Origin of the Universe - PowerPoint by J0h22E


									Origin of the Universe

    Big Bang Theory
              Big Bang Theory
• Scientists now believe that the universe had a definite
  beginning, and it will have an end.
• The ‘best’ explanation for the existence of the universe is
  currently the Big Bang Theory.
• The Big Bang is thought to be an explosion from a
  SINGULARITY (a single point of density – where all
  known space was compressed into an infinitely small
• This happened 12-15bn years ago (12,000,000,000-
  15,000,000,000 years)
• They don’t really know what the singularity was or ‘how
  long’ it had been there.
• Unlike Steady State Theory, the universe is not
  ‘filling up’ as it expands – the galaxies are
  moving further away from each other, with more
  space in-between.
• In the first second after the explosion, gravity
  and electro-magnetism were ‘created’.
• In the first minute the universe had grown to
  1million billion miles (1,000,000,000,000) across
• In the first 3 minutes, the heat (10 billion degrees
  celsius) causes nuclear reaction with lightest
  particles to make 98% of all matter in the
• The Big bang was thought to produce 2 main
  types of particle: matter and anti-matter.
• Matter and anti-matter in equal quantities cancel
  each other out. The surplus is what the universe
  is made of.
• After 500,000 years, particles from atoms
• 500,000 years after that, atoms and molecules
  start to gather together and form galaxies and
• Out of the first stars came H, He, C, O
• Our solar system is about 4.5 billion years old.
 Evidence Supporting the Big Bang
1. Hubble’s Law: the speed of the galaxies
   moving away from each other causes a
   change in the light spectrum, ‘red shift’.
2. Background radiation: We can still detect
   radiation from an explosion of this size – the
   radiation is the same everywhere on earth (TV
   static, etc).
3. Composition of Older Galaxies: Analysis of
   light from galaxies towards the ‘outside’ of the
   universe confirm theories about the early
   universe. They are made up of approx 93% H,
   7% He, and trace Li
1. Cosmologists cannot follow the evidence
   right back to the origin of the Big Bang
2. There is observable evidence to count
   for 90% of the explosion (10.5bn years) –
   no light to be measured from other 10%
3. The other 10% is only ‘known’ through
   hypothetical mathematical simulations –
   they are only theoretical.
     Religious Use of the ‘Gap’
1. As science is not 100% certain about the
   cause of the Big Bang, it is reasonable to posit
   God there (no evidence against this) – this is a
   ‘God of the Gaps’ approach
2. Some facts about the world might always be
   beyond science – even if we do figure out all of
   the processes behind how we got here, it still
   does not answer why we are here. There
   could always be an ultimate power behind it
   all. This is an area of faith.
1. Spontaneously created from nothing (like
   Quarks appear to be) – all natural laws
   etc have developed randomly over time
2. There are basic laws / creative powers
   ‘behind’ nature that explain how it has
   come do develop the way it has. This
   creative power is the final explanation of
   the universe (which some people also
   call God)

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