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Prospects and Challenges of DAB/DAB+ in Future

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					Short Paper
                       Proc. of Int. Conf. on Advances in Computing, Control, and Telecommunication Technologies 2011



     Prospects and Challenges of DAB/DAB+ in Future
            Radio Broadcasting in Bangladesh
                                         Mohsena Chowdhury1, and M. Abdul Awal 2
                                           1
                                            North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
                                             Email: mohsena.chowdhury@gmail.com
                                          2
                                            North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
                                  Email: abdulawalbd@gmail.com, abdulawal@northsouth.edu


Abstract— The world of digital radio broadcasting is evolving.             availability of spectrum is an issue, Eureka 147 technology
The Eureka 147 family of standards, Digital Audio                          solves the problem by providing a wealth of content on just
Broadcasting (DAB), DAB+ and DMB, is the only truly                        one frequency. This has made it a popular choice of
multimedia digital broadcasting standard to deliver both                   technology in Europe, South East Asia and Australia. [7]. More
digital radio and mobile TV. In this paper a greater evolution
                                                                           than half a billion people around the world can receive DAB
of radio in Bangladesh is analyzed and discussed various need
and opportunities of digital radio for future radio broadcasting
                                                                           services from over 1,000 radio stations. Regular services using
in Bangladesh. A major study has been done on the                          one or more of the Eureka 147 standards are available across
international impact of DAB+. It is observed that                          Europe, the Far East and Australia. Trials continue in countries
Governments, regulators, broadcasters and manufacturers                    as diverse as Israel, South Africa, Ghana, Lithuania, Kuwait
understand that today’s listener is looking for more than just             and Sweden. Every year, more and more countries are bringing
the classic radio experience and DAB and DAB+ are able to                  listeners the added choice, clarity and data services digital
deliver this. This diversity is supported by the availability of a         radio provides.
wide selection of products around the world including basic
radios, high end audio systems, in-car devices, mobile phones,
                                                                                                II. BACKGROUND
PMPs and much more. Multi-standard chips are being
developed that will allow devices to work anywhere,                        A. Evolution History of Radio Broadcasting in Bangladesh
irrespective of whether a broadcast is in DAB, DAB+ or DMB.
The paper is premised on digital radio being used as a                         The relationship with radio and the people of Bangladesh
supplement to existing radio services in Bangladesh, rather                dates back to the pre liberation war era when Radio Pakistan
than a replacement technology. As such, digital radio will be              used to broadcast its transmission in the region now known
introduced in stages, allowing the radio sector to take advantage          as Bangladesh, which was liberated on December 16, 1971. In
of digital opportunities and enabling consumers to benefit                 those days the only source of entertainment was listening to
from new digital services that will operate alongside existing             the radio, which definitely was not by design though. The
analoge radio services. The whole analysis is made under the               broadcasting station “Shadheen Bangla Betar” reached its
close co-operation of “Bangladesh Betar” and private radio
                                                                           pinnacle during the 1971 liberation war being acclaimed as
station, “Radio Today” and “Radio Foorti” of Bangladesh.
                                                                           the stool pigeon of war news updates through ‘Chorom
Index Terms—Digital Radio, Digital Audio Broadcasting                      Potro’. During the war radio had played an important role.
(DAB), DAB+, DMB, AM / FM Broadcasting System                              But the post war broadcasting scenario was quite different.
                                                                           By then other entertainment options were available to the
                        I. INTRODUCTION                                    general public and radio transmission lost its charm especially
                                                                           on the city.
    The world of broadcasting is very different today than it                  Around the late 902 s, most probably from the middle of
was just ten years ago. Digital television, digital phones and             1999, a private radio channel named “Radio Metro wave”
digital radio bring more diversity and communication power                 came into picture. It started its transmission in Dhaka for a
than ever before in human history. In the age of Twitter, social           few hours daily. Some of the programs/shows gained a lot of
networking, Internet radio, YouTube, iPhone and mobile                     popularity but later, due to lack of enough audiences, they
applications, radio needs to stay relevant. Digital radio can              were obliged to shut the station off. In the late 2005, the
greatly improve the listener’s experience, at the same time                government gave permission to set up three more new
delivering added revenue streams, brand extension and                      frequency modulation (FM) band radio channels. These are
station loyalty to the broadcasters.                                       Radio Foorti (franchise of Radio Mirchi of India), Radio Amar,
    Digital radio has always offered the listener increased                and ABC Radio. These stations added a new dimension in
choice, now it also provides interactivity, data, images and               the lives of the Bengalis. Notable among those are, radio
exciting multimedia content. The main advantages of DAB+                   Foorti Radio Today, and Radio Amar.
are an increase in sound quality and less interference from                    The sudden entrance of these private radio channels in
other. A further advantage of this kind of broadcasting is the             our lives has changed the entertainment scene overnight.
ability to record your favourite shows at the touch of a button.           Various programs from three of these radio channels inspire
These shows can be stored on your device for you to come                   people now to listen to radio in a new way. Radio is in
back to at a later date. In many parts of the world where the
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© 2011 ACEEE
DOI: 02.ACT.2011.03. 66
Short Paper
                       Proc. of Int. Conf. on Advances in Computing, Control, and Telecommunication Technologies 2011


everyone’s ears, in the buses, tea stalls. Traffic updates are          C. Limitation of Conventional Broadcasting system in
the most popular programs in all these radio channels as                Bangladesh
traffic woes grew in the Mega city Dhaka.                                   Limited Area Coverage: The coverage areas of these radio
    As these radio stations gained acceptance it had been a             channels are limited till now as only the major cities like Dhaka,
blessing for the music industry. Record label companies found           Chittagong, Sylhet and Barishal have these channels.
a bigger platform to promote their singed up artist’s music.                Fewer Effective Radio Programs: The most of the listener
They promote them on these radio channels by airing                     of radio programs in Bangladesh are city dwellers whereas
unreleased tracks or exclusive tracks of the artists. They have         maximum listeners live in rural areas whose had required more
introduced a chart system, where a listener can vote for a              effective programs for their livelihood.
certain track by sms. With this the record label companies                  Shortage of Radio Station: The maximum number of radio
can assess the popularity of that artist for a particular song.         station from “Bangladesh Betar” which coverage greater
Until recently music label companies advertised using paper             region than others. Very few FM radio stations are broadcast
media and with 30 seconds clips on TV. According to the                 by four major FM private station-Radio Foorti, Radio Today,
record label companies, their cassettes or cds sales have               Radio Amar and ABC Radio
increased dramatically due to the radio promotions. Radio is                Limited Radio Receivers: There is limited number of
replacing the trend of listening to car cd players while on the         receivers in the country and all are analog (AM/FM) receivers
car. Radio has become a part of the daily life of the Bengalis.         which are maximum use in FM enable car and mobile. Very
B. Current Radio Broadcasting Position                                  few portable receivers used in the country therefore very few
                                                                        listeners from home or office.
    The broadcasting stations of Bangladesh basically have
                                                                            Lack of New Broadcasting Technologies: In our this
analogue equipment, tapes or record archives. Many of the
                                                                        developing country the most recent technologies like HDTV
stations have started some isolated projects to digitize some
                                                                        and DTV, Mobile TV, IPTV, Digital Radio, Emergency
of their analogue holdings. The catalogues of most of the
                                                                        Broadcasting are not entrance here yet.
archives are kept in lists, books or index cards. Many of the
stations have either partly or fully changed their program
                                                                                       III. ARCHITECTURE OF THE SYSTEM
production to digital and computer based systems. The
newsrooms in most of the stations use computers for news                    Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) is a digital standard
access (Internet) and news editing. Radios become grown up              originally developed in the mid-1980s through funding from
an important form of media in Bangladesh as it is easily                Eureka—a European intergovernmental initiative to
accessible especially to those in smaller communities. Many             encourage market-oriented industrial research and
radio stations from Bangladesh are broadcast online.                    development. The Eureka 147 standard (DAB) includes two
Bangladesh’s national radio network is Bangladesh Betar or              digital technologies: MPEG2, which is the compression,
Radio. This government run station has several regional                 standard for digital audio signals; and Coded Orthogonal
services operating throughout the country. Bangladesh Radio             Frequency Division Multiplex (COFDM) interference
also has an external service that transmits to Nepal, Pakistan,         radiofrequency technology, which maximizes spectrum
India, the Middle East and Europe in seven languages. The               efficiency and reduces susceptibility to many types of
broadcasting frequency spectrum is shared equitably and in              interference. DAB is a wideband technology, requiring a
the public interest among the three tiers of broadcasting –             bandwidth of 1.536 MHz to accommodate a multiplex of
public, private and community.                                          several services.
         TABLE I. AVAILABLE RADIO BROADCASTERS IN BANGLADESH
                                                                            Broadcasting from different bands of the frequency
                                                                        spectrum directly affects the characteristics of AM, FM and
                                                                        DAB+ transmissions. Whilst AM is characterized by longer
                                                                        wavelengths, ensuring it can travel further but is subject to
                                                                        higher degrees of interference, FM broadcasts from VHF Band
                                                                        II (88-108MHz), a higher frequency resulting in shorter
                                                                        wavelengths. Whilst reception is largely improved compared
                                                                        to AM, interference may still occur. [1].




                                                                                          Fig-1: Radio Frequency Bands
                                                                        DAB+ uses a transmission system similar to digital TV,
                                                                        broadcasting in VHF Band III (174-235MHz), a higher
                                                                        frequency than both AM and FM resulting in even shorter
                                                                        wave lengths. This spectrum efficient technology allows
                                                                        broadcasters to offer their listeners new digital only stations
                                                                  162
© 2011 ACEEE
DOI: 02.ACT.2011.03.66
Short Paper
                      Proc. of Int. Conf. on Advances in Computing, Control, and Telecommunication Technologies 2011


using less spectrum. DAB+ uses a robust modulation which
is designed for radio reception in mobile environments such
as vehicles and trains. DAB+ also provides new features
such as scrolling text, EPG, slideshow and in some receivers,
animation. [4]
                         TABLE II
                     FREQUENCY BANDS




                                                                                        Fig-3: Conceptual DAB Receiver


                                                                              IV. NEED AND OPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS FOR
                                                                                           BANGLADESH
A. Generation of the DAB Signal
    In Figure 2 we can see how each service signal is coded              A. Objectives associated with Radio Broadcasting in
individually at source level, error protected and time                   Bangladesh
interleaved in the channel coder. Then the services are                  a. Communications technologies are changing rapidly.
multiplexed in the Main Service Channel (MSC), according                 b. The number of available programs is multiplying.
to a pre-determined, but adjustable, multiplex configuration.            c. New delivery mechanisms are appearing every day.
The multiplexer output is combined with Multiplex Control                d. Listeners are becoming used to interactivity.
and Service information, which travel in the fast Information            e. Consumers now want to decide where, when and what
Channel (FIC), to form the transmission frames in the                    they want to see or hear; not the broadcasters.
Transmission Multiplexer. Finally, Orthogonal Frequency                  f. to protect freedom of expression;
Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is applied to shape the DAB                 g. enhance the public’s right to know through promoting
signal, which consists of a large number of carriers. The signal         pluralism and a wide variety of programming on matters of
is then transposed to the appropriate radio frequency band,              public interest;
amplified and transmitted.[1]                                            h.to encourage the provision of quality educational
                                                                         programming;
                                                                         i. rise up the widest possible geographic distribution of
                                                                         broadcasting services;
                                                                         j. develop and promote broadcasting reflecting national and
                                                                         regional culture and identity;
                                                                         B. Challenging Issues
                                                                         a. To avoid the occurrence of ‘cliff effect’. It may increase
                                                                         transmission. This would increase both the capital and
                                                                         operating costs for broadcasters and require detailed
                Fig 2: Generation of DAB Signal                          spectrum planning to avoid potential interference from
B. Reception of a DAB signal                                             adjacent services.
                                                                         b. Lack of attention and lack of available fund
    Figure 3 demonstrates a conceptual DAB receiver. The                 c. Archive’s services are not often requested
DAB ensemble is selected in the analogue tuner, the digitized            d. Low qualification of archive personal
output of which is fed to the OFDM demodulator and channel               e. Difficult environmental conditions
decoder to eliminate transmission errors. The information                f. Poor storage conditions
contained in the FIC is passed to the user interface for service         g. Lack of a collection policy
selection and is used to set the receiver appropriately. The             h. The region offers huge potential, but the regulatory
MSC data is further processed in an audio decoder to produce             environment is restricting development.
the left and right audio signals or in a data decoder (Packet            i. Countries do not have the sufficient connectivity
Demux) as appropriate.[4]                                                infrastructure.
                                                                         C. Potential values brought by adopting DAB+
                                                                         REMARKABLE ROLE IN DISASTER MANAGE
                                                                           Radio broadcasting can be used for more effective early
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© 2011 ACEEE
DOI: 02.ACT.2011.03. 66
Short Paper
                       Proc. of Int. Conf. on Advances in Computing, Control, and Telecommunication Technologies 2011


warning systems in the poor risky region by increasing the                                         CONCLUSIONS
rate and accuracy of information flows from meteorological
                                                                              Inadequate and unreliable communication infrastructure,
and disaster management organizations to broadcasters.
                                                                          poor power supply with frequent power failures, limited
RADIO AS A PUBLIC SERVICE                                                 coverage and bandwidth whereas an essential issue, the next
    Very poor public services are in Bangladesh where Digital             generation of radio broadcasting digital radio has greater
Radio can take a vast role. Digital audio contents may form               potential to deliver a range of new and innovative services to
the youths, social and economic growth, preserve human                    this developing country Bangladesh. Today’s economy
rights and build skilled human resources.                                 depends on the increased flow of ideas and information across
THE ROLE OF RADIO IN SOCIETY                                              firms, organizations, governments, and countries nationally
    Radio is rapidly evolving to become a blend of passive                and internationally. Thus, the advancement of Technology,
and active content, audio and multimedia, listen live or listen           now-a-days has become the driving force of economic growth
later, even a social networking hub where listeners can share             in developing countries. This analysis will contribute to the
the same experience together.                                             radio broadcasting technology in a developing country like
WARNING SYSTEM                                                            Bangladesh, which has not yet been widely researched and
    Early precaution and new symptoms of various diseases                 validated. In this paper we propose for adoption of Digital
and other health warning care issues could make effective by              Radio which is not replacing current services but it enhance
digital radio.                                                            the services and to be part of the social, economic and cultural
                                                                          development of Bangladesh. This new digital radio service
SPECIAL EVENTS
                                                                          can give extra coverage of special events beyond what can
    In case of different special events that occur in particular          be provided by other FM Radio networks.
region of the country may spread fast in whole region.
SPECTRUM EFFICIENCY                                                                                REFERENCES
    The adoption of DAB+ would enable metropolitan                        [1] Radio Broadcasting Systems; Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB)
listeners to use their digital radios in regional areas and would         to mobile, portable and fixed receivers. ETSI EN 300 401 V1.4.1,
take advantage of the wide availability of receivers.                     (200606).
DIFFERENT NEW BUSINESS MODEL INTRODUCE                                    [2] Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM): System Specification. ETSI
    Using DAB+ technology in regional markets may also                    EN 201980v1.2.2 (2009-08)
encourage car manufacturers to install DAB+ receivers in                  [3] NRSC-5-A In-band/on-channel Digital Radio Broadcasting
                                                                          Standard.
new vehicles, providing a substantial benefit to metropolitan
                                                                          [4] http://www.digitalradioplus.com.au
broadcasters and enabling regional broadcasters to draw on                [5] http://www.worlddab.org
existing industry expertise with the technology.                          [6] http://www.radioochtv.se/Documents/Publikationer/The future
                                                                          of radio -Final report.pdf
                                                                          [7] Digital Radio Industry Report 2011
                                                                          [8] An Audio Quality Evaluation of Commercial Digital Radio
                                                                          Systems , Lee, S.; Lee, Y.-T.; Seo, J.; Baek, M.-S.; Lim, C.-H.;
                                                                          Park, H.; Department of Electronics Engineering, Kwangwoon
                                                                          University, Korea-2011




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© 2011 ACEEE
DOI: 02.ACT.2011.03.66

				
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