Ayurvedic Trade Association.doc

Document Sample
Ayurvedic Trade Association.doc Powered By Docstoc
					  5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
          AYURVEDA HEALTH CLAIMS
          List of references for health claims beginning with ID NL E116-0

  SUMMARY OF REFERENCE BOOKS
  Many of the references do not fit clearly within one category. Brief notes on the
  significance of some of the texts are supplied for those not familiar with the Ayurvedic
  literature.

Title                                  Description                                Classification
Database on Medicinal Plants           This is perhaps the most                   Authoritative
Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1-7. 2001.      comprehensive official compilation of      body
Central Council for Research in        data on the herbal ingredients of
Ayurveda & Siddha, Government of       Ayurveda though not very detailed on
India, Ministry of Health and Family   actions and uses. It contains Ayurvedic
Welfare, Dept of Indian Systems of     data, western scientific data and many
Medicine & Homeopathy.                 references.
The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of         Primarily quality monographs with          Authoritative
India Part 1, Vol. 1-4, (2001-2005).   brief summaries of actions and uses.       body
Government of India, Ministry of
Health and Family Welfare, Dept of
Indian Systems of Medicine &
Homeopathy
The Ayurvedic Formulary of             Formulae and indications                   Authoritative
India Part 1, 2003. Government of                                                 body
India, Ministry of Health and Family
Welfare, Dept of Indian Systems of
Medicine & Homeopathy.
The Wealth of India Vol. 1-10,         Extensive data on the natural              Authoritative
Council of Scientific & Industrial     resources of India.                        body
Research. India.
Bhavaprakash of Bhavamishra            The most recent of the three most          Authoritative
with commentary by Dr B                seminal texts of Ayurveda. Its             ayurvedic
Sitaram. Chaukambha Orientalia         nighantu or monograph section
2006.                                  clarifies various controversies that had
                                       arisen in previous compilations of
                                       monographs and is esteemed as a
                                       landmark in the history of Ayurveda
                                       dravyaguna or herbology
Ayurvedic Pharmacology &               A respected text widely used by            Authoritative
Therapeutic Uses of Medicinal          students of Ayurveda translated by a       ayurvedic
Plants (Dravyagunavignyan). Gogte      team from the Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan
VM. Translated by The Academic         – Institute for Indian Art and Culture.
Team of BVB Swami Prakashananda
Ayurveda Research Centre.
Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan 2000.
CRC Handbook of Ayurvedic              Summary of Ayurvedic actions and           Authoritative
Medicinal Plants. Kapoor LD. CRC       uses, chemical constituents,               ayurvedic
Press 1990.                            pharmacological actions and medicinal
                                       uses by a senior scientist from the
                                       National Botanical Research Institute
                                       and Council of Scientific and Industrial
                                       Research, India.
Indian Materia Medica. Nadkani         Most comprehensive compilation of the      Authoritative
KM, Nadkani AK. Popular Prakashan.     materia medica with extensive data on      ayurvedic
1991.                                  traditional usage and contemporary
                                       research up to 1952.
Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal                                                  Authoritative
Plants. Khare CP, Springer Verlag,                                                ayurvedic
Berlin & Heidelberg, 2004
WHO monographs on selected                                                        Official or
medicinal plants. Vol. 1. WHO                                                     semi-official
1999.                                                                             monograph
British Herbal Pharmacopoeia                                                      Official or
1996. British Herbal Medicine                                                     semi-official
Association.                                                                      monograph



                                                                                              1
  5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
British Herbal Compendium Vol.                                                   Official or
2. Bradley P. British Herbal                                                     semi-official
Medicine Association 2006.                                                       monograph
A Guide To Traditional Herbal                                                    Official or
Medicines: A sourcebook of                                                       semi-official
accepted traditional uses of                                                     monograph
medicinal plants within Europe.                                                  (summary of
British Herbal Medicine Association                                              indications)
2003.
Indian Medicinal Plants -              Excellent description of most of the      Other textbook
Forgotten Healers: Pranjpe P,          most important Ayurvedic herbs.
Chaukhamba Sankrit Pratishthan,
Delhi, 2001
The Major Herbs of Ayurveda.           Very brief summary of traditional uses,   Other textbook
Dabur Research Foundation/Ed. E.M.     with phytochemical constituents and
Williamson. Churchill Livingstone      medicinal uses supported by
2002. .                                references to the objective scientific
                                       literature.
Herbal Medicines: A Guide for                                                    Other textbook
Health-care Professionals. Newall C,
Anderson LA, Phillipson JD. The
Pharmaceutical Press 1996.
Ayurvedic Medicine: The                A clear exposition of theory and          Other textbook
Principles of Traditional Practice.    current practice with very useful
Pole S. Churchill Livingstone 2006.    therapeutic monographs.
Potters New Cyclopaedia of                                                       Other textbook
Botanical Drugs and
Preparations. Williamson EM &
Evans FJ. The C.W. Daniel Company
1988.
The Essential Guide to Herbal                                                    Other textbook
Safety. Mills S, Bone K.. Elsevier
Churchill Livingstone 2005
The Principles and Practice of                                                   Other textbook
Phytotherapy. Mills S, Bone K.
Churchill Livingstone 2000.
A Modern Herbal. M. Grieve & CF                                                  Other textbook
Leyel. Penguin 1982


  1. ABIES WEBBIANA. LEAF. RESPIRATORY HEALTH
  Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
      -   Monographie BGA/BfArM (Kommission E) (Pini turiones)
      -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1 Vol 4, p 124
      -   CRC Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants, Kapoor p. 5
      -   Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants. Khare CP, p. 258
      -   Indian Materia Medica. Nadkarni p. 3

  Individual studies:
      -   Nayak SS, Ghosh AK, Srikanth K, et al.: Antitussive activity of Abies webbiana
          Lindl. leaf extract against sulphur dioxide-induced cough reflex in mice. Phytother
          Res (England), Sep 2003, 17(8) p930-2
      -   Vishnoi SP, Ghosh AK, Debnath B, et al.: Antibacterial activity of Abies webbiana.
          Fitoterapia (Netherlands), Feb 2007, 78(2) p153-5


  2. ABIES WEBBIANA. LEAF. GASTROINTESTINAL HEALTH
  Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
      -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1 Vol 4, p 124
      -   CRC Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants, Kapoor p. 5
      -   Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants. Khare CP, p. 258
      -   Indian Materia Medica. Nadkarni p 3




                                                                                                2
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
3. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA. SEED. APPETITE & WEIGHT
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
    -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Volume Part 1: 2/9
    -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda 1/11.
    -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte p.296

Animal study
   -   Gupta, S.S., S.C.L. Verma, A.K. Ram and R.M. Tripathi (1972) - Diuretic effect of
       the saponin of Achyranthes aspera (apamarga), Indian Journal of Pharmacology 4,
       4, 208-21


4. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA. WHOLE PLANT. WEIGHT
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
    -   Bhavaprakash –p.287
    -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Volume Pt 1:2/9
    -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, 1/11.
    -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. P296

Human studies
   -  Ajaishankar, M.R. Parsai, S.M.A. Naqvi and J.P. Jain (1980) - A clinical trial of
      apamarga (Achyranthes aspera) in cases of shoth (general anasarca), Journal of
      Research in Ayurveda and Siddha 1, 4, 514-528.

Animal studies
   -   Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar and Javed Iqbal . Evaluation of the hypoglycaemic
       effect of Achyranthes aspera in normal and alloxan-diabetic rabbits. Journal of
       Ethnopharmacology. Volume 31, Issue 1, January 1991, Pages 49-57

   -    Tahiliani, Pankaj and Anand Kar (2000b) - Achyranthes aspera elevates thyroid
        hormone levels and decreases hepatic lipid peroxidation in male rats, Journal of
        Ethnopharmacology 71, 527-532.

   -    Gupta, S.S., A.W. Bhagwat and A.K. Ram (1972) - Cardiac stimulant activity of the
        saponin of Achyranthes aspera, IJMR 60, 3, 462-471
   -    Gupta, S.S., S.C.L. Verma, A.K. Ram and R.M. Tripathi (1972) - Diuretic effect of
        the saponin of Achyranthes aspera (apamarga), Indian Journal of Pharmacology 4,
        4, 208-214.

    -   Khanna, A.K. et al. (1992) - Hypolipidemic activity of Achyranthes aspera Linn. in
        normal and triton induced Hyperlipidemic rats, IJEB 30, 2, 128-130.

   -    Ram, A.K. and S.S. Gupta (1970) - Diuretic activity of Achyranthes aspera
        saponin, Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 14, 47


5. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA. WHOLE PLANT. RESPIRATION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
    -   Bhavaprakash p.287
    -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Volume Pt 1:2/9
    -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, 1/11.
    -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.296


6. ADHATODA VASICA. LEAF & WHOLE PLANT. RESPIRATORY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
    -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, 1/496


7. AEGLE MARMELOS. LEAF. SUGAR METABOLISM
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.231/372
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/79
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.440
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.25




                                                                                             3
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
Human studies
   -  Diabetes Care 27:362-366, 2004. Dietary Antioxidant Intake and Risk of Type 2
      Diabetes. Jukka Montonen, MSC1, Paul Knekt, PHD1,2, Ritva Järvinen, PHD3 and
      Antti Reunanen, PHD1

Animal studies
   -   Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters Volume 17, Issue 6, 15 March 2007,
       Pages 1808-1811. Antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic agent from Aegle
       marmelos Narender, T / Shweta, S / Tiwari, P / Papi Reddy, K / Khaliq, T /
       Prathipati, P / Puri, A / (…) / Raj, K ,

   -   Indian journal of physiology and pharmacology, 48 (1), p.81-88, Jan 2004. Sabu,
       M C / Kuttan, Ramadasan. Antidiabetic activity of Aegle marmelos and its
       relationship with its antioxidant properties.

   -   Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2004 Oct;48(4):476-80. A study of hypoglycaemic and
       antioxidant activity of Aegle marmelos in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Upadhya S,
       Shanbhag KK, Suneetha G, Balachandra Naidu M, Upadhya S..

   -   Journal of Medicine and Food, Vol 6, No 2, 2003. Effect of Aegle marmelos Fruits
       on Normal and Streptozotocin-Diabetic Wistar Rats. N. Kamalakkanan, M.
       Rajadurai, P. Stanely Mainzen Prince


8. AEGLE MARMELOS. UNRIPE FRUIT. DIGESTION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.231/372
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/79
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.440
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.25

Animal studies
   -   Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Volume 85, Number 4, March 2005
       , pp. 569-573(5). Antihyperlipidaemic effect of Aegle marmelos fruit extract in
       streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Authors: N Kamalakkannan1; P Stanely
       Mainzen Prince1

   -   Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Volume 107, Issue 3, 11 October 2006, Pages 374-
       379. Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of Aegle marmelos seed extract
       in normal and diabetic rats. Achyut Narayan Kesaria, , Rajesh Kumar Guptaa,
       Santosh Kumar Singha, Sandhya Diwakarb and Geeta Watala,

   -   Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants. Volume: 12 Issue: 1/2. Restoration of
       Carbohydrate Metabolic Enzyme Activity in Serum, Liver, and Kidney by Aegle
       marmelos Fruit in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic RatsN. Kamalakkannan,, P.
       Stanely.


9. AMOMUM SUBULATUM. FRUIT. MENTAL & STRESS
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.: Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia 1/2/159


10. AMOMUM SUBULATUM. FRUIT. RESPIRATORY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.: Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia 1/2/159


11. AMOMUM SUBULATUM. FRUIT. ORAL.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.:
    -   Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia 1/2/159
    -   Indian Materia Medica – 1/93


12. AMOMUM SUBULATUM. FRUIT. ANTIOXIDANT.
Animal studies




                                                                                          4
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -   Indian J Exp Biol. 1999 Mar;37(3):238-42. Anti-oxidant effects of cinnamon
       (Cinnamomum verum) bark and greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum) seeds in
       rats fed high fat diet. Dhuley JN.

Invitro
    -   Biofactors. 2007;29(2-3):147-57. Modulatory effect of spice extracts on iron-
        induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver.Yadav AS, Bhatnagar D.



13. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS. ROOT. REPRODUCTION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
    -   Bhavaprakash –p.277
    -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:4/108
    -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/418
    -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. –p.491
    -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Dabur/Williamson. P.51
    -   CRC Handbook Kapoor .p.57
    -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole. P.271

Animal studies
   -   Pandey SK, Sahay A, Pandey RS, Tripathi YB. Effect of Asparagus racemosus
       rhizome (Shatavari) on mammary gland and genital organs of pregnant rat.
       Phytother Res. 2005 Aug;19(8):721-4.

   -   Indian Med J. 1967 Jul;61(7):165. Galactogogue effect of Asparagus racemosus.
       Preliminary communication. Joglekar GV, Ahuja RH, Balwani JH

   -   Indian Pediatr. 1996 Aug;33(8):675-7. Randomized controlled trial of Asparagus
       racemosus (Shatavari) as a lactogogue in lactational inadequacy. Sharma S, Ramji
       S, Kumari S, Bapna JS.

   -   Int J Cancer.1981 Nov 15;28(5):607-10. Inhibitory action of Asparagus racemosus
       on DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats. Rao AR.

   -   Indian Vet J. 1969 Aug;46(8):718-21. Asparagus racemosus willd--form bordi, as
       a galactogogue, in buffaloes. Patel AB, Kanitkar UK.

   -   Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 1969 May;179(1):121-9. Antioxytocic action of
       saponin isolated from Asparagus racemosus Willd (Shatavari) on uterine muscle.
       Gaitondé BB, Jetmalani MH.

   -   Indian J Exp Biol. 1968 Jan;6(1):55-7. Effects of alcoholic extracts of Asparagus
       racemosus on mammary glands of rats. Sabnis PB, Gaitonde BB, Jetmalani M.

See also Antioxidant/immunity and stress/mental/sleep studies


14. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS. ROOT. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
    -   Bhavaprakash –p.277
    -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/418
    -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. –p.491
    -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Dabur/Williamson. P.51
    -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole. P.271

See also Asparagus racemosus. Root. Antioxidant/immunity and stress/mental/sleep
studies


15. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS. ROOT. ENERGY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
    -   Bhavaprakash –p.277
    -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/418
    -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. –p.491
    -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Dabur/Williamson. P.51


                                                                                           5
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -   CRC Handbook Kapoor .p.57
   -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole. P.271

See also Asparagus racemosus. Root. Antioxidant/immunity and stress/mental/sleep
studies


16. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS. ROOT. STRESS, MENTAL & SLEEP
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
    -   Bhavaprakash –p.277
    -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:4/108
    -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/418
    -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. –p.491
    -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Dabur/Williamson. P.51
    -   CRC Handbook Kapoor .p.57
    -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole. P.271

Animal studies
   -   Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 Oct;40(10):1151-60. Effect of poly herbal formulation,
       EuMil, on chronic stress-induced homeostatic perturbations in rats. Muruganandam
       AV, Kumar V, Bhattacharya SK.

   -   Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 Oct;40(10):1161-3. Effect of poly herbal formulation,
       EuMil, on neurochemical perturbations induced by chronic stress. Bhattacharya A,
       Muruganandam AV, Kumar V, Bhattacharya SK

   -   Indian J Exp Biol. 2000 Feb;38(2):119-28. Adaptogenic activity of Siotone, a
       polyherbal formulation of Ayurvedic rasayanas. Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya A,
       Chakrabarti A.

   -   Phytother Res. 1999 Jun;13(4):275-91. Adaptogenic properties of six rasayana
       herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine. Rege NN, Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA.

   -   J Neural Transm. 2004 Jan;111(1):1-12. Epub 2003 Dec 3. Experimental
       excitotoxicity provokes oxidative damage in mice brain and attenuation by extract
       of Asparagus racemosus. Parihar MS, Hemnani T.

See also Antioxidant/immunity


17. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS. ROOT. CARDIOVASCULAR
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
    -   Bhavaprakash –p.277
    -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:4/108
    -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/418
    -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. –p.491
    -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Dabur/Williamson. P.51
    -   CRC Handbook Kapoor .p.57
    -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole. P.271

See also Antioxidant/immunity and stress/mental/sleep studies


18. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS. ROOT. URINARY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
    -   Bhavaprakash –p.277
    -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:4/108
    -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/418
    -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. –p.491
    -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Dabur/Williamson. P.51
    -   CRC Handbook Kapoor p.57
    -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole. p.271

Animal study
   -   Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Nov;27(9):633-8. Antilithiatic effect of
       Asparagus racemosus Willd on ethylene glycol-induced lithiasis in male albino


                                                                                           6
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
       Wistar rats. Christina AJ, Ashok K, Packialakshmi M, Tobin GC, Preethi J, Murugesh
       N.

See also Antioxidant/immunity and stress/mental/sleep studies


19. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS. ROOT. ANTIOXIDANT/IMMUNITY
Animal studies
    -  Kamat JP, Boloor KK, Devasagayam TP, Venkatachalam SR. Antioxidant properties
       of Asparagus racemosus against damage induced by gamma-radiation in rat liver
       mitochondria. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Aug;71(3):425-35.

   -   .J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Apr;91(2-3):251-5. Immunoadjuvant potential of
       Asparagus racemosus aqueous extract in experimental system. Gautam M,
       Diwanay S, Gairola S, Shinde Y, Patki P, Patwardhan B.

   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Aug;71(3):425-35. Antioxidant properties of Asparagus
       racemosus against damage induced by gamma-radiation in rat liver mitochondria.
       Kamat JP, Boloor KK, Devasagayam TP, V enkatachalam SR.

   -   Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1988 Oct;10(10):639-44. Comparative study of
       immunomodulating activity of Indian medicinal plants, lithium carbonate and
       glucan. Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA.

   -   Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Nov;1056:261-78. Antiulcer and antioxidant activity of
       Asparagus racemosus Willd and Withania somnifera Dunal in rats.
   -   Bhatnagar M, Sisodia SS, Bhatnagar R.

   -   J Neural Transm. 2004 Jan;111(1):1-12. Epub 2003 Dec 3. Experimental
       excitotoxicity provokes oxidative damage in mice brain and attenuation by extract
       of Asparagus racemosus. Parihar MS, Hemnani T.

See also Stress/mental/sleep studies


20. ASPHALTUM/SHILAJIT PURIFIED. URINARY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.407
            -   Indian Materia Medica: Nadkani 2/28
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.273


21. ASPHALTUM/SHILAJI PURIFIED. DIGESTION & METABOLISM OF CARBOHYDRATES AND LIPIDS
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.407
            -   Indian Materia Medica: Nadkani 2/28
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.273

Human studies
   -  Diabetes Care 26-2469-2470,2003. By the American Diabetes Association, Inc.
      Modulation of Oxidative and Antioxidative Status in Diabetes by Asphaltum
      Panjabinum. Nidhi Saxena, Upendra N. Dwivedi, Raj K. Singe, Arvind Kumar,
      Chhavi Saxena, Ram C. Saxena, and Mona Saxena

Animal studies
   -   Bhattacharya, Salil K. (1995c) - Shilajit attenuates streptozotocin induced diabetes
       mellitus and decrease in pancreatic islet superoxide dismutase activity in rats,
       Phytotherapy Research 9, 1, 41-44.

   -   Bhattacharya, S.K. (1995a) - Activity of shilajit on alloxan-induced hyperglycaemia
       in rats, Fitoterapia 66, 4, 328-332.

   -   Gupta, S.S. (1966) - Experimental studies on pituitary diabetes, part V: effect of
       shilajit, Ficus bengalensis and anterior pituitary extract on glucose tolerance in
       rats, IJMR 54, 4, 354-362.




                                                                                            7
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
    -    Trivedi, N.H., B. Mazumdar, J.D. Bhatt and K.G. Hemavathi (2004) - Effect of
         shilajit on blood glucose and lipid profile in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, Indian
         Journal of Pharmacology 36, 6, 373-376.


22. ASPHALTUM/SHILAJIT PURIFIED. WEIGHT.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.407
            -   Indian Materia Medica: Nadkani 2/28
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.273
Review
    -   Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Aug;72(2 Suppl):624S-36S. Selected herbals and human
        exercise performance. Bucci LR.

Human studies
   -  Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 29, Issue 1, April 1990, Pages 1-11.
      Ayurvedic treatment of obesity: A randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled
      clinical trial Prakash Paranjpeb, Pralhad Patkic and Bhushan Patwardhan

    -    Gupta, S.S., C.B. Seth and V.S. Mathur (1965) - Effect of gurmar and shilajit on
         body weight of young rats, Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 9, 2,
         87-92.


23. ASPHALTUM/SHILAJIT PURIFIED. REPRODUCTION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Indian Materia Medica: Nadkani 2/28
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.273

Review
   -   Acharya, S.B., M.H. Frotan, R.K. Goel, S.K. Tripathi and P.K. Das (1988) -
       Pharmacological actions of shilajit, IJEB 26, 775-777.

Animal studies
   -   Journal of EthnopharmacologyVolume 107, Issue 3, 11 October 2006, pages 349-
       353. The spermatogenic and ovogenic effects of chronically administered Shilajit to
       rats. Jeontg-Sook Park, Gee-Young Kimg and Kun Han

In vitro
    -    Pure & Appl. Chern., Vol. 62, No. 7, pp. 1285-1288, 1990. Chemistry of shilajit, an
         immunomodulatory Ayurvedic rasayana. Shibnath Ghosal


24. ASPHALTUM/SHILAJIT PURIFIED. MENSES.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Indian Materia Medica: Nadkani 2/28
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.273


25. ASPHALTUM/SHILAJIT PURIFIED. BONES & JOINTS
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Indian Materia Medica: Nadkani 2/28
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.273

In vitro studies
    -    J Pharm Sci. 1976 May;65(5):772-3. Shilajit I: chemical constituents. Ghosal S,
         Reddy JP, Lal VK


26. ASPHALTUM/SHILAJIT PURIFIED. IMMUNITY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Indian Materia Medica: Nadkani 2/28
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.273

Review




                                                                                                8
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
    -   Indian J Exp Biol. 1988 Oct;26(10):775-7. Pharmacological actions of Shilajit.
        Acharya SB, Frotan MH, Goel RK, Tripathi SK, Das PK.

    -   G. Shibnath, Shilajit in Perspective, Narosa Publishing House, New Dehli (India)
        (2006) 201 pp.

    -   Medical drugs from humus matter: Focus on mumie (Shilagen). Igor Schepetkin ,
        Andrei Khlebnikov , Byoung Se Kwon. Dev. Res. 57:140-159, 2002

Animal studies
   -   Ghosal, Shibnath, Jawahar Lal, Sushil K. Singh, Gautam Dasgupta, Joydeep
       Bhaduri, Mita Mukhopadhyay and Salil K. Bhattacharya (1989) - Mast cell
       protecting effects of shilajit and its constituents, Phytotherapy Research 3, 6, 249-
       252.

    -   Bhaumik, Sraboni, Sukumar Chattopadhyay and Shibnath Ghosal (1993) - Effect of
        shilajit on mouse peritoneal macrophages, Phytotherapy Research 7, 6, 425-427.

    -   Effect of shilajit on mouse peritoneal macrophages Phytothera. Res. 7 1993 425
        427 27 Dietert R. R. Hotchkiss J. H. Austic R. E. Sung Y-J.

    -   J Ethnopharmacol. 1990 Apr;29(1):95-103. Antiulcerogenic and antiinflammatory
        studies with shilajit. Goel RK, Banerjee RS, Acharya SB.

    -   Science and Technology, 2002. KORUS-2002. Proceedings. The 6th Russian-
        Korean International Symposium on Mumie constituents and their biological
        activity: modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production of macrophages.
        Schepetkin, I.A. Klubachuk, O.N. Khlebnikov, A.I. Kwon, B.S

In vitro studies
    -    Pure & Appl. Chern., Vol. 62, No. 7, pp. 1285-1288, 1990. Chemistry of shilajit, an
         immunomodulatory Ayurvedic rasayana. Shibnath Ghosal

    -   Tripathi, Yamini B., Savita Shukla, Savita Chaurasia and Shashikant Chaturvedi
        (1996) - Antilipid peroxidative property of shilajit, Phytotherapy Research 10, 3,
        269-270.

    -   Ghosal, S. and S.K. Bhattacharya (1996) - Antioxidant defense by native and
        processed shilajit - a comparative study, Indian Journal of Chemistry 35B, 127-
        132.

    -   Ghosal, Shibnath, Sraboni Baumik and Sukumar Chattopadhyay (1995) - Shilajit
        induced morphometric and functional changes in mouse peritoneal macrophages,
        Phytotherapy Research 9, 3, 194-198. Ghosal, S. (1990) - Chemistry of shilajit,
        an immunomodulatory Ayurvedic rasayan, Pure and Applied Chemistry (UPAC) 62,
        1285-1288

    -   Bhattacharya, Salil K., Ananda P. Sen and Shibnath Ghosal (1995) - Effects of
        shilajit on biogenic free radicals, Phytotherapy Research 9, 1, 56-59.


27. ASPHALTUM/SHILAJIT PURIFIED. MENTAL
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.407
            -   Indian Materia Medica: Nadkani 2/28
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.273
Review
    -   Phytotherapy res. 2007 Shilajit: a review. Suraj P. Agarwal 1, Rajesh Khanna 2 *,
        Ritesh Karmarkar 1, Md. Khalid Anwer 1, Roop K. Khar

Animal studies
   -   Jaiswal, A.K. and Bhattacharya, S.K. (1992) - Effects of shilajit on memory,
       anxiety and brain monoamines in rats, Indian Journal of Pharmacology 24, 1, 12-
       17.




                                                                                             9
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -     Bhattacharya, S.K. and S. Ghosal (1992) - Effect of shilajit on rat brain
         monoamines, Phytotherapy Research 6, 3, 163-164

   -     Ghosal, S., J. Lal, A.K. Jaiswal and S.K. Bhattacharya (1993) - Effects of shilajit
         and its active constituents on learning and memory in rats, Phytotherapy Research
         7, 1, 29-34
   -
         Phytotherapy Research Volume 7, Issue 1 , Pages 29 – 34. Effects of shilajit and
         its active constituents on learning and memory in rats. S. Ghosal 1 *, J. Lal 1, A. K.
         Jaiswal 2, S. K. Bhattacharya 2

   -     Systemic administration of defined extracts from Withania somnifera (Indian
         ginseng) and Shilajit differentially affects cholinergic but not glutamatergic and
         GABAergic markers in rat brain. Reinhard Schliebs*, André Liebmann*, Salil K.
         Bhattacharya†, Ashok Kumar*, Shibnath Ghosal‡ and Volker Bigl*


28. ASPHALTUM/SHILAJIT PURIFIED. REJUVENATION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.407
            -   Indian Materia Medica: Nadkani 2/28
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.273

Review
   -   Phytotherapy res. 2007 Shilajit: a review. Suraj P. Agarwal, Rajesh Khanna,
       Ritesh Karmarkar, Md. Khalid Anwer, Roop K. Khar

   -     G. Shibnath, Shilajit in Perspective, Narosa Publishing House, New Dehli (India)
         (2006) 201 pp.


29. AZADIRACHTA INDICA. BARK. LIVER
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B.- p.251
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1.2/127
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, 1/289.
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.409
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Dabur/Williamson. p.56
            -
Animal studies on Azadirachta indica leaf
    -   Indian J Exp Biol. 2007 Apr;45(4):359-66. Impediment of diethylnitrosamine
        induced hepatotoxicity in male Balb/c mice by pretreatment with aqueous
        Azadirachta indica leaf extract. Koul A, Binepal G, Gangar SC.

   -     Phytother Res. 2006 Mar;20(3):169-77. Chemomodulatory effects of Azadirachta
         indica on the hepatic status of skin tumor bearing mice. Koul A, Ghara AR, Gangar
         SC.

   -     Akah, P.A., V.N. Offiah and E. Onuogu (1992) - Hepatotoxic effect of Azadirachta
         indica leaf extracts in rabbits, Fitoterapia 62, 4, 311-319.

   -     Bhanwra, S., J. Singh and P. Khosla (2000) - Effect of Azadirachta indica (neem)
         leaf aqueous extract on paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats, Indian Journal
         of Physiology and Pharmacology 44, 1, 64-68.


30. AZADIRACHTA INDICA. BARK. SKIN
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B.- p.251
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1.2/127
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, 1/289.
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. P.409
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Dabur/Williamson. p.56
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.233

Animal


                                                                                              10
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -   Bhardwaj, R.L. and D.N. Sharma (1997) - Evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica
       Juss.) oil as a potent wound healer - histomorphological and histochemical study,
       Indian Veterinary Medical Journal 21, 3, 187-190.

   -   Charles, V. and S.X. Charles (1992) - The use and efficacy of Azadirachta indica
       (`neem') and Curcuma longa (`turmeric') in scabies - a pilot study, Trop. Geogr.
       Med. 44, 1/2, 178-181.

   -   Jain, A. and E. Basal (2003) - Inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes-induced
       mediators of inflammation by Indian herbs, Phytomedicine 10, 1, 34-38.

   -   Mamgain, R.K. (2000) - Acne vulgaris and its treatment by indigenous drugs SK-34
       (Purim) and SK-235 (Clarine), Antiseptic 97, 3, 76-78

   -   Natarajan, V., F.V. Venugopal and T. Menon (2003) - Effect of Azadirachta indica
       (neem) on the growth pattern of dermatophytes, Indian Journal of Medical
       Microbiology 21, 2, 98-101.


In vitro
    -    Fitoterapia. 2007 Apr;78(3):235-7. Epub 2007 Feb 6.Effect of Azadirachta indica
         leaf methanol extracts on stem cell reproduction. González-Garza MT, Codinach M,
         Alcaraz C, Moreno-Cuevas J, Carranza-Rosales P, Cruz-Vega DE.


31. AZADIRACHTA INDICA. BARK. ANTIOXIDANT, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANTIPYRETIC
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B.- p.251
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1.2/127
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, 1/289.
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. P.409
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Dabur/Williamson. p.56
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.233

Human
   -  Immunomodulatory activity of an aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark
      J. M. van der Nat, J. P. A. M. Klerxa, H. van Dijkb, K. T. D. De Silvac and R. P.
      Labadiea . Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 19, Issue 2, March-April 1987,
      Pages 125-131

Animal
   -   Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 1999 Mar;66(1):59-62. Effect of an aqueous extract of
       Azadirachta indica on the immune response in mice. Njiro SM, Kofi-Tsekpo MW.

   -   Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2006 Jul-Sep;7(3):467-71. Antioxidative and modifying
       effects of a tropical plant Azadirachta indica (Neem) on azoxymethane-induced
       preneoplastic lesions in the rat colon.
       Arakaki J, Suzui M, Morioka T, Kinjo T, Kaneshiro T, Inamine M, Sunagawa N,
       Nishimaki T, Yoshimi N

   -   Phytother Res. 2006 Mar;20(3):169-77.. Chemomodulatory effects of Azadirachta
       indica on the hepatic status of skin tumor bearing mice.
       Koul A, Ghara AR, Gangar SC.

   -   Ansari, K.U., N. Kasturi, S.L. Tewarson, S. Singh and R.C. Pandey (1997) - An
       experimental and clinical evaluation of immuno-modulating potential of
       Azadirachta indica (Neem) extract, Indian Journal of Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 18, 82-
       84.

   -   Ashorobi, R.B. (1998) - Antipyretic effect of Azadirachta indica in bacteria
       endotoxin induced fever in the rat, Phytotherapy Research 12, 1, 41-43.

   -   Bandyopadhyay, U., K. Biswas, R. Chatterjee, D. Bandyopadhyay, I.
       Chattopadhyay, C.K. Ganguly, T. Chakraborty, K. Bhattacharya and R.K. Banerjee
       (2002) - Gastroprotective effect of neem (Azadirachta indica) bark extract:




                                                                                        11
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
       possible involvement of H(+)K(+)-ATPase inhibition and scavenging of hydroxyl
       radical, Life Sciences 71, 24, 2845-2865.

   -   Manogaran, S. et al. (1998) - Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of the
       root, bark and leaves of Azadirachta indica, Ancient Science of Life 18, 1, 29-34.

Nat, J.M. van der, J.P.A.M. Klerx, H. van Dijk, K.T.D. De Silva, R.P. Labadie (1987) -
Immunomodulatory activity of an aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark, Journal
of Ethnopharmacology 19, 125-131.


32. AZADIRACHTA INDICA. LEAF. URINARY, SUGAR METABOLISM & EYE FUNCTION.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -  Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B.- p.251
            -  The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1.2/124
            -  Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, 1/289.
            -  Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. P.409
            -  Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Dabur/Williamson. P.56
            -  Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.233

Human studies
   -  Diabetes Care 27:362-366, 2004. Dietary Antioxidant Intake and Risk of Type 2
      Diabetes . Jukka Montonen, MSC1, Paul Knekt, PHD1,2, Ritva Järvinen, PHD3 and
      Antti Reunanen, PHD1

Animal studies
   -   Effects of Antioxidants in Diabetes-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Glomeruli of
       Diabetic Rats. Daisuke Koya, Kazuyuki Hayashi, Munehiro Kitada, Atsunori
       Kashiwagi, Ryuichi Kikkawa and Masakazu Haneda

   -   Life Sci. 2005 Feb 4;76(12):1325-38. Epub 2005 Jan 18. Neuroprotective effect of
       Azadirachta indica on cerebral post-ischemic reperfusion and hypoperfusion in rats.
       Yanpallewar S, Rai S, Kumar M, Chauhan S, Acharya SB.

   -   Bano, S., K. Javed and M.A. Jafri (2000) - Effect of a new Unani formulation `DZ'
       on blood sugar of normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats, Indian Journal of
       Pharmacology 32, 2, 158 (abstract No. 279)

   -   African Journal of Biomedical Research, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2005, pp.101-104 Effect of
       Azadirachta indica leaf extract on serum lipid profile changes in normal and
       streptozotocin induced diabetic rats R.R. Chattopadhyay* and M. Bandyopadhyay

   -   Chakrabortty, T., L. Verotta and G. Poddar (1989) - Evaluation of Azadirachta
       indica leaf extract for hypoglycaemic activity in rats, Phytotherapy Research 3, 1,
       30-32.

   -   Chandra Shekhar, K., Francis I. Achike, Gurpreet Kaur, Prem Kumar and Rohaini
       Hashim (2002) - A preliminary evaluation of the efficacy and safety of Cogent db
       (an Ayurvedic drug) in the glycemic control of patients with type-2 diabetes,
       Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 8, 4, 445-457.

   -   Chattopadhyay, R.N. et al. (1993) - Possible mechanism of antihyperglycemic
       effect of Azadirachta indica leaf extract - part I, Fitoterapia 64, 4, 332-335

   -   Chattopadhyay, R.R. (1995) - Hypolipidemic activity of Azadirachta indica A.Juss.
       leaf extract in rats, Proceedings of the Indian National Science

   -   Chattopadhyay, R.R. (1999a) - A comparative evaluation of some blood sugar
       lowering agents of plant origin, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 67, 3, 367-372

   -   Hussain, Halim Eshrat M. Ali (2002) - Reversal of diabetic retinopathy in
       streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using traditional Indian anti-diabetic plant,
       Azadirachta indica (L.), Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry 17, 2, 115-123

   -   Kaushika, A., K.K. Saxena, V.K. Srivastava, A. Kumar and V.S. Singh (1999) -
       Effect of alcoholic extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) on blood glucose and lipid


                                                                                            12
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
       profile in experimentally induced diabetes mellitus, Indian Journal of Pharmacology
       31, 1, 56 (abstract No. 68).try 17, 2, 115-123
    -
In vitro
    -    Med Princ Pract. 2006;15(3):219-22.. Comparison of free radical scavenging
         activity of Siamese neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss var. siamensis Valeton)
         leaf extracts prepared by different methods of extraction. Sithisarn P, Supabphol
         R, Gritsanapan W.


33. AZADIRACHTA INDICA. LEAF. RESPIRATORY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B.- p.251
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1.2/127
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, 1/289.
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. P.409
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.233

Animal studies
   -   Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006 Jul-Sep;50(3):241-9. Effect of aqueous extract of
       neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves on offensive and diffensive gastric mucosal
       factors in rats. Dorababu M, Joshi MC, Bhawani G, Kumar MM, Chaturvedi A, Goel
       RK.

   -   In Vivo. 2006 Mar-Apr;20(2):247-51.Enhancement of immune responses to neem
       leaf extract (Azadirachta indica) correlates with antineoplastic activity in BALB/c-
       mice.
       Beuth J, Schneider H, Ko HL.

In vitro
    -    Med Princ Pract. 2006;15(3):219-22.. Comparison of free radical scavenging
         activity of Siamese neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss var. siamensis Valeton)
         leaf extracts prepared by different methods of extraction. Sithisarn P, Supabphol
         R, Gritsanapan W
    -
    -    Acharya, S.B., S.U. Yanpallewar and R.K. Singh (2003) - A preliminary study on
         the effect of Azadirachta indica on bronchial smooth muscles and mast cells,
         Journal of Natural Remedies 3,


34. BACOPA MONNIERA. WHOLE PLANT. COGNITIVE FUNCTION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.306
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:2/25
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/93
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.437
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.64
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.149
            -   Essential Guide to Herbal Safety: Mills/Bone p.252

Reviews
   -
       Phytomedicine Volume 12, Issue 4, 20 April 2005, Pages 305-317. Bacopa
       monniera, a reputed nootropic plant: an overview . Russo and F. Borrelli .
   -
       Monograph: Bacopa monniera. Alternative Medicine Review 9(1), 2004
   -

Human studies
   -  Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2001 Aug;156(4):481-4.The chronic effects of an
      extract of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy human
      subjects. Stough C, Lloyd J, Clarke J, Downey LA, Hutchison CW, Rodgers T,
      Nathan PJ.

   -   Hum Psychopharmacol. 2002 Apr;17(3):163-4. The acute effects of combined
       administration of Ginkgo biloba and Bacopa monniera on cognitive function in
       humans. Maher BF, Stough C, Shelmerdine A, Wesnes K, Nathan PJ.




                                                                                         13
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -   Hum Psychopharmacol. 2004 Mar;19(2):91-6. Effects of a combined extract of
       Ginkgo biloba and Bacopa monniera on cognitive function in healthy humans.
       Nathan PJ, Tanner S, Lloyd J, Harrison B, Curran L, Oliver C, Stough C.

   -   Sharma R et al: Efficacy of Bacopa monnieri in revitalizing intellectual functions in
       children; J Res Edu Indian Med pp 1-12, Jan-June 1987

   -   Negi et al: Clinical evaluation of memory enhancing properties of Memory Plus in
       children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Ind J Psychiatry 42:
       Supplement, 2000

   -   Singh RH, Singh L: Studies on the anti-anxiety effect of the Medhy Rasayan drug,
       Brahmi (Bacopa monniera Wettst.) - Part 1; J Res Ayur Siddha 1 pp 133-148, 1980


Animal studies
   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Apr 20;111(1):56-62. Epub 2006 Nov 11. Bacopa
       monniera prevents from aluminium neurotoxicity in the cerebral cortex of rat
       brain. Jyoti A, Sethi P, Sharma D.

   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 May 22;111(3):671-6. Epub 2007 Jan 30. Effect of
       Bacopa monniera on stress induced changes in plasma corticosterone and brain
       monoamines in rats. Sheikh N, Ahmad A, Siripurapu KB, Kuchibhotla VK, Singh S,
       Palit G.

   -    J Alzheimers Dis. 2006 Aug;9(3):243-51. Bacopa monniera extract reduces
       amyloid levels in PSAPP mice.
       Holcomb LA, Dhanasekaran M, Hitt AR, Young KA, Riggs M, Manyam BV.

   -   Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior Volume 73, Issue 4, November 2002,
       Pages 893-900. A comparative study in rodents of standardized extracts of Bacopa
       monniera and Ginkgo biloba . Anticholinesterase and cognitive enhancing activities
       Amitava Das, Girja Shanker, Chandishwar Nath, Raghwendra Palb, Satyawan Singh
       and Hemant K. Singh

   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Mar 8;104(1-2):286-9. Epub 2005 Dec 15. Anti-
       inflammatory activity of Bacopa monniera in rodents. Channa S, Dar A, Anjum S,
       Yaqoob M, Atta-Ur-Rahman .

   -   Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior Volume 75, Issue 4, July 2003, Pages
       823-830. Adaptogenic effect of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi). Deepak Rai, Gitika
       Bhatia, Gautam Palit, Raghwendra Pal, Satyawan Singh and Hemant K. Singh

   -   Indian J Exp Biol. 2005 Jul;43(7):640-5. Effect of bacosides, alcoholic extract of
       Bacopa monniera Linn. (brahmi), on experimental amnesia in mice. Kishore K,
       Singh M.

   -   Life Sciences Volume 73, Issue 12, 8 August 2003, Pages 1517-1526. Nitric oxide-
       related toxicity in cultured astrocytes: effect of Bacopa monniera. Alessandra
       Russo, Francesca Borrelli, Agata Campisia, Rosaria Acquavivaa, Giuseppina Racitia
       and Angelo Vanella

   -   Phytomedicine. 2002 Apr;9(3):207-11. Antidepressant activity of standardized
       extract of Bacopa monniera in experimental models of depression In rats. Sairam
       K, Dorababu M, Goel RK, Bhattacharya SK.

   -   Bhattacharya SK, Ghosal S: Anxiolytic effect of astandardised extract of Bacopa
       monniera in an experimental study; Phytomedicine 5, pp 77-82, 1998

   -   Vohora D et al: Protection from phenytoin-induced cognitive deficit by Bacopa
       monniera, a reputed Indian nootropic plant; J Ethnopharmacol 71 (3), 383-90,
       2000

   -   Singh HK, Dhawan BN: Effect of Bacopa monniera Linn (brahmi) extract on
       avoidance responses in rat; J Ethnopharmacol 5 (2), 205-214, 1982




                                                                                            14
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -   Singh HK, Dhawan BN: Neuropsychpharmacological effects of the Ayurvedic
       nootropic Bacopa monniera Linn (Brahmi); Indian J Pharmacology 29, pp 359-365,
       1997

In vitro studies
    -    Phytother Res. 2003 Sep;17(8):870-5. Free radical scavenging capacity and
         protective effect of Bacopa monniera L. on DNA damage. Russo A, Izzo AA, Borrelli
         F, Renis M, Vanella A.


35. BACOPA MONNIERA. WHOLE PLANT. ADAPTOGENIC
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.306
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:2/25
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/93
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.437
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.64
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.149
            -   Essential Guide to Herbal Safety: Mills/Bone p.252
Reviews
    -
        Phytomedicine Volume 12, Issue 4, 20 April 2005, Pages 305-317. Bacopa
        monniera, a reputed nootropic plant: an overview . Russo and F. Borrelli .

   -   Monograph: Bacopa monniera. Alternative Medicine Review 9(1), 2004

Animal studies
   -   Chowdhuri DK et al: Antistress effects of bacosides of Bacopa monnieri:
       modulation of Hsp70 expression,superoxide dismutase and cytochrome P450
       activity in rat brain; Phytother Res 16 (7), pp 639-645, 2002

   -   Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior Volume 75, Issue 4, July 2003, Pages
       823-830. Adaptogenic effect of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi). Deepak Rai, Gitika
       Bhatia, Gautam Palit, Raghwendra Pal, Satyawan Singh and Hemant K. Singh

   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 May 22;111(3):671-6. Epub 2007 Jan 30. Effect of
       Bacopa monniera on stress induced changes in plasma corticosterone and brain
       monoamines in rats. Sheikh N, Ahmad A, Siripurapu KB, Kuchibhotla VK, Singh S,
       Palit G

In vitro
    -    Phytother Res. 2003 Sep;17(8):870-5. Free radical scavenging capacity and
         protective effect of Bacopa monniera L. on DNA damage. Russo A, Izzo AA, Borrelli
         F, Renis M, Vanella A.


36. BACOPA MONNIERA. WHOLE PLANT. BRAIN
T6xtbooks etc.
           -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.306
           -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:2/25
           -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/93
           -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.437
           -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.64
           -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.149
           -   Essential Guide to Herbal Safety: Mills/Bone p.252

Reviews
   -
       Phytomedicine Volume 12, Issue 4, 20 April 2005, Pages 305-317. Bacopa
       monniera, a reputed nootropic plant: an overview . Russo and F. Borrelli .

   -   Monograph: Bacopa monniera. Alternative Medicine Review 9(1), 2004


Animal studies
   -   Life Sciences Volume 73, Issue 12, 8 August 2003, Pages 1517-1526. Nitric oxide-
       related toxicity in cultured astrocytes: effect of Bacopa monniera. Alessandra




                                                                                       15
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
       Russo, Francesca Borrelli, Agata Campisia, Rosaria Acquavivaa, Giuseppina Racitia
       and Angelo Vanella

   -   Bhattacharya SK et al: Antioxidant activity of Bacopa monniera in rat frontal
       cortex, striatum and hippocampus; Phytothr Res 14 (3), 174-179, 2000


37. BACOPA MONNIERA. WHOLE PLANT. MENTAL
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.306
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:2/25
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/93
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.437
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.64
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.149

Reviews
   -
       Phytomedicine Volume 12, Issue 4, 20 April 2005, Pages 305-317. Bacopa
       monniera, a reputed nootropic plant: an overview . Russo and F. Borrelli .

   -   Monograph: Bacopa monniera. Alternative Medicine Review 9(1), 2004Essential
       Guide to Herbal Safety: Mills/Bone p.252

Animal studies
   -   Bhattacharya SK, Ghosal S: Anxiolytic effect of astandardised extract of Bacopa
       monniera in an experimental study; Phytomedicine 5, pp 77-82, 1998

   -   Singh RH, Singh L: Studies on the anti-anxiety effect of the Medhy Rasayan drug,
       Brahmi (Bacopa monniera Wettst.) - Part 1; J Res Ayur Siddha 1 pp 133-148, 1980

   -   Phytomedicine. 2002 Apr;9(3):207-11. Antidepressant activity of standardized
       extract of Bacopa monniera in experimental models of depression In rats. Sairam
       K, Dorababu M, Goel RK, Bhattacharya SK.


38. BACOPA MONNIERA. WHOLE PLANT. RESPIRATORY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.306
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:2/25
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/93
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.437
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.64

Reviews
   -
       Phytomedicine Volume 12, Issue 4, 20 April 2005, Pages 305-317. Bacopa
       monniera, a reputed nootropic plant: an overview . Russo and F. Borrelli.
   -   Monograph: Bacopa monniera. Alternative Medicine Review 9(1), 2004Essential
       Guide to Herbal Safety: Mills/Bone p.252

Animal studies
   -   Channa S et al: Bronchovasodilatory effects of fractions and pure constituents
       isolated from Bacopa monniera; J Ethnopharmacol 86, pp 27-35, 2003
   -
   -   Dar A, Channa S (1997). Relaxant effect of ethanol extract of Bacopa monnieri on
       trachea, pulmonary artery & aorta from rabbit & guinea pig. Phytotherapy
       Research, Vol 11(40, pp323-325.


39. BACOPA MONNIERA. WHOLE PLANT. ANTIOXIDANT
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
    -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.64

Animal studies
   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Apr 20;111(1):56-62. Epub 2006 Nov 11. Bacopa
       monniera prevents from aluminium neurotoxicity in the cerebral cortex of rat
       brain. Jyoti A, Sethi P, Sharma D.


                                                                                         16
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc

   -   Bhattacharya SK et al: Antioxidant activity of Bacopa monniera in rat frontal
       cortex, striatum and hippocampus; Phytothr Res 14 (3), 174-179, 2000

   -   Life Sciences Volume 73, Issue 12, 8 August 2003, Pages 1517-1526. Nitric oxide-
       related toxicity in cultured astrocytes: effect of Bacopa monniera. Alessandra
       Russo, Francesca Borrelli, Agata Campisia, Rosaria Acquavivaa, Giuseppina Racitia
       and Angelo Vanella

In vitro
    -    Phytother Res. 2003 Sep;17(8):870-5. Free radical scavenging capacity and
         protective effect of Bacopa monniera L. on DNA damage. Russo A, Izzo AA, Borrelli
         F, Renis M, Vanella A.


40. BAUHINIA VARIEGATA. BARK. DIGESTIVE TRACT
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.254
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1/56
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.340
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.71
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.204

Animal studies
   -   Journal of Veterinary Research, 2003 (Vol. 4) (No. 2(Ser.8)) 223-227. Prevalence
       of haemonchosis in Jaba sheep farm (Mansehra) and efficacy of some indigenous
       medicinal plants against Haemonchosis. : Maqbool, A., Tanveer, A., Mohammad,
       F., Tariq, F


41. BAUHINIA VARIEGATA. BARK. SKIN
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.254
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1/56
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.340
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.71
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.204

In vitro studies
    -    Natural Product Research, Volume 17, Issue 3 2003 , pages 165 – 169. Anti-
         Inflammatory Activity of a Novel Flavonol Glycoside from the Bauhinia Variegata
         Linn. N. Yadava a; V. Madhu Sudhan Reddy.

   -   Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences, 2004 (Vol. 26) (No. 1) 48-50.
       Chemical and biological evaluation of Bauhinia species. Jain, S. C., Renuka Jain,
       Swati Nagpal, Shweta.


42. BAUHINIA VARIEGATA. BARK. LIPID METABOLISM
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.340
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.71
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.204


43. BAUHINIA VARIEGATA. BARK. IMMUNITY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.340
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.71
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.204


44. BAUHINIA VARIEGATA. BARK. PELVIC CAVITY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.254
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.340


                                                                                           17
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
           -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.71
           -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.204


45. BENINCASA HISPIDA. FRUIT. MENTAL HEALTH
Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
    -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1 Vol 4, p 56
    -   CRC Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants, Kapoor p. 72
    -   Indian Medicinal Plants. Pranjpe, p. 148
    -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p. 351
    -   Indian Materia Medica. Nadkarni, P. 185


46. BENINCASA HISPIDA. FRUIT. KIDNEY AND URINARY SYSTEM
Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
    -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1 Vol 4, p 56
    -   CRC Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants, Kapoor p. 72
    -   Indian Medicinal Plants. Pranjpe, p. 148
    -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p. 351
    -   Indian Materia Medica. Nadkarni, P. 185


47. BENINCASA HISPIDA. FRUIT. GASTROINTESTINAL
Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
    -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1 Vol 4, p 56
    -   CRC Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants, Kapoor p. 72
    -   Indian Medicinal Plants. Pranjpe, p. 148
    -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p. 351
    -   Indian Materia Medica. Nadkarni, P. 185

Individual study:
    -   Grover et al.: Extracts of Benincasa hispida prevent development of experimental
        ulcers. J Ethnopharmacol 78 (2-3), 159-164, 2001


48. BENINCASA HISPIDA. FRUIT. CIRCULATORY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
    -   Indian Medicinal Plants. Pranjpe, p. 148
    -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p. 351
    -   Indian Materia Medica. Nadkarni, P. 185


Individual study:
    -   Huang HY et al: Antioxidant and agiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition capacities
        of various parts of Benincasa hispida (wax gourd). Nahrung 48 (3), 230-233, 2004


49. BERBERIS ARISTATA. FRUIT. GENITOURINARY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.177
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/120
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.395
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Dabur/Williamson. p.69
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole. p.170

In vitro
    -    J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2001 Dec;31(3):893-904 + 1p plateEvaluation of the effect
         of a plant alkaloid (berberine derived from Berberis aristata) on Trichomonas
         vaginalis in vitro. Soffar SA, Metwali DM, Abdel-Aziz SS, el-Wakil HS, Saad GA.


50. BERBERIS ARISTATA. STEM. LIVER
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.177
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/120
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.395


                                                                                        18
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Dabur/Williamson. p.69
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole. p.170

Animal
   -   Hepatobiliary excretion of berberine. Tsai PL, Tsai TH. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004
       Apr;32(4):405-12

    -   Preliminary evaluation of the antihepatotoxic activity of Kamilari, a polyherbal
        formulation. M. G. Rajesh and M. S. Latha Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume
        91, Issue 1, March 2004, Pages 99-104

    -   Bhaumik, Anup and M.C. Sharma (1993) - Therapeutic efficacy of two herbal
        preparations in induced hepatopathy in sheep, JREIM 12, 1, 33-42.

    -   Rajesh, M.G. and M.S. Latha (2004b) - Preliminary evaluation of the
        antihepatotoxic activity of kamilari, a polyherbal formulation, Journal of
        Ethnopharmacology 91, 99-104.

    -   Singh, D.S., S.S. Gupta, S.A. Ansari and R.H. Singh (1991) - A comparative study
        of Ayurvedic drugs Picorrhiza kurroa (kutaki) and Berberis aristata (daru haridra)
        in acute viral hepatitis at Varanasi (India), JREIM 10, 4, 1-4.

    -   Rai, N.P., B.K. Mishra and Vijay Seth (2005) - Role of Berberis aristata in the
        treatment of infective hepatitis with special reference to its antioxidant properties,
        =Aryavaidyan 18, 3, 157-161


51. BERBERIS ARISTATA. STEM. SKIN
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.177
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1.2/34
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/120
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.395

Human
   -  Singh, O.P., N.P. Rai and N.N. Pathak (2002a) - Rationality of using daruharidra
      (Berberis aristata) in the management of kitibh (psoriasis), Sachitra Ayurved 55,
      3, 208-209.

    -   Mamgain, R.K. (2000) - Acne vulgaris and its treatment by indigenous drugs SK-34
        (Purim) and SK-235 (Clarine), Antiseptic 97, 3, 76-78.

Animal
   -   Kumar, Sanjay, Shri Kant, Manoranjan SAhu and Kumar Niranjan (2003) - Effect of
       indigenous drug Berberis aristata on corneal wound healing - an experimental
       study, =Aryavaidyan 13, 3, 180-183


52. BERBERIS ARISTATA. ROOT. LIVER
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/120
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.395
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Dabur/Williamson. p.69
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole. p.170

Human?
   -  Singh, D.S., S.S. Gupta, S.A. Ansari and R.H. Singh (1991) - A comparative study
      of Ayurvedic drugs Picorrhiza kurroa (kutaki) and Berberis aristata (daru haridra)
      in acute viral hepatitis at Varanasi (India), JREIM 10, 4, 1-4.

Animal
   -   Rajesh, M.G. and M.S. Latha (2004b) - Preliminary evaluation of the
       antihepatotoxic activity of kamilari, a polyherbal formulation, Journal of
       Ethnopharmacology 91, 99-104.




                                                                                            19
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -   Rai, N.P., B.K. Mishra and Vijay Seth (2005) - Role of Berberis aristata in the
       treatment of infective hepatitis with special reference to its antioxidant properties,
       =Aryavaidyan 18, 3, 157-161.

   -   Bhaumik, Anup and M.C. Sharma (1993) - Therapeutic efficacy of two herbal
       preparations in induced hepatopathy in sheep, JREIM 12, 1, 33-42.

53. BERBERIS ARISTATA. ROOT. ANTIMICROBIAL.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.177
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/120
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Dabur/Williamson. p.69

Human
   -  Khin-Maung U, Khin M, Nyunt-Nyunt W, Kyaw A, Tin U 1985 Clinical trial of
      berberine in acute watery diarrhoea. British Medical Journal 291:1601

   -   Lahiri SC, Dutta NK 1967 Berberine and chloramphenicol in the treatment of
       cholera and severe diarrhoea. Journal of the Indian Medical Association 48:1

   -   Rabbani GH, Butler T, Knight J, Sanyal SC and Alam K (1987). Randomized
       controlled trial of berberine sulfate therapy for diarrhea due to enterotoxigenic
       Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae. J. Infect. Dis.,
   -   155(5): 979-984

Animal
   -   Purohit VD, Gupta RKP, Khanna RNS 1988 In vivo studies on anti-chlamudial
       activity of some antibiotics and an indigenous drug (berberis artistata) against
       Chlamydia psittaci isolates. Haryana Agriculture University, Journal of Research
       18(4):253

   -   Sohni, Youvraj R., Padmaja Kaimal and Ranjan M. Bhatt (1995b) - Prophylactic
       therapy of Salmonella typhi septicemia in mice with a traditionally prescribed crude
       drug formulation, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 45, 141-147.

   -   Dutta, N.K. and M.V. Panse (1962) - Usefulness of berberine (an alkaloid from
       Berberis aristata) in the treatment of cholera (experimental), IJMR 50, 732-736.

In vitro
    -    Activity of Berberis aetnensis root extracts on Candida strains
    -    L. Lauka, R. Costanzoa, F. Caccamoa, A. Rapisardab, R. Musumecic, I. Milazzoa
         and G. Blandino. Fitoterapia Volume 78, Issue 2, February 2007, Pages 159-161
    -
         Dobhal, M.P. and Y.C. Yoshi (1992) - In vitro antimicrobial efficacy of Berberis
         chitria, Fitoterapia 63, 1, 69-70

   -   Godbole, S.H. and G.S. Pendse (1960) - Antibacterial property of some plants,
       Indian Journal of Pharmacy 22, 2, 39.

   -   Sohni, Youvraj R., Padmaja Kaimal and Ranjan M. Bhatt (1995a) - The antiamoebic
       effect of a crude drug formulation of herbal extracts against Entamoeba histolytica
       in vitro and in vivo, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 45, 1, 43-52.

   -   Sack RB, Froehlich JL 1982 Berberine inhibits intestinal secretory response of Vibro
       cholerae and Escherichia coli enterotoxins. Infection and Immunity 35(2):471

   -   Subbaiah TV and Amin AH (1967). Effect of berberine sulphate on Entamoeba
       histolytica. Nature, 215: 527-8


54. BERGENIA LIGULATA. RHIZOME. URINARY TRACT HEALTH
Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
    -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1 Vol 1, p 90
    -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1, p 348 ff
    -   CRC Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants, Kapoor p. 74
    -   Indian Medicinal Plants. Pranjpe, p. 106


                                                                                           20
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
    -   Indian Materia Medica. Nadkarni

Individual studies:
    -   Mazhar-ul-Islam, Azhar I, Mazhar F, et al.: Evaluation of antibacterial activity of
        Bergenia ciliata. Pak J Pharm Sci (Pakistan), Jul 2002, 15(2) p21-7
    -   Garimella TS, Jolly CI, Narayanan S: In vitro studies on antilithiatic activity of
        seeds of Dolichos biflorus Linn. and rhizomes of Bergenia ligulata Wall. Phytother
        Res (England), Jun 2001, 15(4) p351-5
    -   Sinha S, Murugesan T, Maiti K, et al.: Antibacterial activity of Bergenia ciliata
        rhizome. Fitoterapia (Netherlands), Jun 2001, 72(5) p550-2
    -   Sinha S, Murugesan T, Maiti K, et al.: Evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential of
        Bergenia ciliata Sternb. rhizome extract in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol (England), Feb
        2001, 53(2) p193-6


55. BERGENIA LIGULATA. RHIZOME. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM HEALTH
Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
    -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1, p 348 ff
    -   Indian Medicinal Plants. Pranjpe, p. 106


56. BOERHAAVIA DIFFUSA. ROOT. DIGESTION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
    -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/360


57. BOERHAAVIA DIFFUSA. ROOT. URINARY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
    -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/360


58. BOERHAAVIA DIFFUSA. ROOT. NERVOUS SYSTEM
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
    -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/360


59. BOERHAAVIA DIFFUSA. ROOT. RESPIRATORY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
    -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/360


60. BOERHAAVIA DIFFUSA. ROOT. LIVER
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.:
    -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/360
    -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.71

Individual studies:
    -   J. Ethnopharmacol. 1991 Mar;31(3):299-39-07. Boerhaavia diffusa: a study of its
        hepatoprotective activity. Chandan BK, Sharma AK, Anand KK.


61. BOERHAAVIA DIFFUSA. ROOT. CARDIOVASCULAR
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.:
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/360
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.428
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Dabur/Williamson. p.76
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.71
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole. p.246


62. BOSWELLIA SERRATA. RESIN. JOINTS
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.205/342
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/404
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4/50
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.79



                                                                                          21
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.179
            -   Essential Guide to Herbal Safety: Mills/Bone p.293

Human studies
   -  Phytomedicine 10: 3–7 (2003). Efficacy and tolerability of Boswellia serrata extract
      in treatment of osteoarthritis of knee – A randomized double blind placebo
      controlled trial N. Kimmatkar, V. Thawani, L. Hingorani, and R. Khiyani
   -
   -  Chopra, Arvind, Phil Lavin, Bhushan Patwardhan and Deepa Chitre (2004) - A 32-
      week randomized, placebo-controlled clinical evaluation of RA-11, an Ayurvedic
      drug, on osteoarthritis of the knees, Journal of Clinical Rheumatology 10, 5, 236-
      245.

Animal studies
   -   Inflammation Research. Volume 18, Nos 3-4/June 1986. Pharmacology of an
       extract of salai guggal ex-Boswellia serrata, a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory
       agent. G B Singh and CB Atal. DNA and Cell Biology Volume 24, No. 4, 2005, p
       244-255

    -   Human Genome screen to Identify the Genetic Basis of the Anti-inflammatory
        Effects of Boswellia in Microvascular Endothelial Cells. Sashwati Roy, Savita
        Khanna, Hiral Shah, Cameron rink, Christina Phillips, Harry Preuss, Gottumukkala
        V. Subbaraju, Golakoti Trimurulu, Alluri V Krishnaraju, Manashi Bagchi, Debasis
        Bagchi and Chandan K Sen.

    -   Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 288: G798-G808, 2005.
        INFLAMMATION/IMMUNITY/MEDIATORS
    -
    -   Effects of Boswellia serrata in mouse models of chemically induced colitis. Pawel R.
        Kiela,1 Anna J. Midura,1 Nesrin Kuscuoglu,1 Shivanand D. Jolad,2,3 Anikó M.
        Sólyom,2,3 David G. Besselsen,4 Barbara N. Timmermann,2,3 and Fayez K. Ghishan

    -   Phytotherapy research 1996, Vol. 10, n 2, ,pp.107-112 (23 ref).
        Immunomodulatory activity of Boswellic acids (Pentacyclic triperpene acids) from
        Boswellia serrata. SHARMA M. L.; KAUL A. ; KHAJURIA A. ; SINGH S. ; SINGH G.
        B. ;

    -   Ammon, H.T.P., T. Mack, G.B. Singh and H. Safayhi (1991) - Inhibition of
        leukotriene B4 formation in rat peritoneal neutrophils by an ethanolic extract of the
        gum resin exudate of Boswellia serrata, Planta Medica 57, 203-207

    -   Etzel, R. (1996) - Special extract of Boswellia serrata (H15) in the treatment of
        rheumatoid arthritis, Phytomedicine 3, 67-70.

In vitro
    -    Ammon, H.P.T. (1996) - Salai guggal - Boswellia serrata: from a herbal medicine
         to a specific inhibitor of leukotriene biosynthesis, (?)Phytomedicine 3, 67-70;also
         in: European Journal of Medical Research 1, 8, 369-370

    -   Boden, Sven E., Stephan Schweizer, Thilo Bertsche, Martina Düfer, Gisela Drews
        and Hasan Safayhi (2001) - Stimulation of leukotriene synthesis in intact
        polymorphonuclear cells by the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor 3-oxo-tirucallic acid,
        Molecular Pharmacology 60, 2, 267-273.


63. BOSWELLIA SERRATA. RESIN. MENTAL
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.205/342
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/404
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4/50
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.79
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.179


64. BOSWELLIA SERRATA. RESIN. HEART & BLOOD
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.


                                                                                            22
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/404
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4/50
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.79
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.83
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.179

Animal studies
   -   Biofactors, Vol 13n Nos 104, 2000 pages 225-230. Anti-tumor and anti-
       carcinogenic activities of triterpenoid, \beta-boswellic acid.

In vitro
    -    Zutshi, U., P.G. Rao, S. Kaur, G.B. Singh, Surjeet Singh and C.K. Atal (1986) -
         Mechanism of cholesterol lowering effect of salai guggul ex Boswellia serrata
         Roxb., Indian Journal of Pharmacology 18, 3, 182-183.


65. BOSWELLIA SERRATA. RESIN. GASTROINTESTINAL
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/404
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4/50
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.79
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.83
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.179

Human studies
   -  Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with ulcerative colitis. Gupta I,
      Parihar A, Malhotra P, Singh GB, Lüdtke R, Safayhi H, Ammon HP. Eur J Med Res.
      1997 Jan;2(1):37-43.

    -   Z fur Gastroenterol. 2001 Jan;39(1):11-7. .[Therapy of active Crohn disease with
        Boswellia serrata extract H 15]. Gerhardt H, Seifert F, Buvari P, Vogelsang H,
        Repges R.

Animal studies
   -   Kiela, P.R., A.J. Midura, N. Kuscuoglu, S.D. Jolad et al. (2005) - Effects of
       Boswellia serrata in mouse models of chemically induced colitis, American Journal
       of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 288, 798-808.

    -   Ammon, H.P.T. (1996) - Salai guggal - Boswellia serrata: from a herbal medicine
        to a specific inhibitor of leukotriene biosynthesis, (?)Phytomedicine 3, 67-70;also
        in: European Journal of Medical Research 1, 8, 369-370.

    -   Ammon, H.T.P., T. Mack, G.B. Singh and H. Safayhi (1991) - Inhibition of
        leukotriene B4 formation in rat peritoneal neutrophils by an ethanolic extract of the
        gum resin exudate of Boswellia serrata, Planta Medica 57, 203-207.

In vitro
    -    Boden, Sven E., Stephan Schweizer, Thilo Bertsche, Martina Düfer, Gisela Drews
         and Hasan Safayhi (2001) - Stimulation of leukotriene synthesis in intact
         polymorphonuclear cells by the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor 3-oxo-tirucallic acid,
         Molecular Pharmacology 60, 2, 267-273.


66. BOSWELLIA SERRATA. RESIN. RESPIRATION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/404
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4/50
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.739
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.79
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.83
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.179
            -   Essential Guide to Herbal Safety: Mills/Bone p.293

Human studies
   -  Eur J Med Res. 1998 Nov 17;3(11):511-4. Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in
      patients with bronchial asthma: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-


                                                                                           23
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
        week clinical study. Gupta I, Gupta V, Parihar A, Gupta S, Lüdtke R, Safayhi H,
        Ammon HP.

Animal studies
   -   Ammon, H.P.T. (1996) - Salai guggal - Boswellia serrata: from a herbal medicine
       to a specific inhibitor of leukotriene biosynthesis, (?)Phytomedicine 3, 67-70;also
       in: European Journal of Medical Research 1, 8, 369-370.

    -   Ammon, H.T.P., T. Mack, G.B. Singh and H. Safayhi (1991) - Inhibition of
        leukotriene B4 formation in rat peritoneal neutrophils by an ethanolic extract of the
        gum resin exudate of Boswellia serrata, Planta Medica 57, 203-207.

    -   Atal, C.K., B. Singh, S. Kour, S. Singh, G.B. Singh and C.L. Gupta (1983) - Primate
        chronic toxicity study on salai guggal "ex-Boswellia serrata" - a new antiasthmatic
        drug, Indian Journal of Pharmacology 15, 35.

In vitro
    -    Boden, Sven E., Stephan Schweizer, Thilo Bertsche, Martina Düfer, Gisela Drews
         and Hasan Safayhi (2001) - Stimulation of leukotriene synthesis in intact
         polymorphonuclear cells by the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor 3-oxo-tirucallic acid,
         Molecular Pharmacology 60, 2, 267-273.


67. BOSWELLIA SERRATA. RESIN. REPRODUCTORY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/404
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4/50
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.83
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.179
            -   Essential Guide to Herbal Safety: Mills/Bone p.293


68. CARUM CARVI. FRUIT. DIGESTION.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc. Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol.
6/87


69. CENTELLA ASIATICA. WHOLE PLANT. MENTAL & CNS
Authoritative body, textbooks etc. :
    -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/264
    -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:4/61
    -   Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants. Khare CP, p. 138


Review articles
   -   Brinkhaus B, Lindner M, Schuppan D, et al.: Chemical, pharmacological and clinical
       profile of the East Asian medical plant Centella asiatica. Phytomedicine
       (Germany), Oct 2000, 7(5) p427-48
   -   Centella asiatica. Altern Med Rev (United States), Mar 2007, 12(1) p69-72

Human studies
   -  Bradwejn J, Zhou Y, Koszycki D, et al.: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study on
      the effects of Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica) on acoustic startle response in
      healthy subjects. J Clin Psychopharmacol (United States), Dec 2000, 20(6) p680-4

Animal studies
   -   Veerendra Kumar MH, Gupta YK: Effect of different extracts of Centella asiatica
       on cognition and markers of oxidative stress in rats. J Ethnopharmacol (Ireland),
       Feb 2002, 79(2) p253-60
   -   Soumyanath A, Zhong YP, Gold SA, et al.: Centella asiatica accelerates nerve
       regeneration upon oral administration and contains multiple active fractions
       increasing neurite elongation in-vitro. J Pharm Pharmacol (England), Sep 2005,
       57(9) p1221-9
   -   Chen Y, Han T, Qin L, et al.: [Effect of total triterpenes from Centella asiatica on
       the depression behavior and concentration of amino acid in forced swimming mice]
       Zhong Yao Cai (China), Dec 2003, 26(12) p870-3


                                                                                          24
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
    -   Veerendra Kumar MH, Gupta YK: Effect of Centella asiatica on cognition and
        oxidative stress in an intracerebroventricular streptozotocin model of Alzheimer's
        disease in rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol (Australia), May-Jun 2003, 30(5-6)
        p336-42
    -   Wijeweera P, Arnason JT, Koszycki D, et al.: Evaluation of anxiolytic properties of
        Gotukola--(Centella asiatica) extracts and asiaticoside in rat behavioral models.
        Phytomedicine (Germany), Nov 2006, 13(9-10) p668-76
    -   Rao SB, Chetana M, Uma Devi P: Centella asiatica treatment during postnatal
        period enhances learning and memory in mice. Physiol Behav (United States), Nov
        15 2005, 86(4) p449-57
    -   Subathra M, Shila S, Devi MA, et al.: Emerging role of Centella asiatica in
        improving age-related neurological antioxidant status. Exp Gerontol (England),
        Aug-Sep 2005, 40(8-9) p707-15
    -   Ramanathan M, Sivakumar S, Anandvijayakumar PR, et al.: Neuroprotective
        evaluation of standardized extract of Centella asciatica in monosodium glutamate
        treated rats. Indian J Exp Biol (India), May 2007, 45(5) p425-31
    -   Chatterjee TK, Chakraborty A, Pathak M, et al.: Effects of plant extract Centella
        asiatica (Linn.) on cold restraint stress ulcer in rats. Indian J Exp Biol (India), Oct
        1992, 30(10) p889-91
    -   Mohandas Rao KG, Muddanna Rao S, Gurumadhva Rao S: Centella asiatica (L.)
        Leaf Extract Treatment During the Growth Spurt Period Enhances Hippocampal
        CA3 Neuronal Dendritic Arborization in Rats [In Process Citation]. Evid Based
        Complement Alternat Med (England), Sep 2006, 3(3) p349-57


69. CENTELLA ASIATICA. WHOLE PLANT. ANTIOXIDANT
ANIMAL STUDIES
    -   Veerendra Kumar MH, Gupta YK: Effect of different extracts of Centella asiatica
        on cognition and markers of oxidative stress in rats. J Ethnopharmacol (Ireland),
        Feb 2002, 79(2) p253-60
    -   Veerendra Kumar MH, Gupta YK: Effect of Centella asiatica on cognition and
        oxidative stress in an intracerebroventricular streptozotocin model of Alzheimer's
        disease in rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol (Australia), May-Jun 2003, 30(5-6)
        p336-42
    -   Subathra M, Shila S, Devi MA, et al.: Emerging role of Centella asiatica in
        improving age-related neurological antioxidant status. Exp Gerontol (England),
        Aug-Sep 2005, 40(8-9) p707-15
    -   Cheng CL, Koo MW: Effects of Centella asiatica on ethanol induced gastric
        mucosal lesions in rats. Life Sci (England), Oct 13 2000, 67(21) p2647-53


70. CENTELLA ASIATICA. WHOLE PLANT. SKIN
Authoritative body, textbooks etc. :
    -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/264
    -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:4/61
    -   Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants. Khare CP, p. 138


Review articles
   -   Brinkhaus B, Lindner M, Schuppan D, et al.: Chemical, pharmacological and clinical
       profile of the East Asian medical plant Centella asiatica. Phytomedicine
       (Germany), Oct 2000, 7(5) p427-48
   -   Centella asiatica. Altern Med Rev (United States), Mar 2007, 12(1) p69-72

Animal studies
   -   Maquart FX, Bellon G, Gillery P, et al.: Stimulation of collagen synthesis in
       fibroblast cultures by a triterpene extracted from Centella asiatica. Connect
       Tissue Res (England), 1990, 24(2) p107-20
   -   Tenni R, Zanaboni G, De Agostini MP, et al.: Effect of the triterpenoid fraction of
       Centella asiatica on macromolecules of the connective matrix in human skin
       fibroblast cultures. Ital J Biochem (Italy), Mar-Apr 1988, 37(2) p69-77
   -   Del Vecchio A, Senni I, Cossu G, et al.: [Effect of Centella asiatica on the
       biosynthetic activity of fibroblasts in culture]. Farmaco [Prat] (Italy), Oct 1984,
       39(10) p355-64




                                                                                             25
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
    -   Suguna L, Sivakumar P, Chandrakasan G: Effects of Centella asiatica extract on
        dermal wound healing in rats. Indian J Exp Biol (India), Dec 1996, 34(12) p1208-
        11
    -   Shukla A, Rasik AM, Jain GK, et al. In vitro and in vivo wound healing activity of
        asiaticoside isolated from Centella asiatica. J Ethnopharmacol (Ireland), Apr
        1999, 65(1) p1-11

71. CENTELLA ASIATICA. WHOLE PLANT. HEART
Authoritative body, textbooks etc. : Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol.
1/264


72. CENTELLA ASIATICA. WHOLE PLANT. RESPIRATORY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc. : Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol.
1/264


73. CENTELLA ASIATICA. WHOLE PLANT. DIGESTION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc. : Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol.
1/264

Animal studies:
   -   Cheng CL, Guo JS, Luk J, et al.: The healing effects of Centella extract and
       asiaticoside on acetic acid induced gastric ulcers in rats. Life Sci (England), Mar 19
       2004, 74(18) p2237-49
   -   Sairam K, Rao CV, Goel RK: Effect of Centella asiatica Linn on physical and
       chemical factors induced gastric ulceration and secretion in rats. Indian J Exp Biol
       (India), Feb 2001, 39(2) p137-42
   -   Cheng CL, Koo MW: Effects of Centella asiatica on ethanol induced gastric
       mucosal lesions in rats. Life Sci (England), Oct 13 2000, 67(21) p2647-53


74. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM. BARK. DIGESTION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc .
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/114
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4/532
            -   WHO monographs Vol. 1/100
            -   BHC Vol. 2/109
            -   BHMA Guide - p.78
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.390
            -   CRC Handbook Kapoor - p.118
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole –p.160

In virto
    -    Azumi S, Tanimura A, Tanamoto K, (1997). A novel inhibitor of bacterial endotoxin
         derived from cinnamon bark. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., Vol.234(2):506-
         510.

See also Antimicrobial and antioxidant studies.


75. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM BARK. NEURAL
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
             -  Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.210
             -  Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4/532
             -  WHO monographs Vol. 1/100
             -  BHC Vol. 2/109
             -  Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.390
Animal studiy
    -   J Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Mar;60(2):117-24. Anti-nociceptive and anti-
        inflammatory effects of some Jordanian medicinal plant extracts. Atta AH, Alkofahi
        A.

See also Antioxidant studies.




                                                                                           26
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
76. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM. BARK. RESPIRATORY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc .
             -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.210
             -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/114
             -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4/532
             -   WHO monographs Vol. 1/100
             -   BHMA Guide - p.79
             -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.390
             -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole –p.160
             -   Potters New Cyclopaedia -p.78
In vitro
    -    Allergy Volume 50 Issue 12 Page 995-999, December 1995, H. B. Singh, M.
         Srivastava, A. B. Singh, A. K. Srivastava (1995) . Cinnamon bark oil, a potent
         fungitoxicant against fungi causing respiratory tract mycoses

See also Antimicrobial and antioxidant studies.


77. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM. BARK. CARDIOVASCULAR
Authoritative body, textbooks etc .
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/114
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4/532
            -   BHC Vol. 2/109
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.390
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole – p.160
            -   Potters New Cyclopaedia -p.78
            -
Animal studies
    -   J Am Coll Nutr. 2006 Apr;25(2):144-50. Whole cinnamon and aqueous extracts
        ameliorate sucrose-induced blood pressure elevations in spontaneously
        hypertensive rats. Preuss HG, Echard B, Polansky MM, Anderson R.

    -   Indian J Exp Biol. 1999 Mar;37(3):238-42. Anti-oxidant effects of cinnamon
        (Cinnamomum verum) bark and greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum) seeds in
        rats fed high fat diet. Dhuley JN.

    -   Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2005; 14 (4): 420-427 Preventive action of food seasoning
        spices mixture on fructose-induced lipid abnormalities. Ramu Suganthi, 1
        Shanmuganathan Rajamani, Mambakkam Katchapeswaran, Ravichandran. and
        Carani Venkatraman Anuradha.

    -   Food / Nahrung Volume 35, Issue 1 , Pages 47 – 51. Effect of cumin, cinnamon,
        ginger, mustard and tamarind in induced hypercholesterolemic rats. K. Sambaiah,
        Dr. K. Srinivasan

See also Cinnamomum zeylanicum BARK. Antimicrobial and antioxidant studies.


78. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM. BARK. GENITOURINARY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc .
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.210
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/114
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4/532
            -   WHO monographs Vol. 1/100
            -   BHC Vol 2/109
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.390
            -   CRC Handbook Kapoor - p.118
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole –p.160
            -   Potters New Cyclopaedia -p.78

Human studies
   -  Journal of Ethnopharmacology . Volume 91, Issues 2-3, April 2004, Pages 219-
      223. Diuretic and nephroprotective effect of Jawarish Zarooni Sada—a polyherbal
      unani formulation. M. Afzal, N. A. Khan, A. Ghufran, A. Iqbal and M. Inamuddin




                                                                                          27
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
    -   Diabetes Care. 2007 Apr;30(4):813-6. The effect of cinnamon on A1C among
        adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Altschuler JA, Casella SJ, MacKenzie TA, Curtis
        KM. [NB Probably Cinnamomum cassia]

See also Antimicrobial and antioxidant studies.


79. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM. BARK. SKIN AND MUCOUS MEMBRANES
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.210
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/114
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4/532
            -   WHO monographs Vol. 1/100
            -   BHC Vol 2/109
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.390
            -   CRC Handbook Kapoor - p.118
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole –p.160
            -   Potters New Cyclopaedia -p.78
Animal study
    -   Phytother Res. 2003 Sep;17(8):970-2. Pro-healing effect of Cinnamomum
        zeylanicum bark. Kamath JV, Rana AC, Chowdhury AR.

See also Antimicrobial and antioxidant studies.


80. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM. BARK. ANTIOXIDANT
Animal study
    -  Indian J Exp Biol. 1999 Mar;37(3):238-42. Anti-oxidant effects of cinnamon
       (Cinnamomum verum) bark and greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum) seeds in
       rats fed high fat diet. Dhuley JN.

In vitro
    -    J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Jun 15;53(12):4762-5. In vitro activity of the essential
         oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and eugenol in peroxynitrite-induced oxidative
         processes. Chericoni S, Prieto JM, Iacopini P, Cioni P, Morelli I.

    -   Radiation Physics and Chemistry .Volume 71, Issues 1-2, September-October
        2004, Pages 39-41 13th International Meeting on Radiation Processing (IMRP-
        2003) Effects of irradiation on natural antioxidants of cinnamon (Cinnamomum
        zeylanicum N.)

    -   Flavour and Fragrance Journal Volume 13, Issue 4 , Pages 235 – 244. Antimicrobial
        and antioxidant properties of some commercial essential oils M. Tiziana Baratta 1,
        H. J. Damien Dorman 1, Stanley G. Deans 1, A. Cristina Figueiredo 2, José G.
        Barroso 2, Giuseppe Ruberto

    -   Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2000 Feb;62(2):107-10. Antioxidant
        activity of selected Indian spices. Shobana S, Naidu KA

    -   Boll Chim Farm. 1998 Dec;137(11):443-7. Antioxidant activity of cinnamon
        (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum, Breyne) extracts. Mancini-Filho J, Van-Koiij A, Mancini
        DA, Cozzolino FF, Torres RP


81. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM. BARK. ANTIMICROBIAL
In vitro studies
    -
         Phytotherapy Research Volume 13, Issue 7 , Pages 616 – 618. Antimicrobial
         screening of some indian spices. Minakshi De 1, Amit Krishna De 2, A. B. Banerjee

    -
        Flavour and Fragrance Journal Volume 13, Issue 4 , Pages 235 – 244. Antimicrobial
        and antioxidant properties of some commercial essential oils. M. Tiziana Baratta 1,
        H. J. Damien Dorman 1, Stanley G. Deans 1, A. Cristina Figueiredo 2, José G.
        Barroso 2, Giuseppe Ruberto

    -   Letters in Applied Microbiology Volume 35 Issue 3 Page 208-211, September 2002.
        L. Ranasinghe, B. Jayawardena, K. Abeywickrama (2002). Fungicidal activity of


                                                                                            28
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
       essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (L.) and Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr
       et L.M.Perry against crown rot and anthracnose pathogens isolated from banana

   -   Am J Chin Med. 1996;24(2):103-9. In vitro activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum
       against azole resistant and sensitive Candida species and a pilot study of cinnamon
       for oral candidiasis. Quale JM, Landman D, Zaman MM, Burney S, Sathe SS.

   -   Tiwari, R., R. Dixit and S.N. Dixit (1994) - Studies on fungitoxic properties of
       essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breyn., Indian Perfumer 38, 3, 98-104.
       Simi’c, A., M.D. Sokovi’c, M. Risti’c, S. Gruji’c-Jovanovi’c, J. Vukojevi’c and P.D.
       Marin (2004) - The chemical composition of some Lauraceae essential oils and
       their antifungal activities, Phytotherapy Research 18, 9, 713-717

   -   Narayan, V., K.K. Rao and R. Giridhar (1980a) - Antimicrobial activity of the
       essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Indian Drugs 17, 11, 360-362

   -   Bonjar, G.H. Shahidi, S. Aghighi and A. Karimi Nik (2004) - Antibacterial and
       antifungal survey in plants used in indigenous herbal medicine of South East Iran,
       Journal of Biological Sciences 4, 3, 405-412.


82. COMMIPHORA MUKUL. EXUDATE PURIFIED. CARDIOVASCULAR, LIPID METABOLISM AND WEIGHT
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.202
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/43
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 2/223
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.357
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.110
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.131
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.191
            -   Essential Guide to Herbal Safety: Mills/Bone p.459

Review
   -   Complementary Therapies in Medicine Volume 13, Issue 4, December 2005, Pages
       279-290. Guggul for hyperlipidemia: A review by the Natural Standard Research
       Collaboration. Catherine Ulbrichta, , Ethan Baschb, Philippe Szaparyc, Paul
       Hammernessd, Serguei Axentseve, Heather Boonf, David Krollg, Levi Garrawayd,
       Mamta Vorah, Jen Woods

   -   J Fam Pract. 2003 Jun;52(6):468-78. Herbs for serum cholesterol reduction: a
       systematic view. Thompson Coon JS, Ernst E.

Human studies
   -  Journal of Postgraduate Medicine. Year : 1995 | Volume : 41 | Issue : 1 | Page
      : 5-7. Conceptual and methodologic challenges of assessing the short-term efficacy
      of Guggulu in obesity: data emergent from a naturalistic clinical trial. Bhatt AD,
      Dalal DG, Shah SJ, Joshi BA, Gajjar MN, Vaidya RA, Vaidya AB, Antarkar DS
   -
       Journal – Cardiovascular drugs and Therapy. Volume 8, number 4/August 1994.
       Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of commiphora mukul as an adjunct to
       dietary therapy in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Ram B Singh1
       Mohammad A Niaz1 and Saraswati Ghosh1

   -   J Assoc Physicians India. 1978 May;26(5):367-73. Effect of guggulu (Commiphora
       mukul--Engl.) on serum lipids in obese, hypercholesterolemic and hyperlipemic
       cases. Kuppurajan K, Rajagopalan SS, Rao TK, Sitaraman R.

   -   The Journal of the American Medical Association. 2003;290:765-772. Guggulipid
       for the Treatment of Hypercholesterolemia: A Randomized Controlled Trial .
       Philippe O. Szapary, MD; Megan L. Wolfe, BS; LeAnne T. Bloedon, MS, RD; Andrew
       J. Cucchiara, PhD; Ara H. DerMarderosian, PhD; Michael D. Cirigliano, MD; Daniel
       J. Rader, MD
   -
       Plant Biotechnology and Molecular Markers. 10.1007/1-4020-3213-7_8 p 129-143.
       Development of Biotechnology for Commiphora wightii: A Potent Source of Natural




                                                                                              29
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
       Hypolipidemic and Hypocholesterolemic Drug. Sandeep Kumar3, S.S Suri3,
       K.C. Sonie3 and K.G. Ramawat3

   -   Indian J Med Res. 1977 Mar;65(3):390-5. Long term clinical studies on the
       hypolipidaemic effect of Commiphora mukul (Guggulu) and clofibrate. Malhotra SC,
       Ahuja MM, Sundaram KR.

   -   Kotiyal, J.P., D.B. Bisht and D.S. Singh (1979) - Double blind cross trial of gum
       guggul (Commiphora mukul) fraction A in hypercholesterolaemia, JRIM 14, 2, 11-
       16.

Animal studies
   -   J. Biosci., Vol. 6, Number 3, September 1984, pp. 277-282. Effect of
       hypocholesterolemic agents of plant origin on catecholamine biosynthesis in
       normal and cholesterol fed rabbits. MADHULIKA SRIVASTAVA, SWARN
       NITYANAND, NARINDER K. KAPOOR

   -   Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 2003, 18 (2) 71-79 CARDIOPROTECTIVE
       ACTIVITY OF SYNTHETIC GUGGULSTERONE (E AND Z - ISOMERS) IN
       ISOPROTERENOL INDUCED MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA IN RATS: A COMPARATIVE
       STUDY. Ramesh Chander*, Farhan Rizvi, A.K Khanna and Ram Pratap

   -   Biochem Exp Biol. 1980;16(4):421-4. Hypolipidemic activity of guggal resin
       (Commiphora mukul) and garlic (Alium sativum linn.) in dogs (Canis familiaris) and
       monkeys (Presbytis entellus entellus Dufresne). Dixit VP, Joshi S, Sinha R,
       Bharvava SK, Varma M.

   -   J Postgrad Med. 1991 Jul;37(3):132-5. Beneficial effects of Allium sativum, Allium
       cepa and Commiphora mukul on experimental hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis--
       a comparative evaluation. Lata S, Saxena KK, Bhasin V, Saxena RS, Kumar A,
       Srivastava VK.

   -   J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jul;314(1):120-7. Epub 2005 Apr 15. The ratio of
       constitutive androstane receptor to pregnane X receptor determines the activity of
       guggulsterone against the Cyp2b10 promoter. Ding X, Staudinger JL.

   -   Baldwa, V.S., R.C. Sharma, P.C. Ranka and M.D. Chittora (1980) - Effect of
       Commiphora mukul (guggul) on fibrinolytic activity and platelet aggregation in
       coron

   -   Bector, N.P., Ajit S. Puri and S. Prakash (1972) - Commiphora Mukul (gum guggul)
       in the treatment of obesity, Bulletin Central Research Institute for Ayurved,
       Patiala.ary artery disease, Rajasthan Medical Journal 19, 2, 84-86.

In vitro
    -    Atherosclerosis Volume 172, Issue 2, February 2004, Pages 239-246 The
         hypolipidemic natural product Commiphora mukul and its component
         guggulsterone inhibit oxidative modification of LDL. Xiaosong Wang, Joachim
         Greilberge, Gerhard Ledinski, Gerd Kager, Beverly Paigena and Günther Jürgens


83. COMMIPHORA MUKUL. EXUDATE PURIFIED. JOINTS & BONES
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.202
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/43
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 2/223
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.357
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.191
            -   Essential Guide to Herbal Safety: Mills/Bone p.459

Review
   -   Current Opinion in Pharmacology Volume 7, Issue 3, June 2007, Pages 344-351.
       Natural products as a gold mine for arthritis treatment. Dinesh Khanna, Gautam
       Sethi, Kwang Seok Ahn, Manoj K Pandey, Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara, Bokyung
       Sung, Amita Aggarwal and Bharat B Aggarwal




                                                                                         30
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -   Mishra, S.S. and H.D. Singh (1962) - Antiphlogistic action of some indigenous
       drugs, II. Anti-arthritic action of Balsamodendron mukul, Indian Journal of
       Physiology and Allied Sciences 16, 90.

Human studies
   -  Altern Ther Health Med. 2003 May-Jun;9(3):74-9. The effectiveness of
      Commiphora mukul for osteoarthritis of the knee: an outcomes study. Singh BB,
      Mishra LC, Vinjamury SP, Aquilina N, Singh VJ, Shepard N.

   -   Singh, B.B., L.C. Mishra, N. Aquilina and F. Kohlbeck (2001) - Usefulness of guggul
       (Commiphora mukul) for osteoarthritis of the knee: an experimental case study,
       Alternative Ther. Health Med. 7, 2, 112-114.

Animal studies
   -   Arzneimittelforschung. 1977 Jul;27(7):1455-7. Comparison of the anti-
       inflammatory activity of Commiphora mukul (an indigenous drug) with those of
       phenylbutazone and ibuprofen in experimental arthritis induced by mycobacterial
       adjuvant. Sharma JN, Sharma JN.

   -   Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1960 Oct;4:267-73. Antiarthritic and anti-
       inflammatory activity of gum guggul (Balsamodendron mukul Hook). GUJRAL ML,
       SAREEN K, TANGRI KK, AMMA MK, ROY AK.

   -   Prabhakara Reddy, N. and M. Lakshmana (2003) - Prevention of bone loss in
       calcium deficient ovariectomized rats by OST-6, a herbal preparation, Journal of
       Ethnopharmacology 84, 259-264.
       [ingredients of OST-6: Terminalia arjuna, Withania somnifera, Commiphora wightii
       = C. mukul, prav=alabhasman]

In vitro
    -    Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Jan 15;12(2):662-8. Guggulsterone inhibits
         osteoclastogenesis induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand
         and by tumor cells by suppressing nuclear factor-kappaB activation. Ichikawa H,
         Aggarwal BB.


84. COMMIPHORA MUKUL. EXUDATE PURIFIED. ANTIOXIDANT & IMMUNITY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/43
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 2/223
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.357
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.110
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.131
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.191
            -   Essential Guide to Herbal Safety: Mills/Bone p.459

Human studies
   -  Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1994 Aug;8(4):659-64. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant
      effects of Commiphora mukul as an adjunct to dietary therapy in patients with
      hypercholesterolemia. Singh RB, Niaz MA, Ghosh S.

In vitro studies
    -    Int Immunopharmacol. 2006 Feb;6(2):122-32. Epub 2005 Jul 20. Inhibition of MAP
         kinases by crude extract and pure compound isolated from Commiphora mukul
         leads to down regulation of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-2. Manjula N, Gayathri B,
         Vinaykumar KS, Shankernarayanan NP, Vishwakarma RA, Balakrishnan A.

   -   Chem Biodivers. 2004 Nov;1(11):1842-53. Bioactive terpenoids and
       guggulusteroids from Commiphora mukul gum resin of potential anti-inflammatory
       interest. Francis JA, Raja SN, Nair MG.

   -   Atherosclerosis Volume 172, Issue 2, February 2004, Pages 239-246. The
       hypolipidemic natural product Commiphora mukul and its component
       guggulsterone inhibit oxidative modification of LDL. Xiaosong Wang, Joachim
       Greilberger, Gerhard Ledinski, Gerd Kager, Beverly Paigen and Günther Jürgens




                                                                                            31
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
    -   Pharmacological Research Volume 27, Supplement 1, May 1993, Pages 89-90.
        Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Commiphora Mukul Extracts. S. Sosa, A. Tubaro, R.
        Della Loggia and E. Bombardelli


85. COMMIPHORA MUKUL. EXUDATE PURIFIED. SKIN
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.202
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/43
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 2/223
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.357
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.131
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.191
            -   Essential Guide to Herbal Safety: Mills/Bone p.459

Review
   -   Complementary Therapies in Medicine Volume 14, Issue 1, March 2006, Pages 62-
       76. Topical and oral CAM in acne: A review of the empirical evidence and a
       consideration of its context. P.J Magin, J Adams, C.D Pond and W Smith

Human studies
   -  Chandrasekhara, H.I. (1969) - Evaluation of the effect of Balsamodendron mukul
      on wet eczema, Ayurveda Pradeepika.


86. COMMIPHORA MUKUL. EXUDAYE PURIFIED. REJUVENATION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.202
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/43
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 2/223
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.191


87. COMMIPHORA MUKUL. EXUDATE PURIFIED. CLEANSING
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.202
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 2/223
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.191

In vitro
    -    Kakrani, H.K. and G.A. Kalyani (1984) - Anthelmintic activity of essential oil of
         Commiphora mukul, Fitoterapia 55, 4, 232-234

    -   Asif Saeed, M. and A.W. Sabir (2004) - Antibacterial activities of some constituents
        from oleo-gum-resin pf Commiphora mukul, Fitoterapia 75, 2, 204-208.


88. COMMIPHORA MUKUL. EXUDATE PURIFIED. CNS AND BODILY COMFORT
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.202
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/43
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 2/223
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.191

Animal studies
   -   Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior Volume 86, Issue 4, April 2007, Pages
       797-805. Gugulipid, an extract of Commiphora whighitii with lipid-lowering
       properties, has protective effects against streptozotocin-induced memory deficits in
       mice. Gunjan Saxena, Sheelendra Pratap Singh, Raghvendra Pal, Stayawan Singh,
       Ram Pratap and Chandishwar Nath


89. COMMIPHORA MUKUL. EXUDATE PURIFIED. REPRODUCTION & MENSES
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.202
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 2/223


                                                                                             32
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
           -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.357
           -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.131
           -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.191
           -   Essential Guide to Herbal Safety: Mills/Bone p.459

Animal studies
   -   Indian J Exp Biol. 1978 Sep;16(9):1021-3.
   -   Effect of oleoresin of gum guggul (Commiphora mukul) on the reproductive organs
       of female rat.
   -   Amma MK, Malhotra N, Suri RK, Arya OP, Dani HM, Sareen K.

In vitro studies
    -    Mol Cancer Ther. 2005 Nov;4(11):1747-54. Caspase-dependent apoptosis
         induction by guggulsterone, a constituent of Ayurvedic medicinal plant
         Commiphora mukul, in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells is mediated by Bax and
         Bak. Singh SV, Zeng Y, Xiao D, Vogel VG, Nelson JB, Dhir R, Tripathi YB.

   -   Cancer Res. 2007 Aug 1;67(15):7439-49. Guggulsterone-induced apoptosis in
       human prostate cancer cells is caused by reactive oxygen intermediate dependent
       activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase. Singh SV, Choi S, Zeng Y, Hahm ER, Xiao
       D.


90. CONVOLVULUS PLURICAULIS. WHOLE PLANT. MENTAL, EMOTIONS & SLEEP
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.305
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:2/147
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 7./433
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. P.506
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.269

Review
   -   Phytother Res. 2006 Dec;20(12):1023-35.Potential medicinal plants for CNS
       disorders: an overview. Kumar V

Animal
   -   Neuropharmacology of an Extract derived from Convolvulus microphyllus Subhangi
       A. Pawar; J. N. Dhuley; S. R. Naik Pharmaceutical Biology, Volume 39, Issue 4
       August 2001 , pages 253 - 258

   -   Med Sci Monit. 2007 Jul;13(7):BR155-61. Evaluation of the antidepressant-like
       activity of Convolvulus pluricaulis choisy in the mouse forced swim and tail
       suspension tests. Dhingra D, Valecha R.

   -   Indian J Exp Biol. 2001 Apr;39(4):350-4. Effect of Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois on
       gastric ulceration and secretion in rats Sairam K, Rao CV, Goel RK.

   -   Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1965 Apr;9(2):99-102. Preliminary pharmacological
       studies on Convolvulus pluricaulis chois--an Indian indigenous herb. Barar FS,
       Sharma VN

   -   Indian J Med Res. 1965 Sep;53(9):871-6.Some pharmacological actions of
       Convolvulus pluricaulis chois: an Indian indigenous herb. II. Sharma VN, Barar FS,
       Khanna NK, Mahawar MM


91. CONVOLVULUS PLURICAULIS. WHOLE PLANT. CARDIOVASCULAR
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.305
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:2/147
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 7./433
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. P.506


92. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM. FRUIT. DIGESTION.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.


                                                                                        33
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
           -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.145
           -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/30
           -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4/90
           -   BHC Vol. 2 p.119.
           -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.405
           -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.137.
           -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.165
           -   A Modern Herbal: Grieve M, Leyel CF. 1982. p.222

Animal studies
   -   Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 90, Issues 2-3, February 2004, Pages 195-
       204. Effect of polyherbal formulation on experimental models of inflammatory
       bowel diseases. A.G. Jagtap, S. S. Shirke and A. S. Phadke

   -   Protection of gastric mucosal damage by Coriandrum sativum L. pretreatment in
       Wistar albino rats. I.A. Al-Mofleha, A.A. Alhaidera, J.S. Mossab, M.O. Al-
       Sohaibania, S. Rafatullahb and S. Qureshi. aCollege of Medicine & KKUH, King Saud
       University, P.O. Box 2925, Riyadh 11461, Saudi Arabia. bCollege of Pharmacy, King
       Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia. Environmental
       Toxicology and Pharmacology Volume 22, Issue 1, July 2006, Pages 64-69

In vitro
    -    J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Apr 4;110(3):428-33. Epub 2006 Oct 13. In vitro and in
         vivo anthelmintic activity of crude extracts of Coriandrum sativum against
         Haemonchus contortus. Eguale T, Tilahun G, Debella A, Feleke A, Makonnen E

   -   J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Dec 29;52(26):7862-6. .Antibacterial activity of
       Coriandrum sativum L. and Foeniculum vulgare Miller Var. vulgare (Miller) essential
       oils. Lo Cantore P, Iacobellis NS, De Marco A, Capasso F, Senatore F.

   -   Planta Med. 2007 Feb;73(2):142-50. Epub 2007 Feb 13. Occurrence of N-
       phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acid amides in different herbal drugs and their influence
       on human keratinocytes, on human liver cells and on adhesion of Helicobacter
       pylori to the human stomach.
   -   Hensel A, Deters AM, Müller G, Stark T, Wittschier N, Hofmann T. University of
       Münster, Institute for Pharmaceutical Biology and Phytochemistry, Münster,
       Germany. ahensel@uni-muenster.de

   -   J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Jun 2;52(11):3329-32. Antibacterial activity of coriander
       volatile compounds against Salmonella choleraesuis. Kubo I, Fujita K, Kubo A,
       Nihei K, Ogura T.


93. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM. FRUIT. NERVOUS SYSTEM
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.145
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/30
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4/90
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.405
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.165

Animal studies
   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jan 15;96(3):365-70. Coriandrum sativum: evaluation of
       its anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus-maze. Emamghoreishi M, Khasaki M,
       Aazam MF.

   -   Acta Pharm Hung. 1986 May;56(3):109-13. Inhibitory effects of extracts of
       Lupinus termis and Coriandrum sativum on electrically induced contraction of the
       rabbit ear artery. Medhin DG, Bakos P, Hadházy P.

In vitro
    -    European Food Research and Technology. Volume 215, Number 3 / September,
         2002. Mohamed Ramadan, Jörg-Thomas Mörsel. Oil composition of coriander
         (Coriandrum sativum L) fruit seeds.




                                                                                       34
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
See also the Immunity and antioxidant studies


94. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM. FRUIT. URINARY.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.145
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/30
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4/90
            -   BHC Vol. 2 p.119.
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.405
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.137.
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.165

Animal studies
   -   Food Chemistry Volume 67, Issue 3, November 1999, Pages 229-231. Coriandrum
       sativum — mechanism of hypoglycemic action. V. Chithra and S. Leelamma.
       Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavatttom, Trivandrum 695
       581, India

   -     British Journal of Nutrition, Volume 81, Number 3, 1999 , pp. 203-209(7). Insulin-
         releasing and insulin-like activity of the traditional anti-diabetic plantCoriandrum
         sativum (coriander. Gray A.M.*; Flatt P.R.1

   -     Pak J Pharm Sci. 2007 Jan;20(1):32-5. Antibacterial activities of Emblica officinalis
         and Coriandrum sativum against Gram negative urinary pathogens. Saeed S, Tariq
         P

See also the Immunity and antioxidant studies


95. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM. FRUIT. CARDIOVASCULAR.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/30
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4/90
            -   BHC Vol. 2 p.119.
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.165

Animal studies
   -   Indian J Exp Biol. 2004 Sep;42(9):909-12. Hypolipidemic effect of Coriandrum
       sativum L. in triton-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Lal AA, Kumar T, Murthy PB, Pillai
       KS.

   -     Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1997;51(2):167-72. Hypolipidemic effect of coriander seeds
         (Coriandrum sativum): mechanism of action. Chithra V, Leelamma S.

   -     Acta Pharm Hung. 1986 Mar;56(2):59-63. Hypotensive effects of Lupinus termis
         and Coriandrum sativum in Anaesthetized Rats. A preliminary study. Medhin DG,
         Hadházy , Bakos P, Verzár-Petri G.

See also the Immunity and antioxidant studies


96. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM. FRUIT. SKIN.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4/90
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.165

See also the Immunity and antioxidant studies


97. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM. FRUIT. IMMUNITY & ANTIOXIDANT
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4/90
            -   BHC Vol. 2 p.119.

Review


                                                                                           35
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -   Biochemical Pharmacology Volume 71, Issue 10, 14 May 2006, Pages 1397-1421.
       Molecular targets of dietary agents for prevention and therapy of cancer. Bharat B.
       Aggarwal and Shishir Shishodia

Animal studies
   -   Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 71, Issue 3, August 2000, Pages 457-463.
       Coriandrum sativum — effect on lipid metabolism in 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine
       induced colon cancer. V. Chithra and S. Leelamma

   -   Indian J Biochem Biophys 1999 Feb;36(1):59-61.Coriandrum sativum changes the
       levels of lipid peroxides and activity of antioxidant enzymes in experimental
       animals. Chithra V, Leelamma S.

In vitro studies
    -    Journal of Food Composition and Analysis Volume 19, Issue 8, December 2006,
         Pages 838-842. Screening of the antiradical action of vegetable oils. Mohamed
         Fawzy Ramadan and Joerg-Thomas Moersel.

   -   Journal of Food Composition and Analysis Volume 18, Issues 2-3, March-May
       2005, Pages 193-199. Antioxidant compounds from coriander (Coriandrum sativum
       L.) etheric extract. Guerra,-NB; Melo,-E-de-A; Mancini-Filho,-J

   -   Toxicology Letters Volume 153, Issue 2, 2 November 2004, Pages 283-292.
       Antimutagenicity of coriander . Coriandrum sativum) juice on the mutagenesis
       produced by plant metabolites of aromatic amines. Cortés-Eslava J, Gómez-Arroyo
       S, Villalobos-Pietrini R, Espinosa-Aguirre JJ

   -   Food Chemistry Volume 88, Issue 2, November 2004, Pages 293-297. Antioxidant
       activity in extracts from coriander. Helle Wangenstee, Anne Berit Samuelsen and
       Karl Egil Malterud

   -   Food Chemistry Volume 92, Issue 4, October 2005, Pages 653-660. Effect of
       polyphenolic compounds from Coriandrum sativum on H2O2-induced oxidative
       stress in human lymphocytes. M.S. Hashim, S. Lincy, V. Remya, M. Teena and L.
       Anila .

   -   J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Nov 19;51(24):6961-9. Radical scavenging activity of
       black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and niger
       (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) crude seed oils and oil fractions. Ramadan MF, Kroh
       LW, Mörsel JT.

   -   Characterization of antioxidant compounds in aqueous coriander extract
       (Coriandrum sativum L.) . Enayde de Almeida Melo, Jorge Mancini Filhob and
       Nonete Barbosa Guerrac

   -   J Herb Pharmacother. 2004;4(2):1-10. Antioxidant activity of the aqueous
       extracts of spicy food additives--evaluation and comparison with ascorbic acid in
       in-vitro systems. Satyanarayana S, Sushruta K, Sarma GS, Srinivas N, Subba Raju
       GV.


98. CUMINUM CYMINUM. FRUIT. DIGESTION, ABSORPTION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.144
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/106
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. P.376
            -   CRC Handbook Kapoor . p.145
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole.p.167
            -   Potters New Cyclopaedia. p.98

Animal studies
   -   Phytother Res. 2007 Feb;21(2):157-63. Herbal modulation of drug bioavailability:
       enhancement of rifampicin levels in plasma by herbal products and a flavonoid
       glycoside derived from Cuminum cyminum. Sachin BS, Sharma SC, Sethi S,
       Tasduq SA, Tikoo MK, Tikoo AK, Satti NK, Gupta BD, Suri KA, Johri RK, Qazi GN.




                                                                                         36
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
    -   Ann Nutr Metab. 2005 Sep-Oct;49(5):300-3. Therapeutic role of Cuminum
        cyminum on ethanol and thermally oxidized sunflower oil induced toxicity. Aruna K,
        Rukkumani R, Varma PS, Menon VP.

    -   Pharmacol Res. 2002 Sep;46(3):251-5. Hypolipidemic effect of Cuminum cyminum
        L. on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Dhandapani S, Subramanian VR, Rajagopal S,
        Namasivayam N

    -   Indian J Gastroenterol. 2000 Apr-Jun;19(2):53-6. Influence of intragastric
        perfusion of aqueous spice extracts on acid secretion in anesthetized albino rats.
        Vasudevan K, Vembar S, Veeraraghavan K, Haranath PS.

    -   Nutr Cancer. 2003;47(2):171-80. Chemopreventive effects of Cuminum cyminum
        in chemically induced forestomach and uterine cervix tumors in murine model
        systems. Gagandeep , Dhanalakshmi S, Méndiz E, Rao AR, Kale RK.

    -   J Herb Pharmacother. 2004;4(2):1-10. Antioxidant activity of the aqueous extracts
        of spicy food additives--evaluation and comparison with ascorbic acid in in-vitro
        systems. Satyanarayana S, Sushruta K, Sarma GS, Srinivas N, Subba Raju GV.

    -   Nutr Metab. 2005 Sep-Oct;49(5):300-3. Epub 2005 Aug 4.. Effect of ethanol and
        thermally oxidized sunflower oil ingestion on phospholipid fatty acid composition of
        rat liver: protective role of Cuminum cyminum L. Kode A, Rajagopalan R,
        Penumathsa SV, Menon VP


99. CURCUMA LONGA. RHIZOME. SKIN
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.175
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/45
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/152.
            -   WHO monographs Vol. 1/119.
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.514
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Dabur/Williamson. p.118
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.283

Review
   -   Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2003 Mar;2(1):25-39. Plant medicines of Indian origin
       for wound healing activity: a review. Biswas TK, Mukherjee B

Animal
   -   Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2005 Dec;4(4):205-13. Turmeric (Curcuma longa)
       rhizome paste and honey show similar wound healing potential: a preclinical study
       in rabbits. Kundu S, Biswas TK, Das P, Kumar S, De DK.

In vitro
    -    J Invest Dermatol. 2007 Aug;127(8):1992-2000. Epub 2007 Apr 5. Low
         concentrations of curcumin induce growth arrest and apoptosis in skin
         keratinocytes only in combination with UVA or visible light. Dujic J, Kippenberger
         S, Hoffmann S, Ramirez-Bosca A, Miquel J, Diaz-Alperi J, Bereiter-Hahn J,
         Kaufmann R, Bernd A.

    -   Planta Med. 1997 Jun;63(3):265-6. Protective effect of curcuminoids on epidermal
        skin cells under free oxygen radical stress. Bonté F, Noel-Hudson MS, Wepierre J,
        Meybeck A.

See also Curcuma longa RHIZOME Immunity/Antioxidant studies


100. CURCUMA LONGA. RHIZOME. IMMUNITY & ANTIOXIDANT
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/45
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/152.
   -    WHO monographs Vol. 1/119.
   -    Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.514
   -    Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Dabur/Williamson. p.118


                                                                                              37
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -   CRC Handbook Kapoor . p.150
   -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.283

Reviews
   -   Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;595:425-51. Curcumin and autoimmune disease. Bright JJ

   -   Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;595:321-41. Immunomodulation by curcumin. Gautam
       SC, Gao X, Dulchavsky S.

   -   Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;595:213-26. Regulation of COX and LOX by curcumin.Rao
       CV

   -   Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;595:105-25. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties
       of curcumin. Menon VP, Sudheer AR

   -   J Clin Immunol. 2007 Jan;27(1):19-35. Epub 2007 Jan 9. "Spicing up" of the
       immune system by curcumin.Jagetia GC, Aggarwal BB

   -   Altern Med Rev. 2006 Jun;11(2):128-50. Modulation of cytokine expression by
       traditional medicines: a review of herbal immunomodulators. Spelman K, Burns J,
       Nichols D, Winters N, Ottersberg S, Tenborg M.

   -   Przegl Lek. 2005;62(10):1180-1. [Preventive role of curcumin in lung cancer]
       [Article in Polish]. Balcerek M, Matławska I.

Animal studies
   -   World J Gastroenterol. 2007 Jun 21;13(23):3199-205. Effects of four Indian
       medicinal herbs on Isoniazid-, Rifampicin- and Pyrazinamide-induced hepatic injury
       and immunosuppression in guinea pigs. Adhvaryu MR, Reddy N, Parabia MH.

   -   Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007 Jan;100(1):43-8. Curcumin and kolaviron
       ameliorate di-n-butylphthalate-induced testicular damage in rats. Farombi EO,
       Abarikwu SO, Adedara IA, Oyeyemi MO.

   -   Life Sci. 2004 Aug 20;75(14):1701-11. Protective effects of Curcuma longa on
       ischemia-reperfusion induced myocardial injuries and their mechanisms. Mohanty
       I, Singh Arya D, Dinda A, Joshi S, Talwar KK, Gupta SK.

   -   Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 Feb;29(2):253-60. Suppressive effects of JCICM-6, the
       extract of an anti-arthritic herbal formula, on the experimental inflammatory and
       nociceptive models in rodents. Zhou H, Wong YF, Cai X, Liu ZQ, Jiang ZH, Bian ZX,
       Xu HX, Liu L.

   -   Antioxidant potential of fluoxetine in comparison to Curcuma longa in restraint-
       stressed rats. Zafir A, Banu N.

In vitro
    -    Biochem Pharmacol. 2006 Jun 28;72(1):62-9. Epub 2006 Apr 1. Inhibition of
         homodimerization of Toll-like receptor 4 by curcumin.Youn HS, Saitoh SI, Miyake
         K, Hwang DH.

   -   Phytother Res. 2004 Oct;18(10):798-804. Antioxidant availability of turmeric in
       relation to its medicinal and culinary uses. Tilak JC, Banerjee M, Mohan H,
       Devasagayam TP
   -   Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005 Jan;96(1):80-7. Screening of antioxidants from
       medicinal plants for cardioprotective effect against doxorubicin toxicity.
       Wattanapitayakul SK, Chularojmontri L, Herunsalee A, Charuchongkolwongse S,
       Niumsakul S, Bauer JA.


101. CURCUMA LONGA. RHIZOME. CHOLESTEROL/CARDIOVASCULAR
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/45
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/152.
   -    WHO monographs Vol. 1/119.
   -    Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.514


                                                                                          38
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Dabur/Williamson. p.118
   -   CRC Handbook Kapoor . p.150
   -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.283

Review
   -   J Clin Immunol. 2007 Jan;27(1):19-35. Epub 2007 Jan 9. "Spicing up" of the
       immune system by curcumin. Jagetia GC, Aggarwal BB.

   -   Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;595:359-77. Cardioprotective effects of curcumin.
       Miriyala S, Panchatcharam M, Rengarajulu P.

Animal studies
   -   J Med Food. 2005 Summer;8(2):256-60. Comparative effects of curcumin and its
       analog on alcohol- and polyunsaturated fatty acid-induced alterations in circulatory
       lipid profiles. Rukkumani R, Aruna K, Varma PS, Rajasekaran KN, Menon VP.

   -   Atherosclerosis. 1999 Dec;147(2):371-8. Oral administration of a turmeric extract
       inhibits LDL oxidation and has hypocholesterolemic effects in rabbits with
       experimental atherosclerosis. Ramírez-Tortosa MC, Mesa MD, Aguilera MC, Quiles
       JL, Baró L, Ramirez-Tortosa CL, Martinez-Victoria E, Gil A

   -   BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006 Feb 19;6:3. Effect of Curcuma longa and
       Ocimum sanctum on myocardial apoptosis in experimentally induced myocardial
       ischemic-reperfusion injury. Mohanty I, Arya DS, Gupta SK.

   -   Am J Chin Med. 2005;33(3):449-57. Effect of curcuma herbs on vasomotion and
       hemorheology in spontaneously hypertensive rat. Goto H, Sasaki Y, Fushimi H,
       Shibahara N, Shimada Y, Komatsu K.

   -   Life Sci. 2005 Jul 8;77(8):837-57. Epub 2005 Apr 14. Antiatherosclerotic effects of
       dietary supplementations of garlic and turmeric: Restoration of endothelial function
       in rats.
   -   Zahid Ashraf M, Hussain ME, Fahim M.

   -   Life Sci. 2004 Aug 20;75(14):1701-11. Protective effects of Curcuma longa on
       ischemia-reperfusion induced myocardial injuries and their mechanisms. Mohanty
       I, Singh Arya D, Dinda A, Joshi S, Talwar KK, Gupta SK.

In vitro
    -    Vascul Pharmacol. 2007 Jul;47(1):25-30. Epub 2007 Mar 27. The relaxant effect of
         curcumin on porcine coronary arterial ring segments. Xu PH, Long Y, Dai F, Liu ZL

   -   Indian J Exp Biol. 2007 Mar;45(3):272-7. Curcuma longa as feed additive in
       broiler birds and its patho-physiological effects. Kumari P, Gupta MK, Ranjan R,
       Singh KK, Yadava R.

   -   Bioresour Technol. 2006 Aug;97(12):1372-6. Epub 2005 Aug 19. Antiplatelet
       property of Curcuma longa L. rhizome-derived ar-turmerone. Lee HS.

   -   Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005 Jan;96(1):80-7. Screening of antioxidants from
       medicinal plants for cardioprotective effect against doxorubicin toxicity.
       Wattanapitayakul SK, Chularojmontri L, Herunsalee A, Charuchongkolwongse S,
       Niumsakul S, Bauer JA. [no effect seen]

See also Curcuma longa RHIZOME Immunity/Antioxidant studies


102. CURCUMA LONGA. RHIZOME. RESPIRATORY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.175
   -    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/45
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/152.
   -    WHO monographs Vol. 1/119.
   -    Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.514
   -    Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Dabur/Williamson. p.118
   -    CRC Handbook Kapoor . p.150


                                                                                          39
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.283

Reviews
   -   Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;595:379-405. Protection from acute and chronic lung
       diseases by curcumin. Venkatesan N, Punithavathi D, Babu M.

   -   J Clin Immunol. 2007 Jan;27(1):19-35. Epub 2007 Jan 9. "Spicing up" of the
       immune system by curcumin. Jagetia GC, Aggarwal BB.

   -   Przegl Lek. 2005;62(10):1180-1. [Preventive role of curcumin in lung cancer]
       [Article in Polish] Balcerek M, Matławska I.

Animal studies
   -   Mol Cell Biochem. 2006 Aug;288(1-2):115-23. Epub 2006 May 12.
   -   Curcumin combats against cigarette smoke and ethanol-induced lipid alterations in
       rat lung and liver.
   -   Vanisree AJ, Sudha N.

   -   Life Sci. 2005 May 13;76(26):3089-105. Pharmacological basis for the use of
       turmeric in gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders. Gilani AH, Shah AJ, Ghayur
       MN, Majeed K.

   -   Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Mar;23(1):61-8. Antimutagenicity of herbal
       detoxification formula Smoke Shield against environmental mutagens. Kuttan R,
       Kuttan G, Joseph S, Ajith TA, Mohan M, Srimal RC

   -   Biol Pharm Bull. 2003 Jul;26(7):1021-4. Curcumin attenuates allergen-induced
       airway hyperresponsiveness in sensitized guinea pigs. Ram A, Das M, Ghosh B..

In vitro
   -    Planta Med. 2003 Jun;69(6):523-6. Effects of baicalein, berberine, curcumin and
        hesperidin on mucin release from airway goblet cells. Lee CJ, Lee JH, Seok JH, Hur
        GM, Park YC, Seol IC, Kim YH.

See also Curcuma longa RHIZOME Immunity/Antioxidant studies


103. CURCUMA LONGA. RHIZOME. JOINTS & BONES
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/152.
   -    Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Dabur/Williamson. p.118
   -    CRC Handbook Kapoor . p.150
   -    Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.283

Review
    -  J Clin Immunol. 2007 Jan;27(1):19-35. Epub 2007 Jan 9. "Spicing up" of the
       immune system by curcumin. Jagetia GC, Aggarwal BB.

Human studies
   -   J Clin Rheumatol. 2004 Oct;10(5):236-245. A 32-Week Randomized, Placebo-
       Controlled Clinical Evaluation of RA-11, an Ayurvedic Drug, on Osteoarthritis of
       the Knees. Chopra A, Lavin P, Patwardhan B, Chitre D.

See also Curcuma longa RHIZOME Immunity/Antioxidant studies


104. CURCUMA LONGA. RHIZOME. LIVER
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/152.
   -    WHO monographs Vol. 1/119
   -    BHMA Guide –p.221
   -    Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.514
   -    Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Dabur/Williamson. p.118
   -    CRC Handbook Kapoor . p.150
   -    Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.283




                                                                                          40
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
Animal studies
   -   World J Gastroenterol. 2007 Jun 21;13(23):3199-205. Effects of four Indian
       medicinal herbs on Isoniazid-, Rifampicin- and Pyrazinamide-induced hepatic injury
       and immunosuppression in guinea pigs. Adhvaryu MR, Reddy N, Parabia MH.

   -   Mol Cell Biochem. 2006 Aug;288(1-2):115-23. Epub 2006 May 12. Curcumin
       combats against cigarette smoke and ethanol-induced lipid alterations in rat lung
       and liver. Vanisree AJ, Sudha N.

   -   Nutrition. 2003 Sep;19(9):800-4. Oral administration of a turmeric extract inhibits
       erythrocyte and liver microsome membrane oxidation in rabbits fed with an
       atherogenic diet. Mesa MD, Aguilera CM, Ramírez-Tortosa CL, Ramírez-Tortosa MC,
       Quiles JL, Baró L, Martínez de Victoria E, Gil A.

   -   Nutr Cancer. 2003;45(1):53-9. Suppression of altered hepatic foci development
       by curcumin in wistar rats. Shukla Y, Arora A.

   -   Biofactors. 1998;8(1-2):51-7. An ethanolic-aqueous extract of Curcuma longa
       decreases the susceptibility of liver microsomes and mitochondria to lipid
       peroxidation in atherosclerotic rabbits Quiles JL, Aguilera C, Mesa MD, Ramírez-
       Tortosa MC, Baró L, Gil A.

In vitro
    -    Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005 Jan;49(1):111-4. Protective effect of curcumin
         during selenium induced toxicity on dehydrogenases in hepatic tissue. Padmaja S,
         Raju TN.

See also Immunity/Antioxidant studies


105. CURCUMA LONGA. RHIZOME. NERVOUS SYSTEM
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/152.
   -    WHO monographs Vol. 1/119
   -    Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.514
   -    Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.283

Review
   -   Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2007 Jun;4(2):181-190. Epub 2007 Apr 23.
       Curcumin in Cell Death Processes: A Challenge for CAM of Age-Related Pathologies
       Salvioli S, Sikora E, Cooper EL, Franceschi C.

   -   J Clin Immunol. 2007 Jan;27(1):19-35. Epub 2007 Jan 9. "Spicing up" of the
       immune system by curcumin. Jagetia GC, Aggarwal BB.

Animal studies
   -   Brain Res. 2007 Aug 8;1162:9-18. Epub 2007 Jun 21. Curcumin reverses impaired
       hippocampal neurogenesis and increases serotonin receptor 1A mRNA and brain-
       derived neurotrophic factor expression in chronically stressed rats. Xu Y, Ku B, Cui
       L, Li X, Barish PA, Foster TC, Ogle WO.

   -   Antioxidant potential of fluoxetine in comparison to Curcuma longa in restraint-
       stressed rats. Zafir A, Banu N.

   -   Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Jan-Feb;29(1):19-25. Possible
       neuroprotective mechanisms of curcumin in attenuating 3-nitropropionic acid-
       induced neurotoxicity.
   -   Kumar P, Padi SS, Naidu PS, Kumar A

   -   Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Apr 30;561(1-3):54-62. Epub 2007 Jan 19. Neuroprotective
       effect of curcumin on focal cerebral ischemic rats by preventing blood-brain barrier
       damage. Jiang J, Wang W, Sun YJ, Hu M, Li F, Zhu DY

   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Mar 21;110(2):356-63. Epub 2006 Oct 17. Behavioral,
       neurochemical and neuroendocrine effects of the ethanolic extract from Curcuma




                                                                                          41
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
       longa L. in the mouse forced swimming test. Xia X, Cheng G, Pan Y, Xia ZH, Kong
       LD.

   -   Brain Res. 2006 Nov 29;1122(1):56-64. Epub 2006 Oct 3. Curcumin reverses the
       effects of chronic stress on behavior, the HPA axis, BDNF expression and
       phosphorylation of CREB. Xu Y, Ku B, Tie L, Yao H, Jiang W, Ma X, Li X.

   -   Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 May;29(5):938-44. Ethanolic extracts from Curcuma longa
       attenuates behavioral, immune, and neuroendocrine alterations in a rat chronic
       mild stress model. Xia X, Pan Y, Zhang WY, Cheng G, Kong LD

   -   Life Sci. 2006 Mar 13;78(16):1884-91. Epub 2005 Nov 2. Prevention of kainic
       acid-induced changes in nitric oxide level and neuronal cell damage in the rat
       hippocampus by manganese complexes of curcumin and diacetylcurcumin.
       Sumanont Y, Murakami Y, Tohda M, Vajragupta O, Watanabe H, Matsumoto K.

   -   Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2005 Sep;82(1):200-6. Antidepressant effects of
       curcumin in the forced swim test and olfactory bulbectomy models of depression in
       rats. Xu Y, Ku BS, Yao HY, Lin YH, Ma X, Zhang YH, Li XJ.

   -   Eur J Pharmacol. 2005 Jul 25;518(1):40-6. The effects of curcumin on depressive-
       like behaviors in mice. Xu Y, Ku BS, Yao HY, Lin YH, Ma X, Zhang YH, Li XJ.
   -   Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 Feb;29(2):253-60. Suppressive effects of JCICM-6, the
       extract of an anti-arthritic herbal formula, on the experimental inflammatory and
       nociceptive models in rodents. Zhou H, Wong YF, Cai X, Liu ZQ, Jiang ZH, Bian ZX,
       Xu HX, Liu L.

See also mmunity/Antioxidant studies.


106. ECLIPTA ALBA. WHOLE PLANT. SKIN AND SCALP
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.293
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:2:24
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 2/113
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.451
            -   CRC Handbook Kapoor p.159
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.141

See also Liver and biliary, Nervous system and Immunity studies


107. ECLIPTA ALBA. WHOLE PLANT. NERVOUS SYSTEM AND HEAD
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -    Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.293
            -    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:2:24
            -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 2/113
            -    Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.451
            -    CRC Handbook Kapoor p.159
            -    Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.141
Animal studies
   -    J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Oct 31;102(1):23-31. Neuropharmacological profile of
        Eclipta alba (Linn.) Hassk. Thakur VD, Mengi SA.

   -   Phytother Res. 2004 Feb;18(2):111-3. Analgesic studies on total alkaloids and
       alcohol extracts of Eclipta alba (Linn.) Hassk Sawant M, Isaac JC, Narayanan S.

   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 May;70(2):151-9. Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and
       bronchodilator activities of Brazilian medicinal plants containing coumarin: a
       comparative study. Leal LK, Ferreira AA, Bezerra GA, Matos FJ, Viana GS.

   -   Pandey, P.S., K.K. Pandey, O.P. Upadhyay and D.N. Pandey (1997) - Experimental
       evaluation of the analgesic property of Eclipta alba (L) Hassk., Ancient Science of
       Life 17, 1, 36-40.




                                                                                         42
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
108. ECLIPTA ALBA. WHOLE PLANT. LIVER AND BILIARY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -    Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.293
            -    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:2:24
            -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 2/113
            -    Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.451
            -    CRC Handbook Kapoor p.159
            -    Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.141
Human study
   -    Dixit, S.P. and M.P. Achar (1981) - Study of bhringaraja (Eclipta alba) therapy in
        jaundice in children, Journal Scientific Research Plants Med. 2, 4, 96-100

Animal studies
   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 1993 Dec;40(3):155-61. Hepatoprotective effects of Eclipta
       alba on subcellular levels in rats. Saxena AK, Singh B, Anand KK

    -   Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2001 Oct;45(4):435-41. In vivo hepatoprotective
        activity of active fraction from ethanolic extract of Eclipta alba leaves. Singh B,
        Saxena AK, Chandan BK, Agarwal SG, Anand KK.

    -   Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology . Volume 45, Issue 3, September 1978,
        Pages 723-728 The protective effect of Eclipta alba on carbon tetrachloride-induced
        acute liver damage Khin Ma-Ma, Nyunt Nyunt and Khin Maung Tin

    -   Singh, B., A.K. Saxena, B.K. Chandan, S.G. Agarwal, M.S. Bhatia and K.K. Anand
        (1993) - Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Eclipta alba on
        experimental liver damage in rats and mice, Phytotherapy Research 7, 2, 154-158

    -   Chandra, T. and J. Sadique (1987) - A new recipe for liver injury, Ancient Science
        of Life 7, 2, 99-103.

    -   Chandra, T., J. Sadique and S. Somasundaram (1987) - Effect of Eclipta alba on
        inflammation and liver injury, Fitoterapia 58, 1, 23-32.

    -   Jayaram, S. et al. (1987) - Anti-hepatitis-B virus properties of Phyllanthus niruri
        Linn. and Eclipta alba Hassk.: in vitro and in vivo safety studies, Biomedicine 7, 2,
        9-16

In vitro
    -    Das, M., K.N. Patel and B.K. Shah (1991) - Antihepatotoxic principles in tissue
         culture of Eclipta alba Linn., Indian Drugs 28, 8, 356-358.


109. ECLIPTA ALBA. WHOLE PLANT. IMMUNITY
Animal studies
   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 May;70(2):151-9. Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and
       bronchodilator activities of Brazilian medicinal plants containing coumarin: a
       comparative study. Leal LK, Ferreira AA, Bezerra GA, Matos FJ, Viana GS

    -   Reddy, K.R.K., S.S. Tehara, P.V. Goud and M.M. Alikhan (1990) - Comparison of
        anti-inflammatory activity of Eclipta alba (bhangra) and Solanum nigrum (mako
        kushk) in rats, JREIM 9, 4, 43-46.


    -   Sureshkumar, S., T. Sivakumar, M.J.N. Chandrasekar and B. Suresh (2005) -
        Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Eclipta alba in rats, Ancient Science of
        Life 24, 3, 112-118.

In vitro
    -    Phytomedicine. 2004;11(4):361-5. Preliminary immunomodulatory activities of
         methanol extracts of Eclipta alba and Centella asiatica. Jayathirtha MG, Mishra SH.

    -   Planta Med. 1986 Oct;52(5):374-7. [In Vitro 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibition by Eclipta
        alba Extracts and the Coumestan Derivative Wedelolactone.] [Article in German]
        Wagner H, Fessler B.




                                                                                              43
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc

110. ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM. SEED. CARDIOVASCULAR
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
             -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.209
             -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1:101
             -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/392.
             -   CRC Handbook Kapoor p.172
             -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.151
In vitro
    -    Phytotherapy Research Volume 19, Issue 5 , Pages 437 – 440, Cardamom
         extract as inhibitor of human platelet aggregation. W. Jessie Suneetha, T. P.
         Krishnakantha


111. ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM. SEED. URINARY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.209
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1:101
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/392
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte p.324
            -   CRC Handbook Kapoor p.172
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.151

See also Digestion antimicrobial studies and Immunity studies


112. ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM. SEED. DIGESTION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1:101
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/392
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte p.324
            -   CRC Handbook Kapoor p.172
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.151
            -   BHC Vol. 2. p.96
            -   BHMA Guide. p.64

Animal studies
   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Jan 16;103(2):149-53. Epub 2005 Nov 17.
       Gastroprotective effect of cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum Maton. fruits in rats.
       Jamal A, Javed K, Aslam M, Jafri MA.

    -   Indian J Gastroenterol. 2000 Apr-Jun;19(2):53-6. Influence of intragastric
        perfusion of aqueous spice extracts on acid secretion in anesthetized albino rats.
        Vasudevan K, Vembar S, Veeraraghavan K, Haranath PS.

    -   J. Agrlc. Food Chem. 1991, 39, 1984-1986. Antimicrobial Activity of Flavor
        Components of Cardamom Elattaria cardamomum (Zingiberaceae) Seed Isao
        Kubo,' Masaki Himejima, and Hisae Muroi

    -   Phytotherapy Research Volume 19, Issue 11 , Pages 988 – 991 n Vitro
        susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to botanical extracts used traditionally for the
        treatment of gastrointestinal disorders Gail B. Mahady 1 2 *, Susan L. Pendland 2,
        Adenia Stoia 1, Frank A. Hamill 1, Daniel Fabricant 1, Birgit M. Dietz 2, Lucas R.
        Chadwick

    -   ADVANCES IN PLANT SCIENCES 2003, VOL 16; PART 1, pages 87-90 Toxic Effect
        of Elettaria cardamomum (Choti Elaichi) on the Growth of Salmonella typhi.
        Daswani, L. Bohra, A.


113. ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM. SEED. IMMUNITY
Animal studies
   -   Pharmacological Research Vol.34 No.1-2, July 1996, pp79-82(4). Pharmacological
       studies on cardamom oil in animals Al-Zuhair H, El_Sayeh B, Ameen HA, Al-
       Shoorah H.




                                                                                             44
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc

   -   Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, Vol 6, 2005. Dietary Cardamom Inhibits
       the Formation of Azoxymethaneinduced Aberrant Crypt Foci in Mice and Reduces
       COX-2 and iNOS Expression in the Colon
   -   Archana Sengupta1, Samit Ghosh, Shamee Bhattacharjee

   -   Praveen K. Vayalil, Girija Kuttan, Ramadasan Kuttan. The Journal of Alternative
       and Complementary Medicine. 2002, 8(6): 787-796. Protective Effects of
       Rasayanas on Cyclophosphamide- and Radiation-Induced Damage

In vitro
    -    J. Agrlc. Food Chem. 1991, 39, 1984-1986. Antimicrobial Activity of Flavor
         Components of Cardamom Elattaria cardamomum (Zingiberaceae) Seed. Isao
         Kubo,' Masaki Himejima, and Hisae Muroi


114. ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM. SEED. NERVOUS SYSTEM
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.209
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/392
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.151

Animal studies
   -   Achliya, Girish S., Sudhir G. Wadodkar and Avinash K. Dorle (2004b) - Evaluation
       of sedative and anticonvulsant activities of unmadnashak ghrita, Journal of
       Ethnopharmacology 94, 77-83

   -   Praveen K. Vayalil, Girija Kuttan, Ramadasan Kuttan. The Journal of Alternative
       and Complementary Medicine. 2002, 8(6): 787-796. Protective Effects of
       Rasayanas on Cyclophosphamide- and Radiation-Induced Damage


115. ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM. SEED. RESPIRATORY.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.209
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1:101
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/392
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte p.324
            -   CRC Handbook Kapoor p.172
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.151

See also Digestion antimicrobial studies and Immunity studies


116. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS. FRUIT RIND. DIGESTION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.135
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/5
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/12
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.310
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Dabur/Williamson. p.210
            -   CRC Handbook Kapoor .p.175
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole. p.126

Human study
   -  Sharma PK, et al. Clinical evaluation of Amalaki churna in the treatment of
      amlapitta. Aryavaidyan 1990;4(2):120-122. Improvement in mean values of the
      free and total acid concentration were gradually reduced both in fasting and
      stimulated states (p=0.01)

Animal studies
   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Sep;82(1):1-9. Antiulcerogenic effect of methanolic
       extract of Emblica officinalis: an experimental study. Sairam K, Rao ChV, Babu MD,
       Kumar KV, Agrawal VK, K Goel RK.




                                                                                         45
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -   Phytomedicine. 2002 Sep;9(6):515-22. Gastroprotective effects of 'Amla' Emblica
       officinalis on in vivo test models in rats. Al-Rehaily AJ, Al-Howiriny TA, Al-
       Sohaibani MO, Rafatullah S.

   -   Bandyopadhyay, Sandip K., Satyesh C. Pakrashi and Anita Pakrashi (2000) - The
       role of antioxidant activity of Phyllanthus emblica fruits on prevention from
       indomethacin induced gastric ulcer, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 70, 2, 171-176.

   -   Sairam, K., V.K. Agarwal, V.K. Joshi and R.K. Goel (2000) - Effect of Phyllanthus
       emblica Linn. on gastric ulceration and secretion, Indian Journal of Pharmacology
       32, 1, 82.

   -   Rege NN, Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA: Adaptogenic properties of six Rasayana herbs
       used in Ayurvedic medicine; Phytother Res 13, pp 275-291, 1988


117. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS. FRUIT RIND. MENTAL & HEAD
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/12
            -   CRC Handbook Kapoor .p.175
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole. p.126

Animal studies
   -   Physiol Behav. 2007 May 16;91(1):46-54. Epub 2007 Feb 8. Memory enhancing
       activity of Anwala churna (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.): an Ayurvedic preparation.
       Vasudevan M, Parle M.

   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Nov;95(1):83-5. Evaluation of anti-pyretic and analgesic
       activity of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Perianayagam JB, Sharma SK, Joseph A,
       Christina AJ.

   -   Indian J Exp Biol. 2004 May;42(5):499-503. Neuropharmacological actions of
       panchagavya formulation containing Emblica officinalis Gaerth and Glycyrrhiza
       glabra Linn in mice. Achliya GS, Wadodkar SG, Avinash KD

   -   Rege NN, Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA: Adaptogenic properties of sic Rasayana
       herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine; Phytother Res 13, pp 275-291, 1988


118. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS. FRUIT RIND. STRENGTH & ENERGY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.135
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/5
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/12
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.310
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole. p.126
Study
   -    Maroli, S. and S. Javale (1982) - Amalaki, Phyllanthus emblica, an Ayurvedic
        rejuvenator, Pediatr. Clin. India 17, 2, 42-44.


119. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS. FRUIR RIND. ELIMINATION & DETOX
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/12
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.310
            -   CRC Handbook Kapoor .p.175
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole. p.126

Animal studies
   -   Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 May;40(5):564-70. Modulation of acute cadmium toxicity
       by Emblica officinalis fruit in rat. Khandelwal S, Shukla LJ, Shanker R.

   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 May;86(1):75-80. Snake venom neutralization by Indian
       medicinal plants (Vitex negundo and Emblica officinalis) root extracts. Alam MI,
       Gomes A.




                                                                                        46
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
    -   Phytother Res. 2005 Mar;19(3):193-7. Protective effect of a 50% hydroalcoholic
        fruit extract of Emblica officinalis against anti-tuberculosis drugs induced liver
        toxicity. Tasduq SA, Kaisar P, Gupta DK, Kapahi BK, Maheshwari HS, Jyotsna S,
        Johri RK.

    -   Indian J Exp Biol. 2005 May;43(5):430-6. Effect of Emblica officinalis (Gaertn) on
        CCl4 induced hepatic toxicity and DNA synthesis in Wistar rats. Sultana S, Ahmad
        S, Khan N, Jahangir T.

    -   Hum Exp Toxicol. 2001 Dec;20(12):643-50. Protective effects of Emblica officinalis
        Gaertn. in cyclophosphamide-treated mice. Haque R, Bin-Hafeez B, Ahmad I,
        Parvez S, Pandey S, Raisuddin S.

    -   Dhir, H., A.K. Roy and A. Sharma (1993) - Relative efficiency of Phyllanthus
        emblica fruit extract and ascorbic acid in modifying lead and aluminium-induced
        sister-chromatid exchanges in mouse bone marrow, Envronm. Mol. Mutagen. 21,
        3, 229-236.

    -   Roy, A.K., H. Dhir and A. Sharma (1992) - Modification of metal-induced
        micronuclei formation on mouse bone marrow erythrocytes by Phyllanthus fruit
        extract and ascorbic acid, Toxicol. Lett. 62, 1, 9-17.

    -   Ghosh, A. et al. (1993) - Comparison of the protection afforded by a crude extract
        of Phyllanthus emblica fruit and equivalent amount of synthetic ascorbic acid
        against cytotoxic effects of caesium chloride in mice, International Journal of
        Pharmacognosy 31, 2, 116-120.

In vitro studies
    -    Phytother Res. 2003 Apr;17(4):430-3. Cytoprotective activity of Amla (Emblica
         officinalis) against chromium (VI) induced oxidative injury in murine macrophages.
         Sai Ram M, Neetu D, Deepti P, Vandana M, Ilavazhagan G, Kumar D, Selvamurthy
         W.

    -   J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Jun;81(1):5-10. Cyto-protective and immunomodulating
        properties of Amla (Emblica officinalis) on lymphocytes: an in-vitro study. Sai Ram
        M, Neetu D, Yogesh B, Anju B, Dipti P, Pauline T, Sharma SK, Sarada SK,
        Ilavazhagan G, Kumar D, Selvamurthy W.


120. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS. FRUIT RIND. GENITOURINARY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.135
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/12
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.310

In vitro study
    -    Pak J Pharm Sci. 2007 Jan;20(1):32-5. Antibacterial activities of Emblica officinalis
         and Coriandrum sativum against Gram negative urinary pathogens. Saeed S, Tariq
         P


121. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS. FRUIT RIND. CARDIOVASCULAR
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.135
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/12
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.310
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Dabur/Williamson. p.210
            -   CRC Handbook Kapoor .p.175
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole. p.126

Animal studies
   -   Br J Nutr. 2007 Jun;97(6):1187-95. Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) prevents
       dyslipidaemia and oxidative stress in the ageing process. Yokozawa T, Kim HY, Kim
       HJ, Okubo T, Chu DC, Juneja LR.




                                                                                             47
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -   J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2006;25(4):643-54. Emblica officinalis (Linn.) fruit
       extract provides protection against radiation-induced hematological and
       biochemical alterations in mice. Singh I, Soyal D, Goyal PK.

   -   J Radiat Res (Tokyo). 2004 Dec;45(4):549-55. Modulation of haematopoetic
       system and antioxidant enzymes by Emblica officinalis gaertn and its protective
       role against gamma-radiation induced damages in mice. Hari Kumar KB, Sabu MC,
       Lima PS, Kuttan R.

   -   Phytother Res. 2004 Jan;18(1):54-60. Emblica officinalis causes myocardial
       adaptation and protects against oxidative stress in ischemic-reperfusion injury in
       rats. Rajak S, Banerjee SK, Sood S, Dinda AK, Gupta YK, Gupta SK, Maulik SK.

   -   J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2005 Dec;51(6):413-8. Influence of amla (Emblica
       officinalis Gaertn.) on hypercholesterolemia and lipid peroxidation in cholesterol-
       fed rats. Kim HJ, Yokozawa T, Kim HY, Tohda C, Rao TP, Juneja LR.

   -   Thakur CP et al: The Ayurvedic medicines Haritaki, Amala and Bahira reduce
       cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits; International J Cardiol 21 (2), pp
       167-75, 1988


122. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS. FRUIT RIND. ANTIOXIDANT & IMMUNITY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/12
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Dabur/Williamson. p.210
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole. p.126

Animal studies
   -   Br J Nutr. 2007 Jun;97(6):1187-95. Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) prevents
       dyslipidaemia and oxidative stress in the ageing process. Yokozawa T, Kim HY, Kim
       HJ, Okubo T, Chu DC, Juneja LR

   -   J Radiat Res (Tokyo). 2004 Dec;45(4):549-55. Modulation of haematopoetic
       system and antioxidant enzymes by Emblica officinalis gaertn and its protective
       role against gamma-radiation induced damages in mice. Hari Kumar KB, Sabu MC,
       Lima PS, Kuttan R

   -   J Med Food. 2005 Fall;8(3):362-8. Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) extracts
       reduce oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Rao TP, Sakaguchi
       N, Juneja LR, Wada E, Yokozawa T.

   -   Phytother Res. 2004 Jan;18(1):54-60. Emblica officinalis causes myocardial
       adaptation and protects against oxidative stress in ischemic-reperfusion injury in
       rats. Rajak S, Banerjee SK, Sood S, Dinda AK, Gupta YK, Gupta SK, Maulik SK.

   -   Phytother Res. 2005 Mar;19(3):193-7. Protective effect of a 50% hydroalcoholic
       fruit extract of Emblica officinalis against anti-tuberculosis drugs induced liver
       toxicity. Tasduq SA, Kaisar P, Gupta DK, Kapahi BK, Maheshwari HS, Jyotsna S,
       Johri RK.

   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Jul;81(2):155-60. Anti-diabetic activity of medicinal plants
       and its relationship with their antioxidant property. Sabu MC, Kuttan R.

   -   Dhir, H., A.K. Roy and A. Sharma (1993) - Relative efficiency of Phyllanthus
       emblica fruit extract and ascorbic acid in modifying lead and aluminium-induced
       sister-chromatid exchanges in mouse bone marrow, Envronm. Mol. Mutagen. 21,
       3, 229-236.

   -   Jeena, K. Jose, K.L. Joy and Ramadasan Kuttan (1999) - Effect of Emblica
       officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus and Picrorrhiza kurroa on N-nitrosodiethylamine
       induced hepatocarcinogenesis, Cancer Letters 136, 1, 11-16.

   -   Rege NN, Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA: Adaptogenic properties of sic Rasayana
       herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine; Phytother Res 13, pp 275-291, 1988




                                                                                            48
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
In vitro
    -    J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Mar 8;104(1-2):113-8. Epub 2005 Oct 13. Vitamin C
         content and antioxidant activity of the fruit and of the Ayurvedic preparation of
         Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Scartezzini P, Antognoni F, Raggi MA, Poli F, Sabbioni C.

    -   Phytother Res. 2003 Apr;17(4):430-3. Cytoprotective activity of Amla (Emblica
        officinalis) against chromium (VI) induced oxidative injury in murine macrophages.
        Sai Ram M, Neetu D, Deepti P, Vandana M, Ilavazhagan G, Kumar D, Selvamurthy
        W.

    -   Journal of Food Composition and Analysis . Volume 19, Issue 5, August 2006,
        Pages 446-452. Free and bound phenolic antioxidants in amla (Emblica officinalis)
        and turmeric (Curcuma longa). G. Suresh Kumara, Harish Nayakaa, b, Shylaja M.
        Dharmesha and P.V. Salimatha

    -   Agarwal, K., H. Dhir, A. Sharma and G. Talukder (1992) - The efficacy of two
        species of Phyllanthus in counteracting nickel clastogenicity, Fitoterapia 63, 1, 49-
        54.

    -   Deb, J.C. and N. Chandrasekhara (19600 - Ascorbic acid concentrate from amla
        (Phyllanthus emblica Linn.), Food Science 9, 9, 306-307.

    -   Ihantola-Vormisto, Arja, Jari Summanen, Hannu Kankaanranta, Heikki Vuorela,
        Zaini M. Asmawi and Eeva Moilanen (1997) - Anti-inflammatory activity of extracts
        from leaves of Phyllanthus emblica, Planta Medica 63, 6, 518-524.

    -   Khopde, S.M., K. Indira Priyadarsini, H. Mohan, V.B. Gawandi, J.G. Satav, J.V.
        Yakhmi, M.M. Banavaliker, M.K. Biyani and J.P. Pittal (2001) - Characterizing the
        antioxidant activity of amla (Phyllanthus emblica) extract, Current Science 81, 2,
        185-190.

    -   Suresh, K. and D.M. Vasudevan (1994) - Augmentation of murine natural killer cell
        and antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity activities of Phyllanthus emblica, a
        new immunomodulator, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 44, 55-60.

    -   Zhang, Y.J., T. Nagao, T. Tanaka, C.R. Yang, H. Okabe and I. Kouno (2004) -
        Antiproliferative activity of the main constituents from Phyllanthus emblica,
        Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 27, 2, 251-255.


123. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS. FRUIT RIND. SUGAR
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.135
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/5
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/12
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.310
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Dabur/Williamson. p.210
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole. p.126
Animal studies
   -    J Med Food. 2005 Fall;8(3):362-8. Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) extracts
        reduce oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Rao TP, Sakaguchi
        N, Juneja LR, Wada E, Yokozawa T.

    -   J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Jul;81(2):155-60. Anti-diabetic activity of medicinal plants
        and its relationship with their antioxidant property. Sabu MC, Kuttan R.

See also Emblica officinalis FRUIT RIND. Genitourinary and Antioxidant studies


124. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS. FRUIT RIND. EYES
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/12
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.310
            -   CRC Handbook Kapoor p.175
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole. p    .126




                                                                                           49
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
In vitro studies
    -    Mol Vis. 2004 Mar 12;10:148-54. Inhibition of aldose reductase by tannoid
         principles of Emblica officinalis: implications for the prevention of sugar cataract.
         Suryanarayana P, Kumar PA, Saraswat M, Petrash JM, Reddy GB.

See also Emblica officinalis FRUIT RIND. Sugar and Antioxidant studies


125. FOENICULUM VULGARE SSP. CAPPILLACEUM VAR. VULGARE. DRIED FRUIT. APPETITE,
DIGESTION & ELIMINATION.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.147
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/86
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 7/284.
            -   BHC Vol. 2. p.147
            -   BHMA Guide. P.101-3
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.490
            -   CRC Handbook Kapoor p.189
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.175

Human
   -  The American Journal of Gastroenterology .Volume 95, Issue 9, September 2000,
      Page 2491 Foeniculum vulgare therapy in irritable bowel syndrome Hassan Amjad
      MD and H. A. Jafary MD

    -   Phytother Res. 2005 Apr;19(4):335-40. A randomized double-blind placebo-
        controlled trial of a standardized extract of Matricariae recutita, Foeniculum vulgare
        and Melissa officinalis (ColiMil) in the treatment of breastfed colicky infants. Savino
        F, Cresi F, Castagno E, Silvestro L, Oggero R

Animal studies
   -   World J Gastroenterol. 2007 Jan 28;13(4):607-11. Beneficial effects of Foeniculum
       vulgare on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Birdane FM,
       Cemek M, Birdane YO, Gülçin I, Büyükokuroğlu ME.

    -   Indian J Gastroenterol. 2000 Apr-Jun;19(2):53-6. Influence of intragastric
        perfusion of aqueous spice extracts on acid secretion in anesthetized albino rats.
        Vasudevan K, Vembar S, Veeraraghavan K, Haranath PS.

    -   Fitoterapia. 2004 Sep;75(6):557-65. Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant
        activities of the fruit of Foeniculum vulgare. Choi EM, Hwang JK.

    -   Pharmazie. 2004 Jul;59(7):561-4. Possible mechanism(s) for relaxant effects of
        Foeniculum vulgare on guinea pig tracheal chains. Boskabady MH, Khatami A,
        Nazari A.

    -   Mitra, S.K., S. Gopumadhavan, T.S. Hemavathi, T.S. Muralidhar and M.V.
        Venkataranganna (1996) - Protective effect of UL-409, a herbal formulation
        against physical and chemical factor induced gastric and duodenal ulcers in
        experimental animals, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 52, 3, 165-169.

In vitro
    -    Phytother Res. 2005 Nov;19(11):988-91. In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter
         pylori to botanical extracts used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal
         disorders. Mahady GB, Pendland SL, Stoia A, Hamill FA, Fabricant D, Dietz BM,
         Chadwick LR

    -   J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Dec 29;52(26):8255-60. Chemical compositions and
        antibacterial effects of essential oils of Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum),
        bay laurel (Laurus nobilis), Spanish lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.), and fennel
        (Foeniculum vulgare) on common foodborne pathogens. Dadalioglu I, Evrendilek
        GA.


126. FOENICULUM VULGARE SSP. CAPPILLACEUM VAR. VULGARE. DRIED FRUIT. CENTRAL
NERVOUS SYSTEM


                                                                                                 50
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.147
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/86
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 7/284.
            -   BHC Vol. 2. p.147
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.490
            -   CRC Handbook Kapoor p.189
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.175

Animal studies
   -   J Med Food. 2006 Fall;9(3):413-7. Cholinergic basis of memory-strengthening
       effect of Foeniculum vulgare Linn. Joshi H, Parle M.

    -   Fitoterapia. 2004 Sep;75(6):557-65. Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant
        activities of the fruit of Foeniculum vulgare. Choi EM, Hwang JK.

    -   Pharmazie. 2004 Jul;59(7):561-4. Possible mechanism(s) for relaxant effects of
        Foeniculum vulgare on guinea pig tracheal chains. Boskabady MH, Khatami A,
        Nazari A


127. FOENICULUM VULGARE SSP. CAPPILLACEUM VAR. VULGARE. DRIED FRUIT. IMMUNITY &
ANTIOXIDANT
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/86
            -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 7/284.
            -    BHC Vol. 2. p.147
            -    Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.175
Animal studies
   -    Fitoterapia. 2004 Sep;75(6):557-65. Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant
        activities of the fruit of Foeniculum vulgare. Choi EM, Hwang JK.

In vitro studies
    -    Phytochemistry. 2007 Jul;68(13):1805-12. Epub 2007 May 10. Phenolic glycosides
         from Foeniculum vulgare fruit and evaluation of antioxidative activity. De Marino S,
         Gala F, Borbone N, Zollo F, Vitalini S, Visioli F, Iorizzi M.

    -   Food Control. Volume 17, Issue 9, September 2006, Pages 745-752. Chemical
        constituents, antifungal and antioxidative potential of Foeniculum vulgare volatile
        oil and its acetone extract. Gurdip Singha, Sumitra Mauryaa, M.P. de Lampasonab
        and C. Catalanb

    -   Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2005 Nov-Dec;41(6):693-702. [Antioxidant properties of
        essential oils: autoxidation of essential oils from laurel and fennel and effects of
        mixing with essential oil from coriander] [Article in Russian] Misharina TA,
        Polshkov AN.

    -   J Herb Pharmacother. 2004;4(2):1-10. Antioxidant activity of the aqueous extracts
        of spicy food additives--evaluation and comparison with ascorbic acid in in-vitro
        systems. Satyanarayana S, Sushruta K, Sarma GS, Srinivas N, Subba Raju GV

    -   J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Apr 7;52(7):1890-7. Bioguided isolation and
        identification of the nonvolatile antioxidant compounds from fennel (Foeniculum
        vulgare Mill.) waste. Parejo I, Viladomat F, Bastida J, Schmeda-Hirschmann G,
        Burillo J, Codina C.

    -   Nahrung. 2003 Aug;47(4):261-4. Evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of
        certain spices in vitro: a preliminary study. Baliga MS, Jagetia GC, Rao SK, Babu K.

    -   Planta Med. 2000 Dec;66(8):687-93. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of
        Foeniculum vulgare and Crithmum maritimum essential oils. Ruberto G, Baratta
        MT, Deans SG, Dorman HJ


128. FOENICULUM VULGARE SSP. CAPPILLACEUM VAR. VULGARE. DRIED FRUIT. POSTPARTUM.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.


                                                                                           51
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
           -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.147
           -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/86
           -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 7/284.
           -   BHC Vol. 2. p.147
           -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.490
           -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.175
Review
   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 1980 Dec;2(4):337-44. Fennel and anise as estrogenic agents.
       Albert-Puleo M.

Human studies
   -  Izv Meditsinskite Inst Bulg Akad Naukite Sofia Otd Biol Meditsinski Nauki.
      1951;1:169-82. [Investigations on the effect of Foeniculum vulgare, Carum carvi,
      Anisum vulgare, Crataegus oxyacanthus, and Galga officinalis on lactation.] [Article
      in Undetermined Language] NIKOLOV P, AVRAMOV NR.

Animal studies
   -   Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1985 Jan-Mar;29(1):21-6. Effect of Foeniculum
       vulgare Mill. seed extract on the genital organs of male and female rats. Malini T,
       Vanithakumari G, Megala N, Anusya S, Devi K, Elango V.

   -   Devi, K., G. Vanithakumari, S. Anusya, N. Mekala, T. Malini and V. Elango (1985) -
       Effect of Foeniculum vulgare seed extract on mammary glands and oviducts of
       ovariectomised rats, Ancient Science of Life 5, 2, 129-132.


129. FOENICULUM VULGARE SSP. CAPPILLACEUM VAR. VULGARE. DRIED FRUIT. MENSES
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.147
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 7/284.
            -   BHC Vol. 2. p.147
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.490
            -   CRC Handbook Kapoor p.189
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.175

Review
   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 1980 Dec;2(4):337-44. Fennel and anise as estrogenic agents.
       Albert-Puleo M.

Human studies
   -  Phytomedicine. 2003;10(6-7):455-8. Antihirsutism activity of Fennel (fruits of
      Foeniculum vulgare) extract. A double-blind placebo controlled study. Javidnia K,
      Dastgheib L, Mohammadi Samani S, Nasiri A.

   -   Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2003 Feb;80(2):153-7. Comparison of fennel and
       mefenamic acid for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Namavar Jahromi B,
       Tartifizadeh A, Khabnadideh S.

Animal studies
   -   Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1985 Jan-Mar;29(1):21-6. Effect of Foeniculum
       vulgare Mill. seed extract on the genital organs of male and female rats. Malini T,
       Vanithakumari G, Megala N, Anusya S, Devi K, Elango V.

   -   Ostad, S.N., M. Soodi, M. Shariffzadeh, N. Khorshidi and H. Marzban (2001) - The
       effect of fennel essential oil on uterine contraction as a model for dysmenorrhea,
       pharmacology and toxicology study.
       [on Foeniculum vulgare Mill.]


130. GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA. ROOT. RESPIRATORY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.159
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/127
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/562
            -   WHO monographs Vol. 1/188
            -   BHMA Guide p.152


                                                                                         52
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.458.
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.194
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.220

Animal studies
   -   Int Immunopharmacol. 2006 Sep;6(9):1468-77. Epub 2006 Jun 6. Glycyrrhizin
       alleviates experimental allergic asthma in mice. Ram A, Mabalirajan U, Das M,
       Bhattacharya I, Dinda AK, Gangal SV, Ghosh B

    -   Planta Med. 2007 Mar;73(3):257-61. Epub 2007 Feb 28. In vitro and in vivo
        antiallergic effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra and its components. Shin YW, Bae EA, Lee
        B, Lee SH, Kim JA, Kim YS, Kim DH.


131. GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA. ROOT. MENTAL
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.159
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/127
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/562
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.458.
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.220

Animal studies
   -   J Med Food. 2006 Summer;9(2):281-3. Comparative brain cholinesterase-
       inhibiting activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra, Myristica fragrans, ascorbic acid, and
       metrifonate in mice. Dhingra D, Parle M, Kulkarni SK.

    -   Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2006 May;30(3):449-54. Epub 2006
        Jan 27. Antidepressant-like activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. in mouse models of
        immobility tests. Dhingra D, Sharma A.

    -   Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Volume 91, Issues 2-3, April 2004, Pages 361-365
        Memory enhancing activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra in mice Dinesh Dhingra, Milind
        Parle and S. K. Kulkarni

    -   Achliya, G.S., S.G. Wadodkar and A.K. Dorle (2004c) - Neuropharmacological
        actions of panchagavya formulation containing Emblica officinalis Gaertn. and
        Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. in mice, IJEB 42, 499-503.

    -   Achliya, G.S., S.G. Wadodkar and A.K. Dorle (2004c) - Neuropharmacological
        actions of panchagavya formulation containing Emblica officinalis Gaertn. and
        Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. in mice, IJEB 42, 499-503.

    -   Ambawade, S., V. Kasture and S.B. Kasture (2001) - Anxiolytic activity of
        Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., Journal of Natural Remedies 1, 2.

    -   Ambawade, S.D., V.S. Kasture and S.B. Kasture (2002) - Anticonvulsant activity of
        roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra, Indian Journal of Pharmacology 34, 4,
        251-255

    -   Parle, Milind. Dinesh Dhingra and S.K. Kulkarni (2004b) - Memory-strengthening
        activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra in exteroceptive and interoceptive behavioral models,
        Journal of Medicinal Food 7, 4, 462-466.


132. GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA. ROOT. DIGESTION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.159
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/127
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/562
            -   WHO monographs Vol. 1/188
            -   BHMA Guide p.152
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.458.
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.157
            -   Herbal Medicines: Newall/Anderson/Phillipson p.183
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.194


                                                                                           53
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
           -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.220

Human & animal study
   -  Chaturvedi, G.N., Mahadeo Prasad, A.K. Agrawal and J.P. Gupta (1979) - Some
      clinical and experimental studies on whole roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.
      (yashtimadhu) in peptic ulcer, Indian Medical Gazette 113, 6, 200-205.

Animal studies
   -   Therapie. 1954;9(1):68-74. [Pharmacologic study of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra
       L.) licorice and gastric ulcer.] [Article in Undetermined Language] VINCENT D.

   -   Phytomedicine. 2005 Apr;12(4):264-70. Anti-ulcer and anti-oxidant activity of
       pepticare, a herbomineral formulation. Bafna PA, Balaraman R.

   -   Journal of Ethnopharmacology . Volume 63, Issue 3, December 1998, pages 187-
       192. Evaluation of possible mechanism of anti-ulcerogenic activity of UL-409, a
       herbal preparation. M. V. Venkataranganna, S. Gopumadhavan, R. Sundaram and
       S. K. Mitra

In vitro studies
    -    Life Sci. 2002 Aug 9;71(12):1449-63. Anti-Helicobacter pylori flavonoids from
         licorice extract. Fukai T, Marumo A, Kaitou K, Kanda T, Terada S, Nomura T.


133. GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA. ROOT. IMMUNITY. ANTIOXIDANT.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.159
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/127
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/562
            -   WHO monographs Vol. 1/188
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.157
            -   Herbal Medicines: Newall/Anderson/Phillipson p.183
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.194
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.220

Human studies
   -  Indian J Med Res. 1993 Apr;98:69-74. A preliminary open trial on interferon
      stimulator (SNMC) derived from Glycyrrhiza glabra in the treatment of subacute
      hepatic failure. Acharya SK, Dasarathy S, Tandon A, Joshi YK, Tandon BN.

   -   Saxena, R.C., S.C. Misra and K.P. Bhargava (1970) - Effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra in
       traumatic inflammation following tonsillectomy, Journal of the Indian Medical
       Profession 17, 7532.

Animal studies
   -   Cancer Letters . Volume 183, Issue 1, 8 September 2002, Pages 23-30.
       Isoliquiritigenin suppresses pulmonary metastasis of mouse renal cell carcinoma
       Shoji Yamazaki, Tatuo Moritab, Hitoshi Endoc, Toshiro Hamamotoc, Masaki Babad,
       Yoshiko Joichid, Sanae Kanekod, Yoshihito Okadad, Toru Okuyama, Hoyoku
       Nishinoe and Akihiko Tokue

   -   Biofactors. 2007;29(2-3):147-57. Modulatory effect of spice extracts on iron-
       induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver. Yadav AS, Bhatnagar D

   -   Planta Med. 2007 Mar;73(3):257-61. Epub 2007 Feb 28. In vitro and in vivo
       antiallergic effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra and its components. Shin YW, Bae EA, Lee
       B, Lee SH, Kim JA, Kim YS, Kim DH.

   -   J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Jun 13;55(12):4691-7. Epub 2007 May 22. Anti-oxidant
       constituents of the roots and stolons of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Chin YW, Jung
       HA, Liu Y, Su BN, Castoro JA, Keller WJ, Pereira MA, Kinghorn AD

   -   Mol Nutr Food Res. 2006 Nov;50(11):1080-6. Hypocholesterolaemic and
       antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Linn) in rats. Visavadiya NP,
       Narasimhacharya AV.




                                                                                         54
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
    -   J Pharm Pharmacol. 2000 Feb;52(2):219-23. Protection of mitochondrial functions
        against oxidative stresses by isoflavans from Glycyrrhiza glabra. Haraguchi H,
        Yoshida N, Ishikawa H, Tamura Y, Mizutani K, Kinoshita T.

    -   Pharmacol Res. 2006 Mar;53(3):303-9. Epub 2006 Feb 3. Protective effects of
        isoliquiritigenin in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal cerebral
        ischemia in rats. Zhan C, Yang J.

    -   Phytomedicine. 2005 Apr;12(4):264-70. Anti-ulcer and anti-oxidant activity of
        pepticare, a herbomineral formulation. Bafna PA, Balaraman R.

    -   Kacker, Sandeep, Noopur Shankar, Ashok Kumar, R.S. Saxena, K.K. Saxena, S.
        Lata and V.K. Srivastava (1998) - Effect of water soluble portion of the alcoholic
        extract of roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. on acute inflammation, Indian Journal of
        Pharmacology 30, 2, 114-115 (abstract No. 22).


In vitro
    -    J Altern Complement Med. 2007 Jan-Feb;13(1):103-9. Antioxidant capacity of 55
         medicinal herbs traditionally used to treat the urinary system: a comparison using
         a sequential three-solvent extraction process. Wojcikowski K, Stevenson L, Leach
         D, Wohlmuth H, Gobe G.

    -   Phytochemistry. 2003 May;63(1):97-104. Comparative antioxidant activity of
        individual herbal components used in Ayurvedic medicine. Naik GH, Priyadarsini KI,
        Satav JG, Banavalikar MM, Sohoni DP, Biyani MK, Mohan H.

    -   Badam, L. (1994) - In vitro studies on the effect of glycyrrhizin from Indian
        Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. on some RNA and DNA viruses, Indian Journal of
        Pharmacology 26, 3, 194-199.

    -   Hrelia, P., C. Fimognari, F. Maffei, F. Vigagni and G. Cantelli-Forti (1996) -
        Potential antimutagenic activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract, Phytotherapy
        Research 10 (Suppl. 1), 5101- 5103


    -   Shetty, T.K., J.G. Satav and C.K.K. Nair (2002) - Protection of DNA and
        microsomal membranes in vitro by Glycyrrhiza glabra L. against gamma
        irradiation, Phytotherapy Research 16, 6, 576-578.

    -   Zani, F. et al. (1993) - Inhibition of mutagenicity in Salmonella typhi murium by
        Glycyrrhiza glabra extract, glycyrrhizinic acid, 18\alpha- and 18\beta-glycyrrhetinic
        acids, Planta Medica 59, 502.


134. GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA. ROOT. ENERGY.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.159
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/127
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/562
            -   WHO monographs Vol. 1/188
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.220

Animal studies
   -   Food and Chemical Toxicology.Volume 40, Issue 10, October 2002, Pages 1525-
       1527. Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and the adrenal-kidney-pituitary axis in rats A.
       A. Al-Qarawi, H. A. Abdel-Rahman, B. H. Aliand S. A. El Mougy

    -   J Pharm Pharmacol. 2000 Feb;52(2):219-23. Protection of mitochondrial functions
        against oxidative stresses by isoflavans from Glycyrrhiza glabra. Haraguchi H,
        Yoshida N, Ishikawa H, Tamura Y, Mizutani K, Kinoshita T.


135. GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA. ROOT. GENITOURINARY.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.159


                                                                                            55
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/127
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/562
            -   WHO monographs Vol. 1/188
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.458.
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.194
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.220

Human study
   -  Gopumadhavan, S., M.V. Venkataranganna, Mohamed Rafiq, S.J. Seshadri and
      S.K. Mitra (2002) - Uterotrophic effect of Menotab (M-3119): a preclinical study,
      Indian Journal of Pharmacology 34, 237-243

Animal studies
   -   Fitoterapia. 2003 Dec;74(7-8):624-9. Preliminary evaluation of antinephritis and
       radical scavenging activities of glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra. Fukai T, Satoh K,
       Nomura T, Sakagami H

    -   Nahrung. 1991;35(8):799-806. Metabolic effects of licorice roots (Glycyrrhiza
        glabra) on lipid distribution pattern, liver and renal functions of albino rats. MS.
        Sitohy MZ, el-Massry RA, el-Saadany SS, Labib SM.
    -
        Nutrition . Volume 20, Issue 1, January 2004, Pages 78-82. Nutrigenomics Special
        Issue Elucidating the role of nutraceuticals in overexpressing antiapoptotic proteins
        in prostate cancer. Mohamed M. Rafi PhD*

    -   Zentralbl Veterinarmed A. 1964 Jul;11(5):476-82. Estrogenic substances from
        Egyptian Glycyrrhiza glabra. II. Beta-sitosterol as an estrogenic principle. Zayed
        SM, Hassan A, Elghamry MI.

    -   Z Naturforsch [C]. 2005 Jul-Aug;60(7-8):649-56. Binding of phytoestrogens to rat
        uterine estrogen receptors and human sex hormone-binding globulins. Hillerns PI,
        Zu Y, Fu YJ, Wink M.

In vitro studies
    -    Eur Urol. 2003 May;43(5):580-6. Isoliquiritigenin inhibits the growth of prostate
         cancer. Kanazawa M, Satomi Y, Mizutani Y, Ukimura O, Kawauchi A, Sakai T, Baba
         M, Okuyama T, Nishino H, Miki T.


136. GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA. ROOT. JOINTS
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.159
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/562
            -   WHO monographs Vol. 1/188
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.194
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.220

Animal studies
   -   Indian J Psychol. 1959 Jan;3(1):39-47. Antiarthritic activity of glycyrrhiza glabra
       Linn. GUJRAL ML, SAREEN KN, TANGRI KK, ROY AK, GUPTA GP, AMMA MK.

    -   Gujral, M.L., K.N. Sareen, K.K. Tangri, A.K. Roy, G.P. Gupta and M.K.P. Amma
        (1959) - Antiarthritic effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., Indian Journal of
        Physiology and Pharmacology 3, 1, 39-47.

    -   Siddiqui, H.H. (1965) - Effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Moschus moschiferus on
        arthritis induced in rats by mycobacterial adjuvant, Indian Journal of Pharmacy 27,
        3, 80-81.


137. GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA. ROOT. CARDIOVASCULAR.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.159
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/127
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/562
            -   WHO monographs Vol. 1/188


                                                                                               56
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
           -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.458.
           -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.157
           -   Herbal Medicines: Newall/Anderson/Phillipson p.183
           -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.220

Review
   -   Phytomedicine. 2001 Sep;8(5):401-9. Synergy and other interactions in
       phytomedicines. Williamson EM.

Animal studies
   -   Mol Nutr Food Res. 2006 Nov;50(11):1080-6. Hypocholesterolaemic and
       antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Linn) in rats. Visavadiya NP,
       Narasimhacharya AV.

   -   Nahrung. 1991;35(8):799-806. Metabolic effects of licorice roots (Glycyrrhiza
       glabra) on lipid distribution pattern, liver and renal functions of albino rats. MS.
       Sitohy MZ, el-Massry RA, el-Saadany SS, Labib SM

   -   Pharmacol Res. 2006 Mar;53(3):303-9. Epub 2006 Feb 3. Protective effects of
       isoliquiritigenin in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal cerebral
       ischemia in rats. Zhan C, Yang J.

   -   Bull Exp Biol Med. 2005 Aug;140(2):197-200. Effect of licorice root on peripheral
       blood indexes upon vibration exposure. Adamyan TI, Gevorkyan ES, Minasyan SM,
       Oganesyan KR, Kirakosyan KA. Thromb Res. 2003;112(1-2):93-8. Antithrombotic
       effect of Glycyrrhizin, a plant-derived thrombin inhibitor. Mendes-Silva W, Assafim
       M, Ruta B, Monteiro RQ, Guimarães JA, Zingali RB.

   -   Bull Exp Biol Med. 2002 Aug;134(2):135-6. Antioxidant effect of licorice root on
       blood catalase activity in vibration stress. Oganesyan KR.

   -   Nutrition. Volume 18, Issue 3, March 2002, Pages 268-273. Antiatherosclerotic
       effects of licorice extract supplementation on hypercholesterolemic patients:
       increased resistance of LDL to atherogenic modifications, reduced plasma lipid
       levels, and decreased systolic blood pressure. Bianca Fuhrman DSca, Nina Volkova
       MSca, Marielle Kaplan DSca, Dita Presser MSca, Judith Attias MSca, Tony Hayek
       MDa and Michael Aviram DSc


138. GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA. ROOT. SKIN.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.159
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/127
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/562
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology Gogte. p.458.
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.220

Human study
   -  Saxena, R.C., R.N. Gupta, G.P. Gupta and K.P. Bhargava (1965) - A clinical trial of
      Glycyrrhiza glabra in pemphigus, Journal of the Indian Medical Profession 12, 9,
      5575-5576.

Animal studies
   -   Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. 2003 Mar-Apr;16(2):84-90. Anti-acne effects of
       Oriental herb extracts: a novel screening method to select anti-acne agents. Nam
       C, Kim S, Sim Y, Chang I.


139. GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA. ROOT. GENERAL.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/127
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/562
            -   WHO monographs Vol. 1/188
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine. Pole p.220

Review:


                                                                                              57
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -   Phytomedicine. 2001 Sep;8(5):401-9. Synergy and other interactions in
       phytomedicines. Williamson EM.

Human & animal
   -  Cantelli-Forti G, Maffei F, Hrelia P, Bugamelli F, Bernadi M, D’Intino P, Maranesi M,
      & Raggi MM. Interaction of licorice on glycyrrhizin pharmacokinetics. Environ.
      Health Perspect. 102 (Suppl. 9): 65-68, 1994.


140. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE. LEAF. DIGESTION & WEIGHT BALANCE
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.: Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol.
7/265


141. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE. LEAF. IMMUNITRY & CELL STABILITY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc: Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol.
7/265


142. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE. LEAF. URINARY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc. : Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol.
7/265


143. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE. LEAF. EYES
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.: Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol.
7/265


144. HEMIDESMUS INDICUS. ROOT. BLOOD & SKIN
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.292
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1/107
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1394
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.512
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.203i
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.264

Animal studies
   -   Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Volume 85, Issue 1, March 2003, Pages 33-41.
       Modulation of biochemical parameters by Hemidesmus indicus in cumene
       hydroperoxide-induced murine skin: possible role in protection against free
       radicals-induced cutaneous oxidatve stress and tumor promotion. Sarwat Sultana,
       Naghma Khan, Sonia Sharma and Aftab Alam

   -   Indian J Exp Biol. 2003 Dec;41(12):1416-23. Inhibition of cutaneous oxidative
       stress and two-stage skin carcinogenesis by Hemidesmus indicus (L.) in Swiss
       albino mice. Sultana S, Alam A, Khan N, Sharma S.

   -   Toxicon. 1998 Oct;36(10):1423-31. Adjuvant effects and antiserum action
       potentiation by a (herbal) compound 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid isolated
       from the root extract of the Indian medicinal plant 'sarsaparilla' (Hemidesmus
       indicus R. Br.). Alam MI, Gomes A.

   -   Toxicon. 1994 Dec;32(12):1551-7. Isolation, purification and partial
       characterization of viper venom inhibiting factor from the root extract of the Indian
       medicinal plant sarsaparilla (Hemidesmus indicus R. Br.). Alam MI, Auddy B,
       Gomes A

   -   Toxicon, Volume 36, Issue 1, 1 January 1998, Pages 207-215 Viper venom-
       induced inflammation and inhibition of free radical formation by pure compound
       (2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid) isolated and purified from anantamul
       (Hemidesmus indicus R.Br) root extract. M.I. Alam and A. Gomes




                                                                                           58
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
    -   Gupta PN. Anti-leprotic action of an extract from “Anantamul” (Hemidesmus
        indicus R.Br.). Lepr India 1981;53(3);354-359

In vitro
    -    Jain, A. and E. Basal (2003) - Inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes-induced
         mediators of inflammation by Indian herbs, Phytomedicine 10, 1, 34-38.


145. HEMIDESMUS INDICUS. ROOT. RESPIRATORY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.292
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1/107
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1394
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.512
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.203


146. HEMIDESMUS INDICUS. ROOT. GENITOURINARY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.292
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1394
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.512
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.203i
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.264

Animal studies
   -   Phytother Res. 2004 Jul;18(7):511-5. Enhancement in the absorption of water and
       electrolytes from rat intestine by Hemidesmus indicus R. Br. root (water extract).
       Evans DA, Rajasekharan S, Subramoniam A.

    -   Nephrology (Carlton). 2004 Jun;9(3):142-52. Renoprotective effect of
        Hemidesmus indicus, a herbal drug used in gentamicin-induced renal toxicity.
        Kotnis MS, Patel P, Menon SN, Sane RT.


147. HEMIDESMUS INDICUS. ROOT. ANTIOXIDANT. IMMUNITY
Animal studies
   -   Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Volume 85, Issue 1, March 2003, Pages 33-41.
       Modulation of biochemical parameters by Hemidesmus indicus in cumene
       hydroperoxide-induced murine skin: possible role in protection against free
       radicals-induced cutaneous oxidatve stress and tumor promotion. Sarwat Sultana,
       Naghma Khan, Sonia Sharma and Aftab Alam

    -   Indian J Exp Biol. 2003 Dec;41(12):1416-23. Inhibition of cutaneous oxidative
        stress and two-stage skin carcinogenesis by Hemidesmus indicus (L.) in Swiss
        albino mice. Sultana S, Alam A, Khan N, Sharma S.

    -   Toxicon . Volume 36, Issue 1, 1 January 1998, Pages 207-215 Viper venom-
        induced inflammation and inhibition of free radical formation by pure compound
        (2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid) isolated and purified from anantamul
        (Hemidesmus indicus R.Br) root extract M.I. Alam and A. Gomes

    -   Journal of Ethnopharmacology . Volume 18, Issue 2, November 1986, Pages 133-
        141. Immunomodulating agents of plant origin. I: Preliminary screening. C. K.
        Atal, M. L. Sharma, A. Kaul and A. Khajuria

    -   Prabakan, M., R. Anandan and T. Devaki (2000) - Protective effect of Hemidesmus
        indicus against rifampicin and isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, Fitoterapia
        71, 1, 55-59

In vitro studies
    -    Journal of Ethnopharmacology . Volume 87, Issues 2-3, August 2003, Pages 187-
         19. In vitro antioxidant and antithrombotic activity of Hemidesmus indicus (L)
         R.Br. N. K. Mary, C. R. Achuthan, B. H. Babu and J. Padikkala




                                                                                          59
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
    -    Phytomedicine. 2002 Mar;9(2):153-60. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of root
         bark of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br. (Anantmul). Ravishankara MN, Shrivastava N,
         Padh H, Rajani M


148. HEMIDESMUS INDICUS. ROOT. DIGESTION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -  Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.292
            -  The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1/107
            -  Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1394
            -  Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.512
            -  CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.203i
            -  Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.264

Animal studies
   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Feb;84(2-3):149-56. Biochemical studies on the anti-
       ulcerogenic potential of Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. var. indicus. Anoop A,
       Jegadeesan M.

    -    Indian J Exp Biol. 2003 Apr;41(4):363-6. Antidiarrhoeal effects of methanolic root
         extract of Hemidesmus indicus (Indian sarsaparilla)--an in vitro and in vivo study.
         Das S, Prakash R, Devaraj SN.

    -    Phytother Res. 2004 Jul;18(7):511-5. Enhancement in the absorption of water and
         electrolytes from rat intestine by Hemidesmus indicus R. Br. root (water extract).
         Evans DA, Rajasekharan S, Subramoniam A.

In vitro
    -    Phytother Res. 2006 May;20(5):416-21. Antienterobacterial activity of
         Hemidesmus indicus R. Br. root extract. Das S, Devaraj SN.


149. HYSSOPUS OFFICINALIS. WHOLE PLANT. RESPIRATORY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
   -    Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants. Khare CP, p. 258
   -    CRC Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants, Kapoor p.212


150. HYSSOPUS OFFICINALIS. WHOLE PLANT. LIVER HEALTH
Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
   -    Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants. Khare CP, p. 258
   -    CRC Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants, Kapoor p.212


151. INULA RACEMOSA. ROOT. RESPIRATORY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.168
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:4/102
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.429.
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.248

Animal
   -   Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1999 Apr;43(2):235-41. Evaluation of antiallergic
       activity (type I hypersensitivity) of Inula racemosa in rats.Srivastava S, Gupta PP,
       Prasad R, Dixit KS, Palit G, Ali B, Misra G, Saxena


152. INULA RACEMOSA. ROOT. CARDIOVASCULAR
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.168
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:4/102
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.429.
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.248

Review




                                                                                          60
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -   Altern Med Rev. 1998 Dec;3(6):422-31. Botanical influences on cardiovascular
       disease. Miller AL.

Human studies
   -  Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1984 Jan-Mar;28(1):73-5. Beneficial effect of Inula
      racemosa (pushkarmoola) in angina pectoris: a preliminary report.Tripathi SN,
      Upadhyaya BN, Gupta VK.

Animal
   -   J Herb Pharmacother. 2006;6(3-4):81-8. Cardiac activity of isolated constituents of
       Inula racemosa. Lokhande PD, Dhaware BS, Jagdale SC, Chabukswar AR,
       Mulkalwar SA.

   -   Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 23, Issue 1, May-June 1988, Pages 3-9
       Assessment of the adrenergic beta-blocking activity of inula racemosa. Y. B.
       Tripathia, Pratibha Tripathib and B. N. Upadhyayb

153. INULA RACEMOSA. ROOT. DIGESTION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.168
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:4/102
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.429.
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.248

Review
   -   Altern Med Rev. 2000 Apr;5(2):109-32. Insulin resistance: lifestyle and nutritional
       interventions. Kelly GS.

Animal
   -   Indian J Exp Biol. 1995 Sep;33(9):686-9. Assessment of endocrine response of
       Inula racemosa in relation to glucose homeostasis in rats. Tripathi YB, Chaturvedi
       P.

   -   Pharmazie. 2004 Nov;59(11):876-8. Hypoglycaemic effects of some plant extracts
       are possibly mediated through inhibition in corticosteroid concentration.Gholap S,
       Kar A


154. INULA RACEMOSA. ROOT. REPRODUCTION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
   -    Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.429.
   -    Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.248


155. IPOMOEA DIGITATA. ROOT. ENERGY & WEIGHT GAIN.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc: Indian Materia Medica – 1/686


156. IPOMOEA DIGITATA. ROOT. LIVEDR & SPLEEN.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc: Indian Materia Medica – 1/686


157. IPOMOEA DIGITATA. ROOT. REPRODUCTION.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc: Indian Materia Medica – 1/686


158. IPOMOEA TURPETHUM. ROOT. DIGESTION.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.280
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:3/213
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/462
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.384.
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.279
            -   A Modern Herbal: Grieve/Leyel p.823




                                                                                        61
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
            -   Indian Drugs Research Association (IDRA), Publication No. 2, Poona.
                Pendse, G.S. and M.A. Iyengar (1961) - Studies in Indian medicinal plants
                used in Ayurveda – Cathartics, III, V, 196 p.

Human studies
   -  Hamdard Medicus, 2004 (Vol 47) (No 2) 69-72. A Clinical study on the role of Qurs
      Deedan and its efficacy in Ascaris lumbricoides. Nusrat Parvee, Shagufta Aleem,
      Tabassum Latafat

    -   Journal of Pain and Symptom Management Volume 16, Issue 4, October 1998,
        Pages 240-244. Managing Morphine-Induced Constipation: A Controlled
        Comparison of an Ayurvedic Formulation and Senna. P. R. Ramesh, K. Suresh
        Kumar, M. R. Rajagopal, P. Balachandran and P. K. Warrier


159. IPOMOEA TURPETHUM. ROOT. IMMUNITY & ANTIOXIDANT
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/462
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.384.
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.279

Animal studies
   -   Chemico-Biological Interractions. Volume 168, Issue 3, 20 July, Pages 229-236.
       Protective effect of Operculina turpethum against 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene
       induced oxidative stress with reference to breast cancer in experimental rats.
       Anbuselvam C, Vijayavel K, Balasubramanian MP

    -   Khare, A.K., M.C. Srivastava, J.P. Tewari, J.N. Puri, S. Singh and N.A. Ansari
        (1982b) - A preliminary study of anti-inflammatory activity of Ipomoea turpethum
        (nishoth), Indian Drugs 19, 6, 224-228.

In vitro
    -    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences Vol 5(5): 597-600, 2002. Antibacterial and
         Cytotoxic Activities of Extracts and Isolated Compounds of Ipomoea turpethum.
         Md.Harunor Rashid, MA Gafur, Md. Golam Sadik and Md. Aziz Abdur Rahman

    -   Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences Vol 5(9): 968-969, 2002. Biological
        Activities of a New Acrylamide Derivative from Ipomoea turpethum. Md. Harun-ur-
        Rashid, M.A. Gafur, Md. Golam Sadik and Md. Aziz Abdur Rahman

    -   Food chemistry. 2007, vik,102 n 3,pp 938-953(16 page(s) (article) (1 p.1/4).
        Systematic evaluation of natural phnolic antioxidants from medicinal plants.
        Surveswaran Siddharthan, Cai Yi-Zhong; Corke Harold; Mei Sun

    -   Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 9 (12): 2261-2266. Isolation and biological
        Activities of Chemical Constituents from the stems of Ipomoea turpethum. Md.
        Harun-Or-Rashid, Nurul Karim, MA Gafur, Md. Golam Sadik, ASM Anisuzzaman,
        Noaki Sugimoto and ATM Zafrul Azam


160. IPOMOEA TURPETHUM. ROOT. SKIN
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:3/213
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/462
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.384.
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.279

See also the Immunity and Antioxidant studies


161. LEPTADENIA RETICULATE. ROOT & WHOLE PLANT. NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.: Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol.
2/270


162. LEPTADENIA RETICULATE. ROOT & WHOLE PLANT. NASAL


                                                                                          62
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.: Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol.
2/270


163. LEPTADENIA RETICULATE. ROOT & WHOLE PLANT. EYES.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.: Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol.
2/270


164. LEPTADENIA RETICULATE. ROOT & WHOLE PLANT. EARS.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.: Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol.
2/270


165. LEPTADENIA RETICULATE. ROOT & WHOLE PLANT. SKIN.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.: Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol.
2/270


166. LEPTADENIA RETICULATE. ROOT & WHOLE PLANT. REPRODUCTION.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.: Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol.
2/270


167. MESUA FERREA. FLOWER. MENSES & BLOOD
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.211
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:2/118
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/280
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.407

Human & animal
   -  Indian J Exp Biol. 1978 Aug;16(8):932-3. Screening of Mesua ferrea (Nagkesar)
      for estrogenic & progestational activity in human & experimental models. Meherji
      PK, Shetye TA, Munshi SR, Vaidya RA, Antarkar DS, Koppikar S, Devi PK.

    -   Fitoterapia. . Volume 71, Issue 1, 1 February 2000, Pages 41-45. Efficacy of an
        indigenous formulation in patients with bleeding piles: a preliminary clinical study.
        Prakash Paranjp, Pralhad Patki and Nishikant Joshi


168. MESUA FERREA. FLOWER. ANTIBACTERIAL.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:2/118
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/280
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.407

In vitro
    -    Indian J Exp Biol. 2005 Jun;43(6):566-8. Effect of Mesua ferrea Linn. flower
         extract on Salmonella. Mazumder R, Dastidar SG, Basu SP, Mazumder A.

    -   Phytother Res. 2004 Oct;18(10):824-6. Antibacterial potentiality of Mesua ferrea
        Linn. flowers. Mazumder R, Dastidar SG, Basu SP, Mazumder A, Singh SK.

    -   Phytochemistry. Volume 65, Issue 21, November 2004, Pages 2867-2879. 4-
        Alkyl- and 4-phenylcoumarins from Mesua ferrea as promising multidrug resistant
        antibacterials. Luisella Verottaa, , Erminio Lovaglioa, Giovanni Vidarib, Paola Vita
        Finzib, Maria Grazia Neric, Alessandro Raimondic, Silvia Parapinic, Donatella
        Taramellic, Antonella Rivad and Ezio Bombardellid


169. MIMOSA PUDICA. WHOLE PLANT. SKIN & BLOOD
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.304
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:2/98


                                                                                           63
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
           -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 2/369
           -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.711

Human studies
   -  Fitoterapia. Volume 70, Issue 1, 1 February 1999, Pages 10-14 Malay herbal
      medicine in Gemencheh, Negri Sembilan, Malaysia . H. C. Ong* and J. Norzalina

Animal study
   -   Mahanta, Monimala and Ashis Kumar Mukherjee (2001) - Neutralisation of
       lethality, myotoxicity and toxic enzymes of Naja kaouthia venom by Mimosa pudica
       root extracts, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 75, 1, 55-60.

In vitro
    -    Hyaluronidase and protease activities from Indian snake venoms: neutralization by
         Mimosa pudica root extract . K. S. Girish, H. P. Mohanakumari, S. Nagaraju, B. S.
         Vishwanath and K. Kemparaju


170. MIMOSA PUDICA. WHOLE PLANT. GENITOURINARY.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.304
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:2/98
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 2/369
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.711

  Human study
   -  Vaidya, Gunvanti H. and U.K. Sheth (1986) - Mimosa pudica (Linn.), its medicinal
      value and pilot clinical use in patients with menorrhagia, Ancient Science of Life 5,
      3, 156-160.

   -   Fitoterapia. Volume 70, Issue 1, 1 February 1999, Pages 10-14 Malay herbal
       medicine in Gemencheh, Negri Sembilan, Malaysia . H. C. Ong* and J. Norzalina

Animal studies
   -   Pillai, N.R., R. Uma, R. Thyagarajan and P.M. Venugopal (1978) - Preliminary
       studies on the diuretic activity of Mimosa pudica Linn in experimental animals,
       JRIM 13, 2, 114-117.

   -   Valsala, R. and P.R. Karpagaganapathy (2002) - Effect of Mimosa pudica root
       powder on oestrous cycle and ovulation in cycling female albino rat, Rattus
       norvegicus, Phytotherapy research 16, 2, 190-192.


171. MORINGA OLEIFERA. BARK. LIVER HEALTH
Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1, p.431ff
   -    Indian Medicinal Plants. Pranjpe, p. 137

Individual study:
    -   Pari L, Kumar NA: Hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera on antitubercular
        drug-induced liver damage in rats. J Med Food (United States), Fall 2002, 5(3)
        p171-7


172. MUCUNA PRURIENS. SEED. REPRODUCTION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.261
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:3/23
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/200
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.329
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.190
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.236
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.206
            -
Review




                                                                                            64
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
    -   Tharakan, Binu and Bala V. Manyam (2005) - Botanical therapies in sexual
        dysfunction, Phytotherapy Research 19, 6, 457-463.

Animal studies
   -   Fitoterapia 1996, vol. 67, no1, pp. 53-58 (11 ref.) Sexual function improving effect
       of Mucuna pruriens in sexually normal male rats. AMIN K. M. Y. ; KHAN M. N. ;
       ZILLUR-REHMAN S. ; KHAN N. A.

    -   Phytotheraphy research Volume 16, Issue 6 , Pages 534 – 538. Effect of the
        alcohol extract of the seeds of Mucuna pruriens on free radicals and oxidative
        stress in albino rats. Yamini B. Tripathi *, Anil K. Upadhyay

    -   Anantha Kumar, K.V., K.K. Srinivasan, T. Shanbhag and S.G. Rao (1994) -
        Aphrodisiac activity of the seeds of Mucuna pruriens, Indian Drugs 31, 7, 321-327.

    -   Kumar, Anantha K.V., K.K. Srinivasan, T. Shanbhag and G.S. Rao (1994) -
        Aphrodisiac activity of Mucuna pruriens, Indian Drugs 31, 321-327.

    -   Rao, M.M.R. and S.R. Parakh (1978) -Effects of some indigenous drugs on the
        sexual behaviour of male rats, Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 40, 6,
        236-237 (abstract of a paper presented at the XXX Indian Pharmaceutical
        Congress, held at Calcutta, 26-28 December 1978).

    -   Saksena, S. and V.K. Dixit (1987) - Role of total alkaloids of Mucuna pruriens
        Baker in spermatogenesis in albino rats, Indian Journal of Natural Products 3, 3-
        37.

    -   Senthil Kumar, R., G. Sathyanarayanan and M. Jayaraj (2001) - Testicular toxicity
        induced by chronic endosulfan and cure with Mucuna pruriens - a biochemical
        study, in: J. Joseph Thas (Ed.), 85 (abstract).

See also the Antioxidant & Immunity studies


173. MUCUNA PRURIENS. SEED. MENSES & MENOPAUSE
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.261
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:3/23
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/200
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.329
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.190
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.236
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.206

See also the Antioxidant & Immunity studies


174. MUCUNA PRURIENS. SEED. NERVOUS SYSTEM
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.261
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:3/23
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/200
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.329
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.190
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.236
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.206

Reviews
   -   Oliver-Bever, B. (1983a) - Medicinal plants in tropical West Africa, II. Plants acting
       on the nervous system, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 7, 1-93.

Human studies
   -  Mucuna pruriens proves more effective than L-DOPA in Parkinson's disease animal
      modelHussain, Ghazala and Bala V. Manyam (1997) - Mucuna pruriens proves
      more effective then l-DOPA in Parkinson's disease animal model, Phytotherapy
      Research 11, 6, 419-423.


                                                                                            65
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc

    -   Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 200475:1672-77. Mucuna
        pruriens in Parkinson’s disease: a double blind clinical and pharmacological study.
        R Katzenschlager, A Evans, A Manson, P N Patsalos, N Ratnaraj H Watt, L
        Timmermann, R Van der Giessen and A J Lees.

    -   Inter Science Volume 5, Issue 1 , Pages 47 – 48. Paralysis agitans and levodopa
        in Ayurveda: Ancient Indian medical treatise. Dr. Bala V. Manyam

    -   J..Neurol.Sci. 2000 Jun 15 176(2), 124-7. Association of L-DOPA with recovery
        following Ayurveda medication in Parkinson's disease. Nagashayana N,
        Sankarankutty P, Nampoothiri MR, Mohan PK, Mohanakumar KP.

    -   Phytotherapy Research Volume 18, Issue 2 , Pages 97 – 101. Manyam, Bala V.,
        Muralikrishnan Dhanasekaran and Theodore A. Hare (2004) - Effect of
        antiparkinson drug HP-200 (Mucuna pruriens) on the central monoaminergic
        neurotransmitters.

    -   Vaidya, A.B., T.G. Rajgopalan, N.A. Mankodi et al. (1978) - Treatment of
        Parkinson's disease with the cowhage plant - Mucuna pruriens Bak., Neurology
        (India) 26, 4, 171-176.

    -   Nath, C. et al. (1981) - Study of antiparkinson activity of seed of Mucuna prurita
        Hook., Indian Journal of Pharmacology 13, 94.

Animal studies
   -   Ratnasooriya, W.D., E.Y.K. Lokupitiya and M.G. Dharmasiri (1999) - Analgesia and
       sedation induced by Mucuna prurita in rats, Med. Sci. Res. 27, 403-406.

    -   Mahajani, S.S., V.J. Doshi, K.M. Parikh and B.V. Manyam (1996) - Bioavailability of
        l-DOPA from HP-200 - a formulation of seed powder of Mucuna pruriens (Bak.): a
        pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study, Phytotherapy Research 10, 3, 254-
        256

    -   Iauk, L., E.M. Galati, S. Kirjavainen, A.M. Forestieri and A. Trovato (1993) -
        Analgesic and antipyretic effects of Mucuna pruriens, International Journal of
        Pharmacology 31, 3, 213-216.

See also the Antioxidant & Immunity studies


175. MUCUNA PRURIENS. SEED. ANTIOXIDANT & IMMUNITY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1/200
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.190

Review
   -   Tripathi, Y.B. (1998) - Free radicals in Ayurveda, Ancient Acience of Life 17, 3,
       158-168.

Animal studies
   -   Phytotheraphy research Volume 16, Issue 6 , Pages 534 – 538. Effect of the
       alcohol extract of the seeds of Mucuna pruriens on free radicals and oxidative
       stress in albino rats. Yamini B. Tripathi *, Anil K. Upadhyay

    -   Tripathi, Yamini B. and Anil K. Upadhyay (2002) - Effect of the alcohol extract of
        the seeds of Mucuna pruriens on free radicals and oxidative stress in albino rats,
        Phytotherapy Research 16, 6, 534-538.

In vitro
    -    Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2007 Feb;44(1):56-60. Extraction of bioactive principles
         from Mucuna pruriens seeds. Misra L, Wagner H.

    -   Hishikar, R., S. Shastry, S. Shinde and S.S. Gupta (1981) - Preliminary
        phytochemical and anti-inflammatory activity of seeds of Mucuna pruriens, Indian
        Journal of Pharmacology 13, 1, 97-98.


                                                                                             66
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc

   -   Tripathi, Yamini B. and Anil K. Upadhyay (2000) - Antioxidant property of Mucuna
       pruriens Linn., Current Science 80, 11, 1377-1378.


176. MYRISTICA FRAGRANS. SEEDS. RESPIRATORY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4, p 213 ff
   -    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1 Vol 1, p55
   -    Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants. Khare CP, p. 321
   -    Indian Medicinal Plants. Pranjpe, p. 106
   -    Indian Materia Medica. Nadkani


177. MYRISTICA FRAGRANS. SEEDS. GASTROINTESTINAL
Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4, p 213 ff
   -    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1 Vol 1, p55
   -    Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants. Khare CP, p. 321
   -    Indian Medicinal Plants. Pranjpe, p. 106
   -    Indian Materia Medica. Nadkani

Animal studies:
   -   Morita T et al: Hepatoprotective effect of myristicin from nutmeg (Myristica
       fragrans) on lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine-induced liver injury.
       J Agric Food Chem (United States), Mar 12 2003, 51(6) p1560-5
   -   Jan M, Faqir F, Hamida, et al.: Comparison of effects of extract of Myristica
       fragrans and verapamil on the volume and acidity of carbachol induced gastric
       secretion in fasting rabbits. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad (Pakistan), Apr-Jun 2005,
       17(2) p69-71
   -   Grover JK, Khandkar S, Vats V, et al.: Pharmacological studies on Myristica
       fragrans--antidiarrheal, hypnotic, analgesic and hemodynamic (blood pressure)
       parameters. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol (Spain), Dec 2002, 24(10) p675-80


178. NARDOSTACHYS JATAMANSI. RHIZOME. NERVOUS SYSTEM
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 7/135
   -    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1 Vol 1, p51
   -    Indian Medicinal Plants. Pranjpe, p. 104
   -    Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants. Khare CP, p. 323

Animal studies
   -   Joshi H, Parle M: Nardostachys jatamansi improves learning and memory in
       mice. J Med Food (United States), Spring 2006, 9(1) p113-8
   -   Ahmad M, Yousuf S, Khan MB, et al.: Attenuation by Nardostachys jatamansi of
       6-hydroxydopamine-induced parkinsonism in rats: behavioral, neurochemical, and
       immunohistochemical studies. Pharmacol Biochem Behav (United States), Jan
       2006, 83(1) p150-60
   -   Rao VS, Rao A, Karanth KS: Anticonvulsant and neurotoxicity profile of
       Nardostachys jatamansi in rats. J Ethnopharmacol (Ireland), Dec 1 2005,
       102(3) p351-6
   -   Salim S, Ahmad M, Zafar KS, et al.: Protective effect of Nardostachys jatamansi
       in rat cerebral ischemia. Pharmacol Biochem Behav (United States), Jan 2003,
       74(2) p481-6
   -   Rucker G, Tautges J, Sieck A, et al.: [Isolation and pharmacodynamic activity of
       the sesquiterpene valeranone from Nardostachys jatamansi DC].
       Arzneimittelforschung (Germany, West), 1978, 28(1) p7-13


178A. NARDOSTACHYS JATAMANSI. RHIZOME. ANTIOXIDANT
Animal studies
   -   Subashini R, Ragavendran B, Gnanapragasam A, et al.: Biochemical study on the
       protective potential of Nardostachys jatamansi extract on lipid profile and lipid
       metabolizing enzymes in doxorubicin intoxicated rats. Pharmazie (Germany), May
       2007, 62(5) p382-7


                                                                                       67
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -     Subashini R, Yogeeta S, Gnanapragasam A, et al.: Protective effect of
         Nardostachys jatamansi on oxidative injury and cellular abnormalities during
         doxorubicin-induced cardiac damage in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol (England), Feb
         2006, 58(2) p257-62
   -     Ahmad M, Yousuf S, Khan MB, et al.: Attenuation by Nardostachys jatamansi of
         6-hydroxydopamine-induced parkinsonism in rats: behavioral, neurochemical, and
         immunohistochemical studies. Pharmacol Biochem Behav (United States), Jan
         2006, 83(1) p150-60
   -     Salim S, Ahmad M, Zafar KS, et al.: Protective effect of Nardostachys jatamansi
         in rat cerebral ischemia. Pharmacol Biochem Behav (United States), Jan 2003,
         74(2) p481-6
   -     Tripathy YB et al: Antilipid peroxidative property of Nardostachys jatamansi. Ind J
         Exp Biol 34, 1150-1151, 1996


179. NARDOSTACHYS JATAMANSI. RHIZOME. DIGESTION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 7/135


180. NARDOSTACHYS JATAMANSI. RHIZOME. LIVER
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 7/135


181. NARDOSTACHYS JATAMANSI. RHIZOME. GENITOURINARY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 7/135


182. NARDOSTACHYS JATAMANSI. RHIZOME. RESPIRATORY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 7/135


183. NARDOSTACHYS JATAMANSI. RHIZOME. HAIR
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 7/135


184. NARDOSTACHYS JATAMANSI. RHIZOME. SKIN
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 7/135


185. NARDOSTACHYS JATAMANSI. RHIZOME. HEART
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 7/135


186. NELUMBO NUCIFERA. FLOWER. MENTAL.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4/252
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.555
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.241
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole. p.222


187. NELUMBO NUCIFERA. FLOWER. HEART
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4/252
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.555
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.241
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole. p.222

Review


                                                                                         68
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -   Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2002 Dec;23(12):1086-92. Cardiovascular pharmacological
       effects of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid derivatives. Qian JQ.


188. NELUMBO NUCIFERA. FLOWER. FERTILITY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4/252
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.555
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.241
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole. p.222
            -
189. NIGELLA SATIVA. SEED. GASTROINTESTINAL HEALTH

Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 6, p 420 ff
   -    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1 Vol 1, p 119
   -    CRC Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants, Kapoor p. 245
   -    Indian Materia Medica. Nadkarni


190. OCIMUM SANCTUM. LEAF AND WHOLE PLANT. IMMUNITY & ANTIOXIDANT.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.333
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol.2/500
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.386

Review
   -   Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005 Apr;49(2):125-31. Therapeutic uses of Ocimum
       sanctum Linn (Tulsi) with a note on eugenol and its pharmacological actions: a
       short review. Prakash P, Gupta N

Animal studies
   -   Neurotoxicology. 2007 May;28(3):679-85. Epub 2007 Feb 25.Oxidative stress in
       brain and antioxidant activity of Ocimum sanctum in noise exposure. Samson J,
       Sheeladevi R, Ravindran R.

   -   Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006 Oct-Dec;50(4):391-6.Antioxidant activity of
       hydroalcoholic leaf extract of ocimum sanctum in animal models of peptic ulcer.

   -   Kath RK, Gupta J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Dec 6;108(3):423-7. Epub 2006 Jul 1.
       Effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn. on cardiac changes in rats subjected to chronic
       restraint stress.
       Sood S, Narang D, Thomas MK, Gupta YK, Maulik SKRK.

   -   J Environ Biol. 2006 Jan;27(1):93-5. In vivo studies on the effect of Ocimum
       sanctum L. leaf extract in modifying the genotoxicity induced by chromium and
       mercury in Allium root meristems. Babu K, Uma Maheswari KC

   -   Res Vet Sci. 2005 Aug;79(1):37-43. Epub 2004 Dec 21. Immunotherapeutic
       potential of Ocimum sanctum (L) in bovine subclinical mastitis. Mukherjee R, Dash
       PK, Ram GC

   -   Redox Rep. 2005;10(5):257-64. Antioxidant and radioprotective properties of an
       Ocimum sanctum polysaccharide. Subramanian M, Chintalwar GJ, Chattopadhyay
       S.

   -   Asad, Mohammed and M.S. Harish (1998) - Effect of eumil, a herbal
       immunomodulatory product on granulocyte phagocytosis, Indian of Pharmacology
       30, 2, 116-117 (abstract No. 29).

   -   Bhattacharya, S.K., A. Bhattacharya, K. Das, A.V. Muruganandam and K. Sairam
       (2001) - Further investigations on the antioxidant activity of Ocimum sanctum
       using different paradigms of oxidative stress in rats, Journal of Natural Remedies
       1, 1.




                                                                                         69
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
    -   Chatterjee, S. and S.N. Das (1996a) - Effect of Immue-21 on murine peritoneal
        macrophages and splenic lymphocytes, Ancient Science of Life 15, 4, 250-253.
    -
        Chatterjee, S. and S.N. Das (1997a) - Immunopotentiation by Immu-21 in
        immunocompromised rats, Ancient Science of Life 16, 3, 200-205.

    -   Ganasoundari, A., P.U. Devi and M.N. Rao (1997) - Protection against radiation-
        induced chromosome damage in mouse bone marrow by Ocimum sanctum, Mutat.
        Research 373, 2, 271-276.

In vitro
    -    Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 Nov;29(11):2292-4. Antimicrobial effect of trans-
         cinnamaldehyde, (-)-perillaldehyde, (-)-citronellal, citral, eugenol and carvacrol on
         airborne microbes using an airwasher. Sato K, Krist S, Buchbauer G

    -   J AOAC Int. 2006 Nov-Dec;89(6):1467-74. Quantification of eugenol, luteolin,
        ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid in black (Krishna Tulasi) and green (Sri Tulasi)
        varieties of Ocimum sanctum Linn. using high-performance thin-layer
        chromatography. Anandjiwala S, Kalola J, Rajani M.

    -   Indian J Med Sci. 2001 Aug;55(8):434-8, 472. Activity of Ocimum sanctum (the
        traditional Indian medicinal plant) against the enteric pathogens. Geeta ,
        Vasudevan DM, Kedlaya R, Deepa S, Ballal M.

    -   Phytomedicine. 2000 Mar;7(1):7-13. Antioxidant and cyclooxygenase inhibitory
        phenolic compounds from Ocimum sanctum Linn. Kelm MA, Nair MG, Strasburg
        GM, DeWitt DL


191. OCIMUM SANCTUM. LEAF AND WHOLE PLANT. RESPIRATORY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.333
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:2/162
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol.2/500
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.386
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.201
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.280

Animal studies
   -   Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005 Apr;49(2):243-5. Study of anti-tussive activity of
       Ocimum sanctum Linn in guinea pigs. Nadig P, Laxmi S.

In vitro studies
    -    Anti Tuberculosis Effect of Ocimum sanctum Extracts in in vitro and Macrophage
         Culture. Taghi Naserpour Farivar ; Amir Hossein Mohagheghi Fard ; Shahram
         Shahraki Zahedani ; Mohammad Naderi ; Batul Sharifi Moud

    -   J AOAC Int. 2006 Nov-Dec;89(6):1467-74. Quantification of eugenol, luteolin,
        ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid in black (Krishna Tulasi) and green (Sri Tulasi)
        varieties of Ocimum sanctum Linn. using high-performance thin-layer
        chromatography. Anandjiwala S, Kalola J, Rajani M.

See also Immunity & antioxidant studies


192. OCIMUM SANCTUM. LEAF AND WHOLE PLANT. HEART, VITALITY AND STRESS
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.333
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:2/162
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol.2/500
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.386
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.201
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.280

Animal studies




                                                                                            70
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -   BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006 Feb 19;6:3. Effect of Curcuma longa and
       Ocimum sanctum on myocardial apoptosis in experimentally induced myocardial
       ischemic-reperfusion injury. Mohanty I, Arya DS, Gupta SK

   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Dec 6;108(3):423-7. Epub 2006 Jul 1. Effect of Ocimum
       sanctum Linn. on cardiac changes in rats subjected to chronic restraint stress.
       Sood S, Narang D, Thomas MK, Gupta YK, Maulik SK.

   -   Mol Cell Biochem. 2001 Sep;225(1-):75-83 Cardioprotective potential of ocimum
       sanctum in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats. Sharma M, Kishore
       K, Gupta SK, Joshi S, Arya DS.

   -   Godhwani, J.L., D.S. Vyas and S. Godhwani (1985) - Possible mechanism of action
       of Ocimum sanctum (tulsi) as adaptogen, Indian Journal of Pharmacology 17.

   -   Archana, R. and A. Namasivayam (2000b) - Effect of Ocimum sanctum on noise
       induced changes in neutrophil functions, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 73, 81-85

   -   Archana, R. and A. Namasivayam (2002) - A comparative study of different crude
       extracts of Ocimum sanctum on noise stress, Phytotherapy Research 16, 6, 579-
       580.

   -   Bhargava, K.P. and N. Singh (1981) - Anti-stress activity of Ocimum sanctum
       Linn., IJMR 73, 443-451.

   -   Burande, M.D. and B.R. Mardikar (1989) - Effect of Ocimum sanctum (krishna
       tulas) 10% aqueous extract on the general behaviour of albino mice, in: B.R.
       Mardikar et al. (Eds.), 51-56.

   -   Chattopadhyay, R.R. (1994b) - Anxiolytic activity of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract,
       Ancient Science of Life 14, 1/2, 108-111.

   -   Dadkar, Vaishali N., Aneeta G. Joshi, S. Jagusta Veena, F.R. Billimari and H.L. Dhar
       (1988) - Antistress activity of Ocimum sanctum (tulsi), Indian Drugs 25, 5, 172-
       175.


193. PEDALIUM MUREX. FRUIT. GENITOURINARY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.: Indian Materia Medica , Nadkarni –1/929


194. PICRORHIZA KURROA. RHIZOME & ROOT. LIVER
Texbooks etc
           -  Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.161
           -  The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:2/85
           -  Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 7/179
           -  Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.325
           -  Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.220
           -  CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.263
           -  Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.215

Reviews
   -   Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004 Nov;2(11):947-56. Use of herbal supplements for
       chronic liver disease. Levy C, Seeff LD, Lindor KD.

   -   Drug News Perspect. 2001 Aug;14(6):353-63. Herbal preparations as a source of
       hepatoprotective agents. Ram VJ

Human studies
   -  J Postgrad Med. 1996 Oct-Dec;42(4):105-8. Picrorhiza kurroa (Kutaki) Royle ex
      Benth as a hepatoprotective agent--experimental & clinical studies. Vaidya AB,
      Antarkar DS, Doshi JC, Bhatt AD, Ramesh V, Vora PV, Perissond D, Baxi AJ, Kale
      PM.

Animal studies




                                                                                        71
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -   Fitoterapia . Volume 70, Issue 6, 1 December 1999, Pages 548-551. Biochemical
       studies on the hepatoprotective effect of Picrorrhiza kurroa on changes in liver
       mitochondrial respiration and oxidative phosphorylation in     -galactosamine-
       induced hepatitis in rats. Rangasamy Anandan, Mookan Prabakaran and
       Thiruvengadam Devaki

   -   Journal of Ethnopharmacology . Volume 63, Issue 3, December 1998, Pages 181-
       186. Protective effect of HD-03, a herbal formulation, against various hepatotoxic
       agents in rats. S. K. Mitra*, M. V. Venkataranganna, R. Sundaram and S.
       Gopumadhavan

   -   Cancer Letters .Volume 136, Issue 1, 8 February 1999, Pages 11-16. Effect of
       Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus and Picrorrhiza kurroa on N-
       nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis. K. Jose Jeena, K. L. Joy and
       Ramadasan Kuttan

   -   Drug Chem Toxicol. 2007;30(3):241-52. Protective effect of picroliv against
       hydrazine-induced hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in rats. Vivekanandan P,
       Gobianand K, Priya S, Vijayalakshmi P, Karthikeyan S.

   -   Hum Exp Toxicol. 2006 Oct;25(10):581-91. Effect of Picroliv on cadmium-induced
       hepatic and renal damage in the rat. Yadav N, Khandelwal S.

   -   Indian J Med Res. 2005 May;121(5):676-82. Protective activity of picroliv on
       hepatic amoebiasis associated with carbon tetrachloride toxicity. Singh M, Tiwari V,
       Jain A, Ghoshal S.

   -   Phytother Res. 2001 Jun;15(4):307-10. Long term effect of aflatoxin B(1) on lipid
       peroxidation in rat liver and kidney: effect of picroliv and silymarin. Rastogi R,
       Srivastava AK, Rastogi AK.

   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 1999 Sep;66(3):263-9. Ex vivo and in vivo investigations of
       picroliv from Picrorhiza kurroa in an alcohol intoxication model in rats. Saraswat B,
       Visen PK, Patnaik GK, Dhawan BN.

   -   Planta Med. 1993 Oct;59(5):418-20. Perfusion with picroliv reverses biochemical
       changes induced in livers of rats toxicated with galactosamine or thioacetamide.
       Dwivedi Y, Rastogi R, Garg NK, Dhawan BN

   -   Indian J Biochem Biophys. 1992 Oct;29(5):428-32. Effect of picroliv on low
       density lipoprotein receptor binding of rat hepatocytes in hepatic damage induced
       by paracetamol. Singh V, Visen PK, Patnaik GK, Kapoor NK, Dhawan BN.

   -   Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1992 May;13(3):197-200. Effects of picroliv, the active
       principle of Picrorhiza kurroa, on biochemical changes in rat liver poisoned by
       Amanita phalloides. Dwivedi Y, Rastogi R, Garg NK, Dhawan BN.

   -   Pharmacol Res. 1991 May;23(4):399-407. Picroliv protects against monocrotaline-
       induced hepatic damage in rats. Dwivedi Y, Rastogi R, Sharma SK, Mehrotra R,
       Garg NK, Dhawan BN.


195. PICRORHIZA KURROA. RHIZOME & ROOT. SKIN
Texbooks etc
           -  Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.161
           -  The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:2/85
           -  Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 7/179
           -  Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.325
           -  Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.220
           -  CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.263
           -  Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.215

Human studies
   -  Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Volume 49, Issue 3, 15 December 1995, Pages
      127-132. Comparative efficacy of four Ayurvedic formulations in the treatment of




                                                                                          72
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
        acne vulgaris: a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled clinical evaluation.
        Prakash Paranjpe and P. H. Kulkarni

Animal
   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 1989 Dec;27(3):347-52. Picrorhiza kurroa, an ayurvedic herb,
       may potentiate photochemotherapy in vitiligo. Bedi KL, Zutshi U, Chopra CL, Amla
       V.


196. PICRORHIZA KURROA. RHIZOME & ROOT. IMMUNITY
Texbooks etc
           -  Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 7/179
           -  Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.325
           -  Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.220
           -  Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.215

Animal
   -   Int Immunopharmacol. 2006 Oct;6(10):1543-9. Epub 2006 Jun 16.
       Immunomodulatory activity of biopolymeric fraction RLJ-NE-205 from Picrorhiza
       kurroa. Gupta A, Khajuria A, Singh J, Bedi KL, Satti NK, Dutt P, Suri KA, Suri OP,
       Qazi GN.

    -   Vaccine. 2007 Mar 30;25(14):2706-15. Epub 2006 Jul 10. RLJ-NE-299A: a new
        plant based vaccine adjuvant. Khajuria A, Gupta A, Singh S, Malik F, Singh J, Suri
        KA, Satti NK, Qazi GN, Srinivas VK, Gopinathan , Ella K.

    -   Fitoterapia . Volume 70, Issue 5, 1 October 1999, Pages 498-501. Protective
        effects of Picrorrhiza kurroa against HCl/ethanol-induced ulceration in rats
        Rangasamy Anandan, Ravikumar Deepa Rekha, Natarajan Saravanan and
        Thiruvengadam Devaki

    -   Phytother Res. 2001 Jun;15(4):307-10. Long term effect of aflatoxin B(1) on lipid
        peroxidation in rat liver and kidney: effect of picroliv and silymarin. Rastogi R,
        Srivastava AK, Rastogi AK.

    -   J Ethnopharmacol. 1994 Feb;41(3):185-92. Immunostimulatory activity of
        Picrorhiza kurroa leaf extract. Sharma ML, Rao CS, Duda PL.

    -   Planta Med. 1992 Dec;58(6):528-32. Immunostimulant Activity of Picroliv, the
        Iridoid Glycoside Fraction of Picrorhiza kurroa, and its Protective Action against
        Leishmania donovani Infection in Hamsters. Puri A, Saxena RP, Guru PY,
        Kulshreshtha DK, Saxena KC, Dhawan BN.

    -   J Ethnopharmacol. 1989 Sep;26(2):169-82. Immunodulatory compounds from
        Picrorhiza kurroa: isolation and characterization of two anti-complementary
        polymeric fractions from an aqueous root extract. Simons JM, Hart LA, van Dijk H,
        Fischer FC, de Silva KT, Labadie RP.

In vitro
    -    J Med Food. 2004 Fall;7(3):343-8. The evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging
         activity of certain Indian medicinal plants in vitro: a preliminary study. Jagetia GC,
         Baliga MS.

    -   Phytomedicine. 2001 Mar;8(2):125-32. Indian medicinal plants as antiradicals and
        DNA cleavage protectors. Russo A, Izzo AA, Cardile V, Borrelli F, Vanella A.

    -   Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1998 Nov;20(4):579-88. Picroliv, the iridoid
        glycoside fraction of Picrorhiza kurroa, selectively augments human T cell response
        to mycobacterial protein antigens. Sinha S, Mehrotra J, Bala L, Jaiswal AK, Dhawan
        BN.


197. PIPER LONGUM. ROOT & FRUIT. ADAPTOGENIC & MENTAL
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.139
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:2/133


                                                                                             73
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
           -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol.3/472
           -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.425
           -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.225
           -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.215

Animal studies
   -   Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2005 Jul;53(7):832-5. Piperine from the fruits of Piper
       longum with inhibitory effect on monoamine oxidase and antidepressant-like
       activity. Lee SA, Hong SS, Han XH, Hwang JS, Oh GJ, Lee KS, Lee MK, Hwang BY,
       Ro JS.

   -   Kulshrestha, V.K., N. Singh, R.K. Srivastava and R.P. Kohli (1969) - A study of
       central stimulant effect of Piper longum, Indian Journal of Pharmacology 1, 2, 8.

   -   Kulshrestha, V.K., N. Singh, R.K. Srivastava, S.K. Rastogi and R.P. Kohli (1971) -
       Analysis of central stimulant activity of Piper longum, JRIM 6, 1, 17-23.

See also antioxidant studies under Immunity.


198. PIPER LONGUM. FRUIT. IMMUNITY.
Animal studies
   -   Rege NN, Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA: Adaptogenic properties of Rasayana herbs
       used in Ayurvedic medicine; Phytother Res 13, pp 275-291, 1999

   -   Dahanukar, S.R., A. Zha and S.M. Karandikar (1981) - Antiallergic activity of Piper
       longum, Indian Journal of Pharmacology 13, 122

   -   Tewari, A., S.P. Sen and L.V. Guru (1966) - Preliminary study on the effect of
       pippali rasayana (Piper longum) on serum protein in relation to natural resistance,
       part I, Indian Medical Gazette 6, 8, 22-29.

   -   Phytotherapy Research 1999 Nov;13(7):561-5. Antigiardial and
       immunostimulatory effect of Piper longum on giardiasis due to Giardia lamblia.
       Tripathi DM, Gupta N, Lakshmi V, Saxena KC, Agrawal AK

   -   Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Volume 90, Issues 2-3, February 2004, Pages 339-
       346. Immunomodulatory and antitumor activity of Piper longum Linn. and piperine
       . E. S. Sunila and G. Kuttan

   -   Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2005 Jul;53(7):832-5. Piperine from the fruits of Piper
       longum with inhibitory effect on monoamine oxidase and antidepressant-like
       activity. Lee SA, Hong SS, Han XH, Hwang JS, Oh GJ, Lee KS, Lee MK, Hwang BY,
       Ro JS.

   -   Fitoterapia . Volume 74, Issues 1-2, February 2003, Pages 109-115.
       Cytoprotective effect of piperine against benzo[a]pyrene induced lung cancer with
       reference to lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in Swiss albino mice. K.
       Selvendirana, J. Prince Vijeya Singha, K. Baba Krishnanb and D. Sakthisekaran

   -   Int Immunopharmacol. 2007 Jul;7(7):889-99. Epub 2007 Mar 15.
       Immunomodulation exhibited by piperinic acid through suppression of
       proinflammatory cytokines. Devan P, Bani S, Suri KA, Satti NK, Qazi GN.


199. PIPER LONGUM. FRUIT. RESPIRATORY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.139
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol.3/472
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.425
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.225
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.215

Human studies
   -  Dhanukar SA, Karandikar SM, Desai SM 1984 Efficacy of Piper longum in childhood
      asthma. Indian Drugs 21:384


                                                                                           74
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc

   -     Dahanukar, S.R., A. Zha and S.M. Karandikar (1981) - Antiallergic activity of Piper
         longum, Indian Journal of Pharmacology 13, 122

   -     Anshuman, P.S., K.P. Singh and K.G. Aasra (1984) - Effect of vardhaman pippali
         (Piper longum) on patients with respiratory disorders, Sachitra Ayurved 37, 1, 47-
         49

   -     Fernandes, A., F. Taraves and V.B. Athavale (1980) - Asthma in children: a clinical
         controlled study of Piper longum in asthma, Paediatr. Clin. India 15, 4, 45.

   -     Upadhyaya, S.D., C.M. Kansal and N.N. Pandey (1982) - Clinical evaluation of
         pippali (Piper longum) kshira paka in patients of bronchial asthma - a preliminary
         study, Nagarjun 25, 11, 256-258.

   -     Upadhyay, S.D. and N.N. Pandey (1990) - Clinical evaluation of pippali (Piper
         longum Linn.) kshirpaka in the treatment of bronchial asthma - a preliminary
         study, =Aryavaidyan 11, 133-136; also in (?)Nagarjun 25, 11, 1982, 250-258.

See also studies under Immunity.


200. PIPER LONGUM. FRUIT & ROOT. DIGESTION & BIOAVAILABILITY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.139
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol.3/472
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.425
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.225
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.215

Animal studies
   -   Journal of Ethnopharmacol. 1981 Sep;4(2):229-32. Scientific evidence on the role
       of Ayurvedic herbals on bioavailability of drugs. Atal CK, Zutshi U, Rao PG.

   -     Zutshi U, Kaul JL, (1982). The impact of Ayurvedic herbals on drug bioavailability.
         Indian Drugs, Vol.19(12), pp.476-479

   -     Atal CK, Dubey RK, Singh J. (1984) Biochemical basis for enhanced drugs
         bioavailability by piperine: Evidence that piperine is a potent inhibitor of
         monoxygenase system. Indian J. of Pharmacol. Vol.16 pp. 52.

   -     Atal CK, Dubey RK, Singh J. (1985) Biochemical basis for enhanced drugs
         bioavailability by piperine: Evidence that piperine is a potent inhibitor of drug
         metabolism. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Therapeut., Vol. 232, pp.258.

   -     Khajuria A, Zutshi U, Bedi KL 1998 Intestinal permeability characteristics of
         piperine, an active alkaloid from peppers and bioavailability enhancer. Indian
         Journal of Experimental Biology 36(1):46

   -     Phytomedicine. 2002 Apr;9(3):224-31. Piperine modulates permeability
         characteristics of intestine by inducing alterations in membrane dynamics:
         influence on brush border membrane fluidity, ultrastructure and enzyme kinetics.
         Khajuria A, Thusu N, Zutshi U.


201. PIPER NIGRUM. FRUIT. DIGESTION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.138
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt.1:3/115
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/187
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.459
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.231
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.266
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.237

Review


                                                                                             75
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -   Phytochemistry Volume 58, Issue 5, November 2001, Pages 827-828. Black
       Pepper, Piper nigrum. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants—Industrial Profiles. Stanley
       G. Deans

   -   Drugs. 2005;65(9):1239-82. Herb-drug interactions: a literature review. Hu Z,
       Yang X, Ho PC, Chan SY, Heng PW, Chan E, Duan W, Koh HL, Zhou S.

   -   Spices as influencers of body metabolism: an overview of three decades of
       research. Food Research International Volume 38, Issue 1, January 2005, Pages
       77-86 Krishnapura Srinivasan

Animal studies
   -   Afr J Med Med Sci. 2002 Dec;31(4):293-5. Effects of piperine on gastric acid
       secretion in albino rats. Ononiwu IM, Ibeneme CE, Ebong OO.


   -   Food and Chemical Toxicology Volume 45, Issue 8, August 2007, Pages 1437-
       1442. Studies on the in vitro absorption of spice principles – Curcumin, capsaicin
       and piperine in rat intestines. D. Suresh and K. Srinivasan

In vitro
    -    Insect Mol Biol. 2006 Jun;15(3):329-39.Erratum in: Insect Mol Biol. 2006
         Dec;15(6):861. The effect of a synergistic concentration of a Piper nigrum extract
         used in conjunction with pyrethrum upon gene expression in Drosophila
         melanogaster. Jensen HR, Scott IM, Sims SR, Trudeau VL, Arnason JT.

   -   J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Dec 27;54(26):9759-63.Inhibition of diacylglycerol
       acyltransferase by alkamides isolated from the fruits of Piper longum and Piper
       nigrum. Lee SW, Rho MC, Park HR, Choi JH, Kang JY, Lee JW, Kim K, Lee HS, Kim
       YK.

   -   Phytomedicine. 2002 Apr;9(3):224-31. Piperine modulates permeability
       characteristics of intestine by inducing alterations in membrane dynamics:
       influence on brush border membrane fluidity, ultrastructure and enzyme kinetics.
       Khajuria A, Thusu N, Zutshi U.


202. PIPER NIGRUM. FRUIT. RESPIRATION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.138
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt.1:3/115
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/187
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.459
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.266
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.237


203. PIPER NIGRUM. FRUIT. NERVOUS SYSTEM
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.138
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt.1:3/115
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/187
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.459
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.231
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.266
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.237

Human studies
   -  Phytother Res. 2006 Aug;20(8):683-6. Effect of piperine on the steady-state
      pharmacokinetics of phenytoin in patients with epilepsy. Pattanaik S, Hota D,
      Prabhakar S, Kharbanda P, Pandhi P.


204. PIPER NIGRUM. FRUIT. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.138


                                                                                            76
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
           -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/187
           -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.459
           -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.237


205. PIPER NIGRUM. FRUIT. LIVER
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/187
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.459
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.231
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.237

Animal studies
   -   Journal of Food Biochemistry, Volume 30, Number 4, August 2006 , pp. 405-
       421(17). EFFICACY OF PIPERINE FROM PIPER NIGRUM L. IN HIGH-FAT DIET AND
       ANTITHYROID DRUG-INDUCED HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC RATS. VIJAYAKUMAR,
       RAMASAMY SUBRAMANIAM; NALINI, NAMASIVAYAM

   -   Antioxidant efficacy of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and piperine in rats with high
       fat diet induced oxidative stress
   -   R.S. Vijayakumar; D. Surya; N. Nalini. Redox Report, Volume 9, Number 2, April
       2004 , pp. 105-110(6)

In vitro
    -    Planta Med. 2006 May;72(6):527-32. Mechanism-based inhibition of human liver
         microsomal cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) by alkamides of Piper nigrum.
         Subehan , Usia T, Kadota S, Tezuka Y.

   -   Phytochemistry Volume 68, Issue 6, March 2007, Pages 899-903. ACAT inhibition
       of alkamides identified in the fruits of Piper nigrum. Mun-Chual Rho, Seung Woong
       Lee, Hye Ran Park, Jung-Ho Choi, Ji Yun Kang, Koanhoi Kim, Hyun Sun Lee and
       Young Kook Kim


206. PIPER NIGRUM. FRUIT. SKIN
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt.1:3/115
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/187
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.459
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.237

Animal studies
   -   Planta Med 1999; 65: 600-603. Stimulation of Mouse Melanocyte Proliferation by
       Piper nigrum Fruit Extract and its Main Alkaloid, Piperine. Zhixiu Lin1, 2, J. R.
       S. Hoult3, Dorothy C. Bennett4, Amala Rama

In vitro
    -    Photochem Photobiol. 2006 Nov-Dec;82(6):1541-8. UV irradiation affects
         melanocyte stimulatory activity and protein binding of piperine. Soumyanath A,
         Venkatasamy R, Joshi M, Faas L, Adejuyigbe B, Drake AF, Hider RC, Young AR.


207. PIPER NIGRUM. FRUIT. ANTIOXIDANT & IMMUNITY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/187
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.459
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.231
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.266
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.237

Review
   -   Indian J Exp Biol. 2003 Feb;41(2):135-40. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic
       antioxidants in selected Piper species. Karthikeyan J, Rani P.




                                                                                          77
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -   Journal of Food Composition and Analysis Volume 19, Issues 6-7, September-
       November 2006, Pages 531-537. Spice antioxidants isolation and their antiradical
       activity: a review . Milan Suhaj

Animal studies
   -   Food Chemistry Volume 101, Issue 2, 2007, Pages 515-523. Antioxidant activity of
       some phenolic constituents from green pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and fresh nutmeg
       mace (Myristica fragrans) Suchandra Chatterjee Zareena Niaz, S. Gautam,
       Soumyakanti Adhikari, Prasad S. Variyar, and Arun Sharma

   -   Redox Report, Volume 9, Number 2, April 2004 , pp. 105-110(6). Antioxidant
       efficacy of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and piperine in rats with high fat diet
       induced oxidative stress. R.S. Vijayakumar1; D. Surya; N. Nalin

   -   Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005 Jan;49(1):65-71. Protective effects of Piper
       nigrum and Vinca rosea in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Kaleem M, Sheema ,
       Sarmad H, Bano B.

   -   J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Mar 27;50(7):1866-70. Larvicidal activity of
       isobutylamides identified in Piper nigrum fruits against three mosquito species.
       Park IK, Lee SG, Shin SC, Park JD, Ahn YJ.

   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr 21;105(1-2):76-83. Epub 2005 Dec 6. Antioxidant
       activity of a salt-spice-herbal mixture against free radical induction. Natarajan KS,
       Narasimhan M, Shanmugasundaram KR, Shanmugasundaram ER.

   -   J Med Food. 2006 Summer;9(2):237-45. Effect of spices on lipid metabolism in
       1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. Nalini N, Manju V, Menon
       VP.

   -   Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2006;19(2):107-11. Epub 2005 Jun 21. In vivo effect of
       piperine on serum and tissue glycoprotein levels in benzo(a)pyrene induced lung
       carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Selvendiran K, Prince Vijeya Singh J,
       Sakthisekaran D.

   -   Mol Cell Biochem. 2005 Mar;271(1-2):101-6. Chemopreventive effect of piperine
       on mitochondrial TCA cycle and phase-I and glutathione-metabolizing enzymes in
       benzo(a)pyrene induced lung carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Selvendiran K,
       Thirunavukkarasu C, Singh JP, Padmavathi R, Sakthisekaran D.

   -   Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters Volume 14, Issue 13, 5 July 2004, Pages
       3555-3558. Toxic effects of natural piperine and its derivatives on epimastigotes
       and amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi . Tatiana Santana Ribeiro, Leonardo Freire-
       de-Lima, José Osvaldo Previato, Lucia Mendonça-Previato, Norton Heise and Marco
       Edilson Freire de Lima

In vitro
    -    Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2005 Nov;56(7):491-9. The antioxidant and radical scavenging
         activities of black pepper (Piper nigrum) seeds. Gülçin I.

   -   Food Chemistry Volume 101, Issue 2, 2007, Pages 515-523. Antioxidant activity of
       some phenolic constituents from green pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and fresh nutmeg
       mace (Myristica fragrans). Suchandra Chatterjee, Zareena Niaz, S. Gautam,
       Soumyakanti Adhikarib, Prasad S. Variyar and Arun Sharma.

   -   Phytomedicine Volume 11, Issues 7-8, 25 November 2004, Pages 697-700.
       Antibacterial constituents from the berries of Piper nigrum . S. Venkat Reddya,
       Pullela V. Srinivasa, B. Praveenb, K. Hara Kishoreb, B. China Rajua, U.
       Suryanarayana Murthyb and J. Madhusudana Rao

   -   Phytomedicine. 2004 Nov;11(7-8):697-700. Antibacterial constituents from the
       berries of Piper nigrum. Reddy SV, Srinivas PV, Praveen B, Kishore KH, Raju BC,
       Murthy US, Rao JM.




                                                                                            78
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -     Biochem Pharmacol. 2006 Aug 14;72(4):486-97. Epub 2006 Jun 14. Modulation of
         cadmium induced alterations in murine thymocytes by piperine: oxidative stress,
         apoptosis, phenotyping and blastogenesis. Pathak N, Khandelwal S.

   -     Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Sep;25(9):1203-8. Biochemical properties of
         polysaccharides from black pepper. Chun H, Shin DH, Hong BS, Cho WD, Cho HY,
         Yang HC.

   -     Bactericidal activity of black pepper, bay leaf, aniseed and coriander against oral
         isolates. Chaudhry NM, Tariq P. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2006 Jul;19(3):214-8.


208. PISTACIA INTEGERRHIMA. GALLS. RESPIRATORY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 7
   -    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1 Vol 1
   -    Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants. Khare CP
   -    Indian Materia Medica. Nadkani

Review
   -     Jamil S, Ahmad S, Akhtar J: Pistacia integerrhima Stewart ex Brandis, a review;
         Hamdard Med 46 (4), 69-72, 2003

Animal studies:
   -     Ansari SH, Ali M: Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of tetracyclic triterpenoids
         isolated from Pistacia integerrhima galls; Fitotherapia 67 (2), 103-105, 1996
   -     Giner-Larza EM et al: Anti-inflammatory triterpenes from Pistacia terebinthus galls;
         Planta Med 68 (4), 311-315, 2002
   -     Giner-Larza EM et al: Oleanonic acid, a 3-oxotriterpene from Pistacia, inhibits
         leucotriene synthesis and has antiinflammatory activity; Eur J Pharmcol 428 (1), 137-
         143, 2001



209. PISTACIA INTEGERRHIMA. GALLS. GASTROINTESTINAL
Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 7
   -    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1 Vol 1
   -    Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants. Khare CP
   -    Indian Materia Medica. Nadkani

Review
   -     Jamil S, Ahmad S, Akhtar J: Pistacia integerrhima Stewart ex Brandis, a review;
         Hamdard Med 46 (4), 69-72, 2003

Animal studies:
   -     Ansari SH, Ali M: Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of tetracyclic triterpenoids
         isolated from Pistacia integerrhima galls; Fitotherapia 67 (2), 103-105, 1996
   -     Giner-Larza EM et al: Anti-inflammatory triterpenes from Pistacia terebinthus galls;
         Planta Med 68 (4), 311-315, 2002
   -     Giner-Larza EM et al: Oleanonic acid, a 3-oxotriterpene from Pistacia, inhibits
         leucotriene synthesis and has antiinflammatory activity; Eur J Pharmcol 428 (1), 137-
         143, 2001


210. PTEROCARPUS SANTALINUS. HEARTWOOD. SKIN
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 7/362


211. PTEROCARPUS SANTALINUS. HEARTWOOD. DETOX
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 7/362




                                                                                               79
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc

212. PTEROCARPUS SANTALINUS. HEARTWOOD. COMFORT
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 7/362


213. PUERARIA TUBEROSA. TUBEROUS ROOT. CARDIOVASCULAR
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.276
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1/2/174
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 6/441
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.722


214. PUERARIA TUBEROSA. TUBEROUS ROOT. NUTRITIVE
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.276
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1/2/174
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 6/441
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.722
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.292

Human studies
   -  Ratankumar, Srivatava KK, (2000), Antioxidant level during combat stress: Effect
      of a composite Indian herbal preparation-I, J.Res.Ayur. Siddha, Vol. XXI (3-4),
      pp.159-164.


215. PUERARIA TUBEROSA. TUBEROUS ROOT. MENSTRUAL & MENOPAUSAL
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.292

Human studies
          -   Chavan KR, Gaikwad BY (1998), Clinical trial of sensa forte in the
              management of sexual dysfunction and premature ejaculation, Antiseptic,
              Vol.95(2), pp.43-44.

Also numerous studies showing estrogenic effects in female antifertility studies.


216. PUERARIA TUBEROSA. TUBEROUS ROOT. ANTIOXIDANT & IMMUNITY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.276
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1/2/174
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 6/441
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.722
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.292

Human studies
   -  Ratankumar, Srivatava KK, (2000), Antioxidant level during combat stress: Effect
      of a composite Indian herbal preparation-I, J.Res.Ayur. Siddha, Vol. XXI (3-4),
      pp.159-164.

Animal studies
   -   Phytotherapy research 1996, vol. 10, no7, pp. 608-609 (15 ref.) Protective action
       of butanolic extract of Pueraria tuberosa DC. against carbon tetrachloride induced
       hepatotoxicity in adult rats. SHUKLA S.; JONATHAN S; SHARMA A.;

In vitro
    -    Food Chemistry Volume 105, Issue 1, 2007, Pages 219-222. Antioxidant properties
         of different fractions of tubers from Pueraria tuberosa Linn. Nidhi Pandey, J.K.
         Chaurasiaa, O.P. Tiwaria and Yamini B. Tripathi


217. PUNICA GRANATUM. FRUIT & SEED. DIGESTION.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.


                                                                                        80
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
           -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.384
           -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol.2/178
           -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.392
           -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.281
           -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.242

Animal studies
   -   Phytother Res. 1999 Feb;13(1):42-5. Effects of aqueous extracts from Quercus ilex
       L. root bark, Punica granatum L. fruit peel and Artemisia herba-alba Asso leaves on
       ethanol-induced gastric damage in rats. Gharzouli K, Khennouf S, Amira S,
       Gharzouli A.


218. PUNICA GRANATUM. FRUIT & SEED. ANTIOXIDANT & IMMUNITY.
Review
   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Jan 19;109(2):177-206. Epub 2006 Sep 10. Punica
       granatum (pomegranate) and its potential for prevention and treatment of
       inflammation and cancer. Lansky EP, Newman RA.

Human studies
   -  J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Nov 15;54(23):8956-61. Absorption, metabolism, and
      antioxidant effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum l.) polyphenols after
      ingestion of a standardized extract in healthy human volunteers. Mertens-Talcott
      SU, Jilma-Stohlawetz P, Rios J, Hingorani L, Derendorf H.

Animal studies
   -   Food Chem Toxicol. 2006 Jul;44(7):984-93. Epub 2006 Jan 19. Punica granatum
       (pomegranate) flower extract possesses potent antioxidant activity and abrogates
       Fe-NTA induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Kaur G, Jabbar Z, Athar M, Alam MS

   -   Fitoterapia. 2006 Jun;77(4):310-2. Epub 2006 Feb 23. Antioxidant activity of
       Punica granatum fruits. Ricci D, Giamperi L, Bucchini A, Fraternale D.

   -   Fitoterapia. 2005 Mar;76(2):181-6. Flavonoids from Punica granatum--potential
       antiperoxidative agents. Sudheesh S, Vijayalakshmi NR.

   -   J Nat Prod. 2004 Dec;67(12):2096-8. Bioactive compounds from the seeds of
       Punica granatum (pomegranate). Wang RF, Xie WD, Zhang Z, Xing DM, Ding Y,
       Wang W, Ma C, Du LJ

   -   J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Jan 2;50(1):166-71. Antioxidant activities of
       pomegranate fruit extract and its anthocyanidins: delphinidin, cyanidin, and
       pelargonidin. Noda Y, Kaneyuki T, Mori A, Packer L.

In vitro
    -    J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Jan 2;50(1):81-6. Studies on the antioxidant activity of
         pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel and seed extracts using in vitro models.
         Singh RP, Chidambara Murthy KN, Jayaprakasha GK.

   -   J Nutr Biochem. 2005 Jun;16(6):360-7. In vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic and
       antioxidant activities of punicalagin, ellagic acid and a total pomegranate tannin
       extract are enhanced in combination with other polyphenols as found in
       pomegranate juice. Seeram NP, Adams LS, Henning SM, Niu Y, Zhang Y, Nair MG,
       Heber D.


219. RHEUM EMODI. ROOT. LIVER AND BILE SYSTEM HEALTH
Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
   -    CRC Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants, Kapoor p. 287
   -    Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p. 667
   -    Indian Materia Medica. Nadkarni, P. 1056


220. RHEUM EMODI. ROOT. KIDNEY AND URINARY SYSTEM HEALTH
Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
   -    CRC Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants, Kapoor p. 287


                                                                                        81
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -    Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p. 667
   -    Indian Materia Medica. Nadkarni, P. 1056

Individual studies:
    -   Alam MM, Javed K, Jafri MA: Effect of Rheum emodi (Revand Hindi) on renal
        functions in rats. J Ethnopharmacol (Ireland), Jan 4 2005, 96(1-2) p121-5
    -   M. Afzal, N. A. Khan, A. Ghufran , A. Iqbal and M. Inamuddin: Diuretic and
        nephroprotective effect of Jawarish Zarooni Sada—a polyherbal unani formulation.
        Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 91 (2), p.219-223, 2004


221. RHEUM EMODI. ROOT. INTESTINAL HEALTH
Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
   -    CRC Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants, Kapoor p. 287
   -    Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p. 667
   -    Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants, Khare, p. 401
   -    Indian Materia Medica. Nadkarni, P. 1056

In vitro & animal :
    -    Ibrahim M, Khan AA, Tiwari SK, et al.: Antimicrobial activity of Sapindus mukorossi
         and Rheum emodi extracts against H pylori: In vitro and in vivo studies. World J
         Gastroenterol (China), Nov 28 2006, 12(44) p7136-42


222. ROSA CENTIFOLIA. PETAL. MENTAL & SLEEP
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.320
   -    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:3/195
   -    Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p. p.620
   -    Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.252
   -    A Modern Herbal: Grieve/Leyel p.689

Human studies
   -  Complementary Therapies in Medicine Volume 11, Issue 4, December 2003, Pages
      223-225. A randomized-controlled trial of the effects of a traditional herbal
      supplement on sleep onset insomnia. N. H. Farag and P. J. Mills

   -    Jpn J Pharmacol. 2002 Nov;90(3):247-53. Effects of fragrance inhalation on
        sympathetic activity in normal adults. Haze S, Sakai K, Gozu Y.

Animal studies
   -   National Institute for Environmental Studies 3 January 2002. Anticonflict effects of
       rose oil and identification of its active constituents. Toyoshi Umezu, Hiroyasu Ito,
       Kimiyo Nagano, Miho Yamakoshi, Hiroko Oouchi, Misao Sakaniwa and Masatoshi
       Morita


223. ROSA CENTIFOLIA. PETAL. CARDIOVASCULAR & EMOTIONS
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.320
   -    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:3/195
   -    Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p. p.620
   -    Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.252
   -    A Modern Herbal: Grieve/Leyel p.689

Human studies
   -  Jpn J Pharmacol. 2002 Nov;90(3):247-53. Effects of fragrance inhalation on
      sympathetic activity in normal adults. Haze S, Sakai K, Gozu Y.


224. ROSA CENTIFOLIA. PETAL. MENSES, MENOPAUSE AND GENITOURINARY.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.320
   -    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:3/195
   -    Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p. p.620



                                                                                         82
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.252

Reviews
   -   Life Sciences. Volume 72, Issue 1, 22 November 2002, Pages 91-102. Herbal
       medicines for sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS. Kavita Vermani and Sanjay
       Garg
   -   Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery. Volume 4, Issue 1, February
       1998, Pages 3-6 Complementary therapy and infertility: an lcelandic perspective.
       Lowana Veal

Human studies
   -  J Altern Complement Med. 2006; 12(6):535-41. Effect of Aromatherapy on
      Symptoms of Dysmenorrhea in College Students: A Randomized Placebo-
      Controlled Clinical Trial. Han SH; Hur MH; Buckle J; Choi J; Lee MS

   -   Phytochemistry. Volume 19, Issue 8, 1980, Pages 1747-1754. Aromatherapy in
       childbirth: An effective approach to care. Ethel E Burns, Caroline Blamey, Andrew
       J Lloyd
       British Journal of Midwifery, Vol. 8, Iss. 10, 05 Oct 2000, pp 639 - 643


225. ROSA CENTIFOLIA. PETAL. DIGESTION & ELIMINATION.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.320
   -    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:3/195
   -    Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p. p.620
   -    Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.252
   -    A Modern Herbal: Grieve/Leyel p.689

Animal studies
   -   Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters Volume 14, Issue 19, 4 October 2004,
       Pages 4961-4965. Synthesis, structural properties and insulin-enhancing potential
       of bis(quercetinato)oxovanadium(IV) conjugate. Ruchi Shukla, Vivek Barve,
       Subhash Padhye and Ramesh Bhonde

In vitro
    -    Phytochemistry . Volume 19, Issue 8, 1980, Pages 1747-1754. The phytochemistry
         of proanthocyanidin polymers. Lai Yeap Foo and Lawrence J. Porter


226. ROSA CENTIFOLIA. PETAL. SKIN
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.320
   -    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:3/195
   -    Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p. p.620
   -    Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.252


227. ROSA CENTIFOLIA. PETAL. EYES
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:3/195
   -    A Modern Herbal: Grieve/Leyel p.689


228. RUBIA CORDIFOLIA. ROOT. SKIN
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.173
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/172
   -    Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.464
   -    Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.257
   -    Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.224

Reviews.
   -   The International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds, Vol. 2, No. 1, 25-39 (2003).
       Plant Medicines of Indian Origin for Wound Healing Activity: A Review . Tuhin Kanti
       Biswas and Biswaparti Mucherjee


                                                                                       83
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc

In vitro
    -    Journal of Ethnopharmacology . Volume 108, Issue 1, 3 November 2006, Pages
         133-141. Evaluation of the anti-proliferative properties of selected psoriasis-
         treating Chinese medicines on cultured HaCaT cells. Wai-Pui Tse, Chun-Tao Che,
         Ken Liu and Zhi-Xiu Lin

   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Nov 3;108(1):133-41. Epub 2006 May 5. Evaluation of
       the anti-proliferative properties of selected psoriasis-treating Chinese medicines on
       cultured HaCaT cells. Tse WP, Che CT, Liu K, Lin ZX.

   -   Phytomedicine. Volume 10, Issue 1, 2003, Pages 34-38. Inhibition of
       Propionibacterium acnes-induced mediators of inflammation by Indian herbs. A.
       Jaina and E. Basal

See also Liver and Antioxidant studies


229. RUBIA CORDIFOLIA. ROOT. LIVER
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/172
   -    Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.224


Animal studies
   -   Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 79, Issue 3, March 2002, Pages 313-316.
       Hepatoprotective activity of two plants belonging to the Apiaceae and the
       Euphorbiaceae family. Bahar Ahmed, Tanveer Alam, Manoj Varshney and Shah
       Alam Khan

   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Feb 20;103(3):484-90. Epub 2005 Oct 5.
       Hepatoprotective effects of rubiadin, a major constituent of Rubia cordifolia Linn.
       Rao GM, Rao CV, Pushpangadan P, Shirwaikar A.


230. RUBIA CORDIFOLIA. ROOT. DIGESTION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/172
   -    Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.464

In vitro
    -    Phytother Res. 2005 Oct;19(10):888-94. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of
         Ventilago madraspatana Gaertn., Rubia cordifolia Linn. and Lantana camara Linn.:
         isolation of emodin and physcion as active antibacterial agents. Basu S, Ghosh A,
         Hazra B.

See also Liver and Antioxidant studies


231. RUBIA CORDIFOLIA. ROOT. GYNAECOLOGICAL
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.173
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/172
   -    Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.464
   -    CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.292
   -    Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.224

See also Antioxidant studies


232. RUBIA CORDIFOLIA. ROOT. URINARY & SUGAR METABOLISM
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.173
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/172
   -    Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.464
   -    CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.292



                                                                                             84
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
    -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.224

See also Antioxidant studies


233. RUBIA CORDIFOLIA. ROOT. ANTIOXIDANT & IMMUNITY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/172
   -    Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.257

Animal studies
   -   Indian J Biochem Biophys. 1998 Oct;35(5):313-6. Comparison of the antioxidant
       action of the alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia with rubiadin. Tripathi YB, Sharma
       M.

    -   Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1983 Mar;3(2):98-9. [Clinical observation on the
        increase of leukocyte count in leukopenia promoted by diethylester Rubia cordifolia
        L.] [Article in Chinese]. Zhang ZH.

In vitro studies
    -    J. Agric. Food Chem., 52 (26), 7884 -7890, 2004. Antioxidant Phenolic
         Constituents in Roots of Rheum officinale and Rubia cordifolia: Structure-Radical
         Scavenging Activity Relationships. Yizhong Cai, Mei Sun, Jie Xing, and Harold
         Corke

    -   J. Nat. Prod., 59 (3), 330 -333, 1996. Inhibition of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen
        Secretion on Human Hepatoma Cells. Components from Rubia cordifolia . Li-Kang
        Ho*
    -   Indian J Biochem Biophys. 1997 June; 34(3) :302-6. Rubiadin, a new antioxidant
        from Rubia cordifolia. Tripathi YB, Sharma M, Manickam M.

    -   MC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2004, 4:11. Rubia cordifolia, Fagonia
        cretica linn and Tinospora cordifolia exert neuroprotection by modulating the
        antioxidant system in rat hippocampal slices subjected to oxygen glucose
        deprivation. Avinash K Rawal, Manohar G Muddeshwar and Saibal K Biswas

    -   Phytomedicine. 1999 Mar;6(1):51-7. The interaction of Rubia cordifolia with iron
        redox status: a mechanistic aspect in free radical reactions. Tripathi YB, Sharma M.

    -   Indian J Exp Biol. 1994 Mar;32(3):180-3. Protective effect of Rubia cordifolia on
        lipid peroxide formation in isolated rat liver homogenate. Pandey S, Sharma M,
        Chaturvedi P, Tripathi YB.

    -   Phytother Res. 2006 Oct;20(10):896-900. Evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging
        activity, in vitro and ex vivo, of selected medicinal plants traditionally used in
        inflammatory diseases. Basu S, Hazra B.


234. RUBIA CORDIFOLIA. ROOT. NERVOUS SYSTEM
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/172
   -    Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.224

Animal studies
   -   Indian J Exp Biol. 2000 Jul;38(7):675-80. Anticonvulsant and behavioral actions of
       triterpene isolated from Rubia cordifolia Linn. Kasture VS, Deshmukh VK, Chopde
       CT.

    -   Indian J Exp Biol. 2006 Dec;44(12):987-92. Antihyperglycemic, antistress and
        nootropic activity of roots of Rubia cordifolia Linn. Patil RA, Jagdale SC, Kasture
        SB.

See also Antioxidant studies




                                                                                              85
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
235. SALMALIA MALABARICA. BARK. ENERGY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.353
   -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.80.


236. SALMALIA MALABARICA. GUM. CIRCULATION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1/3/183
   -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.353
   -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.80.


237. SALMALIA MALABARICA. GUM. DIGESTION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.80.


238. SALMALIA MALABARICA. GUM. COMFORT
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.80.


239. SALMALIA MALABARICA. ROOT & GUM. REPRODUCTIVE
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1/3/183
   -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.353
   -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.80.


240. SANTALUM ALBUM. HEARTWOOD. COOLING
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/184


241. SANTALUM ALBUM. HEARTWOOD. IMMUNITY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/184


242. SANTALUM ALBUM. HEARTWOOD. BLOOD.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/184


243. SANTALUM ALBUM. HEARTWOOD. NERVOUS SYSTEM, MIND & INTELLECT.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/184


244. SANTALUM ALBUM. HEARTWOOD. HEART.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/184


245. SANTALUM ALBUM. HEARTWOOD. KIDNEYS & GENITOURINARY.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/184


246. SANTALUM ALBUM. HEARTWOOD. RESPIRATORY.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/184




                                                                    86
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
247. SANTALUM ALBUM. HEARTWOOD. DIGESTION.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/184


248. SANTALUM ALBUM. HEARTWOOD. SKIN.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/184


249. SARACA INDICA. STEM BARK. FEMALE REPRODUCTORY SYSTEM HEALTH
Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 1, p 200 ff
   -    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1 Vol 3, p 23
   -    CRC Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants, Kapoor p. 236
   -    Indian Materia Medica. Nadkarni p. 1104

Animal studies:
    -    Satyavati GV et al: Oxytocic activity of a pure phenolic glycoside (P2) from Saraca indica Linn.
         (Ashoka): A short communication; Ind J Med Res 58, pp 660-663, 1970
    -    Satyavati GV et al: Further studies on the uterine activity of Saraca indica Linn; Ind J Med Res 58, pp
         947-960, 1970


250. SIDA CORDIFOLIA. ROOT & WHOLE PLANT. MENTAL EXCITATION/SLEEP/STRESS
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.266
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.434
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.303.
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.137

Review
   -   Oliver-Bever, B. (1983a) - Medicinal plants in tropical West Africa, II. Plants acting
       on the nervous system, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 7, 1-93.

Animal studies
   -   Pak J Pharm Sci. 2007 Jul;20(3):185-8. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic alkaloid
       from sida cordifolia linn. Sutradhar RK, Rahman AM, Ahmad M, Bachar SC, Saha A,
       Roy TG.

    -    J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Apr 26;98(3):275-9. CNS pharmacological effects of the
         hydroalcoholic extract of Sida cordifolia L. leaves. Franco CI, Morais LC, Quintans-
         Júnior LJ, Almeida RN, Antoniolli AR.

    -    Journal of Ethnopharmacology . Volume 72, Issues 1-2, 1 September 2000, Pages
         273-277 Anti-inflammatory, analgesic activity and acute toxicity of Sida cordifolia
         L. (Malva-branca). E. M. Franzotti, C. V. F. Santos, H. M. S. L. Rodrigues, R. H. V.
         Mourão, M. R. Andrade and A. R. Antoniolli

    -    Phytother Res. 1999 Feb;13(1):75-7. Analgesic, antiinflammatory and
         hypoglycaemic activities of Sida cordifolia. Kanth VR, Diwan PV.

    -    Harish Kumar, D.H. and S.N. Yoganarasimhan (2002) - Comparative ant-stress
         and anti inflammatory activity studies of an Ayurvdic drug - bala, Sida cordifolia
         (L.) and Triumfetta rhomboidea (L.) Jacq., in: J. Joseph Thas (Ed.), 81 (abstract).


251. SIDA CORDIFOLIA. ROOT & WHOLE PLANT . ENERGY & LIBIDO
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.266
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.434
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.303.
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.137

Human studies




                                                                                                            87
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
    -   Singh, K.K., O.P. Singh and S.D. Dubey (1998) - Clinical evaluation of bala (Sida
        cordifolia Linn) as a brimhaniya (anabolic drug), Sachitra Ayurved 50, 11, 754-
        756.


252. SIDA CORDIFOLIA. ROOT & WHOLE PLANT. URINARY.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.266
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.434
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.303.
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.137


253. SIDA CORDIFOLIA. ROOT & WHOLE PLANT. CARDIOVASCULAR
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.434
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.303.
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.137

Animal studies
   -   Pharmazie. 2006 May;61(5):466-9. Endothelium-derived factors and k+ channels
       are involved in the vasorelaxation induced by Sida cordifolia L. in the rat superior
       mesenteric artery. Santos MR, Nascimento NM, Antoniolli AR, Medeiros IA.

    -   Fitoterapia. 2006 Jan;77(1):19-27. Epub 2005 Oct 28. Cardiovascular effects of
        Sida cordifolia leaves extract in rats. Medeiros IA, Santos MR, Nascimento NM,
        Duarte JC.


254. SIDA CORDIFOLIA. ROOT & WHOLE PLANT. ANTIOXIDANT & IMMUNITY
Animal studies
   -   Pak J Pharm Sci. 2007 Jul;20(3):185-8. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic alkaloid
       from sida cordifolia linn. Sutradhar RK, Rahman AM, Ahmad M, Bachar SC, Saha A,
       Roy TG.

    -   Journal of Ethnopharmacology . Volume 84, Issues 2-3, February 2003, Pages
        131-138. Screening of antioxidant activity of three Indian medicinal plants,
        traditionally used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases. B. Auddya,
        M. Ferreira, F. Blasina, L. Lafon, F. Arredondo, F. Dajasb, P. C. Tripathic, T. Seala
        and B. Mukherjee

    -   Dixit, S.P., (Miss) P.V. Tewari and (Mrs.) R.M. Gupta (1978) - Experimental studies
        on the immunological aspects of atibala (Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sw.), mahabala
        (Sida rhombifolia Linn.), bala (Sida cordifolia Linn.) and bhumibala (Sida
        veronicaefolia Lam.), JRIM 13, 3, 50-66.

    -   Journal of Ethnopharmacology . Volume 72, Issues 1-2, 1 September 2000, Pages
        273-277. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic activity and acute toxicity of Sida cordifolia
        L. (Malva-branca. E. M. Franzotti, C. V. F. Santos, H. M. S. L. Rodrigues, R. H. V.
        Mourão, M. R. Andrade and A. R. Antoniolli

    -   Phytother Res. 1999 Feb;13(1):75-7. Analgesic, antiinflammatory and
        hypoglycaemic activities of Sida cordifolia. Kanth VR, Diwan PV.

    -   Harish Kumar, D.H. and S.N. Yoganarasimhan (2002) - Comparative ant-stress
        and anti inflammatory activity studies of an Ayurvdic drug - bala, Sida cordifolia
        (L.) and Triumfetta rhomboidea (L.) Jacq., in: J. Joseph Thas (Ed.), 81 (abstract).

    -   Muzaffer Alam, K.K. Shanmuga Dasan, Thomas Susan and Suganthan Joy (1998) -
        Anti-inflammatory potential of balarishta and dhanvantara gutika in albino rats,
        Ancient Science of Life 17, 4, 305-312.

    -   Prasad, S. (1970) - Pharmacognosy of anti-inflammatory drugs, in: K.N. Udupa
        (Ed.), 117-162.




                                                                                            88
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
255. SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM. WHOLE PLANT. RESPIRATORY HEALTH
Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4, p 269 ff
   -    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1 Vol 1, p 59
   -    CRC Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants, Kapoor p. 307
   -    Indian Medicinal Plants. Pranjpe, p. 106
   -    Indian Materia Medica. Nadkarni

Human studies:
   -  Bector NP, Puri AS: Solanum xanthocarpum (Kantakari) in chronic bronchitis,
      bronchial asthma and non-specific unproductive cough. (An experimental and
      clinical co-relation). J Assoc Physicians India (India), Oct 1971, 19(10) p741-4
   -  Govindan S, Viswanathan S, Vijayasekaran V, et al.: A pilot study on the clinical
      efficacy of Solanum xanthocarpum and Solanum trilobatum in bronchial asthma.
      J Ethnopharmacol (Ireland), Aug 1999, 66(2) p205-10
   -  Govindan S, Viswanathan S, Vijayasekaran V, et al.: Further studies on the clinical
      efficacy of Solanum xanthocarpum and Solanum trilobatum in bronchial asthma.
      Phytother Res (England), Oct 2004, 18(10) p805-9

256. STRYCHNOS POTATORUM. SEED. ANTIOXIDANT
Individual studies.
Animal
    -   Sanmugapriya E, Venkataraman S: Studies on hepatoprotective and antioxidant
        actions of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds on CCl4-induced acute hepatic injury in
        experimental rats [In Process Citation]. J Ethnopharmacol (Ireland), Apr 21 2006,
        105(1-2) p154-60


257. STRYCHNOS POTATORUM. SEED. LIVER PROTECTIVE
Individual studies.
Animal:
    -   Sanmugapriya E, Venkataraman S: Studies on hepatoprotective and antioxidant
        actions of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds on CCl4-induced acute hepatic injury in
        experimental rats [In Process Citation]. J Ethnopharmacol (Ireland), Apr 21 2006,
        105(1-2) p154-60


258. SWERTIA CHIRATA. WHOLE PLANT. LIVER HEALTH
Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 7, p 226 ff
   -    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1 Vol 1, p 59
   -    CRC Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants, Kapoor p. 312
   -    Indian Medicinal Plants. Pranjpe, p. 137
   -    Indian Materia Medica. Nadkarni p. 1184

Individual studies:
    -   Reen RK, Karan M, Singh K, et al.: Screening of various Swertia species extracts in
        primary monolayer cultures of rat hepatocytes against carbon tetrachloride- and
        paracetamol-induced toxicity. J Ethnopharmacol (Ireland), May 2001, 75(2-3)
        p239-47
    -   Karan M, Vasisht K, Handa SS: Antihepatotoxic activity of Swertia chirata on
        paracetamol and galactosamine induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Phytother Res
        (England), Mar 1999, 13(2) p95-101
    -   Karan M, Vasisht K, Handa SS. Antihepatotoxic activity of Swertia chirata on
        carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Phytother Res (England), Feb
        1999, 13(1) p24-30
    -   Mukherjee S, Sur A, Maiti BR. Hepatoprotective effect of Swertia chirata on rat.
        Indian J Exp Biol (India), Apr 1997, 35(4) p384-8


259. SWERTIA CHIRATA. WHOLE PLANT. TEMPERATURE HOMOEOSTASIS
Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 7, p 226 ff
   -    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1 Vol 1, p 59
   -    CRC Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants, Kapoor p. 312



                                                                                        89
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
    -   Indian Medicinal Plants. Pranjpe, p. 137
    -   Indian Materia Medica. Nadkarni p. 1184


260. SWERTIA CHIRATA. WHOLE PLANT. SKIN HEALTH
Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 7, p 226 ff
   -    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1 Vol 1, p 59
   -    CRC Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants, Kapoor p. 312
   -    Indian Medicinal Plants. Pranjpe, p. 137
   -    Indian Materia Medica. Nadkarni p. 1184


261. SWERTIA CHIRATA. WHOLE PLANT. GASTROINTESTINAL HEALTH
Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 7, p 226 ff
   -    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1 Vol 1, p 59
   -    CRC Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants, Kapoor p. 312
   -    Indian Medicinal Plants. Pranjpe, p. 137
   -    Indian Materia Medica. Nadkarni p. 1184

Animal study:
   -   Rafatullah S, Tariq M, Mossa JS, et al.: Protective effect of Swertia chirata against
       indomethacin and other ulcerogenic agent-induced gastric ulcers. Drugs Exp Clin
       Res (Switzerland), 1993, 19(2) p69-73


262. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA. BARK. COOLING.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/164


263. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA. BARK. EYES.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/164


264. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA. BARK. RESPIRATORY.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/164


265. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA. BARK. IMMUNITY.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/164


266. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA. BARK. BLOOD.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/164


267. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA. BARK. DIGESTION.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/164


268. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA. BARK. MOUTH.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/164


269. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA. BARK. EAR .
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/164




                                                                                           90
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc

270. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA. BARK. JOINTS .
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/164


271. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA. BARK. SKIN.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/164


272. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA. BARK. LIVER.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/164


273. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA. BARK. REPRODUCTION.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/164


274. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA. BARK. FLUID BALANCE.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/164


275. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA. BARK. HAIR.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/164


276. SYZYGIUM AROMATICUM. FLOWER BUD. DIGESTION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.207
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/80
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4/358
            -   BHC Vol. 2 p.113
            -   BHMA Guide p.80
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.475
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.162

Animal studies
   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jan 4;96(1-2):295-301. An extract of Syzygium
       aromaticum represses genes encoding hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes. Prasad RC,
       Herzog B, Boone B, Sims L, Waltner-Law M.

    -   Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 60, Issue 2, March 1998, Pages 125-131.
        Effect of Syzygium aromaticum extract on immediate hypersensitivity in rats. H. M.
        Kima, *, E. H. Leea, S. H. Honga, H. J. Songb, M. K. Shinb, S. H. Kimc and T. Y.
        Shinc

In Vitro
    -    In Vivo. 2003 Nov-Dec;17(6):541-4. Extracts of spice and food plants from Thai
         traditional medicine inhibit the growth of the human carcinogen Helicobacter pylori.
         Bhamarapravati S, Pendland SL, Mahady GB.

See also Antibacterial


277. SYZYGIUM AROMATICUM. FLOWER BUD. ANTIBACTERIAL
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4/358
            -   BHC Vol. 2 p.113

Animal studies




                                                                                          91
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
    -   Nippon Ishinkin Gakkai Zasshi. 2005;46(1):27-33. Protection of oral or intestinal
        candidiasis in mice by oral or intragastric administration of herbal food, clove
        (Syzygium aromaticum). Taguchi Y, Ishibashi H, Takizawa T, Inoue S, Yamaguchi
        H, Abe S.

In vitro studies
    -    In Vivo. 2003 Nov-Dec;17(6):541-4. Extracts of spice and food plants from Thai
         traditional medicine inhibit the growth of the human carcinogen Helicobacter pylori.
         Bhamarapravati S, Pendland SL, Mahady GB.

    -   Lett Appl Microbiol. 2003;36(3):162-7. Antibacterial activity of selected plant
        essential oils against Escherichia coli O157:H7. Burt SA, Reinders RD.

    -   International Journal of Food Microbiology. Volume 111, Issue 1, 15 August 2006,
        Pages 6-11. Antimicrobial effect of spices and herbs on Vibrio parahaemolyticus .
        Yutaka Yano, Masataka Satomia and Hiroshi Oikawa

    -   J Appl Microbiol. 2000 Feb;88(2):308-16. Antimicrobial agents from plants:
        antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. Dorman HJ, Deans SG.


278. SYZYGIUM AROMATICUM. FLOWER BUD. CARDIOVASCULAR
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.207
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/80
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4/358
            -   BHC Vol. 2 p.113
            -   BHMA Guide p.80
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.475

Human study
   -  Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids . Volume 42, Issue 1,
      January 1991, Pages 73-81
   -  Acetyl eugenol, a component of oil of cloves (Syzygium aromaticum L.) inhibits
      aggregation and alters arachidonic acid metabolism in human blood platelets. K. C.
      Srivastava and N. Malhotra

Animal studies
   -   Biol Pharm Bull. 2001 Feb;24(2):181-7. Purification and characterization of
       antithrombotics from Syzygium aromaticum (L.) MErr. & PERRY. Lee JI, Lee HS,
       Jun WJ, Yu KW, Shin DH, Hong BS, Cho HY, Yang HC.

    -   Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1993 May;48(5):363-72. Erratum in:
        Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1993 Nov;49(5):885. Antiplatelet
        principles from a food spice clove (Syzygium aromaticum L) [corrected] Srivastava
        KC.


279. SYZYGIUM AROMATICUM. FLOWER BUD. RESPIRATORY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.207
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/80
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4/358
            -   BHC Vol. 2 p.113
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.475
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.162

Animal studies
   -   Nippon Ishinkin Gakkai Zasshi. 2005;46(1):27-33. Protection of oral or intestinal
       candidiasis in mice by oral or intragastric administration of herbal food, clove
       (Syzygium aromaticum). Taguchi Y, Ishibashi H, Takizawa T, Inoue S, Yamaguchi
       H, Abe S.

    -   Carcinogenesis. 2006 Aug;27(8):1645-54. Epub 2006 Feb 25. Clove (Syzygium
        aromaticum L.), a potential chemopreventive agent for lung cancer. Banerjee S,
        Panda CK, Das S.


                                                                                          92
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc

    -   Journal of Ethnopharmacology . Volume 60, Issue 2, March 1998, Pages 125-131.
        Effect of Syzygium aromaticum extract on immediate hypersensitivity in rats. H. M.
        Kima, *, E. H. Leea, S. H. Honga, H. J. Songb, M. K. Shinb, S. H. Kimc and T. Y.
        Shinc

In vitro studies
    -    J Nat Prod. 1996 Oct;59(10):987-90. Compounds from Syzygium aromaticum
         possessing growth inhibitory activity against oral pathogens. Cai L, Wu CD.


280. SYZYGIUM AROMATICUM. FLOWER BUD. REPRODUCTION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4/358
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.162

Animal studies
   -   BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2004, 4:17. Effect of 50% ethanolic
       extract of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry. (clove) on sexual behaviour of
       normal male rats. Tajuddin, Shamshad Ahmad , Abdul Latif and Iqbal Ahmad
       Qasmi


281. SYZYGIUM AROMATICUM. FLOWER BUD. ANTIOXIDANT
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   BHC Vol. 2 p.113
            -   BHMA Guide

Animal studies
   -   J Appl Toxicol. 2005 May-Jun;25(3):218-23. Antioxidant property of Nigella sativa
       (black cumin) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) in rats during aflatoxicosis. Abdel-
       Wahhab MA, Aly SE.

In vitro
    -    Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie. Volume 37, Issue 2, March 2004,
         Pages 199-204. Natural essential oils as reducing agents of peroxidase activity in
         leafy vegetables. G. Ponce, C. E. del Vallea and S. I. Roura

    -   Food and Chemical Toxicology . Volume 39, Issue 12, December 2001, Pages
        1199-1204. Inhibition of malonaldehyde formation from blood plasma oxidation by
        aroma extracts and aroma components isolated from clove and eucalyptus. K. -G.
        Lee and T. Shibamoto

    -   Food Chemistry . Volume 74, Issue 4, September 2001, Pages 443-448.
        Antioxidant property of aroma extract isolated from clove buds [Syzygium
        aromaticum (L.) Merr. et Perry]. Kwang-Geun Lee and Takayuki Shibamoto

    -   Food Chemistry . Volume 105, Issue 3, 2007, Pages 940-949. Antioxidant activity
        and phenolic compounds in 32 selected herbs . neta Wojdyłoa, , Jan Oszmiańskia
        and Renata Czemerysb

    -   Food Chemistry . Volume 87, Issue 3, September 2004, Pages 393-400.
        Comparison of antioxidant activity of clove (Eugenia caryophylata Thunb) buds and
        lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.). Ìlhami Gülçin, Güngör atb, ükrü Beydemira,
        Mahfuz Elmasta c and Ö. rfan Küfrevio lua


282. TEPHROSIA PURPUREA. WHOLE PLANT. LIVER HEALTH
Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 6, p 358 ff
   -    CRC Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants, Kapoor p. 318
   -    Indian Medicinal Plants. Pranjpe, p. 239

Review article:




                                                                                          93
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
    -   Gokhale AB, Saraf MN: Tephrosia purpurea: A review of contemporary literature
        and medicinal properties. Indian Drugs 37 (12) 553-661, 2000.

Individual studies:
    -   Narendranath KA et al: Effect of Tefroli (a herbal liver protective and corrective) on
        experimentally induced hepatotoxicity. Medicine and Surgery 25 (9), pp 8A-8B,
        16A-16B, 1985
    -   Sharma A et al: Antihepatotoxic activity of some plants used in herba formulations.
        Fitotherapia 62 (2) 131-138, 1991.
    -   Yeh SF et al: Downregulation of hepatitis Bsurface antigen in human hepatocellular
        carcinoma lines by HD-03, a polyherbal formulation. Phytotherapy Research 17(1),
        89-91, 2003


283. TEPHROSIA PURPUREA. WHOLE PLANT. KIDNEY HEALTH
Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 6, p 358 ff
   -    CRC Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants, Kapoor p. 318
   -    Indian Medicinal Plants. Pranjpe, p. 239

Review article:
   -   Gokhale AB, Saraf MN: Tephrosia purpurea: A review of contemporary literature
       and medicinal properties. Indian Drugs 37 (12) 553-661, 2000.

Animal study:
   -   Khan N, Sharma S, Alam A, et al.: Tephrosia purpurea ameliorates N-
       diethylnitrosamine and potassium bromate-mediated renal oxidative stress and
       toxicity in Wistar rats. Pharmacol Toxicol (Denmark), Jun 2001, 88(6) p294-9


284. TEPHROSIA PURPUREA. WHOLE PLANT. IMMUNE SYSTEM HEALTH
Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 6, p 358 ff
   -    CRC Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants, Kapoor p. 318
   -    Indian Medicinal Plants. Pranjpe, p. 239

Review article:
   -   Gokhale AB, Saraf MN: Tephrosia purpurea: A review of contemporary literature
       and medicinal properties. Indian Drugs 37 (12) 553-661, 2000.

Animal studies:
   -   Damre AS, Gokhale AB, Phadke AS, et al.: Studies on the immunomodulatory
       activity of flavonoidal fraction of Tephrosia purpurea. Fitoterapia (Netherlands),
       Apr 2003, 74(3) p257-61
   -   Gokhale AB, Dikshit VJ, Damre AS, et al.: Influence of ethanolic extract of
       Tephrosia purpurea Linn. on mast cells and erythrocytes membrane integrity.
       Indian J Exp Biol (India), Aug 2000, 38(8) p837-40
   -   Gokhale AB, Saraf MN: Studies on antiallergic activity of allergic extract of
       Tephrosia purpurea Linn. Indian Drugs 37 (5), 228-232, 2000


285. TERMINALIA ARJUNA. BARK. HEART
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -  Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.343
            -  The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:2/17
            -  Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/58
            -  Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.300
            -  Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.291

Human studies
   -  International Journal of Cardiology . Volume 100, Issue 3, 28 April 2005, Pages
      507-508. Role of Terminalia arjuna in ischaemic mitral regurgitation. S. Dwivedi,
      A. Aggarwal, M.P. Agarwal and S. Rajpal

    -   Indian Heart J. 2002 Mar-Apr;54(2):170-5. Efficacy of Terminalia arjuna in chronic
        stable angina: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study comparing


                                                                                            94
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
        Terminalia arjuna with isosorbide mononitrate. Bharani A, Ganguli A, Mathur LK,
        Jamra Y, Raman PG.

    -   J Assoc Physicians India. 2001 Feb;49:231-5.Antioxidant and hypocholesterolaemic
        effects of Terminalia arjuna tree-bark powder: a randomised placebo-controlled
        trial. Gupta R, Singhal S, Goyle A, Sharma VN.

    -   Indian Heart J. 1997 Sep-Oct;49(5):507-10. Beneficial effects of Terminalia arjuna
        in coronary artery disease.
        Dwivedi S, Jauhari R.

    -   Int J Cardiol. 1995 May;49(3):191-9. Salutary effect of Terminalia Arjuna in
        patients with severe refractory heart failure. Bharani A, Ganguly A, Bhargava KD.

Animal studies
   -   Pharmazie. 2006 Sep;61(9):793-5. Cardio-protective role of Terminalia arjuna
       bark extract is possibly mediated through alterations in thyroid hormones. Parmar
       HS, Panda S, Jatwa R, Kar A.

    -   BMC Complement Altern Med. 2003; 3: 5. Possible mechanisms of hypotension
        produced 70% alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna (L.) in anaesthetized dogs.
        Srinivas Nammi, 1 Rambabu Gudavalli,1 Behara S Ravindra Babu,2 Durga S
        Lodagala,1 and Krishna M Boini1

    -   J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jan 15;96(3):403-9. Epub 2004 Nov 21. Terminalia
        arjuna (Roxb.) protects rabbit heart against ischemic-reperfusion injury: role of
        antioxidant enzymes and heat shock protein. Gauthaman K, Banerjee SK, Dinda
        AK, Ghosh CC, Maulik SK.

    -   Life Sciences . Volume 73, Issue 21, 10 October 2003, Pages 2727-2739.
        Cardioprotective effect of the alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna bark in an in
        vivo model of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury. K. Karthikeyan, B. R. Sarala
        Bai, K. Gauthaman, K. S. Sathish and S. Niranjali Devaraj

    -   J Ethnopharmacol. 1997 Feb;55(3):165-9. Hypocholesterolaemic effects of
        Terminalia arjuna tree bark. Ram A, Lauria P, Gupta R, Kumar P, Sharma VN.


286. TERMINALIA BELERICA. FRUIT RIND. DIGESTION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.134
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/26
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/158
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.439
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.321
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.145

Human study
   -  Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Volume 29, Issue 1, April 1990, Pages 1-11.
      Ayurvedic treatment of obesity: A randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled
      clinical trial. Prakash Paranjpeb, Pralhad Patkic and Bhushan Patwardhan

Animal studies
   -   Phytomedicine (2000): (7), 2, 123-127. Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant and
       Antimicrobial Activity of Ophthacare Brand, an Herbal Eye Drops. Mitra, S.K.,
       Sundaram, R., Venkataranganna, M.V., Gopumadhavan, S., Prakash, N.S.,
       Jayaram, H.D. and Sarma, D.N.K.

In vitro
    -    Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Volume 62, Issue 2, September 1998, Pages 183-
         193. Screening of some Indian medicinal plants for their antimicrobial properties.
         Iqbal Ahmada, *, Zafar Mehmooda and Faiz Mohammadb

    -   Phytotherapy Research Volume 18, Issue 8 , Pages 670 – 673. Short
        Communication. Antimicrobial evaluation of some medicinal plants for their anti-




                                                                                            95
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
           enteric potential against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi. Phulan Rani, Neeraj
           Khulla

    -      Journal of Basic Microbiology Volume 45, Issue 2 , Pages 106 – 114, 2005. Effect

           of certain bioactive plant extracts on clinical isolates of -lactamase producing
           methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Farrukh Aqil 1, M. Sajjad A. Khan 1,
           Mohd Owais 2, Iqbal Ahmad, Dr.


287. TERMINALIA BELERICA. FRUIT RIND. VISION, HEAD & HAIR
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.134
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/26
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/158
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.439
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.321
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.145

Animal
   -   Phytomedicine (2000): (7), 2, 123-127. Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant and
       Antimicrobial Activity of Ophthacare Brand, an Herbal Eye Drops. Mitra, S.K.,
       Sundaram, R., Venkataranganna, M.V., Gopumadhavan, S., Prakash, N.S.,
       Jayaram, H.D. and Sarma, D.N.K.


288 & 289. TERMINALIA BELERICA. FRUIT RIND. LIVER, IMMUNITY & ANTIOXIDANT
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/158
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.321

Animal studies
   -   Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 81, Issue 2, July 2002, Pages 155-160.
       Anti-diabetic activity of medicinal plants and its relationship with their antioxidant
       property. M. C. Sabu and Ramadasan Kutta

    -      Pharmacol Res. 1997 Oct;36(4):315-21. 3,4,5-Trihydroxy benzoic acid (gallic
           acid), the hepatoprotective principle in the fruits of Terminalia belerica-bioassay
           guided activity. Anand KK, Singh B, Saxena AK, Chandan BK, Gupta VN, Bhardwaj
           V.

    -      J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Jan 19;109(2):214-8. Epub 2006 Aug 12. Protective effect
           of Terminalia belerica Roxb. and gallic acid against carbon tetrachloride induced
           damage in albino rats. Jadon A, Bhadauria M, Shukla S.

    -      Phytotherapy Research Volume 8, Issue 5 , Pages 287 – 292, Hepatoprotective
           studies of a fraction from the fruits of Terminalia belerica roxb. On experimental
           liver injury in rodents. K. K. Anand *, B. Singh, A. K. Saxena, B. K. Chandan, V. N.
           Gupta

    -      International Journal of Cardiology . Volume 49, Issue 2, April 1995, Pages 101-
           106. Preventive actions of Terminalia belerica in experimentally induced
           atherosclerosis. H. P. Shailaa, A. L. Udupab and S. L. Udupa.

    -      Human & Experimental Toxicology, Vol. 22, No. 12, 639-645 (2003).
           Hepatocurative and antioxidant profile of HP-1, a polyherbal Phytomedicine. S A
           Tasaduq, K Singh, S Sethi, S C Sharma, K L Bedi, J Singh, B S Jaggi, R K Johri

    -      Phytomedicine (2000): (7), 2, 123-127. Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant and
           Antimicrobial Activity of Ophthacare Brand, an Herbal Eye Drops. Mitra, S.K.,
           Sundaram, R., Venkataranganna, M.V., Gopumadhavan, S., Prakash, N.S.,
           Jayaram, H.D. and Sarma, D.N.K.

In vitro




                                                                                               96
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
    -   Teratogenesis Carcinog. Mutagen. Suppl. 1:295-300, 2003. Indian medicinal plants
        as a reservoir of protective phytochemicals. Saroj Arora *, Kamaljit Kaur,
        Swayamjot Kaur

    -   Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 973Ð978 (2001). Total Phenolics Concentration and
        Antioxidant Potential of Extracts of
    -   Medicinal Plants of Pakistan. Ammar Saleem a;*, Markku Ahotupa b and Kalevi
        Pihlaja.


290 & 291. TERMINALIA BELERICA. FRUIT RIND. CARDIOVASCULAR & CHOLESTEROL
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/158
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.145

Human study
   -  Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 29, Issue 1, April 1990, Pages 1-11.
      Ayurvedic treatment of obesity: A randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled
      clinical trial. Prakash Paranjpeb, Pralhad Patkic and Bhushan Patwardhan

Animal studies
   -   International Journal of Cardiology . Volume 49, Issue 2, April 1995, Pages 101-
       106. Preventive actions of Terminalia belerica in experimentally induced
       atherosclerosis. H. P. Shailaa, A. L. Udupab and S. L. Udupa

    -   Int J Cardiol. 1988 Nov;21(2):167-75. The Ayurvedic medicines Haritaki, Amala
        and Bahira reduce cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. Thakur CP,
        Thakur B, Singh S, Sinha PK, Sinha SK.

    -   Indian J Exp Biol. 1977 Jun;15(6):485-6. Tariq M, Hussain SJ, Asif M, Jahan M.
        Protective effect of fruit extracts of Emblica officinalis (Gaertn). & Terminalia
        belerica (Roxb.) in experimental myocardial necrosis in rats.

See also Liver, immunity & antioxidant studies.


292. TERMINALIA BELERICA. FRUIT RIND. GLUCOSE METABOLISM, ENERGY AND LIBIDO
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/158
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.439

Animal study
   -   Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 81, Issue 2, July 2002, Pages 155-160.
       Anti-diabetic activity of medicinal plants and its relationship with their antioxidant
       property. M. C. Sabu and Ramadasan Kutta

    -   Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 85, Issue 1, March 2003, Pages 169-172.
        Antidiabetic activity of Terminalia pallida fruit in alloxan induced diabetic rats. B.
        Kameswara Raoa, P. Renuka Sudarshana, M. D. Rajasekhara, N. Nagarajub and
        Ch. Appa Rao

See also Liver, immunity & antioxidant studies.



293. TERMINALIA BELERICA. FRUIT RIND. RESPIRATORY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.134
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/26
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/158
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.439
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.321
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.145

See also Liver, immunity & antioxidant studies.




                                                                                                 97
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc

294. TERMINALIA CHEBULA. FRUIT RIND. GASTROINTESTINAL HEALTH & NUTRITION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.136
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/47
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/283
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.515
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.298
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.322
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.194

Animal studies
   -   J Postgrad Med. 1997 Jan-Mar;43(1):12-3. Effect of oral administration of
       Terminalia chebula on gastric emptying: an experimental study. Tamhane, M D /
       Thorat, S P / Rege, N N / Dahanukar, S A

    -      Animal Feed Science and Technology. Volume 128, Issues 3-4, 28 June 2006,
           Pages 276-291.
    -      Effect of plant extracts on in vitro methanogenesis, enzyme activities and
           fermentation of feed in rumen liquor of buffalo. A.K. Patra, D.N. Kamra and Neeta
           Agarwal

In vitro
    -    International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. Volume 18, Issue 1, July 2001,
         Pages 85-88. Antibacterial activity of black myrobalan (Terminalia chebula Retz)
         against Helicobacter pylori F. Malekzadeha, H. Ehsanifara, M. Shahamatb, M.
         Levinb and R. R. Colwell

    -      Indian J Med Sci. 1989 May;43(5):113-7. Screening of in vitro antibacterial activity
           of Terminalia chebula, Eclapta alba and Ocimum sanctum.Phadke SA, Kulkarni SD.

    -      Food Chemistry Volume 40, Issue 2, 1991, Pages 213-219. Nutritive value of the
           chebulic myrobalan (Terminalia chebula Retz.) and its potential as a food source N.
           N. Barthakur and N. P. Arnold

    -      Phytother Res. 2004 Aug;18(8):670-3. Antimicrobial evaluation of some medicinal
           plants for their anti-enteric potential against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi.
           Rani P, Khullar N.

    -
           Journal of Food Protection: Vol. 69, No. 9, pp. 2205–2209. Growth-Inhibiting
           Activity of Active Component Isolated from Terminalia chebula Fruits against
           Intestinal Bacteria. H. G. KIM,a J. H. CHO,a E. Y. JEONG,a J. H. LIM,a S. H. LEE,a
           and H. S. LEEa
    -
           Rege NN, Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA: Adaptogenic properties of six Rasayana herbs
           used in Ayurvedic medicine; Phytother Res 13, pp 275-291,1999
    -

    -      Bonjar GH: Inhibition of Clotrimazol-resistant Candida albicans by plants used in
           Iranian folklore medicine; Fitotherapia 75 (1), pp 74-76, 2004


295. TERMINALIA CHEBULA. FRUIT RIND. NERVOUS SYSTEM, SENSES, HEAD, MIND & STRESS.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.136
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/47
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/283
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.515
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.322
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.194
            -   Potters New Cyclopaedia p.197

Animal studies
   -   Rege NN, Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA: Adaptogenic properties of six Rasayana herbs
       used in Ayurvedic medicine; Phytother Res 13, pp 275-291,1999

In vitro


                                                                                                98
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -   Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Volume 68, Issues 1-3, 15 December 1999, Pages
       299-306. Potential of the aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula as an anticaries
       agent. A. G. Jagtap and S. G. Karkera

See also the antioxidant studies under Antioxidant, immunity, aging and energy


296. TERMINALIA CHEBULA. FRUIT RIND. LIVER
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.136
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/47
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/283
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.515
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.322
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.194

Animal studies
   -   Human & Experimental Toxicology, Vol. 25, No. 3, 111-118 (2006). Terminalia
       chebula (fruit) prevents liver toxicity caused by sub-chronic administration of
       rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide in combination. S A Tasduq K Singh N K
       Satti D K Gupta K A Suri R K Johri .

See also the antioxidant studies under Antioxidant, immunity, aging and energy


297. TERMINALIA CHEBULA. FRUIT RIND. SKIN
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.136
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/283
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.515

Animal stdies
   -   Phytotherapy Research. Volume 16, Issue 3 , Pages 227 – 231. Influence of
       Terminalia chebula on dermal wound healing in rats. Lonchin Suguna 1, Surjeet
       Singh 2, Pitchumani Sivakumar 1 *, Padmavathi Sampath 1, Gowri Chandrakasan 1

   -   Kurakowa M et al; Efficacy of traditional herbal medicines in combination with
       acyclovir against herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in vitro and in vivo; Antiviral
       Res 27(1-2) pp 19-37, 1995

See also the antioxidant studies under Antioxidant, immunity, aging and energy


298. TERMINALIA CHEBULA. FRUIT RIND. RESPIRATORY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.136
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/47
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/283
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.515
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.322
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.194

See also the antioxidant studies under Antioxidant, immunity, aging and energy


299. TERMINALIA CHEBULA. FRUIT RIND. REPRODUCTION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.136
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/283
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.515

See also the antioxidant studies under Antioxidant, immunity, aging and energy


300. TERMINALIA CHEBULA. FRUIT RIND. CARDIOVASCULAR & CHOLESTEROL
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.


                                                                                           99
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.136
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/47
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/283
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.515
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.298

Animal studies
   -   Thakur CP et al: The Ayurvedic medicines Haritaki, Amala and Bahira reduce
       cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits; International J Cardiol 21 (2), pp
       167-75, 1988

    -   Indian J Exp Biol. 2004 Feb;42(2):174-8. Protective effect of Terminalia chebula
        against experimental myocardial injury induced by isoproterenol. Suchalatha S,
        Shyamala Devi CS.


301 & 302. TERMINALIA CHEBULA. FRUIT RIND. ANTIOXIDANT, IMMUNITY, AGING AND ENERGY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.136
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/283
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.515
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.298
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.322
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.194

Animal studies
   -   Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 74, Issue 2, February 2001, Pages 133-140.
       Inhibitory action of water soluble fraction of Terminalia chebula on systemic and
       local anaphylaxis T. Y. Shin, H. J. Jeong, D. K. Kim, S. H. Kim, J. K. Lee, D. K. Kim,
       B. S. Chae, J. H. Kim, H. W. Kang, C. M. Lee, K. C. Lee, S. T. Park, E. J. Lee, J. P.
       Lim, H. M. Kim and Y. M. Lee

    -   Antiviral Res. 1995 May;27(1-2):19-37.PubMed. Efficacy of traditional herbal
        medicines in combination with acyclovir against herpes simplex virus type 1
        infection in vitro and in vivo. Kurokawa M, Nagasaka K, Hirabayashi T, Uyama S,
        Sato H, Kageyama T, Kadota S, Ohyama H, Hozumi T, Namba T, et al.

    -   J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2006;20(4):233-9. Epub 2006 Oct 2. Chemomodulatory
        effects of Terminalia chebula against nickel chloride induced oxidative stress and
        tumor promotion response in male Wistar rats. Prasad L, Husain Khan T, Jahangir
        T, Sultana S.

    -   Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Sep;28(9):1639-44. Antioxidant effects of aqueous extract
        of Terminalia chebula in vivo and in vitro. Lee HS, Won NH, Kim KH, Lee H, Jun W,
        Lee KW.

    -   Mol Cell Biochem. 2005 Sep;277(1-2):43-8. Radiation protection by Terminalia
        chebula: some mechanistic aspects. Gandhi NM, Nair CK

    -   Phytomedicine Volume 11, Issue 6, 20 September 2004, Pages 530-538. Studies
        on the aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula as a potent antioxidant and a
        probable radioprotector G. H. Naika, K. I. Priyadarsini, D. B. Naika, R.
        Gangabhagirathib and H. Mohana

    -   Phytother Res. 2004 Sep;18(9):737-41. Cytoprotective effect on oxidative stress
        and inhibitory effect on cellular aging of Terminalia chebula fruit. Na M, Bae K,
        Kang SS, Min BS, Yoo JK, Kamiryo Y, Senoo Y, Yokoo S, Miwa N.

    -   Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Jan;52(1):345-53. Suppression of the onset and
        progression of collagen-induced arthritis by chebulagic acid screened from a
        natural product library. Lee SI, Hyun PM, Kim SH, Kim KS, Lee SK, Kim BS, Maeng
        PJ, Lim JS.

    -   Shin TY et al: Inhibitory action of water soluble fraction of Terminalia chebula on
        systemic and local anaphylaxis; J Ethnophar 74 (2), pp 133-140, 2001




                                                                                            100
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
    -      Rege NN, Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA: Adaptogenic properties of sic Rasayana
           herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine; Phytother Res 13, pp 275-291, 1999

In vitro
    -
           Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin Vol 26 (2003), No 9 . 1331. Antioxidant and
           Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Terminalia chebula. Hua-Yew Cheng1), Ta-
           Chen Lin2), Kuo-Hua Yu3), Chien-Min Yang1) and Chun-Ching Lin

    -      Biol Pharm Bull. 1997 Apr;20(4):401-4. Extraction and purification of effective
           antimicrobial constituents of Terminalia chebula RETS. against methicillin-resistant
           Staphylococcus aureus Sato Y, Oketani H, Singyouchi K, Ohtsubo T, Kihara M,
           Shibata H, Higuti T

    -      Arch Toxicol. 2007 Mar;81(3):211-8. Epub 2006 Aug 24. Isolation of chebulic acid
           from Terminalia chebula Retz. and its antioxidant effect in isolated rat hepatocytes.
           Lee HS, Jung SH, Yun BS, Lee KW.

    -       Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 81, Issue 3, 1 August 2002, Pages 327-
           336. Inhibition of cancer cell growth by crude extract and the phenolics of
           Terminalia chebula retz. Fruit. Ammar Saleem, Michael Husheemb, Pirkko
           Härkönenb and Kalevi Pihlaja.

    -      Planta Med. 2002 May;68(5):457-9. Inhibition of HIV-1 integrase by galloyl
           glucoses from Terminalia chebula and flavonol glycoside gallates from Euphorbia
           pekinensis. Ahn MJ, Kim CY, Lee JS, Kim TG, Kim SH, Lee CK, Lee BB, Shin CG,
           Huh H, Kim J.

    -      International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents . Volume 18, Issue 1, July 2001,
           Pages 85-88. Antibacterial activity of black myrobalan (Terminalia chebula Retz)
           against Helicobacter pylori . F. Malekzadeha, H. Ehsanifara, M. Shahamatb, M.
           Levinb and R. R. Colwell

    -      Antigenotoxic effect of polyphenolic extracts of Terminalia chebula (Retz.) in Ames
           assay . Arora, S. / Kaur, S. / Kumar, S. , European Journal of Cancer, 38, p.S40-
           S40, Feb 2002

    -      Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Volume
           419, Issues 1-3, 9 November 1998, Pages 169-179. Antimutagenicity of
           hydrolyzable tannins from Terminalia chebula in Salmonella typhimurium
    -      Simran Kaur, I. S. Grovera *, Majar Singh and Satwinderjeet Kaur

    -      Indian J Exp Biol. 1992 Apr;30(4):339-41. Antimutagenic activity of Terminalia
           chebula (myroblan) in Salmonella typhimurium. Grover IS, Bala S.


    -      Indian J Med Sci. 1989 May;43(5):113-7. Screening of in vitro antibacterial activity
           of Terminalia chebula, Eclapta alba and Ocimum sanctum. Phadke SA, Kulkarni SD.

    -      Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2005 Jun;56(4):287-91.Phenolic contents and antioxidant
           activity of some food and medicinal plants. Bajpai M, Pande A, Tewari SK, Prakash
           D.

    -      J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2005;24(3):193-200. Evaluation of genotoxicity of
           medicinal plant extracts by the comet and VITOTOX tests. Arora S, Brits E, Kaur S,
           Kaur K, Sohi RS, Kumar S, Verschaeve L.

    -      Phytother Res. 2004 Aug;18(8):670-3. Antimicrobial evaluation of some medicinal
           plants for their anti-enteric potential against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi.
           Rani P, Khullar N.

    -      Phytochemistry Volume 63, Issue 1, May 2003, Pages 97-104 Comparative
           antioxidant activity of individual herbal components used in Ayurvedic medicine. G.
           H. Naika, K. I. Priyadarsini J. G. Satavb, M. M. Banavalikarc, D. P. Sohonic, M. K.
           Biyanic and H. Mohana




                                                                                             101
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc

303. TERMINALIA CHEBULA. FRUIT RIND. URINARY & GLUCOSE METABOLISM
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.136
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/47
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/283
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.515
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.322
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.194

Animal studies
   -   Food Chemistry Volume 105, Issue 2, 2007, Pages 628-634. Inhibitory effect on α-
       glucosidase by the fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz.Hong Gaoa, Yi-Na Huangb,
       Pei-Yu Xub and Jun Kawabata

    -   BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2006, 6:17. Antidiabetic and
        renoprotective effects of the chloroform extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. seeds
        in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Nalamolu Koteswara Rao and Srinivas
        Nammi

    -   Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 2004, 19 (2) 202-204.
        ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACT OF DRY FRUITS OF
        TERMINALIA CHEBULA IN EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES MELLITUS. Y. K. Murali,
        Ramesh Chandra and P.S. Murthy

    -   Sabu MC, Kuttan R: Anti-diabetic activity of medicinalplants and ist relationship
        with their antioxidant property; J Ethnopharmacol 81 (2), pp 155-160, 2002

See also the antioxidant studies under Antioxidant, immunity, aging and energy.


304. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA. STEM. MENTAL & ADAPTOGENIC
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.229
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/256
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.302
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.189

Animal studies
   -   Rege NN, Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA: Adaptogenic properties of six Rasayana
       herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine; Phytother Res 13, pp 275-291, 1999

    -   BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2004, 4:11. Avinash K Rawal*,
        Manohar G Muddeshwar and Saibal K Biswas. Rubia cordifolia, Fagonia cretica linn
        and Tinospora cordifolia exert neuroprotection by modulating the antioxidant
        system in rat hippocampal slices subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation.

In vitro
    -     J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Jan 19;109(2):359-63. Epub 2006 Aug 4. Screening of
         selected Indian medicinal plants for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Vinutha
         B, Prashanth D, Salma K, Sreeja SL, Pratiti D, Padmaja R, Radhika S, Amit A,
         Venkateshwarlu K, Deepak M.


305. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA. STEM. SKIN
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.229
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/41
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/256
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.359
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.324
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.189

See also Liver and Immunity & antioxidant studies




                                                                                            102
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc

306. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA. STEM. LIVER & LIPID METABOLISM
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.229
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/41
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/256
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.359
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.302
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.189

Human studies (liver)
   -  Indian J Gastroenterol. 1993 Jan;12(1):5-8. Immunotherapy with Tinospora
      cordifolia: a new lead in the management of obstructive jaundice. Rege N, Bapat
      RD, Koti R, Desai NK, Dahanukar S.

Animal studies (liver)
   -   J Toxicol Sci. 2002 Aug;27(3):139-46. Hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory
       properties of Tinospora cordifolia in CCl4 intoxicated mature albino rats. Bishayi B,
       Roychowdhury S, Ghosh S, Sengupta M.

    -   J Postgrad Med. 1994 Apr-Jun;40(2):65-7. Modulation of Kupffer cell activity by
        Tinospora cordifolia in liver damage. Nagarkatti DS, Rege NN, Desai NK,
        Dahanukar SA.

    -   World J Gastroenterol. 2007 Jun 21;13(23):3199-205. Effects of four Indian
        medicinal herbs on Isoniazid-, Rifampicin- and Pyrazinamide-induced hepatic injury
        and immunosuppression in guinea pigs. Adhvaryu MR, Reddy N, Parabia MH.

Animal studies (cholesterol)
   -   Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 70, Issue 1, April 2000, Pages 9-15.
       Hypoglycaemic and other related actions of Tinospora cordifolia roots in alloxan-
       induced diabetic rats. P. Stanely, Mainzen Prince and Venugopal P. Menon

    -   Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 64, Issue 1, 1 January 1998, Pages 53-57.
        Hypolipidaemic action of Tinospora cordifolia roots in alloxan diabetic rats. P.
        Stanely Mainzen Prince, Venugopal P. Menon* and G. Gunasekaran

    -   Phytotherapy research. Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 410-413. Hypoglycaemic and
        hypolipidaemic action of alcohol extract of Tinospora cordifolia roots in chemical
        induced diabetes in rats. P. Stanely Mainzen Prince, Venugopal P. Menon.

    -   Phytother Res. 2003 Apr;17(4):410-3. Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic action of
        alcohol extract of Tinospora cordifolia roots in chemical induced diabetes in rats.
        Stanely Mainzen Prince P, Menon VP.


307. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA. STEM. GENITOURINARY, GLUCOSE METABOLISM
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.229
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/41
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/256
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.189

Animal studies
   -   Acta Pol Pharm. 2004 Jul-Aug;61(4):283-7. Restoration of antioxidants by
       ethanolic Tinospora cordifolia in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Prince PS,
       Kamalakkannan N, Menon VP.

    -   Planta Med. 1992 Apr;58(2):131-6. Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on blood glucose
        and total lipid levels of normal and alloxan-diabetic rabbits. Wadood N, Wadood A,
        Shah SA.

    -   Phytother Res. 2002 Dec;16(8):774-7. Prevention of experimental diabetic
        cataract by Indian Ayurvedic plant extracts. Rathi SS, Grover JK, Vikrant V, Biswas
        NR.




                                                                                            103
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
    -   Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Volume 73, Issue 3, December 2000, Pages 461-
        470Anti-hyperglycemic effect of Eugenia jambolana and Tinospora cordifolia in
        experimental diabetes and their effects on key metabolic enzymes involved in
        carbohydrate metabolism J. K. Grover, V. Vats and S. S. Rathi

    -   Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 Mar;40(3):273-6. Amelioration of experimental diabetic
        neuropathy and gastropathy in rats following oral administration of plant (Eugenia
        jambolana, Mucuna pruriens and Tinospora cordifolia) extracts. Grover JK, Rathi
        SS, Vats V.

See also analgesic effect in Tinospora cordifolia STEM Mental & adaptogen studies


308. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA. STEM. JOINTS & BONES
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.229
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/256
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.359
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.324
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.189

See also immunomodulatory and antioxidant effects in Tinospora cordifolia STEM Liver and
Immunity & antioxidant studies.


309. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA. STEM. IMMUNITY & ANTIOXIDANT
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/256
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.302
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.189

Human studies
   -  Indian J Med Sci. 2007 Jun;61(6):347-55. Immunomodulatory role of Tinospora
      cordifolia as an adjuvant in surgical treatment of diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective
      randomized controlled study. Purandare H, Supe A.

    -   J Vector Borne Dis. 2005 Mar;42(1):36-8. Tinospora cordifolia as an adjuvant
        drug in the treatment of hyper-reactive malarious splenomegaly--case reports.
        Singh RK.

Animal studies
   -   Rege NN, Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA: Adaptogenic properties of sic Rasayana
       herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine; Phytother Res 13, pp 275-291, 1999. Phytother
       Res. 1999 Jun;13(4):275-91.

    -   J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 1997 Dec;16(4):407-11. Antioxidant activity of Tinospora
        cordifolia and its usefulness in the amelioration of cyclophosphamide induced
        toxicity. Mathew S, Kuttan G.

    -   Int Immunopharmacol. 2007 Oct;7(10):1375-86. Epub 2007 Jun 29.G1-4A, an
        immunomodulatory polysaccharide from Tinospora cordifolia, modulates
        macrophage responses and protects mice against lipopolysaccharide induced
        endotoxic shock. Desai VR, Ramkrishnan R, Chintalwar GJ, Sainis KB.

    -   Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Volume 23, Issue 2, March 2007,
        Pages 212-220. Induction of caspase-3 activated DNase mediated apoptosis by
        hexane fraction of Tinospora cordifolia in EAT cells. G. Thippeswamy and B.P.
        Salimath

    -   Phytomedicine. 2006 Jan;13(1-2):74-84. Epub 2005 Jun 29. Tinospora cordifolia
        induces enzymes of carcinogen/drug metabolism and antioxidant system, and
        inhibits lipid peroxidation in mice. Singh RP, Banerjee S, Kumar PV, Raveesha KA,
        Rao AR.




                                                                                        104
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -   Indian J Exp Biol. 2006 Sep;44(9):726-32. Immunostimulatory effect of Tinospora
       cordifolia Miers leaf extract in Oreochromis mossambicus. Sudhakaran DS,
       Srirekha P, Devasree LD, Premsingh S, Michael RD.

   -   BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2004, 4:11. Avinash K Rawal*,
       Manohar G Muddeshwar and Saibal K Biswas. Rubia cordifolia, Fagonia cretica linn
       and Tinospora cordifolia exert neuroprotection by modulating the antioxidant
       system in rat hippocampal slices subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation

   -   Acta Pol Pharm. 2004 Jul-Aug;61(4):283-7. Restoration of antioxidants by
       ethanolic Tinospora cordifolia in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Prince PS,
       Kamalakkannan N, Menon VP.

   -   J Radiat Res (Tokyo). 2004 Mar;45(1):61-8. Radioprotective potential of an herbal
       extract of Tinospora cordifolia. Goel HC, Prasad J, Singh S, Sagar RK, Agrawala PK,
       Bala M, Sinha AK, Dogra R.

   -   J Toxicol Sci. 2002 Aug;27(3):139-46. Hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory
       properties of Tinospora cordifolia in CCl4 intoxicated mature albino rats. Bishayi B,
       Roychowdhury S, Ghosh S, Sengupta M.

   -   Redox Rep. 2002;7(3):137-43. Antioxidant properties of a Tinospora cordifolia
       polysaccharide against iron-mediated lipid damage and gamma-ray induced
       protein damage. Subramanian M, Chintalwar GJ, Chattopadhyay S.

   -   Phytother Res. 2001 May;15(3):213-8. Antioxidant action of Tinospora cordifolia
       root extract in alloxan diabetic rats. Stanely Mainzen Prince P, Menon VP.

   -   Fitoterapia Volume 71, Issue 3, 1 June 2000, Pages 254-257. Comparative studies
       of the immunomodulatory activity of Tinospora cordifolia and Tinospora sinensis. P.
       N. Manjreka, C. I. Jolly and S. Narayanan

   -   World J Gastroenterol. 2007 Jun 21;13(23):3199-205. Effects of four Indian
       medicinal herbs on Isoniazid-, Rifampicin- and Pyrazinamide-induced hepatic injury
       and immunosuppression in guinea pigs. Adhvaryu MR, Reddy N, Parabia MH.

In vitro
    -    J Radiat Res (Tokyo). 2007 Jul;48(4):305-15. Epub 2007 Jun 5. Effect of Tinospora
         cordifolia on gamma ray-induced perturbations in macrophages and splenocytes.
         Singh L, Tyagi S, Rizvi MA, Goel HC.

   -   Int Immunopharmacol. 2006 Dec 5;6(12):1815-24. Epub 2006 Aug 28. Mechanism
       of macrophage activation by (1,4)-alpha-D-glucan isolated from Tinospora
       cordifolia. Nair PK, Melnick SJ, Ramachandran R, Escalon E, Ramachandran C.

   -   Int Immunopharmacol. 2004 Dec 15;4(13):1645-59. Immune stimulating
       properties of a novel polysaccharide from the medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia.
       Nair PK, Rodriguez S, Ramachandran R, Alamo A, Melnick SJ, Escalon E, Garcia PI
       Jr, Wnuk SF, Ramachandran C.

   -   Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2004 Feb;26(1):145-62. Immunomodulatory
       and antitumor actions of medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia are mediated through
       activation of tumor-associated macrophages. Singh N, Singh SM, Shrivastava P.

   -   Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 Jun;40(6):727-34. Free radical scavenging and metal
       chelation by Tinospora cordifolia, a possible role in radioprotection. Goel HC, Prem
       Kumar I, Rana SV.


310. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA. STEM. RESPIRATORY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/256
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.359
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.302
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.324




                                                                                            105
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
Human studies
   -  J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jan 15;96(3):445-9. Epub 2004 Nov 23. Efficacy of
      Tinospora cordifolia in allergic rhinitis. Badar VA, Thawani VR, Wakode PT,
      Shrivastava MP, Gharpure KJ, Hingorani LL, Khiyani RM.


311. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS. FRUIT. URINARY AND REPRODUCTIVE.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/229


312. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS. FRUIT. DIGESTION.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/229


313. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS. FRUIT. RESPIRATORY.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/229


314. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS. FRUIT. NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/229


315. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS. FRUIT. IMMUNITY.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/229


316. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS. FRUIT. CARDIOVASCULAR.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/229


317. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS. FRUIT. GENERAL HEALTH.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/229


318. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS. FRUIT. MOUTH.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/229


319. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS. FRUIT. SKIN.
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/229


320. TRIGONELLA FOENUM-GRAECUM. SEED. POSTPARTUM CARE, ELIMINATION AND MENSES
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.148
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4/404
            -   BHC Vol. 2 p.154
            -   BHMA Guide p.103
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.700
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.315
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.177
            -   Potters New Cyclopaedia p.118


321. TRIGONELLA FOENUM-GRAECUM. SEED. SUGAR METABOLISM
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.148


                                                                                    106
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
           -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4/404

Review
   -   Saxena, Abha, Vikram and Naval Kishore (2004) - Role of selected Indian plants in
       management of type 2 diabetes, Journal of Alternative and Complementary
       Medicine 10, 369-378.

Human studies
   -  Kochhar, Anita and Malkit Nagi (2005) - Effect of supplementation of traditional
      medicinal plants on blood glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetics: a pilot study,
      Journal of Medicinal Food 8, 4, 545-549.

   -   Sharma, D.C., T.C. Raghuram and N.S. Rao (1990) - Effect of fenugreek seeds on
       blood glucose and serum lipids in type-I diabetes, European Journal of Clinical
       Nutrition 44, 4, 301-306.

   -   Sharma, R.D. (1986) - Effect of fenugreek seeds and leaves on blood glucose and
       serum insulin responses in human subjects, Nutr. Research 6, 12, 1353-1364.

Animal studies
   -   Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16 Suppl 1:422-6. Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum
       (fenugreek) extract on blood glucose, blood lipid and hemorheological properties in
       streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Xue WL, Li XS, Zhang J, Liu YH, Wang ZL,
       Zhang RJ.

   -   Al-habbori M, Raman A 1998 Anti-diabetic and hypocholesterolaemic effects of
       fenugreek. Phytotherapy Research 12(4):233

   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Sep;88(1):73-7. Effect of soluble dietary fibre fraction of
       Trigonella foenum graecum on glycemic, insulinemic, lipidemic and platelet
       aggregation status of Type 2 diabetic model rats. Hannan JM, Rokeya B, Faruque
       O, Nahar N, Mosihuzzaman M, Azad Khan AK, Ali L.

   -   Ajabnoor, Mohammad Ali and Abdul Karim Tilmisany (1988) - Effect of Trigonella
       foenum graecum on blood glucose levels in normal and alloxan-diabetic mice,
       Journal of Ethnopharmacology 22, 1, 45-49.

   -   Ali, Liaqat, Abdul Kalam Azad Khan, Zahid Hassan, Mohammed Mosihuzzaman,
       Nilufar Nahar, Tahmina Nasreen, Muhammad Nur-e-Alam and Begum Rokeya
       (1995) - Characterization of the hypoglycemic effects of Trigonella foenum
       graecum seed, Planta Medica 61, 4, 358-360.

   -   Genet, S., R.K. Kale and N.Z. Baquer (1999) - Effects of vanadate, insulin and
       fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) on creatine kinase levels in tissues of
       diabetic rat, IJEB 37, 2, 200.

   -   Ghafghazi, T., H.S. Sheriat, T. Dastmalchi and R.C. Barnett (1977) - Antagonism of
       cadmium and alloxan-induced hyperglycaemia in rats by Trigonella foenum-
       graecum, Pahlavi Medical Journal 8, 1, 14-25.

   -   Khan, Alam and Richard A. Anderson (2003) - Insulin potentiating factor (IPF)
       present in food, spices and natural products, Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 2, 4,
       254-257.

   -   Khosla, P., D.D. Gupta and R.K. Nagpal (1995a) - Effect of Trigonella foenum-
       graecum (fenugreek) on blood glucose in normal and diabetic rats, Indian Journal
       of Physiology and Pharmacology 39, 2, 173-174.

   -   Mishkinsky, J.S., A. Goldschmied, B. Joseph, Z. Abronson and F.G. Sulman (1974)
       - Hypoglycaemic effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum and Lupinus termis
       (Leguminosae) seeds and their major alkaloids in alloxan-diabetic and normal rats,
       Arch. Intern. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 210, 1, 27-37.

   -   Murthy, R.R., P.S. Murthy and K. Prabhu (1990) - Effects on blood glucose and
       serum insulin levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits by fraction G.H. of
       Trigonella foenum-graecum, Biomedicine 10, 1, 25-29.


                                                                                           107
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc

   -   Raju, J., D. Gupta, A.R. Rao et al. (2001) - Trigonella foenum-graecum
       (fenugreek) seed powder improves glucose homeostasis in alloxan diabetic rat
       tissues by reversing the altered glycolytic, gluconeogenic and lipogenic enzymes,
       Mol. Cell. Biochem. 224, 1/2, 45.

   -   Sabu, M.C. and R. Kuttan (2003) - Antioxidant activity of Indian herbal drugs in
       rats with alloxan-induced diabetes, Pharmaceutical Biology 41, 7, 500-505.

   -   Vats, V., J.K. Grover and S.S. Rathi (2002) - Evaluation of anti-hyperglycemic and
       hypoglycemic effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn., Ocimum sanctum Linn.
       and Pterocarpus marsupium Linn. in normal and alloxanized diabetic rats, Journal
       of Ethnopharmacology 79, 1, 95-100.

   -   Vats, V., S.P. Yadav, N.R. Biswas and J.K. Grover (2004) - Anti-cataract activity of
       Pterocarpus marsupium bark and Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds extract in
       alloxan-diabetic rats, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 93, 2/3, 289-294

   -   Zia, Tayyaba, S. Nazrul Hasnain and S.K. Hasan (2001) - Evaluation of the oral
       hyperglycaemic effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (methi) in normal mice,
       Journal of Ethnopharmacology 75, 2/3, 191-195.


322. TRIGONELLA FOENUM-GRAECUM. SEED. LIPID METABOLISM
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 4/404
            -   BHC Vol. 2 p.154
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.700
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.315
            -   Herbal Medicines: Newall/Anderson/Phillipson p.117
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.177
Review
   -    Basch E, Ulbricht C, Kuo G, Szapary P and Smith M. Therapeutic Applications of
        Fenugreek. Altern. Med. Rev. 2003,8,20-27

Human studies
   -  Sharma, D.C., T.C. Raghuram and N.S. Rao (1990) - Effect of fenugreek seeds on
      blood glucose and serum lipids in type-I diabetes, European Journal of Clinical
      Nutrition 44, 4, 301-306.


Animal studies
   -   Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16 Suppl 1:422-6. Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum
       (fenugreek) extract on blood glucose, blood lipid and hemorheological properties in
       streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Xue WL, Li XS, Zhang J, Liu YH, Wang ZL,
       Zhang RJ.

   -   Int J Obes (Lond). 2006 Aug;30(8):1298-307. Epub 2006 Feb 14. Alleviation of
       hepatic steatosis accompanied by modulation of plasma and liver TNF-alpha levels
       by Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) seeds in Zucker obese (fa/fa) rats. Raju
       J, Bird RP.

   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Sep;88(1):73-7. Effect of soluble dietary fibre fraction of
       Trigonella foenum graecum on glycemic, insulinemic, lipidemic and platelet
       aggregation status of Type 2 diabetic model rats.
       Hannan JM, Rokeya B, Faruque O, Nahar N, Mosihuzzaman M, Azad Khan AK, Ali L.

   -   Br J Nutr. 1993 Jan;69(1):277-87. The effect of an ethanol extract derived from
       fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) on bile acid absorption and cholesterol
       levels in rats. Stark A, Madar Z.

   -   Al-Habori, Molham and Amala Raman (1998) - Antidiabetic and
       hypocholesterolaemic effects of fenugreek, Phytotherapy Research 12, 4, 233-242.

   -   Singhal, P.C., R.K. Gupta and L.D. Joshi (1982) - Hypocholesterolemic effect of
       Trigonella foenum graecum (methi), Current Science 51, 3, 136-137.


                                                                                         108
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc

In vitro
    -    Bhatnagar, S.C., G. Misra, S.K. Nigam, C.R. Mitra and L.D. Kapoor (1975) -
         Diosgenin from Balanites roxburghii and Trigonella foenumgraecum, Quarterly
         Journal of Crude Drug Research 13, 3/4, 122-126.

Bhavsar, G.C., N.S. Kapadia and N.M. Patel (1980) - Studies on Trigonella foenumgraecum
(Linn.), Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 42, 2, 39-40.


323. VITEX NEGUNDO. BARK. NERVOUS SYSTEM
Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
   -    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1 Vol 4, p 76
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3, p 450 ff
   -    Indian Medicinal Plants. Pranjpe, p. 190
   -    Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p. 413
   -    Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants, Khare, p. 474
   -    Indian Materia Medica. Nadkarni, P. 1278

Individual studies
    -   Gupta M, Mazumder UK, Bhawal SR. CNS activity of Vitex negundo Linn. in mice.
        Indian J Exp Biol (India), Feb 1999, 37(2) p143-6
    -   Shrivastava SC, Sisodia CS. Analgesic studies on Vitex negundo and Valeriana
        wallichii. Indian Vet J (India), Feb 1970, 47(2) p170-5
    -   Gupta RK, Tandon VR. Antinociceptive activity of Vitex-negundo Linn leaf extract.
        Indian J Physiol Pharmacol (India), Apr 2005, 49(2) p163-70


324. VITEX NEGUNDO. BARK. GENERAL STRENGTH
Authoritative body, textbooks etc:
   -    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1 Vol 4, p 76
   -    Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3, p 450 ff
   -    Indian Medicinal Plants. Pranjpe, p. 190
   -    Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p. 413
   -    Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants, Khare, p. 474
   -    Indian Materia Medica. Nadkarni, P. 1278


325. VITEX NEGUNDO. BARK. ANTIOXIDANT
Individual studies:
    -   Tiwari, O.P. / Tripathi, Y.B. , Antioxidant properties of different fractions of Vitex
        negundo Linn. Food Chemistry, 100 (3), p.1170-1176, Jan 2007


326. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA. ROOT. MENTAL, STRESS & SLEEP
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.278
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/15
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/88
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.302
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.321
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.337
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.133
            -   Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy: Mills/Bone p.595

Review
   -   Altern Med Rev. 2000 Aug;5(4):334-46. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of
       Withania somnifera (ashwagandha): a review. Mishra LC, Singh BB, Dagenais S.

Animal studies
   -   Rege NN, Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA: Adaptogenic properties of sic Rasayana
       herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine; Phytother Res 13, pp 275-291, 1999.

    -   Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006 Oct-Dec;50(4):409-15. Effect of Withania
        somnifera on forced swimming test induced immobility in mice and its interaction
        with various drugs. Shah PC, Trivedi NA, Bhatt JD, Hemavathi KG.


                                                                                             109
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc

    -   Indian J Exp Biol. 2007 Jun;45(6):524-8. Protective effect of Withania somnifera
        Dunal on the behavioral and biochemical alterations in sleep-disturbed mice (Grid
        over water suspended method). Kumar A, Kalonia H.

    -   Int Immunopharmacol. 2006 Sep;6(9):1394-403. Epub 2006 May 8. Augmentation
        and proliferation of T lymphocytes and Th-1 cytokines by Withania somnifera in
        stressed mice. Khan B, Ahmad SF, Bani S, Kaul A, Suri KA, Satti NK, Athar M, Qazi
        GN.

    -   Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Nov;1056:261-78. Antiulcer and antioxidant activity of
        Asparagus racemosus Willd and Withania somnifera Dunal in rats. Bhatnagar M,
        Sisodia SS, Bhatnagar R.

    -   Phytother Res. 2006 Feb;20(2):140-6. Effect of Withania somnifera root extract on
        reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia and cognitive dysfunction. Naidu PS, Singh
        A, Kulkarni SK.

    -   Hum Exp Toxicol. 2005 Mar;24(3):137-47. Neuroprotective effects of Withania
        somnifera on 6-hydroxydopamine induced Parkinsonism in rats. Ahmad M, Saleem
        S, Ahmad AS, Ansari MA, Yousuf S, Hoda MN, Islam F.

    -   Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior Volume 75, Issue 3, June 2003, Pages
        547-555. Adaptogenic activity of Withania somnifera: an experimental study using
        a rat model of chronic stress. S. K. Bhattacharyaa and A. V. Muruganandam

    -   Phytother Res. 2001 Sep;15(6):524-8. Nootropic-like effect of ashwagandha
        (Withania somnifera L.) in mice. Dhuley JN.

In vitro
    -    J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Jan 19;109(2):359-63. Epub 2006 Aug 4. Screening of
         selected Indian medicinal plants for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Vinutha
         B, Prashanth D, Salma K, Sreeja SL, Pratiti D, Padmaja R, Radhika S, Amit A,
         Venkateshwarlu K, Deepak M.

    -   Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2004 Nov;52(11):1358-6. Cholinesterase inhibiting
        withanolides from Withania somnifera. Choudhary MI, Yousuf S, Nawaz SA, Ahmed
        S, Atta-ur-Rahman .

    -   Phytother Res. 2003 May;17(5):531-6. Adaptogenic activity of a novel withanolide-
        free aqueous fraction from the roots of Withania somnifera Dun. (Part II). Singh B,
        Chandan BK, Gupta DK.

    -   Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2002 Jun;50(6):760-5. Withanolide derivatives from the
        roots of Withania somnifera and their neurite outgrowth activities. Zhao J,
        Nakamura N, Hattori M, Kuboyama T, Tohda C, Komatsu K.

See also the antioxidant studies under Immunity


327. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA. ROOT. ENERGY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.278
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/15
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/88
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.337
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.133
            -   Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy: Mills/Bone p.595

Animal studies
   -   Phytother Res. 2000 Jun;14(4):288-90. The effect of extracts of Cynomorium
       coccineum and Withania somnifera on gonadotrophins and ovarian follicles of
       immature Wistar rats. Al-Qarawi AA, Abdel-Rahman HA, El-Badry AA, Harraz F,
       Razig NA, Abdel-Magied EM.




                                                                                           110
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc

328. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA. ROOT. RESPIRATORY
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/15
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/88
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.302
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.337
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.133

Ssee also all the Immunity studies


329. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA. ROOT. REJUVENATION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.278
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/15
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/88
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.133

Review
   -   Altern Med Rev. 2000 Aug;5(4):334-46. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of
       Withania somnifera (ashwagandha): a review. Mishra LC, Singh BB, Dagenais S.

Animal studies
   -   Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 Jun;147(2):308-13. Epub 2007
       Jan 31. Protective effect of Withania somnifera (Solanaceae) on collagen glycation
       and cross-linking. Babu PV, Gokulakrishnan A, Dhandayuthabani R, Ameethkhan D,
       Kumar CV, Ahamed MI.

   -   Rejuvenation Res. 2005 Spring;8(1):37-45. Genetically modified hairy roots of
       Withania somnifera Dunal: a potent source of rejuvenating principles. Kumar V,
       Murthy KN, Bhamid S, Sudha CG, Ravishankar GA.

See also the antioxidant studies under Immunity


330. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA. ROOT. REPRODUCTION
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.278
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/15
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/88
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.302
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.337
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.133
            -   Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy: Mills/Bone p.595
Review
   -    Altern Med Rev. 2000 Aug;5(4):334-46. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of
        Withania somnifera (ashwagandha): a review. Mishra LC, Singh BB, Dagenais S.

Animal studies
   -   Asian J Androl. 2002 Dec;4(4):295-8. Effect of Withania somnifera root extract on
       the sexual behaviour of male rats. Ilayperuma I, Ratnasooriya WD, Weerasooriya
       TR.

   -   Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 75, Issue 1, April 2001, Pages 1-4 The
       effect of aqueous extracts of Cynomorium coccineum and Withania somnifera on
       testicular development in immature Wistar rats. E. M. Abdel-Magied, H. A. Abdel-
       Rahman and F. M. Harraz

See also the antioxidant and immunity studies.


331. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA. ROOT. SKIN
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.278
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/88


                                                                                      111
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
           -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.302
           -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.337

See also antioxidant studies under Immunity & antioxidanty .


332. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA. ROOT. IMMUNITY & ANTIOXIDANT
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/15
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/88
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.302
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.321
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.337
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.133
            -   Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy: Mills/Bone p.595

Review
   -   Altern Med Rev. 2000 Aug;5(4):334-46. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of
       Withania somnifera (ashwagandha): a review. Mishra LC, Singh BB, Dagenais S.

Animal studies
   -   Rege NN, Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA: Adaptogenic properties of sic Rasayana
       herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine;
   -   Phytother Res 13, pp 275-291, 1999

   -   Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Apr;21(2):157-64. Protective effect of Withania
       somnifera root powder in relation to lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status,
       glycoproteins and bone collagen on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Rasool M,
       Varalakshmi P.

   -   Life Sci. 2007 Mar 27;80(16):1525-38. Epub 2007 Jan 25. A standardized root
       extract of Withania somnifera and its major constituent withanolide-A elicit
       humoral and cell-mediated immune responses by up regulation of Th1-dominant
       polarization in BALB/c mice. Malik F, Singh J, Khajuria A, Suri KA, Satti NK, Singh
       S, Kaul MK, Kumar A, Bhatia A, Qazi GN.

   -   Chem Biol Interact. 2006 Dec 15;164(3):174-80. Epub 2006 Nov 7. Suppressive
       effect of Withania somnifera root powder on experimental gouty arthritis: An in
       vivo and in vitro study. Rasool M, Varalakshmi P.

   -   Vascul Pharmacol. 2006 Jun;44(6):406-10. Epub 2006 May 18.
       Immunomodulatory role of Withania somnifera root powder on experimental
       induced inflammation: An in vivo and in vitro study. Rasool M, Varalakshmi P.

   -   Phytomedicine. 2007 Feb;14(2-3):136-42. Epub 2006 May 18. Hypocholesteremic
       and antioxidant effects of Withania somnifera (Dunal) in hypercholesteremic rats.
       Visavadiya NP, Narasimhacharya AV.

   -   Int Immunopharmacol. 2006 Oct;6(10):1535-42. Epub 2006 Apr 27. Prophylactic
       administration of Withania somnifera extract increases host resistance in Listeria
       monocytogenes infected mice. Teixeira ST, Valadares MC, Gonçalves SA, de Melo
       A, Queiroz ML.

   -   Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Nov;1056:261-78. Antiulcer and antioxidant activity of
       Asparagus racemosus Willd and Withania somnifera Dunal in rats. Bhatnagar M,
       Sisodia SS, Bhatnagar R.

   -   Chem Biol Interact. 2006 Feb 25;159(3):180-5. Epub 2005 Dec 22. Enhancement
       of antitumor effect of paclitaxel in combination with immunomodulatory Withania
       somnifera on benzo(a)pyrene induced experimental lung cancer. Senthilnathan P,
       Padmavathi R, Banu SM, Sakthisekaran D.

   -   Cancer Sci. 2006 Jul;97(7):658-64. Chemotherapeutic efficacy of paclitaxel in
       combination with Withania somnifera on benzo(a)pyrene-induced experimental
       lung cancer. Senthilnathan P, Padmavathi R, Magesh V, Sakthisekaran D.




                                                                                       112
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -    International Immunopharmacology Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2004, Pages 841-
        849. Immune response modulation to DPT vaccine by aqueous extract of Withania
        somnifera in experimental system. M. Gautam, S. S. Diwanay S. Gairola, Y. S.
        Shinde3, S. S. Jadhav3 and B. K. Patwardhan

In vitro studies
    -    Life Sciences Volume 72, Issue 14, 21 February 2003, Pages 1617-1625.
         Induction of nitric oxide synthase expression by Withania somnifera in
         macrophages. Teresa Iuvone, Giuseppe Esposito, Francesco Capasso and Angelo A.
         Izzo

   -    J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Aug 11;107(1):107-15. Epub 2006 Apr 5. Selective Th1
        up-regulating activity of Withania somnifera aqueous extract in an experimental
        system using flow cytometry. Bani S, Gautam M, Sheikh FA, Khan B, Satti NK, Suri
        KA, Qazi GN, Patwardhan B.


333. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA. ROOT. JOINTS & BONES
Authoritative body, textbooks etc
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.278
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1:1/15
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3/88
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.302
            -   CRC Handbook: Kapoor p.337
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.133

Human studies
   -  J Biosci. 2007 Mar;32(2):299-307. Chondroprotective potential of root extracts of
      Withania somnifera in osteoarthritis. Sumantran VN, Kulkarni A, Boddul S,
      Chinchwade T, Koppikar SJ, Harsulkar A, Patwardhan B, Chopra A, Wagh UV.

Animal studies
   -   Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Apr;21(2):157-64. Protective effect of Withania
       somnifera root powder in relation to lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status,
       glycoproteins and bone collagen on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Rasool M,
       Varalakshmi P.

   -    J Pharm Pharmacol. 2006 Apr;58(4):513-9. Withania somnifera improves bone
        calcification in calcium-deficient ovariectomized rats. Nagareddy PR, Lakshmana M.

   -    Indian J Exp Biol. 1988 Nov;26(11):877-82. Long term effect of herbal drug
        Withania somnifera on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. Begum VH, Sadique J.


334. ZINGIBER OFFICINALIS. RHIZOME. DIGESTION & NAUSEA
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.136
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1/103, 2/12
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/316
            -   WHO monographs Vol. 1 /277
            -   BHMA Guide p.110
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.314
            -   Herbal Medicines: Newall/Anderson/Phillipson p.135
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.183
Reviews
   -    Ernst E, Pittler MH. Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review
        of randomized clinical trials. Br J Anaesth 2000;84:367-71

   -    Verma SK, Bordia A. Ginger, fat and fibrinolysis. Indian J Med Sci 2001;55:83-6

   -    Langner E, Greifenberg S, Gruenwald J. Ginger: history and use. Adv Ther
        1998;15:25-44

   -    American Family Physician. June 1, 2007 Vol. 75 No. 11. Ginger: An Overview.
        BRETT WHITE, MD.




                                                                                         113
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -   American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Volume 194, Issue 1, January
       2006, Pages 95-99
   -   The efficacy of ginger for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: A
       meta-analysis. Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk , Nantawarn Kitikannakorn , Surakit
       Nathisuwan, Kittiboon Leeprakobboon and Chutchai Leelasettagool.

Human studies
   -  Mowrey DB, Clayson DE. Motion sickness, ginger, and psychophysics. Lancet
      1982;1:655-7

   -   Grontved A, Brask T, Kambskard J, Hentzer E. Ginger root against seasickness. A
       controlled trial on the open sea. Acta Otolaryngol 1988;105:45-9

   -   .Stewart JJ, Wood MJ, Wood CD, Mims ME. Effects of ginger on motion sickness
       susceptibility and gastric function. Pharmacology 1991;42:111-20.

   -   Wood CD, Manno JE, Wood MJ, Manno BR, Mims ME. Comparison of efficacy of
       ginger with various antimotion sickness drugs. Clin Res Pr Drug Regul Aff
       1988;6:129-36.

   -   Borrelli F, Capasso R, Aviello G, Pittler MH, Izzo AA. Effectiveness and safety of
       ginger in the treatment of pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting. Obstet
       Gynecol 2005;105:849-56.

   -   Jewell D, Young G. Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy.
       Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003;(4):CD000145.

   -   Chaiyakunapruk N, Kitikannakorn N, Nathisuwan S, Leeprakobboon K,
       Leelasettagool C. The efficacy of ginger for the prevention of postoperative nausea
       and vomiting: a meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006;194:95-9

   -   Manusirivithaya S, Sripramote M, Tangjitgamol S, Sheanakul C, Leelahakorn S,
       Thavaramara T, et al. Antiemetic effect of ginger in gynecologic oncology patients
       receiving cisplatin. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2004;14:1063-9.

Animal studies
   -   Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2006 Jun;84(2):179-88. Epub 2006 Jun 21.Zingiber
       officinale exhibits behavioral radioprotection against radiation-induced CTA in a
       gender-specific manner. Haksar A, Sharma A, Chawla R, Kumar R, Arora R, Singh
       S, Prasad J, Gupta M, Tripathi RP, Arora MP, Islam F, Sharma RK.

   -   Indian J Exp Biol. 2005 Dec;43(12):1161-4. Beneficial effects of Zingiber officinale
       Roscoe on fructose induced hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia in rats. Kadnur
       SV, Goyal RK.

   -   Fitoterapia. Volume 77, Issue 3, April 2006, Pages 160-163. Beneficial effects of
       Zingiber officinale on goldthioglucose induced obesity. Ramesh K. Goyal and
       Sanjay V. Kadnur

   -   J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Feb 28;97(2):227-30. Effect of ethanolic extract of
       Zingiber officinale on dyslipidaemia in diabetic rats. Bhandari U, Kanojia R, Pillai KK

   -   Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2004 Aug;19(4):422-35. Ginger (Zingiber officinale
       Rosc.), a dietary supplement, protects mice against radiation-induced lethality:
       mechanism of action. Jagetia G, Baliga M, Venkatesh P.

   -   Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2001 Nov;23(9):501-3. Reversal of pyrogallol-
       induced delay in gastric emptying in rats by ginger (Zingiber officinale). Gupta YK,
       Sharma M.


335. ZINGIBER OFFICINALIS. RHIZOME. IMMUNITY AND ANTIOXIDANT
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1/103, 2/12
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/316
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.314


                                                                                            114
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
            -    Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.329
            -    Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.183

Animal studies
   -   Food Chem Toxicol. 2007 Jun;45(6):921-7. Epub 2006 Nov 29. Zingiber officinale
       Roscoe alone and in combination with alpha-tocopherol protect the kidney against
       cisplatin-induced acute renal failure.
       Ajith TA, Nivitha V, Usha S.

    -   Phytother Res. 2006 Nov;20(11):997-1002. Protective effects of Zingiber officinale
        (Zingiberaceae) against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen-induced
        hepatotoxicity in rats. Yemitan OK, Izegbu MC.

    -   Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2006 Jun;84(2):179-88. Epub 2006 Jun 21. Zingiber
        officinale exhibits behavioral radioprotection against radiation-induced CTA in a
        gender-specific manner. Haksar A, Sharma A, Chawla R, Kumar R, Arora R, Singh
        S, Prasad J, Gupta M, Tripathi RP, Arora MP, Islam F, Sharma RK.

    -   Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2004 Aug;19(4):422-35. Ginger (Zingiber officinale
        Rosc.), a dietary supplement, protects mice against radiation-induced lethality:
        mechanism of action. Jagetia G, Baliga M, Venkatesh P.

    -   Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. Volume 67, Issue 6,
        December 2002, Pages 475-478. The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) as a
        potential anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent. M. Thomson, K. K. Al-
        Qattan, S. M. Al-Sawan, M. A. Alnaqeeb, I. Khan and M. Ali

    -   East Afr Med J. 2002 Nov;79(11):588-92. Antibacterial effect of Zingiber officinale
        and Garcinia kola on respiratory tract pathogens. Akoachere JF, Ndip RN, Chenwi
        EB, Ndip LM, Njock TE, Anong DN.

In vitro studies
    -    Am J Chin Med. 2006;34(1):157-69. Macrophage-mediated inhibitory effect of
         Zingiber officinale Rosc, a traditional oriental herbal medicine, on the growth of
         influenza A/Aichi/2/68 virus. Imanishi N, Andoh T, Mantani N, Sakai S, Terasawa
         K, Shimada Y, Sato M, Katada Y, Ueda K, Ochiai H.

    -   Food Chemistry . Volume 102, Issue 3, 2007, Pages 764-770. Stoilova, A.
        Krastanov, A. Stoyanova, P. Denev and S. Gargova

    -   Arch Pharm Res. 2005 May;28(5):518-28. Isolation of a natural antioxidant,
        dehydrozingerone from Zingiber officinale and synthesis of its analogues for
        recognition of effective antioxidant and antityrosinase agents.
        Kuo PC, Damu AG, Cherng CY, Jeng JF, Teng CM, Lee EJ, Wu TS.


336. ZINGIBER OFFICINALIS. RHIZOME. COMFORT
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.136
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1/103, 2/12
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/316
            -   WHO monographs Vol. 1 /277
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.314
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.329
            -   Herbal Medicines: Newall/Anderson/Phillipson p.135
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.183
Human studies
   -    Altman RD, Marcussen KC. Effects of a ginger extract on knee pain in patients with
        osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2001;44:2531-8.

    -   AORN . Volume 83, Issue 5, May 2006, Pages 1135-1139. Orthopedic surgery pain
        control; ginger for postoperative nausea and vomiting; transfusion risks;
        anesthpsia for knee arthroscopy . George Allen

Animal studies




                                                                                         115
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
   -   Phytother Res. 2006 Sep;20(9):764-72. Analgesic, antiinflammatory and
       hypoglycaemic effects of ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale (Roscoe) rhizomes
       (Zingiberaceae) in mice and rats. Ojewole JA.

   -   Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2006 Jun;84(2):179-88. Epub 2006 Jun 21. Zingiber
       officinale exhibits behavioral radioprotection against radiation-induced CTA in a
       gender-specific manner. Haksar A, Sharma A, Chawla R, Kumar R, Arora R, Singh
       S, Prasad J, Gupta M, Tripathi RP, Arora MP, Islam F, Sharma RK.


337. ZINGIBER OFFICINALIS. RHIZOME. JOINTS
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Bhavaprakash/Sitaram B. p.136
            -   The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Pt. 1/103, 2/12
            -   Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol. 5/316
            -   WHO monographs Vol. 1 /277
            -   BHMA Guide p.110
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.314
            -   Major Herbs of Ayurveda: Dabur/Williamson p.329
            -   Herbal Medicines: Newall/Anderson/Phillipson p.135
            -   Ayurvedic Medicine: Pole p.183

Review
   -   Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Nov;1056:206-17. Curcumin: getting back to the roots.
       Shishodia S, Sethi G, Aggarwal BB.

Human studies
   -  Bliddal H, Rosetzsky A, Schlichting P, Weidner MS, Andersen LA, Ibfelt HH, et al. A
      randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of ginger extracts and ibuprofen
      in osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2000;8:9-12.

   -   Srivastava KC, Mustafa T. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in rheumatism and
       musculoskeletal disorders. Med Hypotheses 1992;39:342-8.

Animal studies
   -   Phytother Res. 2006 Sep;20(9):764-72. Analgesic, antiinflammatory and
       hypoglycaemic effects of ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale (Roscoe) rhizomes
       (Zingiberaceae) in mice and rats. Ojewole JA.

   -   J Med Food. 2005 Summer;8(2):149-53. Comparative effects of ginger root
       (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) on the production of inflammatory mediators in normal
       and osteoarthrotic sow chondrocytes. Shen CL, Hong KJ, Kim SW

In vitro
    -    J Med Food. 2005 Summer;8(2):149-53. Comparative effects of ginger root
         (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) on the production of inflammatory mediators in normal
         and osteoarthrotic sow chondrocytes.
         Shen CL, Hong KJ, Kim SW.


338. ZINGIBER OFFICINALIS. RHIZOME. MENTAL
Authoritative body, textbooks etc.
            -   Ayurvedic Pharmacology: Gogte p.314

Animal studies
   -   Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2006 Jun;84(2):179-88. Epub 2006 Jun 21.Zingiber
       officinale exhibits behavioral radioprotection against radiation-induced CTA in a
       gender-specific manner. Haksar A, Sharma A, Chawla R, Kumar R, Arora R, Singh
       S, Prasad J, Gupta M, Tripathi RP, Arora MP, Islam F, Sharma RK.

   -   Phytotherapy Re. 2002 Jun;16(4):312-5. Enhanced conditioned inhibitory
       avoidance by a combined extract of Zingiber officinale and Ginkgo biloba. Topic B,
       Hasenöhrl RU, Häcker R, Huston JP.

   -   Neurobiol Aging. 2002 Jan-Feb;23(1):135-43. Enhanced maze performance and
       reduced oxidative stress by combined extracts of zingiber officinale and ginkgo


                                                                                        116
5bbc1f64-4e93-4b6c-acd8-a75d21fad459.doc
       biloba in the aged rat. Topic B, Tani E, Tsiakitzis K, Kourounakis PN, Dere E,
       Hasenöhrl RU, Häcker R, Mattern CM, Huston JP.

   -   Phytother Res. 2002 Nov;16(7):621-6. Anxiolytic and antiemetic activity of
       Zingiber officinale.
       Vishwakarma SL, Pal SC, Kasture VS, Kasture SB.

   -   Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1998 Feb;59(2):527-35. Dissociation between
       anxiolytic and hypomnestic effects for combined extracts of zingiber officinale and
       ginkgo biloba, as opposed to diazepam. Hasenöhrl RU, Topic B, Frisch C, Häcker R,
       Mattern CM, Huston JP




                                                                                        117

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:118
posted:5/22/2012
language:English
pages:117
zhaonedx zhaonedx http://
About