The Norwegian police force efforts to combat outlaw motorcycle

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					                               The Norwegian police force’s
                               efforts to combat outlaw
                               motorcycle gangs, 2011 to 2015

National Police Directorate
December 2010
Design: RMgrafika
Number printed: 4,000

POD Publication no. 2010/15
ISBN: ISBN 978-82-8256-009-2

Table of Contents                                                          Foreword
        1     Introduction                                            4          The police force’s fight against criminal
        1.1   The working group                                       4          motorcycle gangs is a continuation of
        1.2   Structure of the report                                 4          the action plan to combat outlaw mot-
                                                                                 orcycle gangs prepared by the National
        2    The development of outlaw motorcycle gangs               6          Police Directorate (POD) for 2003-2008.
        2.1  Introduction: Which outlaw                                          Policing biker gangs has been and remains
        motorcycle gangs require priority policing?                   6          a top priority. Despite the efforts of the
        2.2 Hells Angels – motto: “When we do right nobody                       police force and society in general to
        remembers. When we do wrong nobody forgets.”                  6          combat such groups, there has been a
        2.3 Bandidos – motto: “We are the people our parents                     substantial growth among motorcycle
        warned us about”                                              6          gangs since they first were established in
        2.4 Outlaws – motto: “God Forgives, Outlaws Don’t – GFOD”     7          Norway around the start of the 1990s.
        2.5 Coffin Cheaters MC                                        7
                                                                                 Motorcycle gangs have now gained a solid
        3    The police force’s efforts to combat outlaw                         foothold on an international scale, and
         motorcycle groups                                            8          the police force and society in general
                                                                                 are faced with major challenges in terms
        4      Outlaw motorcycle gangs in Norway today                9          of combating their criminal activities.
        4.1    Individual motivations for becoming members and                   This strategic report has been compiled
        links between the members                                     9          to tie together and target the efforts of
        4.2 The outlaw motorcycle gangs                               9          the police force against outlaw motor-
        4.2.1 Structure of the basic organisation                     9          cycle gangs. Analysis, intelligence work,
        4.2.2 Club uniforms and what they say                         11         criminal prosecution, coordination and
        4.2.3 How the clubs take care of their members                           development of expertise are some of the
        and supporters                                               12          keywords that will describe our efforts in
        4.2.4 In-house discipline within the clubs                   13          the years to come.
        4.2.5 The club members from a law-breaking perspective       13
        4.2.6 The clubs’ income and outgoings                        14          In the main the report is a continuation
        4.3 How outlaw motorcycle gangs function within society      14          of the initiatives described in the former
        4.3.1 Relationships to other, similar motorcycle groups      14          action plan. However, the evolution of
        4.3.2 Relationship with the media and establishment of                   outlaw motorcycle gangs has challenged
        “goodwill”                                                   16          the police force’s traditional approach to
        4.3.3 Age of the motorcycle gangs as an expression of the                understanding criminal networks. The
        criminal potential                                           16          report therefore distinguishes between
        4.4 Criminality inflicted on society by motorcycle gangs     16          combating motorcycle gang crime as one
        4.5 Summary                                                  18          element, and the organisation that faci-
                                                                                 litates such crime. With such a two-tier
        5     Overall threat                                         20          approach, the National Police Directorate
                                                                                 is now prepared to reinforce its efforts
        6     The police force’s strategic goals and initiatives      21         against motorcycle gangs over the next
        6.1   Analyses of motorcycle gangs                            21         four years.
        6.2 Regional collaboration                                    21
        6.3 Continuation of the motorcycle manual developed by the               The efforts of the police force and follow-
        National Criminal Investigation Service (Kripos)              21         up of this report will be evaluated over
        6.4 Kripos as coordinator for collaboration regarding                    time.
        motorcycle gangs                                              21
        6.5 Police force collaboration with public and private bodies 21
        6.6 Focus on opportunities and not limitations                           The National Police Directorate, 30
        when combating this type of crime                             22         November 2010

        7     Evaluation of the report and crime-fighting efforts    22
                                                                                 Ingelin Killengreen, National Police
4                                                                    5

1 Introduction
          1.1 The working group
          The working group has prepared its report in parallel
          with the reports regarding the police force’s efforts
          to combat gang and drug crimes from 2011 to 2015,
          and further insight can be gained from reading these
          reports in context. The reports describe the develop-
          ment in crime and provide guidelines for how the
          police districts and special units (hereinafter referred
          to as the police force) shall prevent such crime for
          the period from 2011 to 2015.

          1.2 Structure of the report
          The report describes how the police force shall
          prevent projected motorcycle gang crime in the near
          future. In order to be able to describe future crime,
          we need information about its development (chapter
          2) and how the police have combated such crime
          (chapter 3). With this information, we are then
          able to describe the current crime picture (chapter
          4). Knowledge of history and the current situation
          allows us to make qualified hypotheses regarding
          the development of crime (chapter 5). Being able to
          describe the development of crime also enables us to
          propose measures (chapter 6). This report and the
          application of it by the police force will be evaluated
          as a part of the work to develop know-how within
          the police (chapter 7).
6                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     7

2 The development of outlaw motorcycle gangs
         2.1 Introduction: Which outlaw                                                           prospect members, who belonged to the following                                       MC Northland and Bandidos MC East Coast. On 17                      support club, the Black Pistons.
         motorcycle gangs require priority policing? The                                          seven chapters as of March 2010:                                                      December 1993, both chapters were promoted to full                  Today, the Outlaws have a total of 2647 chapters
         police force’s efforts to combat outlaw motorcycle                                                                                                                             membership in Bandido Nation, as the very first in                  and prospect chapters comprising 106 chapters in
         gangs are primarily a question of counteracting the                                           •	 Hells Angels MC Trondheim (full member 1                                      Scandinavia. Bandidos currently has 246 chapters                    the USA and Canada, 144 chapters in Europe, 17 in
         networks which partly or wholly comprise outlaw                                                  August 1992)                                                                  in 15 different countries.6 Bandidos also has 142                   Australia and 3 in South East Asia. In Scandinavia,
         members of these gangs.                                                                       •	 Hells Angels MC Oslo (full member 14 September                                support groups listed on its web site. In Norway,                   the Outlaws are only present in Sweden and Norway;
                                                                                                          1996)                                                                         Bandidos had 48 members and prospect members as                     Hells Angels and Bandidos dominate in Denmark.
         Motorcycle gang crime is most commonly committed                                              •	 Hells Angels MC Stavanger (full member 14                                     of January 2010 in the following chapters:
         by the so-called «one percenters». The one percen-                                               September 1996)                                                                                                                                   In Norway, the Outlaws have recruited the highest
         ters are clubs and individuals who belong to the                                              •	 Hells Angels MC Hamar (full member 8 May 1999)                                     •	 Bandidos MC Oslo (founded on 1 February                     number of members over recent years and have
         section of the motorcycle community which does not                                            •	 Hells Angels MC Skien (full member 30                                                 1997)                                                       approx. 70 members and prospect members distribu-
         define itself as part of normal society, or at least the                                         November 2002)                                                                     •	 Bandidos MC Drammen (founded on 1                           ted over the following chapters as of March 2010:
         law-abiding motorcycle groups, and which follow                                               •	 Hells Angels MC Troms (full member 29                                                 February 1997)
         their own laws and regulations. They see themselves                                              September 2006)                                                                    •	 Bandidos MC Fredrikstad (founded in 1998)                      •	 Outlaws Oslo (founded in 2000)
         as a brotherhood, and numerous members are con-                                               •	 Hells Angels MC Drammen (full member 1                                             •	 Bandidos MC Stavanger (founded on 9                            •	 Outlaws Nomads (founded in December 2007)
         victed criminals. The clubs emerged from a sub-cul-                                              September 2007)                                                                       November 2002)                                                 •	 Outlaws Drammen
         ture which developed in post-war USA, with a focus                                            •	 MC Bergen (prospect club)                                                          •	 Bandidos MC Kristiansand                                       •	 Outlaws Fredrikstad
         on street motorcycles, in particular Harley Davidsons                                                                                                                                  (founded on 5 July 2003). This chapter is                      •	 Outlaws Jessheim
         and choppers, and a set of ideals involving freedom,                                     The clubs under the domain of the Hells Angels                                                frozen due to understaffing, and the                           •	 Outlaws Stavanger
         non-conformity and loyalty to the club.                                                  are in the majority and have a much more stable                                               members have been transferred to the                           •	 Outlaws Trondheim
                                                                                                  membership than the clubs belonging to Bandidos/                                              Drammen chapter.                                               •	 Outlaws Norway North (prospective)
         2.2 Hells Angels1 – motto:                                                               Outlaws: More than 90% of the other one percenter                                          •	 Bandidos MC Lillestrøm                                         •	 Outlaws Kristiansand (prospective)
         “When we do right nobody remembers. When we do                                           clubs in Norway support Hells Angels. By intro-                                            •	 Probationary Asker (official prospect chapter)                 •	 Outlaws Sarpsborg (founded 18 September
         wrong nobody forgets.”                                                                   ducing the Norwegian model,4 Hells Angels has                                                                                                                   2009)
         Hells Angels was founded in March 1948 in                                                secured itself a stable supply of new members. Over                                   Since their foundation in Norway, Bandidos has                         •	 Outlaws Eidsvoll (founded in January 2010)
         California. The structure of the club has provided                                       the past few years, Hells Angels has welcomed an                                      reinforced its position within the motorcycle com-
         a model for other motorcycle clubs. Hells Angels                                         increasing number of new prospect chapters, and                                       munity by recruiting and building up support groups                 Outlaws are allied with the following motorcy-
         expanded throughout the 1960s in the USA. The first                                      receives numerous requests for membership from                                        such as Red & Gold Crew and Support X-team. These                   cle groups: Bandidos, Mongols and Pagans in the
         international Hells Angels chapter was established                                       motorcycle clubs.                                                                     support groups are not necessarily motorcycle ent-                  USA and a group within the American Mafia “The
         in New Zealand in 1961. In July 1969, the very first                                     Hells Angels is affiliated with other criminal coali-                                 husiasts and mainly comprise young criminal males.                  Chicago Outfit”.8
         European chapter of Hells Angels was founded in                                          tions such as the Aryan Brotherhood, the Cali cartel                                  As of May 2009, Bandidos had ten support groups in
         London. During the 1970s and 80s, Hells Angels                                           in Colombia, the Indian Posse gang in Canada and                                      different towns and cities in Norway.                               2.5 Coffin Cheaters MC
         opened several chapters in Europe and the USA. At                                        the Iron Horsemen and Warlocks outlaw motorcycle                                                                                                          The Coffin Cheaters club was founded in the town of
         the same time, the club consolidated its position in                                     clubs in the USA.5                                                                    2.4 Outlaws – motto:                                                Perth, Australia in
         Australia with the opening of a number of chapters                                                                                                                             “God Forgives, Outlaws Don’t – GFOD”                                1970. The Australian police force describes the club
         there. The 1980s and 90s saw a substantial expan-                                        2.3 Bandidos – motto:                                                                 McCook Outlaws Motorcycle Club was founded in                       as one of the most well-run one percenter clubs in
         sion of Hells Angels in Canada.                                                          “We are the people our parents warned us about”                                       1935 along the old motorway, Route 66, in the US                    the country, with good resources and solid finances.
                                                                                                  Bandidos was founded in 1966 in Texas, USA,                                           state of Illinois. The club achieved a substantial                  In Australia, the Coffin Cheaters are larger than Hells
         The first chapter in Scandinavia was established                                         modelling themselves on Hells Angels. During the                                      growth during the first post-war years in the Chicago               Angels. Coffin Cheaters only exist in Australia and
         on 31 December 1980, when the Unionen MC in                                              1970s, Bandidos achieved substantial growth,                                          area, and set up base in Chicago in 1950, changing                  Norway. In Norway, the Coffin Cheaters founded
         Copenhagen became Hells Angels MC Copenhagen.                                            mainly in the south-eastern states. The first internati-                              its name to The Chicago Outlaws.                                    the Forbidden Few MC Lillestrøm club in September
         This is still considered to be the leading Hells Angels                                  onal chapter of the Bandidos was formed in Sydney,                                    In 1963, the Outlaws became official members of the                 2004 as a full blown chapter. This move was in defi-
         chapter in Scandinavia.                                                                  Australia in December 1983. The establishment of                                      one percenter brotherhood of motorcycle clubs and                   ance of the Hell Angels’ hegemony over the estab-
                                                                                                  the first European chapter took place in the spring of                                continued to grow in the USA. The first chapter to                  lishment of new one percenter clubs. However, Hells
         Today, Hells Angels has 310 chapters in 32 coun-                                         1989, when the Bandidos MC Marseilles chapter was                                     be founded abroad was in 1977 in Canada. The first                  Angels had to accept the new club in order to avoid a
         tries, and is the largest club of one percenters.2                                       formed in South France.                                                               intercontinental chapters were set up in France in                  «war» in Australia.
         Furthermore, the club’s web site reports the exis-                                                                                                                             1993 and Australia in 1994. Over the next decade,
         tence of five official hang-around and prospect chap-                                    In 1992 Bandidos began its expansion in Europe with                                   the Outlaws gained significant expansion. With                      The Coffin Cheaters aim to grow even further. They
         ters.3 In Norway, Hells Angels has 113 members and                                       two probationary chapters in Denmark: Bandidos                                        effect from 2002, the Outlaws had their first official              have ten chapters in Australia and three in Norway,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            with an approximate total of between 200 and300
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            members. The Norwegian chapter has 25 members
         1 Source: Kripos publication «MC-håndbok» dated 29 November 2006 and supplementary information from                                                      6 According to figures from Europol in May 2010.                    and prospect members distributed among the chap-
           According to figures from Europol in May 2010.
           As of 27 May 2010. The Hells Angels’ web site does not accurately specify the number of members (or chapters).
                                                                                                                                                                                        7 According to figures from Europol in May 2010.                    ters in Lillestrøm, Stjørdal and Gjøvik.
                                                                                                                                                                                        8 According to the description of Outlaws on
         4 In brief, the Norwegian model states that no one percenter club is allowed to start up without approval from the club which is responsible for the region. This has resul-
            ted in the majority of one percenters coming under the domain of the Hells Angels.
         5 According to the description of Hells Angels on
8                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9

3 The police force’s efforts to combat outlaw motorcycle groups                                                                                                            4 Outlaw motorcycle gangs in Norway today
                        It was not until the early 1980s that the Norwegian                                     a national project under the management of Oslo            This report focuses on the international one per-                                   requirement for secrecy in relation to third parties.
                        police began to experience problems with outlaw                                         Police District.                                           center clubs, Hells Angels, Bandidos, Outlaws and
                        motorcycle gangs. The police stations in Trondheim,                                                                                                Coffin Cheaters, currently established in Norway.10                                 All the clubs have a leading body. In Hells Angels, the
                        Rogaland and Oslo were particularly affected and                                        In 2003, the National Police Directorate prepared its      As these clubs are very similar, they are discussed                                 principal body is the «world rally». The Bandidos,
                        entered into a collaboration. The Danish police also                                    plan of action, entitled: «Politiets bekjempelse av kri-   jointly in the report.                                                              Outlaws and Coffin Cheaters have permanent
                        took part in this collaboration as the Norwegian                                        minelle MC-miljøer 2003–2008» (the police force’s                                                                                              leadership bodies, for example the Bandidos’ El
                        clubs had close links with the Danish clubs.                                            fight against outlaw motorcycle groups, 2003-2008).        4.1 Individual motivations for becoming members                                     Presidente. All the international one percenter clubs
                                                                                                                Kripos was assigned the role of central coordinator,       and links between the members                                                       hold regular regional and global meetings at which
                        The outlaw motorcycle clubs became a matter for                                         both at home and abroad. Furthermore, ROK provi-           Members of the established one percenter clubs are                                  they discuss rules and other matters.
                        the central authorities and featured on their agendas                                   ded assistance on ten major cases involving members        recruited from the supporter clubs. Those persons
                        from the start of the 1990s. In Circular G-1 48/91,                                     of motorcycle gangs, and the police successfully           recruited most often have resources or know-how                                     All the international motorcycle gangs are organised
                        the Ministry of Justice and Police in Norway, in                                        collaborated with local partners. Despite the efforts      which is of use to the club.                                                        into chapters. The chapters comprise at least five or
                        consultation with the Director of Public Prosecution                                    of the police and society at large, the number of mot-                                                                                         six full members. The chapters are organised
                        in Norway, decided to implement a project to                                            orcycle club chapters still increased from 11 in 2003      Researchers and former members agree that profit                                    according to a common template, with no room for
                        combat outlaw motorcycle groups in Norway. This                                         to 25 in 2009, in addition to the establishment of the     or the desire to commit crimes is seldom the sole                                   differences, and can be compared to franchises. If a
                        was a joint project between the Oslo police head-                                       Coffin Cheaters in 2004.                                   motivating factor for becoming a one percenter. In                                  chapter should be undermanned, for example due
                        quarters and Kripos (the National Bureau of Crime                                                                                                  general, the motivation is that of living a lifestyle                               to members being arrested or withdrawing from the
                        Investigation Service now known as the National                                         The evaluation of the action plan in 2009 indicated        characterised by ideals of independence, solidarity                                 club, this has to be reported to the club management,
                        Criminal Investigation Service), aiming to track the                                    that there was still a need for the police, in coope-      and freedom. The process to become a member                                         which then decides whether the chapter should be
                        groups and prevent their expansion. At the same                                         ration with other public authorities and society at        is long, uncertain and demanding, so prospective                                    frozen or reinforced with members from other clubs.
                        time, a nationwide contact person scheme was                                            large, to actively fight outlaw motorcycle clubs. The      members require a high level of motivation. Full
                        established and a strategy laid down. This strategy                                     evaluation highlighted the need for a more clearly         members are most often adults, as the clubs often                                   Each chapter is organised according to a traditional
                        provided guidelines for tracking outlaw motorcycle                                      defined and binding adoption of the plan of action,        expect a certain degree of maturity and repertoire of                               hierarchical structure:
                        clubs, listing a number of operational countermeasu-                                    and a need to increase know-how within the area.           a prospective member.                                                               •	 Internally, the President is in control of the chapter
                        res, including investigations.                                                                                                                                                                                                            and its members. He has right of veto at member
                                                                                                                Numerous international projects and groups have            The club members do not only meet in one arena;                                        meetings and can amend decisions made. The Vice
                        In 1995, the National Bureau of Crime Investigation                                     been set up to work on motorcycle gangs:                   they work together, maintain their motorcycles,                                        President represents the President in his absence.
                        was allocated main responsibility for intelligence                                                                                                 prepare activity plans and party together. They                                     •	 The Sergeant at Arms is in charge of security and is
                        work in Norway. This responsibility also covered the                                    •	 The PTN-collaboration (police and customs               form multiplex relationships which are strong, easy                                    responsible for maintaining an overview of the
                        motorcycle gang project. As such, the Ministry of                                          in the Nordic countries) is an important tool           to mobilise and long-lasting, and which therefore                                      club’s enemies, defending the club/chapter and
                        Justice and the Police prepared a new set of instruc-                                      for successful collaboration among the Nordic           create strong bonds of loyalty within the motorcycle                                   keeping order in the ranks. He reports directly to
                        tions for the project, highlighting the importance of                                      countries. Norway is in charge of the PTN Rocker        gangs, at least within the club. However, there are                                    the President and is entitled, on order, to discipline
                        good intelligence efforts.                                                                 project.9 The goal of this project is to collect,       plenty of examples to indicate that conditions within                                  including physically disciplining - members who
                                                                                                                   process, analyse and communicate                        the clubs are not as idyllic as one might imagine.                                     have broken club rules, or who have acted in a way
                        In 1997, a Nordic action plan to combat biker gang                                         relevant information on crimes committed by                                                                                                    which puts the club or chapter in a bad light. During
                        crime was drawn up. In 1999, the Ministry of Justice                                       members of outlaw motorcycle clubs.                     4.2 The outlaw motorcycle gangs                                                        such disciplinary procedures, the other members
                        and the Police requested an enhanced coordination                                       •	 Europol includes outlaw motorcycle clubs as             This chapter sets out to describe the motorcycle                                       have to support “the Sergeant”.
                        of strategy and the implementation of measures                                             one of its main target areas. Norway is part of the     gangs as a network. In many ways, this is more sim-                                 •	 The secretary/treasurer is in charge of
                        among central agencies and the police districts. The                                       Europol project called Monitor.                         ple to describe than other criminal networks, partly                                   administration in each chapter, for example writing
                        threat now presented by these gangs was described                                       •	 International Outlaw Motorcycle Gang                    because the organisation and ideology is visible,                                      the minutes of meetings, keeping an overview of
                        as alarming, and the Ministry of Justice and the                                           Investigators Association (IOMGA) is a worldwide        definable and relatively rigid. For the purpose of this                                finances and collecting club fines and fees from
                        Police aimed to intensify the fight by establishing                                        association and organises an annual conference for      description, it is appropriate to distinguish between                                  members.
                                                                                                                   the police.                                             the club and the club members. The club is a basic                                  •	 The Road Captain is responsible for organised
                        9 The term “rocker” is defined as the side, top and bottom arch on a motorcycle vest or jacket.
                                                                                                                                                                           organisation11 within which the members are                                            chapter activities such as trips and rallies.
    The One Percenter concept                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The chapter’s (full) members have the right to speak
                                                                                                                                                                           4.2.1 Structure of the basic organisation                                           and vote during chapter meetings. The members of
The term «One Percenter» is thought to have been introduced after                                                                                                          One common factor for the motorcycle gangs is that                                  each chapter are also members of the entire world-
the motorcycle rally in Hollister, California in 1947, at which a number of                                                                                                they have a fixed structure of laws and regulations                                 wide club. New members in Bandidos are appoin-
criminal acts were committed. The American Motorcyclist Association                                                                                                        for their organisation and administration.12 The                                    ted an older member as «sponsor». A sponsor is
– AMA, which organised the event, is said to have stated that the                                                                                                          gangs have supranational, national and local sets                                   responsible for the new member for a period of five
problems were caused by the one percent of dissidents who tarnished                                                                                                        of regulations. These are obligatory, even if they                                  years, including responsibility for ensuring that the
the public.                                                                                                                                                                collide with the rules imposed by society. The clubs                                member is not a police agent.
                                                                                                                                                                           also have ethical standards, for example an absolute
                                                                                                                                                                           10 Another Norwegian One Percenter club is Wino’s Crew, originating from BoozeFighters MC.
                                                                                                                                                                           11 For more information on the basic organisation and the interaction between this and the organisation members, we recommend Kriminelle organisasjoner – Hvordan
                                                                                                                                                                               forstå organisert kriminalitet, by Ivar A. Fahsing and Petter Gottschalk, Fagbokforlaget 2008, pp. 98 and 99.
                                                                                                                                                                           12 For example, HAMC Word Rules, HAMC Europe By-laws, Bandidos’ MC Europe By-laws, Outlaws’ AOA European Rules and Coffin Cheaters Constitution.
10                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               11

                       The majority of members belong to a specific geo-                                      Examples of legal activities which prospects have                                             Crew is named AK81.21 In Norway, there are                                     the «court» for the clubs, providing them with cre-
                       graphical chapter, while certain chapters or mem-                                      to carry out are security guard, tidying and serving                                          support groups in Stavanger, Kristiansand and                                  dibility, legitimacy, prestige and power. The official
                       bers are nomads.13 Nomads comprise members who                                         behind bars. There is reason to believe that illegal                                          Trondheim. The members of these groups often                                   support clubs originate from the one percenter clubs
                       are experienced, loyal and are very familiar with                                      activities, according to circumstances, may strengt-                                          have a criminal record and a high number have                                  and are therefore more harmonious with these; Red
                       the organisation. In general, nomads enjoy a high                                      hen a prospect or hang-around’s candidacy for full                                            experience from martial arts. The chapter in                                   Devils MC27 and Devils Choice MC28 are official
                       status and the clubs make use of nomads to reinforce                                   membership. In connection with the Tokke murder                                               Kristiansand recruits from the town’s right-wing                               support clubs for the Hells Angels in Scandinavia.
                       chapters which have been impaired or to generally                                      case, one of the accused, who at that time was a pro-                                         extremist groups.                                                              Official support clubs for the Bandidos include
                       help the club.14                                                                       spect in Hells Angels MC Stavanger, stated that he                                     -      Outlaws’ Black & White Crew is similar to                                      Diablos MC29 and Compadres MC in Drammen.
                                                                                                              was subordinated to a member and had to carry out                                             the Red & White Support Crew and Support
                       In order to become a full member of a club, candida-                                   the tasks he had been given. Such tasks may involve                                           X-Team.                                                                        There are other sympathisers (supporters, friends
                       tes have to climb through the ranks - from hang-                                       sales of drugs, serious theft etc.                                                                                                                                           and party girls) with no official connection to a club
                       around to prospect to full member. Hang-arounds:                                                                                                                              -      Hells Angels in Denmark introduced a new                                       - or any form of connection at all. A common feature
                       a phase during which connections are made and the                                      Affiliated chapters comprise the club’s official                                              initiative22 in the form of the official Viking                                of these seems to be that they are attracted by the
                       hang-arounds have to prove their worth as future                                       support groups:                                                                               Defence League Denmark. Members of the                                         personalities within the motorcycle environment,
                       prospects by carrying out various tasks for the club.                                  -     Support X-Team is an official, international sup-                                       above are official supporters but not members of                               their ideals, structure, potential earnings etc. A num-
                       Hang-arounds have the opportunity to become                                                  port group for Bandidos. The support group is a                                         Hells Angels or AK81. Membership fees are paid                                 ber of these «sympathisers» take part at club events
                       future members of a club and are also allowed to                                             pool from which Bandidos recruits prospective                                           to the Hells Angels’ Danish “Defence Fund”, i.e.                               and at events where persons from the clubs normally
                       take part in parties and meet full members. Hang-                                            members. The group is established in Denmark,                                           the fund set up to support jailed members, pro-                                attend. They are examples of «honey traps» laid by
                       arounds are not entitled to wear the club uniform. If                                        Norway and Sweden. A member of Support                                                  spects, hang-arounds and AK81 members.23 No                                    the clubs in the form of drugs/sex in order to con
                       a hang-around is able to meet the acceptance requi-                                          X-Team is entitled to wear the Support X-Team                                           requirements are made of the supporters, and                                   sympathisers who are of interest to the club or chap-
                       rements, he may be upgraded to a prospect.                                                   uniform, but not a motorcycle jacket showing                                            detailed information on the group is only avai-                                ter. Sympathisers can be used or forced to provide for
                                                                                                                    membership or prospective membership in                                                 lable via membership. Membership is gained by                                  the club or members. They also help earn income for
                       Prospects15 (probationaries16 and probates17) are                                            Bandidos. Uniforms are only available from a                                            paying a membership fee of DKK 300 to support                                  the club by selling club accessories, tattoos etc. and
                       official prospective members for full membership                                             contact person, who normally is a full member                                           criminals.24 In practice, these support groups                                 to make the club more socially acceptable.
                       of the club. Prospects wear a patch on their jacket                                          of Bandidos. A Support X-Team is in the main                                            target minors.26
                       which ties them to the club, but not the club logo.                                          organised in the same way as the chapters,18                                                                                                                           It is therefore evident that the one percenters have
                       They can take part at chapter meetings but do not                                            and the members wear a uniform in the club                                       There is a high level of criminal activity among the                                  a hierarchical organisation, apparently much more
                       have a right to vote. A prospect is subordinate to all                                       colours - yellow and red. A Support X-Team                                       support groups, comprising all types of crime from                                    highly structured than that required for a gang of
                       full members and must prove that he has the ability                                          must have at least five members and the age                                      the sale of drugs to violence and vandalism.26                                        motorcycle enthusiasts. The clubs have legislative,
                       and willingness to carry out obligatory tasks or meet                                        limit is 18.19                                                                   It is thought that the groups are utilised by the mem-                                executive and judicial bodies which keep control of
                       the expectations of the club. Prospect members are                                     -     red & White Support Crew20 is the official                                       bers of the motorcycle gangs to carry out assign-                                     the members, the organisation, finances and acti-
                       elected to the club, and it is therefore common prac-                                        support group for Hells Angels. Red & White                                      ments they find too risky. The support groups recruit                                 vities. In addition to this basic structure, the clubs
                       tice for prospects to set off on an election campaign,                                       Support Crew is thought to have been estab-                                      from youths already involved in crime and who are                                     establish ties with support groups and sympathisers
                       visiting the different chapters in the country/region                                        lished as a counterpart to Bandidos’ Support                                     searching for a sense of belonging, but who are not                                   in order to gain added strength.
                       to meet full members. Acceptance to a chapter/                                               X-Team, and its organisation and uniform is                                      necessarily interested in motorcycles. In the hands of
                       club takes place in the form of an official ceremony,                                        very similar to the latter. The support group is                                 the motorcycle gangs, these young people are turned                                   4.2.2 Club uniforms and what they say30
                       whereby a prospect becomes «Full-Patched», i.e. is                                           responsible for a major share of the visible cri-                                into multiple criminals and represent obedient                                        “Colors” is a collective term used to describe the sym-
                       awarded the club logo and the top and bottom roc-                                            mes committed under the auspices of the Hells                                    instruments for the club.                                                             bols or insignias worn on the members’ motorcycle
                       ker, as a full member.                                                                       Angels. In Denmark, the Red & White Support                                                                                                                            jackets. “Colors” is a part of an international system
                       13 All the clubs with the exception of Coffin Cheaters have nomads.                    Bandidos’ probationaries.                                                              Furthermore, the motorcycle gangs are supported                                       of signs governed by strict rules. Only full members
                       14 Nomads are the motorcycle gangs’ version of the Libero within football.             18 With officers in the form of President, Vice President, Security Chief and normal   by a number of official and even greater number of                                    are permitted to wear the club colors. The insignias
                       15 Can also be defined as candidate                                                       members.
                       16 Bandidos has three phases, prospect, probationary then member. Probationa-          19 However, members are not required to have a Harley Davidson to become               unofficial support clubs. The unofficial support clubs                                worn on the back of the jackets are identical for all
                           ries are candidates for around six months before gaining membership. Proba-
                           tionaries are allowed to wear “The Fat Mexican”-logo and have status as officer.
                                                                                                                 members of Bandidos.
                                                                                                              20 Red and white are the club colours for Hells Angels
                                                                                                                                                                                                     may have been forced to join the system as a part of                                  club members, while the jacket front may vary from
                       17 In the Outlaws, Probates are qualified prospect members, as with the                                                                                                       the consolidation into the motorcycle environment.                                    member to member. In addition to the One Percenter
                                                                                                                                                                                                     They are therefore not necessarily criminals or sup-                                  patch, there is an insignia which shows the member’s
   The name Hells Angels and the insignia on the back of their jackets                                                                                                                               porters of the motorcycle gang. These clubs make up                                   rank in the club, for example President or Vice
                                                                                                                                                                                                     21 AK81 stands for «Alltid klar Hells Angels» (Always Ready Hells Angels). The num-       chapter, the club must submit an official application either to Red Devils MC
The name Hells Angels was utilised for military formations during the                                                                                                                                    ber 8 represents the letter H and the number 1 represents the letter A.               or to Hells Angels. Outside of Sweden, Red Devils MC has chapters in the USA,
                                                                                                                                                                                                     22 The support group was officially founded in March 2010 and also has a Facebook         Germany, South Africa and Singapore.
First and Second World Wars. The film Hells Angels from 1930 portrays                                                                                                                                    group with 4,199 fans as of 9April 2010.                                          28 Devils Choice MC is a new MC club comprising 130 bikers from Hog Riders,
dramatic and heroic air combat from the First World War. During the                                                                                                                                  23 24 March 2010.                                             Immortals, Tornados and Chieftains, and which are part of the HA system in
                                                                                                                                                                                                     24 With a view to the «war» in Denmark between Hells Angels and ethnic gangs for          Denmark. This is the Danish opposite of Sweden’s Red Devils.
Second World War, this name was used for a squadron in China, a                                                                                                                                          the drugs market, the fund could be described as a «war fund».                    29 Bandidos MC founded an official support club in 1999, called
bomber formation in England and the 11th Airborne division. The colours                                                                                                                              25 Statement made by Hells Angels’ spokesperson in Denmark, Jørn Jønke Nielsen,       Diablos MC. Diablos MC was established in Sweden in October 2001. To date, Sweden
                                                                                                                                                                                                         to the Bergens Tidende newspaper, quoted on on 20 March              and
and shape of the insignia                                                                                                                                                                                2010.                                                                             Finland are the only Nordic countries where Diablos MC has set up chapters. Mem-
“The Winged Death’s Head” is thought to originate from the 85th Fighter                                                                                                                              26 In Sweden, no less than 89% of the members have been convicted of crimes,              bers of Diablos MC are seen at the majority of Nordic events held by Bandidos.
                                                                                                                                                                                                         ref. report dated 18 June 2009 from Sweden, «Handlingsplan Hells Angels MC –          Half the club members are Europeans and the rest are from Thailand.
Squadron and the 552nd Medium Bomber Squadron. Hells Angels                                                                                                                                              Västra Götaland och Halland».                                                     30 Ref. Kripos’ MC handbook and patrol car handbook - one percenter motorcycle
                                                                                                                                                                                                     27 To date, the Red Devils MC’s only representation in Scandinavia is in Sweden.          gangs.
registered a trade mark for the insignia in 1972.                                                                                                                                                        Red Devils MC Sweden was founded in August 2001, when four Swedish clubs,         31 With Outlaws, it is not common for officers to wear their officer title on their
                                                                                                                                                                                                         all loyal and with close ties to Hells Angels MC Sweden were merged. If another       jackets.
                                                                                                                                                                                                         motorcycle club seeks acceptance and to establish a Red Devils MC Sweden
12                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        13

                        President.31 The different clubs also have specific                                    dominance34 and pure strength. Not only do the                                     «brotherly» community or fellowship. This fellowship                                   provoke short and brutal reactions.40 A person in
                        symbols or insignias which the individual member                                       members of the one percenters think of themselves                                  also paves the way for members to earn money, both                                     bad standing is an undesirable both for the club and
                        has earned, for example, if they have acted vio-                                       as the «elite» within the motorcycle environment,                                  legally and illegally. The club may provide financial                                  the one percenters in general, and cannot apply for
                        lently towards the police or have resisted arrest (the                                 they often think of themselves as racially elite, and                              support to members via their «Defence Fund». The                                       new membership. The different clubs share their bad
                        «dequiallo» symbol) or are guilty of or an accomplice                                  it is common to see hints of racism within these                                   money for this Defence Fund comes from member                                          standing lists with each other.
                        to murder for the club (the «filthy few» symbol).                                      groups.35 However, the clubs are pragmatic enough                                  contributions, sale of accessories and in the form
                                                                                                               not to allow racism to obstruct that which could                                   of loans. The funds provide financial support to                                       4.2.5 The club members from a law-breaking
                        The club logos worn on the members’ jackets are bor-                                   benefit the club or its members.                                                   members who are in jail and pay for lawyers’ fees/                                     perspective
                        rowed from the club. In other words, the members                                                                                                                          private investigators, particularly for legal cases                                    The members of the outlaw motorcycle gangs are
                        do not own the logo32 and have to return it if they                                    The conditions for becoming a member of Hells                                      involving principle. The clubs follow up members                                       often involved in serious crime, particularly drug
                        withdraw from or are excluded from the club. There                                     Angels are that you have a valid driving licence and a                             who are jailed, sending them newsletters and other                                     trafficking, collecting money by means of violence
                        are also examples where the Hells Angels tattoo is                                     functioning motorcycle. Hells Angels does not accept                               members are obliged to write to and visit their jailed                                 (torpedo) and violence. Committing crimes is made
                        similarly «confiscated» upon withdrawal or exclu-                                      child molesters or persons who have applied to                                     «brothers». Jailed members often have much better                                      easier due to the member’s affiliation with the club
                        sion, either by tattooing the withdrawal date over                                     become police officers or prison guards. Prospective                               conditions than other inmates, which can often                                         because he can play on its “goodwill”. At the same
                        the existing tattoo or by physical removal.                                            members will also be rejected if they have close                                   result in the recruitment of prospective members.                                      time, the legal aspects are catered for in that the
                                                                                                               family relations who may work or have worked for                                                                                                                          clubs are for motorcycle enthusiasts who share a fel-
                        It is very humiliating for club members to have their                                  the police or prison service.36 Violent tendencies                                 4.2.4 In-house discipline within the clubs                                             lowship and sense of belonging. It has been claimed
                        «colors» confiscated. The uniform thus becomes a                                       do not appear to be a deterrent for membership. A                                  The clubs have a supranational and national set of                                     that it is this lifestyle, and not the opportunity to
                        form of communication both internally and exter-                                       recent trend has emerged where the clubs establish                                 regulations. The main purpose of these regulations                                     commit crimes, which represents the highest moti-
                        nally. The main message is one for all, all for one and                                ties with persons who have expertise within financial                              is to safeguard the club’s interests - not to regulate                                 vating factor for members. However, crime appears
                        aggression - a message which in practice has signi-                                    planning etc., in order to bolster other dimensions of                             the members’ relationship with society at large. If a                                  to permeate the clubs’ organisation, support system
                        ficant impact. Disagreements regarding the insignia                                    their activities.                                                                  member breaches the club regulations,39 he may be                                      and ideology in such a way that it is appropriate to
                        on the back of jackets have given rise to violent                                                                                                                         disciplined.                                                                           question whether crime is yet another dimension of
                        conflicts and clashes between clubs.                                                   As a member of a motorcycle gang, you resign from                                                                                                                         the lifestyle.
                                                                                                               normal society and enter a closed fellowship with                                  If the breach is severe, the club has two forms of
                        4.2.3 How the clubs take care of their members and                                     a strong outer spirit of solidarity. Each individual                               sanction. The member may leave the club in good                                        No information has been found of persons wanting
                        supporters                                                                             member is sure that his «brothers» will support him                                standing. This is a mild form of reaction where the                                    to join the outlaw motorcycle gangs and being rejec-
                        The international one percenter clubs primarily                                        and stand by his side.37 This «brotherhood» applies                                member still has access to the club and can apply for                                  ted on the grounds of the person’s criminal back-
                        provide an ideological fellowship for motorcycle                                       to all members of the club, including «brothers» in                                new membership starting from the beginning and                                         ground. On the contrary, there are several examples
                        enthusiasts. Coffin Cheaters highlight the departure                                   other countries. Individual members therefore feel                                 climbing the ranks from hang-around and prospect.                                      of prospective members who have achieved full
                        from the welfare state and the choice of a free and                                    safe that they will not be stabbed in the back by their                                                                                                                   membership shortly after a conviction involving
                        unrestrained lifestyle when describing themsel-                                        «brothers». This dimension of trust implies that agre-                             If the breach is of such a nature that it harms the                                    serious crime. Convicted members are expected to
                        ves.33 The word «motorcycle» is not mentioned in                                       ements can be reached without any former personal                                  club’s interests or status, or that individual members                                 serve their sentence without informing on other
                        this context. The ideology of the Coffin Cheaters is                                   contact.38                                                                         are compromised in relation to the police or media,                                    members. At the same time, the club provides finan-
                        mainly the same as that of Hells Angels, Bandidos                                                                                                                         the person may have to leave in bad standing. In                                       cial support via their Defence Fund, and moral sup-
                        and Outlaws. Other ideals are brotherhood, male                                        The club therefore represents a strong ideological an                              keeping with the one percenter clubs’ low thres-                                       port by awarding specific insignia for imprisonment,
                                                                                                                                                                                                  hold for violence, breaches of the regulations often                                   a mention on the club web site41 etc.
                        32 As previously mentioned, the Hells Angels logo is a registered trademark.
                        33 13 April 2010.
                        34 In the NRK documentary, Brennpunkt, broadcast 18 May 2010, a member of Hells Angels stated that it is not unusual to offer female cohabitants and friends to other
                            members.                                                                                                                                                              39 In an interview with NRK in the summer of 2000, the President of Outlaws MC Norway, Dag Edvind Sterkeby, stated that the internal laws were stricter than those in
                        35 Nazi-like symbolism is common on the web sites of affiliated groups. Hells Angels is also affiliated with the Aryan Brotherhood - a white supremacist criminal group      society at large, and that a breach of the laws resulted in a more stringent reaction.
                            in the USA, originating from American jails.                                                                                                                          40 Three members of Outlaws MC Belgia were convicted of the murder of another member in the summer of 2005. The background to the murder was that the member
                        36 However, there is an exception to this rule in Norway.                                                                                                                    had been guilty of a breach of the internal Outlaws regulations.
                        37 «Your Brother isn’t always right but he is always your Brother. It’s one in all and all in one» – quoted from the Bandidos’ Norwegian website,,      41 Hells Angels members serving a prison sentence are known as “Big House Crew”, and a separate website has been set up for such members: www.bighousecrew.
                        13 April 2010.                                                                                                                                                               net. The website sells items such as
                        38 The significance of trust is also mentioned in the report «Organisert kriminalitet i Norge» (organised crime in Norway).                                               T-shirts with the profits spent on supporting the «brothers» in jail.

     Colours                                                                                                                                                                                           Coffin Cheaters

“Colors” is a collective term used to describe the symbols or logos worn on                                                                                                                       We do not choose to be common men, it is our right to be uncommon – if we can. We seek opportunity – not
the members’ motorcycle jackets. “Colors” is a part of an international system                                                                                                                    security. We do not wish to be kept citizens, humbled and dull by having the state look after us. We want to
of signs governed by strict rules. Only full members are permitted to wear the                                                                                                                    take the calculated risk, to dream and built – to fail, to succeed. We refuse to barter incentive for a dole. We
club colors. The insignias worn on the back of the jackets are identical for all                                                                                                                  prefer the challenge of life to the guaranteed existence – the thrill of fulfilment to the calm state of utopia.
club members, while the jacket front may vary from member to member.                                                                                                                              We will not trade our freedom for beneficence nor our dignity for a handout. We will never cower before any
                                                                                                                                                                                                  master nor bend to any threat. It is our heritage to stand erect, proud and unafraid – to think and act for
                                                                                                                                                                                                  ourselves, enjoy the benefits of our creations and face the world boldly, and say, this we have done.
14                                                                                                                                                                                15

     Of the 113 Hells Angels members and prospect                                           foundations is that the creditors are not entitled to
     members in Norway, 85 or 75% have been convicted                                       hold the shareholders or founders financially liable
     of criminal offences. Of the 48 Bandidos members                                       for the company/foundation or vice versa. One prac-
     and prospect members in Norway, 30 or approx. 62%                                      tical example of this is that any claims for seizure
     have been convicted of offences. For Coffin Cheaters,                                  made against one member will be limited to his
     these figures are 14 of 25 members, or 56%                                             shareholding. If the company - or foundation - goes
     In 2007, Kripos investigated the criminal records of                                   bankrupt due to a seizure, the member’s liability will
     184 members and prospect members of Hells Angels,                                      be limited to the amount he subscribed as share capi-
     Bandidos and Outlaws. The investigation showed                                         tal (or donation to the foundation).44 This provides
     that 126 had convictions, a total of 69% of members.                                   the member and club with a formal, legal severance
     Of these 126, a total of 111 had been convicted of                                     in the event of claims from third parties. On the
     crimes while 15 were convicted of offences. In total,                                  other hand, several of the club premises provide
     74 had been convicted during the last five years.                                      living quarters for members and registered business
     Many of the persons convicted had committed cri-                                       addresses for their companies.
     mes during the past 20 years.
                                                                                            4.3 How outlaw motorcycle gangs function
     4.2.6 The clubs’ income and outgoings                                                  within society
     It is important to distinguish between the finances of                                 In the above, the motorcycle gangs are described as
     the club and those of members, even if these can at                                    a separate entity. However, their description must be
     times be mixed together.                                                               viewed in the context of how they function within
                                                                                            society. It is only then that we can establish a good
     For Bandidos, all chapters pay a monthly amount for                                    basis on which to describe how crimes are commit-
     each member and prospect member to Bandidos MC                                         ted and how the police force can combat such crime.
     National Chapter. Furthermore, each new chapter
     pays an establishment fee. A fee is also charged for                                   4.3.1 Relationships to other, similar motorcycle
     withdrawal or exclusion. It is thought that the clubs/                                 groups
     chapters also charge a percentage fee from illegal                                     During the period from 1994 to 1997, the outlaw
     earnings gained by members, possibly as a «duty» for                                   motorcycle gangs in the Nordic countries fought
     use of the club’s violent image.                                                       among themselves for control of the drugs market,
                                                                                            for example - resulting in the Nordic MC war. Police
     The motorcycle gangs control the chains of tattoo                                      have established direct links with this conflict to 11
     parlours, Tattoo World42 / House of Pain43 (Hells                                      murders45 and 74 attempted murders. In the autumn
     Angels) and Tattoo Nation (Bandidos). They also                                        of 1997, the Danish Hells Angels and Bandidos
     control the chains of shops selling supporter gear,                                    announced in the media that they had reached an
     Route 81 and Bad Boys Wear. Hells Angels in Finland                                    agreement regarding a «peace treaty», and they
     is involved in more than 80 companies with a total                                     established a control committee and hotline to
     turnover of more than EUR 60 million.                                                  prevent more open conflict. The clubs are pragmatic
                                                                                            enough to realise that open warfare is bad for busi-
     The largest expenses for the clubs are most pro-                                       ness, and to date the market is sufficiently profitable
     bably the club premises, creating ties within local                                    for all parties.
     communities and travel expenses for participation
     at meetings and parties in Norway and abroad.                                          However, the absence of war-like acts cannot be
     The cost of club premises can reach several million                                    interpreted as peace and tolerance. Since 2000,
     Norwegian krone. Vast sums of money are in general                                     the clubs have been fighting a cold war to gain the
     spent on security for the club premises, with sur-                                     largest possible expansion of both territory and
     veillance cameras, alarm systems and reinforcement                                     number of members/supporters. This cold war led
     of doors and windows.                                                                  the clubs to enter into alliances in order to gain
                                                                                            added strength. In Norway, Hells Angels and Coffin
     In Norway, the club premises are owned or leased                                       Cheaters have reached an alliance on one side, while
     by private limited companies or foundations, often                                     Bandidos and Outlaws have allied on the other
     with members holding central positions. A com-                                         side. This consolidation has created a defined front
     mon feature of such private limited companies and                                      line within the motorcycle environment. However,

     42 Tattoo World in Norway is currently owned and managed by Leif Ivar Kristiansen (“Leifen”), Hells Angels’ President in Norway. The company’s registered business address
        is the same as that for the Hells Angels’ premises at Bynesveien100 in Trondheim.
     43 House of Pain on the island of Stord and in Arendal is owned by Hells Angels member Vemund Sæterstøl, who is a member of the Oslo chapter.
     44 However, the corporate bodies carry a criminal and compensation liability for its activities.
     45 Two of the murder victims had no connection to the motorcycle gangs.
16                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           17

     behind this frontline, there appears to be a confusion                                   politicians and the media are frequently invited to                       as possible between themselves and crime, in order                                    are no grounds on which to presume that the clubs
     of alliances, breaches of alliances and pragmatic                                        events where the motorcycle gangs demonstrate                             to reduce the risk of detection. It has therefore                                     condemn this type of behaviour.
     solutions.                                                                               their altruism.                                                           become increasingly common to make use of persons                                     In addition to drugs, outlaw motorcycle gangs are
     The substantial expansion achieved by the clubs                                           4.3.3 Age of the motorcycle gangs as an expression                       outside the club to carry out the primary offence,                                    also mainly connected with crimes involving money
     implies that they have to be flexible, and they are                                      of their criminal potential                                               for example persons in the support groups, support                                    collection. It is well known that the money col-
     seen to regularly breach their own standards and                                         The one percenter clubs have now survived for half                        clubs or other criminal groups.50                                                     lectors can be violent so it is best to pay what they
     regulations, for example when full members are                                           a century, despite the development of society, the                                                                                                              ask. Debt collection can often take place relatively
     allowed to move from one club to another. However,                                       efforts of the authorities, competing clubs and com-                      The one percenter members often act as backers.                                       normally; When the debt collector is known to be a
     the fact that Hells Angels members are allowed to                                        peting criminals. The durability of the motorcycle                        They are extremely security conscious in their role of                                member of Hells Angels, it is no longer necessary to
     transfer to Bandidos and vice versa, does not change                                     gangs shows that they have achieved continuance                           backer and very rarely make use of electronic means                                   make threats. This type of activity takes place in an
     the defined front between the clubs. The clubs, in                                       and stability. The clubs are now well-established                         of communication. When a member is linked to a                                        environment where the parties involved operate in a
     particular Bandidos and the Outlaws, have also                                           within society. Well-established criminal networks                        criminal act, that act is seen as the criminal project of                             grey zone between legitimate and illegitimate debt
     modified their acceptance requirements and have                                          have a much higher potential for crime than criminal                      the individual member - and not the club. It there-                                   collection. The claims are often sold on via several
     recruited hardcore criminals outside of motorcycle                                       (individual) projects. The Italian and American                           fore appears that the crime committed by the indivi-                                  parties before ending up with the motorcycle gangs.
     gangs.                                                                                   Mafia are examples of this.                                               dual member is a solo project. From a social aspect, it                               The police very rarely gain knowledge of such cases,
                                                                                                                                                                        is essential to clarify whether this actually is the case.                            even if violence is used. The victims are understan-
     In practice, this consolidation within the one per-                                      The fact that a criminal network has survived over                                                                                                              dably too frightened to incur further violence from
     center groups implies a lower risk of open conflict.                                     time inspires newly established groups to adopt the                       The criminality inflicted on society by motorcycle                                    the motorcycle gang/member if they report the mat-
     However, if an open conflict were to occur, the conse-                                   network model for organisation. The new groups                            gangs - including that committed together with other                                  ter. Parts of the profit gained from debt collection are
     quences for society at large could be dramatic, ref.                                     can then benefit from the proven steadfastness and                        criminal groups - typically comprises drug traffick-                                  most often paid to the club fund.
     the bombing in Drammen.                                                                  adaptability of this organisational model.                                ing, violence, threats and economic crime.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Criminal damage is also utilised as a means of
     4.3.2 Relationship with the media and establishment                                      4.4 Criminality inflicted on society by motorcycle                        In general, the motorcycle gangs disassociate them-                                   intimidation. In Norway, there have been examples
     of “goodwill”                                                                            gangs                                                                     selves from heroin,51 but members can be linked to                                    of damage to vehicles belonging to police officers
     The clubs appear to actively promote themselves                                          In Norway, none of the one percenter clubs have                           the importation, sale and use of marijuana, ampheta-                                  working on cases involving motorcycle gangs. The
     in the media in order to generate a positive image                                       been convicted pursuant to section 48a of the Penal                       mine and cocaine.52                                                                   police have found lists of vehicles, police officers and
     for the club. They invite persons to open events, for                                    Code regarding corporate penalties. Neither has it                        It is thought that the clubs’ international network                                   addresses when raiding club premises, which natu-
     example the «Factory Party», where they promote                                          been established that the members have represented                        plays an important role in trafficking of drugs.                                      rally gives cause for concern. This type of contra-
     themselves as normal motorcycle enthusiasts,                                             an organised criminal group pursuant to the Penal                         Experience from investigated drug cases shows                                         intelligence indicates that the club may intend to
     receiving the support of pop artists and well-known                                      Code section 60a merely because they are mem-                             that the drugs sold are often purchased via club                                      make use of this information to their advantage.
     catering firms. Since the clubs are normally extre-                                      bers of a motorcycle gang. The clubs aim to - at all                      organisations.                                                                        When carrying out intelligence operations targeting
     mely closed, such events attract a lot of people and                                     costs - avoid developing a poor reputation by being                                                                                                             these clubs, police officers should therefore be aware
     receive considerable media coverage.                                                     linked to crime. At the same time, two thirds of their                    One of the most serious sides of the motorcycle                                       that these types of records, under the circumstances,
                                                                                              members have been convicted of crimes.                                    gangs is their systematic and extensive use of                                        can be governed by the Personal Data Act sections
     The members also take part in a number of public                                                                                                                   violence and threats. Their violent profile has been                                  8 and 9, and that storage of such information in the
     events, arriving in full club uniform, in order to                                       Society has to be protected against these gangs,                          developed over the years, during which members, in                                    club premises may incur the club a criminal liability
     present themselves as harmless and responsible                                           by making them responsible for both their clubs                           the spirit of the club, have acted violently. Violence                                pursuant to section 48a of the Penal Code.
     citizens. During the Stop Violence Action in Oslo                                        and members. The imposition of responsibility on                          ranges from internal conflicts between members to
     Spektrum in 1999, central figures from Bandidos                                          each member for his criminal project, for example,                        influencing the media53 and those taking part in                                      It appears that members increasingly attempt to hide
     attended to provide their support to the event, and                                      drug trafficking, is not particularly challenging                         court cases54. There are also examples of murders,                                    their criminal activities and that they focus increas-
     were photographed together with Prime Minister                                           for the police.46 The greatest challenge is proving                       originating from crime.55 There are also a number                                     ingly on areas which generate high profits. Drug
     at that time, Kjell Magne Bondevik. During the                                           whether the club in whole or in part is responsible                       of examples to show that the violent profile allows                                   trafficking can generate high gains, but it is when
     award ceremony for the music industry in Norway                                          as an enterprise47 for contributing to48 the criminal                     the clubs to threaten and coerce persons to behave                                    investing the gain that major profit can be earned
     (Spellemannsprisen), also in 1999, a central Hells                                       actions of its members, or whether membership in                          as the clubs dictate. Perhaps the most conspicuous                                    over time. This may explain why the distance bet-
     Angels member was asked to award the prize for the                                       itself implies that the person is a part of an organised                  form of threatening behaviour is when the club                                        ween certain parties active in the financial markets
     best rock song. He entered the stage, wearing the                                        criminal group.49 Below, we will highlight a number                       members appear in court in full uniform.56 There                                      and outlaw motorcycle gangs has narrowed. These
     Hells Angels insignia on his back, thereby represen-                                     of circumstances which may be of significance when
     ting the entire Hells Angels organisation.                                               the police analyse and prevent this type of crime.
                                                                                                                                                                        50 For example minority ethnic groups in major cities.
                                                                                                                                                                        51 The use of heroin may result in exclusion.
     Bandidos carry out regular «Toy Runs», where                                             By way of introduction, it is important to specify that                   52 Smuggling of 100 kilo amphetamine in September 1998. Two prospects from Hells Angels MC Oslo were convicted. After some time, they became full members. Two supporters were also convicted. A hang-
     they collect toys for children in orphanages. Local                                      the motorcycle gangs aim to place as much distance                            around in Hells Angels Oslo was caught in March 2001 with close to 50 kg of marijuana and a large volume of amphetamine in his home. A member of Hells Angels in Hamar was arrested with 1,000 litres
                                                                                                                                                                            of spirits in September 2001.
                                                                                                                                                                        53 Threats against the editors of Ystad Allhanda in Sweden, who had reported the establishment of a Hells Angels chapter. Another example of Hells Angels conduct is the «occupation» of a TV studio after
                                                                                                                                                                        Hells Angels was presented as a criminal organisation on a panel debate.
                                                                                                                                                                        54 Ref. Penal Code section 132a.
     46   Selv om det må medgis at trusler mot vitner og mindre samarbeidsvillige tiltalte medfører utfordringer for å avdekke sannheten når MC-medlemmer er tiltalt.   55 The bomb attack against Bandidos MC’s club in June 1997 in Drammen, where a passer-by was killed. Murder in Tokke, Telemark, in June 2000. Two persons, one former hang-around and one prospect
     47   Jf. straffeloven § 48a.                                                                                                                                           in Hells Angels MC in Stavanger, were convicted of murder. The judgement states that the murder was an internal conflict in connection with selling drugs. One male was found seriously injured after a
     48   Jf. læren om fysisk og/eller psykisk medvirkning.                                                                                                                 kidnapping and severe cruelty, 2 March 2002. The murder of a well-known debt collector in Oslo in December 2000 in the club premises for the Untouchables MC Oslo.
     49   Jf. straffeloven § 60a.                                                                                                                                       56 Examples of such conduct can also be found in other gang-based crime. The Courts Act section 125 allows for exclusion of gang members from the courthouse.
18                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      19

                                                                                                                                                                                  5 Overall threat
     strengthened ties open the door to investment and                                      4.5 Summary                                                                           Some may claim that the one percenter clubs are            With the expansion of the clubs, the competition
     money laundering opportunities for the motorcycle                                      How would society view a public limited company                                       not criminals, or that the crimes they commit do           for criminal markets and recruitment can only be
     clubs, and disloyal servants in the financial markets                                  if the Managing Director, board members and                                           not represent a threat to society. Current motorcy-        expected to increase. This presents the risk of open
     receive access to the clubs’ international network                                     shareholders were criminals, and where the com-                                       cle gang crime normally involves debt collection by        conflict between the clubs and/or other criminals,
     and members. To date, no one percenters have been                                      pany made use of its organisation and activities to                                   force, extortion, drug trafficking etc. However, as        for example Mafia-like networks from East Europe.
     convicted of money laundering in Norway.                                               facilitate criminal actions? Would society distinguish                                they have become more established within society,
                                                                                            between the company and its members?                                                  with their ideology and good organisation, the clubs       It is assumed that such open conflict will primarily
     Corruption and «political» coercion are utilised                                                                                                                             have developed a substantial potential for criminal        only affect the criminal groups. However, such
     by the clubs. The police in the USA, Canada and                                        To a certain degree, the clubs can be treated as                                      acts. In the future, the motorcycle gangs can repre-       conflicts could have an impact on society at large, for
     England have seized information which substan-                                         individual legal entities,59 ref. the registration of the                             sent an even greater threat. From such a perspective,      example the bombing in Drammen.
     tiates the claim that the clubs intend to influence                                    trademark for Hells Angels. However, they are not                                     it is reasonable to fear situations which far exceed
     politicians to make beneficial decisions, for example                                  public limited companies or companies with limited                                    the «Nordic MC war» in severity. It is therefore essen-    Crimes committed by the motorcycle gangs over
     countering proposals for the prohibition of insignia                                   (economic) liability. The clubs are mergers which                                     tial to target our efforts against current motorcycle      the years have generated sufficient gain to finance
     on jackets, (color prohibition), club premises and the                                 represent the sum of the ideas of the individual                                      gangs, in order to safeguard future society.               their lifestyle. The level of crime has now reached
     like.                                                                                  members. The club lifestyle is a central aspect                                                                                                  such a volume that only a part of the overall gain is
                                                                                            for all members - at least initially. The lifestyle of a                              Recruitment both in Norway and abroad has been             spent, while the rest is invested. There are therefore
     In order to recruit disloyal servants among the                                        one percenter implies per definition a breach with                                    substantial, and there is no reason to believe that this   sufficient grounds on which to assume that the clubs
     police, tax authorities, estate agents or banking                                      the laws and regulations of society in general. And                                   growth will stop. Recruitment to the clubs appears         will continue to combine legal and illegal activities in
     industry, the clubs appear to make use of so-called                                    even if the individual member does not commit                                         to result from an ongoing power struggle between           order to invest profits. The common trend is that the
     honey traps.57 Other groups of persons who may                                         criminal actions, he knows that a clear majority                                      the major clubs for members and criminal markets.          clubs work on further developing relationships with
     be of interest to the motorcycle gangs are doctors,                                    of other «brothers» are bound to commit a crime.                                      The expansion there remains foreseeable. At the            legal parties within business and commerce. This
     lawyers or weapon makers.                                                              He also knows that his membership is supporting                                       same time as the clubs grow, we can identify strengt-      type of development safeguards the clubs’ finances,
                                                                                            such activities: He will support his «brother» in all                                 hened relationships between the clubs and other            flexibility and position within society. It also implies
     Information exists indicating that members have                                        instances and he and the other members make up a                                      criminals, for example ethnic minority gangs. The          that the police forces have to extend their efforts to
     attempted to fraudulently gain social security bene-                                   network which is utilised by the criminal members.                                    motorcycle gangs’ collaboration with other criminal        cover the entire range of activities in which the clubs
     fits, including unemployment benefits and sickness                                     When this club lifestyle is combined with criminality,                                networks and groups makes combating such crime             are involved - and not just the individual cases of
     allowance using proforma employment in enterpri-                                       the result is ideologically motivated crime, which can                                all the more difficult.                                    trafficking or violence.
     ses owned by «brothers».58 In such an instance, it                                     be extremely dangerous. This type of crime, when
     can be beneficial for the members to have access to                                    placed within good organisational boundaries, is                                      The clubs’ utilisation of support networks in order        The growth and dispersion of the interests of the
     doctor’s certificates.                                                                 challenging to prevent, partly because it is so difficult                             to commit crimes implies that more crimes can be           clubs may give rise to an increase in internal con-
                                                                                            to gain any influence over the individual member                                      committed than if it were only the clubs who were          flicts, which may open the door to the police force
                                                                                            and his environment.                                                                  behind the criminal actions. At the same time, the         and cooperating authorities so they can gain more
                                                                                                                                                                                  networks provide a distance between the clubs and          information. By gaining access to an increased level
                                                                                                                                                                                  the primary offences, which makes the clubs less           of intelligence, the police will have much more opp-
                                                                                                                                                                                  vulnerable to police efforts. A trend has also emerged     ortunity to remain ahead of developments.
     57 Ref. for example NRK documentary, Brennpunkt 18 May 2010.                                                                                                                 whereby the criminal members do not necessarily
     58 Swedish police have informed that several of the members in Hells Angels MC Stockholm claim disability allowance. This is thought to be attributed to the fixed monthly
        amounts they can claim via such schemes.
                                                                                                                                                                                  involve other «brothers» in the club. This provides an
     59 That is as legal persons.                                                                                                                                                 even greater distance to the club, and the club is also
                                                                                                                                                                                  less vulnerable should the crime be detected.
20                                                                                                                        21

     6 The police force’s strategic goals and initiatives
     Outlaw motorcycle gangs represent a threat to            shed sufficient light on the phenomenon so as to
     society and must as such be combatted. These efforts     allow for initiatives towards legislative amendments.
     must focus on the organisation and the networks, not     The manual will be updated when required and at
     just on the crimes committed by these networks. The      least once a year.
     main philosophy is as follows: By fighting against the
     basic organisation and thus the platform for criminal    6.4 Kripos as coordinator for collaboration
     activities, we limit the opportunity to commit crimes    regarding motorcycle gangs
     - and get away with it. The strategic goals for the      Kripos forms the national hub for intelligence on
     police force’s efforts are                               motorcycle gangs, and helps the police forces in
                                                              Norway gain contacts abroad. Kripos also possesses
     1.   to reduce the number of existing outlaw motor-      specialised knowledge in Norway regarding outlaw
          cycle gangs                                         motorcycle gangs. There is now a requirement to
     2.   to prevent recruitment                              further develop the intelligence function carried out
     3.   to prevent the establishment of new outlaw          by Kripos and the organisation’s professional area
          motorcycle gangs                                    of responsibility, so that Kripos is better equipped to
                                                              keep the police force fully informed. Kripos may pro-
     The measures listed in this report are not exhaustive.   vide updates on the basis of specific cases, as general
     Local analyses may indicate the need to supplement       information or in the form of principal documents
     these with further measures.                             such as trend reports and threat analyses.

     6.1 Analyses of motorcycle gangs                         6.5 Police force collaboration with public and
     The police shall pay particular attention to remaining   private bodies
     fully informed of and analysing the growth of motor-     The police force and prosecution authorities should
     cycle gangs. If new chapters, clubs or support groups    not bear the entire burden of combating outlaw mot-
     are established, these shall be analysed. The analysis   orcycle gangs. The crimes committed by these gangs
     shall explain how the establishment occurred, how        affect entire communities. The police force must the-
     the police attempted to prevent it and why the police    refore extend and strengthen its collaboration with
     were not successful in preventing it. The analysis       all sectors of society able to take part in such efforts.
     shall be submitted to Kripos and the National Police
     Directorate.                                             The most obvious and relevant partners for the
                                                              police among public bodies are the municipalities.
     6.2 Regional collaboration                               They are involved for example in the establishment
     Along with Kripos, the police districts in Oslo,         of club premises and in controlling licences to sell
     Rogaland and Sør-Trøndelag have worked for a num-        alcohol. Experience shows that there are often irre-
     ber of years against motorcycle gangs. They have         gularities in the identification and build of the gangs’
     extensive knowledge of the motorcycle gang pheno-        motorcycles, such that the Norwegian Driver and
     menon and relevant local situations, and therefore       Vehicle Licensing Agency could use such informa-
     form a natural starting point for the reinforcement      tion during vehicle inspections. The prison service
     of collaboration between the police districts. The       has custody of motorcycle gang members in jail and
     regional collaboration partners shall maintain close     serving sentences, and therefore has good access to
     contact with Kripos and local personnel.                 information. The teams working on tax and social
                                                              security fraud will be able to provide extensive intel-
     6.3 Continuation of the motorcycle manual                ligence and reports.
     developed by Kripos
     In 2006, Kripos completed a manual regarding mot-        Voluntary organisations in Hokksund have compiled
     orcycle gangs and a manual for patrol cars, as part of   a manifesto of values, based on former so-called
     the collaboration between police and customs in the      Nazi concerts and parades. Norwegian politicians
     Nordic countries (PTN). This manual provides a solid     are committed to following this manifesto. There
     basis for further development. A new manual shall        is a majority agreement among Norwegian poli-
     provide readers with the knowledge required and an       ticians that the establishment of an international
     understanding of how the police can best combat the      outlaw motorcycle gang goes against this manifesto
     motorcycle gangs. The target group for the manual        of values. The fact that the inhabitants in an entire
     will be all parts of the police force and prosecution    municipality stood behind the police and waited for
     authorities involved in this field, who need facts and   them to take action was decisive for the outcome of
     legal knowledge of the fight against outlaw motorcy-     the case.
     cle gangs. One main goal for the manual is to
22                                                                                                                                                                           23

     Private, law-abiding parties who are in direct contact                               Second on the list of effective measures which the
     with members of outlaw motorcycle gangs are for                                      police can utilise are those which target membership
     example banks, insurance companies, contractors                                      of the clubs, for example confiscation of “colors”
     and workmen. Cooperation with bars and restau-                                       and driving licences, blocking of access to the club
     rants has also provided satisfactory results with the                                premises63 etc.
     introduction of colour prohibition, where club mem-
     bers are denied access to bars etc. if they are wearing                              As seizure claims against criminal members are of
     their club uniform. It is a known fact that the clubs                                significant importance for the police force’s efforts, it
     have a practice which dictates that uniforms cannot                                  is essential to track the finances of motorcycle gangs
     be taken off voluntarily.                                                            as part of intelligence work.64 Seizure prevents the
                                                                                          member in question or the club from profiting from
     Even if an outlaw motorcycle gang is not established                                 crime. Furthermore, it is important to intercept
     within an individual municipality/region, it is neces-                               offences which may result in civil actions. By making
     sary to introduce the measures required to combat                                    full use of all the instruments provided by legislation,
     any future attempts at establishment. The growth of                                  the police force will be able over time to curb the
     such clubs over the past decade indicates that it is                                 level of motivation among outlaw members.
     wise to be prepared.
                                                                                          Police and legal court cases receive substantial
     6.6 Focus on opportunities and not limitations                                       coverage in the media. We see frequent reports on
     Prison sentences for members of outlaw motorcycle                                    motorcycle gangs in the media. This is the type of
     gangs and their supporters appear to have a limited                                  news which sells, and subjects such as police, legal
     individual and general preventative effect. This is a                                offences, right and wrong attract the interest and
     phenomenon which emerges with criminal groups                                        involvement of society at large. By maintaining
     with an ideological aspect, such as hate crime and                                   transparency and a high level of professionalism, the
     political and religious fundamentalism.                                              police force inspires confidence and trust, providing
                                                                                          an increased sense of safety and stronger bonds bet-
     However, measures which are effective are those                                      ween the general public and the police. The police
     which attack the clubs’ lifestyle, ideals and moti-                                  force therefore requires a strategic approach to the
     vation to commit crime. The consequences of such                                     media, helping ensure the general public receive suf-
     actions are very negative for the clubs and their                                    ficient and correct information on crimes committed
     lifestyle. At the top of the list of effective measures                              by motorcycle gangs.
     are those which target the network, for example
     imposing responsibility on the club or chapter as                                    When key figures from such gangs are identified, the
     such60 or on the members because they are mem-                                       police are able to introduce specific countermeasures
     bers61. Examples of such measures may be seizure                                     in the form of so-called targeting.
     of the «club’s» funds62 and licences to sell alcohol,
     or injunctions to move premises, take down fences,
     video cameras etc.

     7 Evaluation of the report and crime-fighting efforts
     A description of the follow-up of this report by the
     police districts and special units shall be provided                                 •	 What have the police done to reach the
     in the National Police Directorate’s annual report.                                     strategic goals of the report?
     A separate template will be prepared for the above.                                  •	 What is the assessment of the measures in the
     The National Police Directorate will carry out an                                       report to reach these goals?
     intermediate and final evaluation, focusing on cen-                                  •	 How should the report be formatted in order to
     tral issues, including the following:                                                   strengthen the crime-fighting efforts of the police
                                                                                          •	 What results have been achieved during the period?
     60 Ref. Penal Code section 48a.
     61 Ref. Penal Code section 60a.
     62 For example, the club’s “Defence Fund”.
     63 Ref. for example the Criminal Procedure Act section 222b.
     64 reported on 19 April 2010 that members of Hells Angels are in control of 60 companies, and that every third member/every third hang-around owns his own
         company or is a shareholder involved in a corporate entity as managing director or board member..