View
• To build or modify the structure of a table we work in the
table design view. We can specify what kind of data will be
• Datasheet View
• To add, edit or analyses the data itself we work in tables datasheet
• A query is a question that has to be asked the data. Access gathers
data that answers the question from one or more table. The data that make
up the answer is either dynaset (if you edit it) or a snapshot(it cannot be
edited).Each time we run query, we get latest information in the
dynaset.Access either displays the dynaset or snapshot for us to view or
perform an action on it ,such as deleting or updating.
• A form is used to view and edit information in the database record by
record .A form displays only the information we want to see in the way we
want to see it. Forms use the familiar controls such as textboxes and
checkboxes. This makes viewing and entering data easy.