GIS Lecture02 MapDesign2011

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					                   Lecture 2: Map Design




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                GIS 1
                   Map Design

                  •Art of designing maps

                  •Choice of symbols, colors, text, patterns

                  •Arrangements of graphic elements in visual
                     display

                  •Aim of achieving communication


                                                     2
GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                                     GIS 2
                   Vector GIS

             Point, line, and polygon features
               •Point has x,y coordinates
               •Line has a starting and ending point and may
                  have additional shape vertices (points)
               •Polygon has three or more lines joined to
                  form a closed area




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                                    GIS 3
                   Vector GIS

             Feature Attribute Tables
               •Stores characteristics for point, line, or polygon
                    map layers




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                                      GIS 4
                   Points
              Single events or features




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition               GIS 5
                   Point Guidelines
                  •Use simple shapes

                  •Use point markers that have boundary
                     lines and solid-color fill for important
                     points

                  •When using the size of point markers
                     to symbolize quantity, exaggerate the
                     differences in size

                                                    6
GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                                     GIS 6
                   Points
               Simple, solid shapes




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition           GIS 7
                   Points
              Same layer displayed as two points




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                        GIS 8
                   Exaggerated Point Sizes




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                  GIS 9
                   Lines
               Roads, streets, rivers, etc.




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                   GIS 10
                   Line Symbol Guidelines
            •For analytical maps, most lines are
                ground and should be black or shades
                of gray




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                            GIS 11
                   Polygons
               States, counties, buildings, parks,
               census tracts, etc.




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                          GIS 12
                   Polygon Symbol Guidelines
            • Consider using dark gray instead of
             black for boundaries of most polygons
            • Use texture for black and white prints




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                            GIS 13
                   Choropleth Maps
                     Color-coded polygons or patterns showing
                     different values




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                                     GIS 14
                   Classification Intervals
               Edit the classifications and layer properties




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                                    GIS 15
                   Original Map (Natural Breaks)

                              Uninsured U.S. Population, 2005




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                                     GIS 16
                   Custom Map (Equal Intervals)

                              Uninsured U.S. Population, 2005




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                                     GIS 17
                   Other Numeric Intervals
              Pittsburgh, PA: Neighborhood proportion under poverty and average BMI per
              neighborhood
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              BMI                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ( (
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                   18.5 - 24.9                                                                                                                          !
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                   25.0 - 29.9                                          !
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                   30.0+                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (
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             Percentage in Poverty                                                                                          (
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                    0 - 12.5%                                                                   (
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                    12.51% - 19.99%                                                                                                                                                                                             (
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                    20.0% - 39.99%                                                                                                              !
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                    40.0% - 70.10%                                                                                                                                                                                                          (
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     Data Sources: BRFSS data, 2000;City of Pgh City Planning Dept., U.S.
     Census 2000


GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      GIS 18
                   Color Overview
            One of the most effective graphic
            elements for communication of spatial
            information
              •Colors have meaning
                    - Cool colors calming, Warm colors exciting
                    - Cool colors appear smaller than warm colors
                      and they visually recede on the page so red can
                      visually overpower and stand out over blue even
                      if used in equal amounts

                    - Colors have political and cultural meanings
                                                        19
GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                                             GIS 19
                   Color Overview

      Hue is the basic color


      Value is the amount of white or black in the color


      Saturation refers to a color scale that ranges from a
      pure hue to gray or black




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                                GIS 20
                   Color Overview
                  •Monochromatic color scale is a series of
                     colors of the same hue with color value
                     varied from low to high




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                                    GIS 21
                   Customized ramps
               Customize the Properties of a layer




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                          GIS 22
                   Color Wheel Guidelines
            •Use opposite colors
                - those directly across from one another to differentiate
                graphic features


            •3 or 4 colors equally spaced
                - good for differentiating
                    graphic features



            •Use adjacent colors for harmony
                - such as blue, blue green, and green or red, red-
                orange, and orange
                                                           23
GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                                                 GIS 23
                   Contrasting and Non-contrasting Colors




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                             GIS 24
                   Dichromatic Color Scale
                  • Two monochromatic scales joined together with a low
                     color in the center, color increasing toward both ends

                  • Natural middle-point, such as 0 for some quantities
                     (profits and losses, increases and decreases)




                                                             25
GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                                                   GIS 25
                   Change Map Example




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition             GIS 26
                   Color Spots
               White background allows color spot to
               be visualized



                                     0903

                              0604           0809

                                      0802
                              0605
                                              0804
                                     0507 0810




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                            GIS 27
                   Color Spot Ramp




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition          GIS 28
                   Contrast
               Increase/Decrease Contrast

               The greater the difference in value
               between an object and its background,
               the greater the contrast.




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                            GIS 29
                   Light vs. dark colors

            • Light colors associated with low values
            • Dark colors associated with high values
            • Human eye is drawn to dark colors




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                             GIS 30
                   Color Guidelines
                  •Use monochromatic color scales to color-
                     code most choropleth maps

                  •Use a dichromatic color scale when there
                     is a natural middle-point of a scale, such
                     as 0 for some quantities

                  •The darker the color in a monochromatic
                     scale, the more important the graphic
                     feature

                                                     31
GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                                       GIS 31
                   Color Guidelines
                  •Use more light shades of a hue than dark
                     shades in monochromatic scales. The human
                     eye can better differentiate among light
                     shades than dark shades

                  •If you have relatively few points in a point
                     layer, use size instead of color value to
                     symbolize a numeric attribute

                  •If you have a massive number of polygons to
                     symbolize, you can symbolize polygon
                     centroid points with color rather than to use
                     choropleth maps
                                                        32
GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                                          GIS 32
                   Changing colors
                    Choose color, more colors…




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                      GIS 33
                   Graphic Hierarchy
              •Assign bright colors to the most important
                 graphic elements

              •Such graphic elements are called “figure”




                                                 34
GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                                 GIS 34
                   Graphic Hierarchy
              •Assign drab colors to the graphic elements
                 that provide orientation or context, especially
                 shades of gray

              •Such graphic elements are called “ground”




                                                     35
GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                                        GIS 35
                   Graphic Hierarchy
              •Place a strong boundary, such as a heavy
                 black line, around polygons that are important
                 to increase figure




              •Use a coarse, heavy cross-hatch or pattern to
                 make some polygons important, placing them
                 in figure



                                                   36
GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                                       GIS 36
                   Graphic Hierarchy




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition            GIS 37
                              GIS Queries




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                 GIS 38
                   GIS Queries
                  •Powerful relationship between data
                     table and features - unique to GIS

                  •Records from a feature attribute table
                     are selected by using query criteria

                  •Selects a subset of all the features

                  •Query will automatically highlight the
                     corresponding graphic features
                                                  39
GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                                 GIS 39
                   Simple Attribute Queries
               Simple query criterion
                  • <data attribute>< logical operator><value>

                  • NatureCode =‘DRUGS’
                  • DATE >= ’ 20040701’
               % wild card
                  • % symbol stands for zero, one, or more characters of
                    any kind
                  • NAME like ' BUR%'
                  • Selects any crime with names starting with the letters
                    BUR, including burglaries (BUR), business
                    burglaries(BURBUS), and residential burglaries
                    (BURRES)
                                                            40
GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                                                  GIS 40
                   Simple Attribute Queries




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                   GIS 41
                   Compound Attribute Queries
               Compound query criteria

                  • Combine two or more simple queries with the logical
                     connectives AND or OR

                  • "NATURE_COD" = 'DRUGS' AND "DATE" > 20040801
                     selects records that satisfy both criteria simultaneously

                  • Result are drug crimes that were committed after
                     August 1, 2004



                                                              42
GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                                                  GIS 42
                   Compound Attribute Queries




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                     GIS 43
                         More Map Characteristics




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                         GIS 44
                   Map Layers
                  •Organizes your layers
                  •Group logically and rename
                  •Polygons, lines, points




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                     GIS 45
                   Scale Thresholds
                  Minimum Scale Range
                   -If you zoom out beyond this scale, the layer will not
                    be visible




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                                                 GIS 46
                   Scale Thresholds
               When you zoom in, the layers are visible




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                               GIS 47
                   Scale Thresholds
                  Maximum Scale Range
                   -If you zoom in beyond this scale, the layer will not be
                    visible
                   -State Capitals not visible at this scale




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                                                   GIS 48
                   Hyperlinks
            Links map features to images, documents, web pages, etc.




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition                                        GIS 49
                   Summary
              •Map Design Overview
              •Vector GIS
              •Choropleth Maps
              •Colors
              •Graphical Hierarchy
              •GIS Queries
              •Map Layers
              •Scale Thresholds
              •Hyperlinks
GIS Tutorial, Third Edition          GIS 50
                   * Tutorial 2 tip *
              • no spaces in filenames!




GIS Tutorial, Third Edition               GIS 51

				
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