No. Table Of Contents Page No.
1 Executive Summary 6
2 Introduction 7
3 Brand management 11
4 Elements of a Brand 14
5 Characteristics of Brand 16
6 World Famous Brands 22
7 How Does Branding Fit into Corporate Strategy 26
8 Brand Compostion 28
9 Principal of Building Successful Brands 30
10 Will Indian Brands Survive 35
11 Celebrity Endorsements of Brands 36
12 Do Brands have Power 44
13 Brand Loyalty 46
14 Research and Analysis 48
15 Conclusion 67
16 Foreword 69
17 Bibliography 70
1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Today consumers want more than just the product. They want to know why they
should buy it from you, given that they could buy it from fifteen other places. So you
have to bring some brand character to the advertising, promotion and positioning
‘Customer is King’ is an overused statement today. Today ‘Customer is QUEEN’ with
wide variety of choices and hence branding seems to be the BUZZWORD today. With
volatile and cut throat competition and so many competitors mushrooming in, it has
become really important for any product or service to differentiate itself from relative
ones and help the customer in providing with a clear cut differentiation.
Celebrities endorsing not only brands but services today
The Primary objective of the research project was to study the following:
Forms and reasons for Celebrity endorsements of brands.
To study brand loyalty leading to celebrity endorsements of brands.
The Secondary objective of the research project was to study the following:
To find out brand loyalty among college students wearing different brands of
To find out effect on brand loyalty with increase in price.
All the above objectives are being met in the project but the most important
objective of me doing this project is that, I wanted to know about the real power and
influence of brand in the minds and hearts of consumers and this has broaden my
knowledge and it would be of immense benefit for me in the near future.
Brands are an ever-present part of our lives- from the clothes we wear, to the food we eat; from the
toys our children play with, to the drinks we consume; from our mobile phones to our cigarettes. We
read about brands in our carefully branded newspapers. Brands are even newsworthy- on a typical
day early in 1995 someone in the West Midlands named their baby son after a brand, Nike.
If you look around you now, how many brands can you see? Try to imagine a life without brands.
Walking into a shop would pose a massive challenge to your powers of communication; instead of
simply ordering a particular item, you would have to describe it in detail every time.
Brands are driven by the consumers. They are psychological, as, well as physical. Brands enable
consumers to identify products or services, which promise specific benefits. They arouse
expectations in the minds of customers about quality, price, purpose and performance.
Branding just isn't part of how merchants traditionally think; they (retailers) buy stuff and sell stuff.
Their focus is on items and the price of those items. That's their world. That world, however, is
changing. Shoppers today have much more choice than they used to. The same item can readily be
purchased at roughly the same price from any number of different retailers. In such an environment,
a strong brand becomes a key-differentiating factor.
Why buy khakis from Shoppers Stop, rather than any of the other stores that sell more or less the
same pair of pants? Well, one reason might be that those cool TV spots with the shimmying dancers
communicate something about the Shopper Stop brand that appeals to your personal sensibilities.
2.1 Research Methodology
Methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. For every research work, before
it is carried out and even at the time of implementation, it is very important how it is carried out.
Methodology helps us to understand what care has to be taken while preparing the report.
The methodology adopted here is as follows:
Develop Research plan: A research plan was developed to gather the needed information. The
Finalize research approaches.
Finalizing research instruments.
Making sampling plan.
1. Collection of Data: The research data were of two types
Primary data collection.
Secondary data collection.
Primary data was collected through personal interviews with respondents where as
Secondary data was collected through magazines, journal, newspaper, websites and books. The
purpose behind collecting the primary data was to get first hand information from the consumers.
2. Finalize Research approaches: All relevant data was collected by conducting a survey.
The purpose behind choosing the survey was to test the brand loyalty of jeans among
3. Finalizing Research Instruments: The research instrument used in collecting primary data was
Questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed in such a way to cover as many aspects of
consumer behaviour as possible.
4. Making the Sampling plan: After deciding on the research approach and instruments,
the sampling plan was design. The sampling plan was designed taking into three
Sampling Unit: The main purpose of the sampling unit is to know whom to be
surveyed. In this survey, the sampling units were college students wearing jeans.
Sample Size: Total 89 contacted were contacted and interviewed. Out of these, 14
questionnaires were rejected due to incompleteness, conflicting answers etc.
Therefore, the final sample size was of 100.
Sampling Procedure: The sample size was collected from students of various
colleges. The respondent was contacted at his/ her workplace through an
appointment through telephonic conversation
5. Implementation: Before starting the actual research, I prepared a questionnaire for pilot
study. I interviewed a random sample of 10 respondents. Through the pilot study, I came
to know which questions were wrongly worded, which were ambiguous, which needed to
be added or to be subtracted and modified, etc. On the basis of feedback of this study, I
modified the questionnaire. The modified questionnaire was then showed to my
secondary project guide, Prof. Mr. Vikram Shrotri for his suggestions. After giving a due
consideration to Prof. Shrotri’s suggestions, I prepared the final questionnaire in
accordance with the objective of the research. The final questionnaire was used in the
research after getting Prof. Shrotri’s approval.
I selected different from different colleges of the city to do study so that the place bias
could be reduced to the best possible extent. I contacted respondents personally and got the
information as per the questionnaire. Sometimes it happened that respondents told lie, when
asked about their regular brand, total expenditure on their regular brand, etc. So I have discarded
To reduce the magnitude of this problem, I selected respondents whom I saw wearing
jeans of brand mentioned in my questionnaire so that correct information can be verified. Many
of my questions were designed to cross check the answers of the respondents. I tried to make the
questionnaire as comprehensive as possible to cover various aspects related to my research.
The questionnaires were handed over only to those respondents who showed desire to fill
up them on themselves, whereas in most cases we have filled up the questionnaires as per their
answers. So that they might not feel boredom or confusion in filling up the questionnaires.
Every research is conducted under some boundations and this research is not an
exception. Limitations of this project are –
The sample size of 75 is too small to project the buying pattern of students and to come to
a very accurate conclusion.
There might have been tendencies among the respondents to amplify or filter their
responses under the testing conditions.
Since the study involved sampling method, 'Drop in' or 'Go through' error might have
Since the results have been drawn on the basis of the information provided by the
respondents, chance of response error might have crept.
Buying behavior is an attitudinal, which needed specialised knowledge of the area, so
there is chance for interpretational error. The biggest constraint was the time factor; the
no. of days available to complete the project work was very less.
There is a shortage in the amount of information available.
Many of the Respondents vaguely answered stating that in their case their policy
procedure was wholly undertaken by the agents.
Some respondents who filled the questionnaire unwillingly, their response might have
been different than their opinions.
The project may lead to many contradictions in ideas.
Besides the questionnaire being more of a closed-ended type it is very much possible that
someone might have a thought otherwise but having some options, selected one of those.
Though best efforts have been taken to provide accurate results, but accuracy level might
have affected due to personal barriers while processing a data.
3. Brand Management
Brand Management is the systematic and continuous process of building and sustaining a
brand’s long-term competitive advantage. Effective brand management demands constant
monitoring and interpretation of consumer attitudes and behaviour, and of competitive
operations. All aspects of brand activity must be managed to reflect consistent brand positioning,
and to secure the brand’s long-term future as well as short-term business results.
3.1 What’s a Brand?
Brand is a broad term used to describe product identification by word, name, symbol, or
design, or a combination of these.
The marketing guru Philip Kotler in his classic textbook Marketing Management defines
brand as ‘a name, sign, term, symbol or design, or a combination of these, which is intended to
identify the goods or services of one group of sellers and differentiate them from those of
Richard Koch in his book The Financial Times A-Z of Management and Finance defines
a brand as ‘a visual design and/or name that is given to a product or service by an organisation in
order to differentiate it from competing products and which assures consumers that the product
will be of high and consistent quality.’
Management thinkers today strongly believe that customer is King. But truly speaking he
is not King. He is Queen with wide choices. The single most important job in marketing is the
job of creating and also retaining a customer. Numerous studies across the world have proven
that the best way of creating and retaining customers is by building strong brands. Now what are
brands? Products? Enhanced products? Products with names? In a simple equation:
BRAND = PRODUCT + IMAGES + ADVERTISING
3.2 Introduction to brands
John Stuart, President of Quaker Oats Company once said, “If this business were to be
split up, I would be glad to take the brands, trademarks and goodwill, and you could have all the
bricks and mortar-and I would fare better than you”. Such is the confidence of people on strong
Brands are an integral part of the product policy. The most distinctive skill of marketers
is their ability to create, maintain, protect and enhance brands. Brands are long-term investments
made by the companies for their future to be certain. Companies spend huge amounts of money
for the creation of a powerful brand. A strong brand sure does drive the sales of a company. An
estimated 21,000 brands were launched all over the world in the year 1999.
3.3 Brand Defined
“A brand is a name, term, sign, symbol or design, or a combination of them, intended to
identify the goods or services of one seller or a group of sellers and to differentiate them from
those of competitors.”
“The brand name is a distinguishing mark which identifies the product in a unique and
different manner from other similar products.”
“A brand is a distinguishing name and/or symbol (Such as a logo, trademark, or package
design) intended to identify the goods or services of either one seller, or a group of sellers, and to
differentiate those goods or services from those of competitors.” For example: PEPSI and
COCA-COLA are two different brands.
A brand thus signals to the customer the source of the product, and protects both the
customer and the producer from competitors who would attempt to provide products that appear
to be identical. There is evidence that even in ancient history names were put on such goods as
bricks in order to identify their maker.
A brand is much more than the mere products it stands for. A brand is the amalgamation
of the physical product and national images that go with the brand when we recall a brand, not
only do we recall the physicality of the product but also the image of the conjures. Example:
Sundrop = Sunflower Oil + (Healthy family + Happy Children + Loving mother + Tasty food
Piyush Pandey of Ogilvy & Mather (O&M), leading advertising firm, says that:
“We work not for ourselves,
Not for the company,
Not for the clients…. We work for brands….”
A brand exists in the mind of the consumer. It is a unique set of perceptions, triggered by
the distinctive name, symbol and design appearing on the product(s) and service(s) of the seller.
These perceptions are a result of both functional characteristics and non-functional
values. To the consumer, they must ‘add value’ to the basic product offering, and form the basis
of differentiation and long term preference over competition.
A product is not the same as brand: a product is what the manufacturer makes; it comes
off the production line with features and functions but with no ‘relationship’ to consumers. Once
it has acquired a distinctive name, symbol, design, packaging, advertising, etc., begins the
transformation from product to brand. It is a unique combination of perceived functional
characteristics and non-functional values which constitutes a brand.
A brand is a product that provides functional benefits plus added values that some
consumers value enough to buy. Brands do differ from each other but distinctiveness over and
beyond this is highly desirable. Brand is the proprietary visual, emotional, rational, and cultural
image that we associate with a company or a product. When we think Volvo, we might think
safety. When we think Nike, we might think of
Today, businesses are fighting out their marketing warfare not merely at the product
attributes level or at the advertising campaigning level, but it is also happening at several other
It is at the totality of the image that their brands create in the minds and hearts of their
customers. Marketers are concentrating on building brand values, images, power and authority
centered on customers - their self esteem, their dreams and aspirations - whether the fight is
between Coke and Pepsi, HLL and P&G, Siemens and L&T.
To sum up we can say, “BRANDING IS IMAGE BUILDING”
4. Elements of a Brand
What is a Brand?
A slogan An identity
A source of information
An advertising image
An added extra
4.1 Elements of the brand – FROOTI
Slogan: ‘Just like that’
Product: A mango drink.
Logo: Simple and distinctive.
Means of Identification: We can easily identify the pack of Frooti among the other packs of
juice. It is highly recognizable.
Advertising Image: Linked to the slogan; just like that.
Person: Frooti is linked with Digen Verma, however the identity of Digen Verma is not
Image: The image of Frooti is reliable, high quality, traditional etc…
Identity: This includes the appearance of the pack that has the distinct colour combination
of orange and green.
4.2 What makes up a Brand identity?
Brand identity includes brand names, logos, positioning, brand associations, and brand
personality. A good brand name gives a good first impression and evokes positive associations
with the brand. A positioning statement tells, in one sentence, what business the company is in,
what benefits it provides and why it is better than the competition.
Brand personality essentially adds emotion, culture and myth brand identity by the use of
a famous spokesperson, a good example of which is the DSP Merrill Lynch bull. Brand
associations are the attributes that customers think of when they hear or see the brand name.
A brand identity is the public image of a product, line, or service. It is a visual connector
from the company to the individual customer. A good brand identity stands out from its
competitors, as it demands attention and more effectively markets to its audience.
A good brand identity communicates directly and indirectly. It consciously and
subconsciously draws a consumer to a product, line, or service…. and to the company. A good
brand identity is a primary contributor to the bottom line of increased revenues.
5. Characteristics of a Brand
The Brand states ownership
At its simplest, branding is a statement of ownership. Everything in today’s commercial
world is branded, from the clothes we wear to the water we drink. Branding can be traced back to
trademarks placed on Greek pots in the seventh century BC and later, to medieval tradesmen on
their products to protect themselves and buyers against inferior imitations.
The brand is a product
In the beginning came the product and then the brand. Branding was a mark on the product-a
signature or a symbol – signifying its origin or ownership. The product stands alone; the brand
exists within corporate ether. The product comes first and the brand does little more than make it
clear which company made the product and where.
The Brand as a Product
The brand provides information
The point of brand is, and always has been, to provide information. The form of the
information varies from market to market, and from time to time. Some products make a visible
statement about their user’s style; modernity or wealth-example includes clothes, cars and
accessories. There is the physical information and there is the abstract information.
If you don’t believe that brands can be informative take a pack of Frooti; information comes in
variety of forms; the packaging tells us something about the product. The brand is a rich mixture
of the standard ingredients; the packaging- manageable size; physical appearance and our
feelings and expectations.
The Frooti Brand
The brand is an experience
Increasingly, people’s perception of what constitutes a brand is widening. Instead of being
sacrosanct and untouchable, the product is beginning to be regarded as one element of the brand.
The product is now recognized as only part of what the consumer experiences of the total brand.
5.1 The Role Of The Brand
A brand is a necessity for a business and – whether the manager likes it or not – a
business will have a brand profile. Working actively with the brand, rather in the classical
business sense leaving it to the customers to work out what to think about the company, will give
the organisation some distinct advantages.
The advantages can be summarized in two categories, first it is financially beneficial for
the company, and second it gives the employees a sense of purpose. While the former aspect is
well recognised it is worth considering what a well-defined brand can do to a company. A brand
that the employees can be proud of, and feel a sense of belonging to, can have considerable
positive effect on the morale in a company.
Brands often represent continuity which is important in the sense of keeping customer
relations; brands are often much older than the companies handling them. It is apparent that the
brand is a strategic business activity. It is not privilege of the marketing department; as it is
fundamental to the business success it must be the concern of top management.
5.2 Basic Brand Structure
Above figure typifies brands that emphasize functional characteristics. Companies using
this approach concentrate on promoting their brands on the basis of the function features and
competencies the brands possess. An example of this would be the brands built by the companies
such as Sony Corporation. The features define the core product while quality, reliability, service
aspects, and reputation form the relevant brand benefits.
and Attributes (Personality)
Another alternative approach to brand building is to center the brand around its core values,
usually personality characteristics, and then build product (service or company) features,
attributes or benefits as illustrated in the above figure.
5.3 BRAND DIMENSIONS
What is it? How do people feel
What is it for?
What does it do? Do they respect it?
4.4 How Brands Work
Brands work by facilitating and making more effective the consumer’s choice process.
Every day an individual makes hundreds of decisions. Countless products and messages
competing for attention besiege him or her. To make life bearable and to simplify this decision –
making process, the individual looks for short – cuts. The most important of these short – cuts is
How is it better? What the past.
to rely on habit – buy brands that have proved satisfactory in does the This does not mean that
company stand for?
How is it different?
What are their aims?
people are totally brand loyal, since most of them know that many brands will satisfy their needs.
Most people ask for Frooti but they are not too disappointed when they are offered Maaza.
But this habit rule is not just based upon experience of use; it can also be based upon
longstanding perceptions. People can have quite strong brand preferences even though they have
never brought the products.
Successful brands are those, which create the image or personality. They do it by
encouraging customers to perceive the attributes they aspire to as being strongly associated with
the brand. These objectives may be real and objective (e.g. quality, value for money), or abstract
and emotional (e.g. status, youthfulness).
4.4 Why Do Consumers Like Brand?
People are always talking about brands. Even young children discuss their favourite brands.
Why then do the majority of consumers prefer to buy branded products and services as opposed
to commodity type goods and services? There are several reasons for this:
Brands generate choice
Brands provide consumers with a means of choice. The mere existence of brand name makes
it easier to differentiate one product from another. Over the years, the power of the consumer in
terms of knowledge and rights has risen while the broadening range of brands facilitates the
freedom of choice, which is valued so highly. Customers have better knowledge of branded
products and services than they do of commodity types. As such, customers are able to choose
easily from among branded products and services than unbranded, unfamiliar, and similar
Brands simplify decisions
First, brands make shopping easier because branded packaging facilitates quick recognition
of a product. Living in a fast-paced world, people are constantly looking for ways to make their
lives les frustrating.
Second, branding often helps arriving at a purchase decision more quickly. This aspect is
particularly important to people who are buying technical products, as they do not always
understand all the specifications and jargon fired at them by sales staff and promotional leaflets.
Brands offer quality assurance and reduce risk
When customers repeatedly buy a certain brand, they quickly get a feel for the quality and
value for money they can expect from that brand. For example, stepping into a Mc Donald’s
outlet anywhere in the world, one knows precisely the quality of food to expect. This expectation
helps a customer avoid risk associated with buying untried products and services. Most
customers are risk averse and avoid the unknown, but brands offer them security and reduce
worry and fear. In addition, if a brand fails to live up to its acceptable level of quality, customers
have recourse to the manufacturer. Companies, as a result, try harder to maintain quality
standards and their reputations.
Brands help self-expression
An important reason why most people prefer brands is that brands provide an avenue for self-
expression. Such psychological need is often at the heart of a purchase decision because brands
become the means through which people can express their personality, aspirations, and
achievements. By using or wearing a particular brand, customers can express something about
themselves that normally they might not be able to or willing to do. In India, it is common to find
successful people expressing their wealth or success through their Mercedes-Benz cars or Rolex
watches. Consumers buy expensive and prestigious brands of goods because possession of these
outward expressions of success differentiates them from other people, and gives them the
opportunity to stand out from the crowd. Prestige brands are world famous, and there is no
shortage of people waiting to buy them.
Brands offer friendship and pleasure
Brands offer psychological benefits that far outweigh the practical benefits of the product. In
some cases, consumer form strong associations with a brand, leading to friendship and
dependency. The value of logos and names increase as brand association becomes more indelible
in the psyche of the consumers. Logos and names become triggers that, upon recognition, recall
memories and feelings associated with the brand. Brands therefore create intense emotion and
6. Brand Stories – World Famous Brands
The origin of branding goes back a long way. Brands were originally distinguishing
marks placed by one means or another by owners on their products and animals. Brands still
fulfill the basic function of differentiation today, but the techniques of branding have progressed
Branding is now a sophisticated process that puts together and sustains a complex
mixture of attributes and values, many of which are intangible. The objective of branding is to
produce a unique and attractive offering that meets both the rational and the emotional needs of
customers in a better way than the competition.
Some brands fail, while others succeed. It is difficult to analyze the determinants in each
case; such is the complexity of the art of branding. Even companies that have developed famous
brands will not be able to give a precise answer or show a grand plan road -mapping their
In the end, it is the consumer that chooses. Perhaps our inability to pinpoint why the
brand is amazingly successful while other remains mediocre is a reflection of our inability to
discover what drives human behaviour and how people make their choices. It is this mystery that
makes branding both intriguing and exciting.
6.1 Some of the world famous brands are as follows:
XEROX From a makeshift laboratory in Queens to becoming one of the
most well-known products in the world, Xerox stands as an
artifact of American history.
WRIGLEY The most popular gum in the world
GOODYEAR It all began in a converted strawboard factory on the banks of a
little river in Ohio…no one would have guessed that this
company was on its way to worldwide market domination
BLAUKPUNKT A brand with more than 70 years of tradition, Blaukpunkt has
sold more than 70 million car radios throughout the world and
has become the market leader in its category
DOMINO’S This pizza giant overcame some great adversities in its time…only
to become one of the leading names in pizza, the world over.
BACARDI 3,500 pesos bought Don Facundo Bacardi Masso a small distillery
and a colony of fruit bats…armed with a secret rum formula and
the bat as its trademark, Don Facundo introduces a special spirit
to the world.
BOSE Representing the best in acoustic equipment, Bose products have
been technically and aesthetically, a cut above the rest.
DR PEPPER Sold for the first time in 1885, this carbonated drink soon became
a favourite amongst Americans for its unique flavour.
ADIDAS One of the most popular sporting brands, adidas was founded by
Adi Dassler, a German cobbler who overcame his limitations and
came to be known to the world as the 'Equipment manager of the
ATTORDS ‘The curiously strong mint’
CHIVAS REGA Scotland’s prince of whiskies
VOLKSWAGEN The people’s car
ROLEX The finest in watches
ROLLS ROYCE Rolls Royce, the car of cars, and the name is synonymous with
motoring excellence. It is a tradition of quality that has made it
one of the world's most celebrated marques.
LEVIS Probably the greatest name in Denim, Levis has become the
quintessential garment all over the globe, especially with the
ZIPPO Maker of the world famous windproof lighter with the Lifetime
guarantee, Zippo has produced about 325 million lighters till
now and are still going strong.
PEARS Clear, pure and transparent, Pears, the preferred soap retains its
original composition, even today.
AMUL Quality and reasonable prices have made AMUL a household
name for dairy products in millions of homes in India and
across the world.
BAND-AID This wonder strip known as band-aid, which completed 75
Years n 1996 reigns supreme as the leading brand in its
NOKIA Global mobile phones giant, Nokia has an interesting history,
which started, in a Finnish paper mill in the 19th century.
TIMEX Timex started with making timekeeping affordable for working
class Americans...but this giant soon became one of the
markets leaders of this planet.
NEROLAC Adorning the walls of numerous homes all over the country,
Nerolac was born in 1920, as the whole world experienced the
aftermath of the world war.
KENWOOD It has brought the best in audio to people the world over.
What began in a small way in the year 1961 is now one of the
top players in the global marketplace.
7. How Does Branding Fit Into Corporate Strategy?
Branding has made marketing more strategic than it was two decades ago. The marketing
mix is now seen more as an arsenal of tactical weapons, with the brands playing the big guns.
Top brands have their own vision, mission, financial and marketing objectives, and a whole array
of strategies to achieve these ambitions.
The top brands are run as corporate entities in their own right, right down to their
profitability and equity valuation. Companies possessing strong international and global brands
can achieve huge rewards. In some cases, the brand is the company and the company is the
brand. From this viewpoint, brands are a vital part of corporate strategy.
Much has been said about globalization and competing in a borderless world with
international goods and services both in the domestic and international markets. It is hastily
assumed that the competition will be between products- judges on quality, service, and supply. In
fact, Asian goods, still viewed and promoted as products, will come up against not just other
products but established brands.
For Asian companies, the branding route is undoubtedly the one to travel. Companies are
unlikely to attain world-class financial performance or global recognition without building at least one
strong brand, whether corporate or product. Branding is strategic and should be a permanent item on
boardroom agendas. Companies' visions and missions are often defined, and strategies are put in place
to help achieve them. Brand and corporate strategies are extremely close. A strong brand platform (the
way in which a brand is positioned and given personality) becomes the raw material for product
development and differentiation meaningful to the consumer.
A clear brand strategy provides the foundation for image development-“glue" that binds
all strategic activities in a co-coordinated and synergistic way. Internally, a strong, well-defined
brand strategy will help assist employee understanding of the company's strategic marketing
objectives and their roles in achieving these objectives. Branding is a powerful message that
speaks to who we are, what we want and who we wants to be. Brands humanize the product or
service and give it a personality all its own.
7.1. Branding – Getting More And More Importance
While branding as a set of activities has been around for a very long time, increasing
attention has been given to the process in recent years. There are several reasons for this, the
main one being as follows:
A tremendous amount of commercial message
In major countries with a commercial infrastructure the average person will have atleast
1,000-2,000 commercial messages beamed at him / her every day. One hundred years ago it
might have taken a year to get to the same level and only on the local market day would the
people have got close to the cascade of messages we experience every day.
Product and brand proliferation
Twenty years ago the average supermarket carried 3,000 – 5,000 items, today an average
supermarket carries some 20,000-25,000 items. In other words, the average consumer is exposed
on his/ her shopping trip to four to eight times as many offerings as twenty years ago and needs
ways to cope with identifying all the different items on offer.
Decrease product differentiation
Although the trend towards product nivellation is much slower than most experts predict
and there are still many ways of making one product or service better than another, the facts
remains that the difference between the ‘poor’ and the ‘good’ alternative in most market sectors
has narrowed significantly. The bad products are not as bad as they use to be. The tangible
aspects of the product or service are becoming more similar, the intangible aspects, the abstract
values, are increasing in importance.
8. BRAND COMPOSITION
RATIONAL EMOTIONAL SENSUAL
These relates to the physical features that are embedded in the brand
Ex: 4 stroke engine (Hero Honda)
These relates to the images or the associations a customer displays with respect to the brand.
That is to say emotions about the brand
Ex: Raymond (The complete Man)
These relate to the feelings – sensous image the brand stands for the consumer. It should trigger a
Ex: Liril (Freshness)
9. Benefits of a Strong Brand
Better Customer Attention
‘TATA’ products draw better customer attention
Commands higher price
‘Sony’ TV/Handicam or any product is always higher priced in its category
Improves Customer Loyalty
‘Times Of India’ loyalists prefer reading only ‘TOI’
Customers prefer to purchase ‘Amul’ butter to others
Creates barriers to competition
‘Johnson & Johnson’ has prevented competitors in their Baby Product Category worldwide
Improves Share Price
Strong brands like ‘Nestle’ improve company share price
People trust few cos. With strong brands, which enjoy their goodwill like Reliance Industries
Rated as the best Indian employer, ‘HLL’ attracts students from Premium Business Schools
Creates grounds for launching new products
It became easier for ‘Britannia’ to launch their butter because of the customers impression of
their biscuit brand
9. Principles Of Building Successful Brands
A successful brand is built around 4 principles:
Quality Product meeting or exceeding continuously the functional needs.
An attractive Wrap-around to differentiate and enhance appeal.
Delighting customers with additional products or services to augment basic appeal and
Ensuring origin of trials leading to repeat-buys.
Brands Built Over A Period
Brand building process takes place over time & is a continuous process. If the product idea has
an intrinsic USP, establishing a brand is much easier.
Brand Building By Taking Advantage Of World Famous Events Like World Cup (Cricket)
Surf Excel’s advertising during the world cup was talked about. The brief was to link Surf Excel
with cricket and at the same time brings out the brand’s functions and benefits like stain removing. The
advertising highlighted the core benefit of the brand -- removal of stains. That is why the client bought
the idea immediately, even though the idea was not typically Lever.
This ad. Campaign is an example of how a company can build its brand image by
keeping a close watch on events taking place all around the world.
Brand Building Through Shift In Ad Strategy
Onida’s brand image was being threatened by umpteen brands. It wanted an advertising
strategy, which could communicate its contemporary, youthful premium brand image with an
aim of cheeky arrogance. This arrogance stems from the fact that their TV is the best.
This time they changed their familiar and successful devil, as they believed that the core
of the brand is more important than symbols like the devil. So the new ad with the airplane. This
is case of changing the brand image through advertising.
Reinforcing The Brand Image
Kelvinator has reinforced it’s ‘the coolest one’ image with a series of ads. For example,
in one of its advertisements a man sings attuned but gains appreciation when he feels cold and
sings in his shivering voice once the refrigerator is opened.
Despite Kelvinator’s ownership being shifted from Whirlpool to Electrolux, the
consumers’ still associates Kelvinator with ‘the coolest one’.
The ads were basically meant to bring Kelvinator back to top of mind consciousness.
The idea came from rustic reasoning and the ads are being aired on star sports and Sony.
This case endorses the fact that advertising can play a vital role in fixing the brand‘s
image in people’s minds.
Building Brand Image Keeping The Competitors In Mind
Sub branded PN System (preserve nutrition), was positioned as nutrition preserver. The
ads said “from today, all other refrigerator become history; drawing attention to something that
pushed their one benefit further towards the consumer. The advertising aimed at both the head
and the heart.
It was positioned as the right set for wrinkle free vision, nothing terribly 007-ish in it. The
CTV’s eye adjusts itself to lighting conditions. This was there in other CTV’s also, so LG used
preemptive advertising strategy to build its brand image.
For this, feature positioning was used. Their washing machine was called the ‘chaos
punch +3’ and the feature highlighted was that the punch detangles clothes before washing them.
A collection of such advertisements on products from the same company are proof that
LG is presenting itself as a quality brand which can provide customers with top class products
for their home.
Advertising Using A Unique Theme
BPL, as is talked about, is the only brand that has not compromised on quality so far. It
has invested a lot of time, money and effort on brand building. The ‘Believe in the Best’
campaign was able to establish BPL as an Indian brand with international quality products. And
that is one of the chief reasons why it is still at the top. Its April 99 market share was 19.7%
compared to Videocon’s 13.8% and Onida’s 11%.
One can use a theme to project its image and it is fairly understood that no one will copy
it. It can be used again and again in different contexts but reinforcing the same idea to ingrain
the brand in the minds of the consumer.
Branding Against Competitors
The company is currently building vehemently on its brand. With ads like Whirlpool
Quick Chill and Whirlpool Washing Machine it is placing its durables as the ultimate machine to
be had in a household. Attributes like faster ice formation, agitator wash are highlighted
specifically in ads placing the brand in a high pedestal and giving it a highly polished image.
Branding An Industrial Hi-Tech Product
It is the world’s tenth most valuable brand. It is targeting the mainstream market, with a
special accent on home pc market, along with office use. Its global advertising sees the blue door
opening- the viewer is sucked down a flash whirl, virtual town. The shear technical wizardry of
the ad spots gelds the aura of a very high tech product and in this case well becomes the message
itself. It also links it to the excitement of surfing the Internet. It has positioned the brand as the
Internet dream machine.
Emotions In Brand Building
Wheel detergent powder was advertised using the emotion anger. Although it sounds
negative, the trick clicked as the angry lady was calmed when she used the detergent, which
brought award to her husband. A successful campaign fixing the brand as a household middle
class product with the customer can identify.
This is absolutely different
Maggi tomato ketchup is illustrated as, ‘Sauce ka big boss’. The tag line of Tomchi is
‘not too hot, not too sweet, tastes just right.’ Appears to be a direct hit at Maggi’s ‘its different’
hot and sweet sauce. The communication is based on positioning of ‘tomchi’ as a sauce, which
has a perfect balance of tomatoes for sweetness and spice of chilies.
The Maggi sauce campaign with its famous actor Ajit jokes-‘Lily, don’t be silly’ or ‘Boss
has gone for a toss’, was path breaking. It has made the brand memorable.
There is a new ad now, which explains the expansion advertising strategy Maggi is
continuously following upon.
But whatever be the product, Maggi has remained and will remain etched in the
customer’s mind as a dependable and quality brand.
Building Brand Through Corporate Advertising
ICICI has been building its identity over the last couple of months and the impact is that
now a common man knows what ICICI stands for. In the common parlance it denotes trust and
The new identity has given ICICI extra mileage in everything and the advertisements
have built trust in the group name thus helping leverage each product through cross-synergies,
seamlessly. This trust has been built at a lower cost. The communication device used is very
interesting as it educates the common man about his own money. This is a financial brand in the
(Currently their ad. campaign has again undergone a change. Now they are focussing on “hassle
The Debeers advertising has rocketed this non-traditional brand from 1995 and its market
has grown stupendously by 19.4% in 1997. The ratio advertising to incremental sales was
1.2:100. The Debeers Consolidated Mines manages consumer demand using advertising,
publicity and trade. The brand plank was: diamonds are more modern and aspiring as compared
to gold. Communications had two options: the woman as a self-purchaser buying with and
without her husband’s approval or the husband surprising the wife. The second was preferred
and thus the product was positioned as a highly emotionally charged surrogate for status.
In TV there were two spots –
‘Architect’ and ‘Hotel spot’.
Print advertising focussed on creating identification with women portrayed and directly
compared costs with that of familiar objects. Diamond-testing information below the ad
addressed the ‘knowledge issue’.
These efforts changed the attitudes of viewers against diamonds. In 1997, diamonds were seen as
more personal gift. Nevertheless, diamonds had an upper hand on god only in terms of beauty
and status. In 1997 only, major change was in media when recall leapt up.
The new wedding strategy was used and the new international ‘shadows’ execution
looked stylish and elegant.
Infomercials were run which addressed price, confidence and knowledge issues, the
channel thus enabled them to get a long, complex message into a medium having greatest reach
No wonder DeBeers is now a name in itself.
It took Vicco 27 years to carve out a niche for itself.
After five unsuccessful years of trying to sell Vicco Turmeric, it decided to use a fresh strategy.
Other than packaging, communication of the brand was an important aspect used.
Using the traditional ‘haldi’ ceremony, it positioned the product in the minds of the Indian
women category. The core theme rekindled memories of tradition and happiness but also insisted upon
daily application of the cream. It also came up with a vanishing cream formulation and after extensive
advertising in over a thousand movie halls and the television, the brand began to gain acceptance.
Fair and Lovely’s introduction did not dent Vicco’s sales while Sangeeta Bijlani endorsed the
brand. With continuous harping on the natural benefits of turmeric cream, Vicco went ahead unfaltered
by fairness creams and came to be known as a nationally recognized turmeric cream.
11. Will the Indian Brands survive?
A product is what a company makes. A brand is what a consumer buys. A brand is a set
of perceived values, which the customer develops for a particular product. It is not the product,
but its source, its meaning and its direction which defines its identity on time and space.
In the light of the above mentioned, during the post liberalization period, the Indian
brands have not done too badly. Look at Telco, Onida, Vicco, Dabur, Dey's Medical etc. who
have been able hold their own against multinational brands in their own ways. At the same time
some of the MNC brands such as Ray Ban, Kellog's, and Sony had initially fallen victims either
to Indian customer's equations of value for money or fake rivals or the engrained consumer’s
On the other hand, local brands have one common advantage - their intuitive
understanding of the local markets. Some of their winning strategies are indigenous engine
research and development (Telco), leveraging ethnic connections (Dabur and Vicco), capturing
niches (Dey's medical with Keo Karpin), encashing on the large-scale consumption of
commodity items (Tata Tea, Tata Salt, etc.) Strategic alliances (Titan with Timex for plastic
watches), consistent promotion (Amul, Frooti, Rasna etc.).
To understand whether a brand will survive, one has to go to the core-beyond the great
product and the core benefits, the continuous improvements per changing needs of the
consumers, the continuous additions of distinctiveness through effective communication; the
image of the company behind it and not least of all the people behind running the company and
Effective Branding is the continuous process of wrapping distinctiveness and add values
around products and services that are highly appealing, themselves, to offer consumer's quality,
delight and feelings of faith and confidence in meeting their aspirations. Finally it is only the
fittest brands that survive isn't it?
The secret lies in invigorating and rejuvenating to keep the Brands in a fit condition.
More than a century old Brands like Coke, Levi's etc. are still young and kicking. Aren't they?
12. Celebrity Endorsement Of Brands
Once upon a time in the era of DD, advertising was a simple affair - you simply
employed a "model" (any reasonably good looking ordinary man, woman, child) that stood in
front of the camera and told you why you should buy "SHINE IT" powder as opposed to "
SCRUB-IT". Those were the days when India was a sellers market - if you wanted a car you had
to buy an Ambassador or Fiat, if you wanted to fly down to your native place you had to fly the
"Indian Airlines". Simply put you did not have a choice then.
Fast forward now to the present - You want to buy a car, which one will it be - you first
answer the question whether you are looking for a small, medium or a big car? Then you have
choices in each range - Maruti 800, Santro, Matiz or Ford Ikon, Esteem or Lancer, Honda City -
the list is endless. After a long search you narrow down your search to a Santro or Matiz. You
come home at 9.00 p.m from work and switch on the T.V, on comes Shahrukh Khan (your all
time favorite actor) driving a pretty young thing in a Hyundai santro to a wedding. Miss Pretty
young thing cannot take her eyes off Shahrukh and the car. In that instant you decide which car
you will buy - the Santro, but, of course! Why? Simply because your favorite star drives it.
Ladies and Gentlemen welcome to the world of brand endorsement.
As it is discussed earlier that a brand is a name, a sign, or a symbol such as a trademark or logo
that identifies a product or service and differentiate it from similar products or services. It is
different from a product, in that the product performs a task for the user while the brand adds
value and covers the source of the product protecting the customer, producer from competitors
who would attempt to provide products that seem to be identical.
What is in a name, Shakespeare said once. Contemporary marketers and advertisers
would however debate our learned scholar by saying, "What’s not in a name"; a belief that
reinforces every time a celebrity endorses a brand. Once the name is obtained, the brand
attributes can always be matched to the brand. For the advertiser, what counts is how much
Sachin or Hrithik can sell and how quickly.
Marketers use a whole lot of tactics to draw the consumer’s attention to their brand - one
of these is getting celebrities to endorse the products. A celebrity may be the embodiment of the
company’s image. When celebrities endorse a brand, customers become aware of the
product/service such that they totally believe and trust that the purchases will meet their
requirements and expectations but all this provided there is a proper fit between the chosen
celebrity and the brand.
A well - chosen celebrity can draw attention to a brand e.g. Tiger Pataudi, the dashing
Nawab endorsing the range of premium suiting Gwalior. A celebrity can transfer his / her
mystique, social standing to the brand e.g. Amitabh Bachchan, the badshah of cinema is
worshipped by the millions in the country. Getting him to advertise the firm’s services of ICICI
lends credibility to their product. Subconsciously investors feel that a product endorsed by the
Big B will be safe, they will get back their money.
Let us look at some brands endorsed by celebrities:
PEPSI Shahrukh Khan, Sachin Tendulkar
COCA-COLA Aishwarya Rai, Aamir Khan, Hrithik Roshan
LUX Top Indian actresses
TISSOT Mohammad Azharuddin
DABUR OIL Karishma Kapoor
THUMS UP Salman Khan
LONGINES Aishwarya Rai.
When celebrities such as Kapil Dev and Sachin Tendulkar endorse a product like boost (a
malted drink targeted towards children) cricket-crazy children fans of both the players feel all I
have to do is to drink boost and I can play cricket like Sachin and Kapil. Similarly women feel
that if they used LUX they will look as pretty as Karishma, Madhuri etc.
Then what goes into getting the celebrities to market the product by a company?
Celebrities give the perception of quality products and services. Once quality branding is in
place, brand extensions are possible i.e. customers might easily be persuaded to try their other
products and services. Another factor that requires a thought is the media to be used to advertise
In today’s era the company has the option to choose between online media – Internet, e-
commerce etc. The strategy used in this case is "Target, deliver message, wait and interact"
Offline media – print, radio, T.V billboards, demos, free samples. The strategy followed
is "Target, Deliver message and wait".
Companies should keep in mind that the narrower the media focus & target market size,
greater the influence of the advertising medium and vice versa. Depending upon the target
market the company can decide its strategy. For mass marketing, content is important and for
niche marketing, media itself is important. How is brand endorsement done? After deciding on
the product, marketing strategy, medium of advertisement etc the company gives a thought to the
choice of the celebrity is critical.
The celebrity should have high recognition, high positive effect and high appropriateness
to the product. E.g. Amrish Puri has high recognition but a negative effect on the masses, simply
because people are used to seeing him play villainous roles. The celebrities like sportsmen;
entertainers are more visible and worshipped than businessmen and politicians. Athletes are
particularly an effective group for endorsing athletic products, beverages and apparel.
The premier athletic endorser in this case is Michael Jordan former star of Chicago bulls.
Jerry Reinodarf bought a 56% stake in Chicago bulls, which approximated to 9.2 million dollars.
The year after Jordan arrived in 1998 his investments sky rocketed to 200 million dollars (a
1000% increase!!) Jordan is best known for his endorsements of sneakers, clothes, Nike
footwear, apparel, videos etc. He also starred in the movie "Space Jam" (230 million dollars).
Studies show he generated 53.2 million dollars for the Bulls during the period 91-92. It was
because of him that ticket sales increased. Lady Diana is also a classic example of global
celebrity. The fervor of Dianomonics still reins the minds and shall continue to do so.
But using celebrities as brand icons have their own repercussions. Research indicated that
Air Jordan’s generated revenue sales of 130 million dollars in the first year. The sales dropped
miserably in the second year when Jordan missed 62 games due to a broken foot. Another main
worry of the advertisers is that their celebrity endorser would get caught in a scandal or an
Let’s see what aspects of brand endorsement the companies have to keep in mind:
Incorrect brand linkage is the probable factor, which most reduces potential advertising
Integration of the brand with execution and message. This is more important than how many
times the brand is shown. It is vitally important that the creative idea be linked properly with the
12.1 Forms of celebrity endorsement
A celebrity can be endorsed in different forms based on the purpose, the advertisement media and
the appeal to be generated. Following types of endorsement forms have been identified to be heavily
in use at present:
As spokespersons, e.g., Amitabh Bachchan in KBC.
In print and electronic advertisements, e.g., Shah Rukh Khan in Omega and Pepsi.
In outdoor media like hoardings, e.g., Aishwarya Rai in Lux (Sunscreen) and Nakshatra
jewellery in some parts of North India.
As brand ambassadors, e.g., Fardeen Khan in Provogue, and finally
The use of brands by celebrities in movies, e.g., Hero Cycles, Paas Paas and Coke in
12.2 Reasons for Celebrities Endorsements
The following four categories of needs have been identified for a brand to use a luminary:
When the concerned brand has close substitutes available.
When there is a need to create a clear differentiation.
When a brand has to make an entry into the market and the life cycle of the brand is
feared short. In such cases the rationale is to make quick money and exit.
All said and done let us now look at the reasons for endorsing celebrities. This can be
better understood by visualizing a triangle. The brand (or corporate), the celebrity and the
customer form the three vertices of a triangle. Each side of the triangle is the communication or
the advertisement, which forms the necessary link between each of these three corners.
Let us first see why a company goes about endorsing a celebrity.
A celebrity helps short hand a brand; in other words makes a brand stand out.
Celebs facilitate instant awareness and immediate attention.
Celebrity values define and refresh the brand image and a celebrity adds dimension to it.
A Celebrity adds new dimensions to the brand image.
Next, let us look at why the celebrities themselves would like to endorse products. Primarily
three reasons have been identified:
The first reason that most celebrities would endorse a product for, is the huge
compensation involved with it.
Second reason why celebrities wish to endorse is to get an enhanced level of
acknowledgement. KBC and Movers and Shakers helped stabilize the fast declining
careers of their hosts by providing strong audience recognition.
Finally, endorsement breeds endorsement. Not only does the subject end up getting better
offers but the avenues in related and unrelated fields also open up. Most of the cricketers
for example have already been made to walk the ramp and a lot of models have already
made way into the movies.
Finally, let us look at the set of principles that makes the customers accept the celebrities.
Messages delivered by well-known celebrities achieve a high degree of attention and
recall for consumers.
Celebrity Expertise perceived relevant: Expertise is the knowledge that the
communicator seems to possess to support the claims made in the advertisements. A
well-known face would obviously speak for more expertise than an ordinary one. For
example a Reebok would always be better advertised by a Sachin Tendulkar.
Celebrities are perceived Trustworthy: Trustworthiness refers to the customer’s
confidence in the source for providing information in an objective and honest manner.
People are more likely to trust the quality of a trustworthy celeb endorsed brand over a
Ambitious psyche: People ape the celebrities in their day to day activities and many
even dream to become like a celebrity some day. Some know they wouldn’t become as
good as the celebrities but sharing common belongings makes them feel better.
Physical Attraction: Consumers tend to perform positive stereotypes about such people.
Physically attractive people are more successful in changing beliefs than non-attractive
12.3 A Brand Called SACHIN & SHAHRUKH
We all have encountered this term at some point of time in our lives and have even been
subject to the complexities of this term. The term am referring to, is a word called ‘Brand’. A
small yet all-enveloping powerful term, which is one of the cornerstones of the discipline of
Marketing. Next few paragraphs will give you a very close insight into the imponderables of this
term in a manner which the reader will find an enjoyable, entertaining, closer to reality and at the
same time allow him to get a grip over the nitty-gritty’s of the term in question.
Let me bring into focus a game that through the sheer magnitude of following in the
country has ceased to remain a game. Indeed, cricket in India is not just a game; it is a religion,
an obsession that has spared few in the country and the entire Indian subcontinent. Behind all the
hype and razzmatazz associated with this game turned religion turned mania turned fanaticism
lies a great marketing success story.
The saga begins somewhere in the late 70s or early 80s when television entered the
Indian life and since then has become an indispensable accouterment of the average Indian
psyche. With television in our drawing rooms, the game which every Indian has played at some
point of time at Ranji trophies, Clubs but more often than not in some obscure maidan or
deserted street caught the fancy of millions across the nation.
Kerry Packer had done his bit to initiate the commercialisation of the game worldwide
but beyond any shadow of doubt what gave the game a critical mass of following was the advent
of cricket mania in the Indian subcontinent. With increased viewership what followed were a
plethora of endorsements, advertisements and a never ending queue of corporates ready to
sponsor any tournament taking place in unheard of places like Toronto, Sharjah and even
Nairobi. Cricketers like Gavaskar, Ravi Shastri, Kapil Dev suddenly became household names
and role models having godlike status for youngsters, not just for their feats on the field but also
for the millions they made through endorsements The game which school boys in distant towns
of India wearing torn trousers carrying broken wooden pieces as makeshift bats had got as a
legacy from their imperial masters had become a booming industry.
It is in the backdrop of this mammoth of an industry that I wish to one man, or rather one
brand – Sachin Tendulkar. As a student of management I learned that a brand encompasses the
entire gestalt of physical and psychological characteristics of a product, this involves the entire
psychological process the user or would be user of a brand undergoes when he considers himself
with reference to the brand. In recent times Sachin has captured the imagination of marketers like
no other contemporary Indian sportsman. For any brand to succeed it needs the right balance of
aspiration and connection. Aspiration being what the individual would like to become like to be
seen as or would like to feel when associated with a brand. Connection refers to how close a
brand is to the individual's present state of affairs.
A classic case of aspiration-connection imbalance is Nike in India. Some of the early ads
of Nike in India featured Michael Jordan indulging in ‘Just do it’. This brand scored highly on
the aspiration count but missed out on the connection front. The average Indian perceived Nike
to be a brand for the selfish go-getter who stops at nothing to gain his ends. This theme
perception pitted it against the traditional Indian values of selflessness, generosity and
magnanimity. It becomes very difficult for the average Indian to relate to this brand.
In case of Sachin the brand the balance was perfect, not least because of his fairy tale
advent on the Indian and subsequently International Cricket scenario. The 16-year-old schoolboy
not yet out of school making his debut against arch rivals Pakistan in Pakistan and within no time
taking the international cricket scene by storm. If any contemporary Indian sportsman inspired
awe, he was the one. Of course the millions he made on and off the field also contributed to the
apirational value of the brand. Result the brand had scored a near perfect ten on aspiration. The
connection of the brand is a bit more complex; it refers to a particular aspect of the individual
being present in the brand that the target audience can relate to. Here is where the killer punch of
Sachin as a brand lay; televisions beamed images of a short chubby youngster with a boyish
smile successfully endorsing everything from toothpaste to cold drinks and in the process
endearing him to one and all. Mothers found him resembling their sons, young girls found him
‘cute’ and he was definitely the media’s darling. In fact a lot of credit for the brand building goes
to the media. Unlike comparable sportsmen of a different era, all his feats were captured on
camera and beamed across millions of living rooms across the subcontinent. All the fairy tales
were for everyone to see, when he single-handedly demolished Australia at Sharjah on his 24th
birthday and in the process won the trophy, the whole of India wished him a long life. When he
scored a century against Kenya immediately after his father’s death and then dedicated his
century to his dear departed father, every Indian had a tear. He was every Indian’s secret fantasy
come true because he made white men run all over the park.
Yet despite all his achievements the brand has never changed much over the years,
always the well behaved, usually conservatively dressed and on most occasions clean-shaven, he
represented the a feeling of reassurance that you could be cool without being unduly flashy. He
was a freak because of the way he played the game but due the quality that made it possible for
every Indian to relate to him, he was a wholesome freak. Fiat Palio roped him along with
Formula One driver, Germany’ Michael Schumacher to endorse for their Palio range.
Today in the new millennium this ‘wholesome freak’ is the most powerful brand in the
Indian sporting horizon. Because of his universal appeal across most demographic segment he is
the corporates’ coveted endorser. For the numerous reasons mentioned in previous paragraphs
one has no reservations in pronouncing him as one of the most powerful brand ambassador in
On the other hand is Shahrukh Khan, an undisputed king of Hindi Cinema. He is brand
ambassador of Hyundai Santro. Nine out of ten will recall santro because Shahrukh endorse it.
This is known as Brand Power. He had also endorsed for Pepsi alongwith Kareena Kapoor,
Clinic’s All Clear Dandruff shampoo. Recently he also endorsed for Airtel, competitor to BPL
and Orange. In this era of tremendous competition, increasing consumer awareness and
uncertainties about the future brand endorsement is just another way to stimulate demand with
the hope of earning a few bucks. This certainly helps companies in the short run.
Celebrities generate business agreed, but if a company depends only upon its strategy of
brand endorsement without catering to product development, distribution channels, marketing
strategies etc then even a Shahrukh or a Sachin cannot make the customers say "Yeh Dil mange
more". Both ‘S’ are very strong brands. Sachin, badshah of cricket and Shahrukh, badshah of
Bollwood are both celebrities in their own term. Both are brands within themselves.
Recently tennis legend, Boris Becker was in India to endorse for S.Kumars and even
Australian cricket hero Steve Waugh for undisclosed product. No one ever thinks that how much
these stars are paid but one thing is certain that they are here to stay…. not only in the minds of
customers but in their hearts….
12.4 Sachin Vs Shahrukh
In the Sachin vs. Sharukh battle, the end results are just out. And the winner is...err well you
guessed it right. There is no winner. But only losers. And that award goes to us
CONSUMERS!!! Both these guys charge huge endorsement fees, which come back like a
boomerang at us, once these products have become household names!!! We end up paying for all
this. SILLY POINT to really argue about.
12.5 Brands & Bollywood
Brands and Bollywood are closely associated with each other. We can say that both are
interdependent. In fact brands can’t do without Bollywood. Not only are the products endorsed
by the celebrities but also the services. Bollywood Superstar Amitabh Bachhan endorsed for
ICICI bank. Also Hrithik Roshan, Shahrukh Khan and Sachin Tendulkar for controversial
Hometrade. No one knows what Hometrade is but one can easily recollect the stars associated
with it. The overall presentation of the advertisement of hometrade showing Hrithik mania
became very famous. CEO of hometrade is arrested for duping several investors and
advertisement vanished suddenly but even today people can easily name the stars who endorsed
for it. These stars have been paid several lakhs of rupees, even crores but no one ever thinks of it.
Hometrade may have been disappeared from the minds of people but certainly not these stars.
These celebrities are brands in their own terms. They are walking talking brands.
13. Do Brands have power?
Now we will look at the value of branding with the use of user imagery .The brand
managers have to understand the changes being brought through the advertising in our
contemporary society in building distinctive brand image. Now look at two successful campaigns
of Indian brands - ‘The Unshakable’ and ‘Kuchh Kar dikhana hai’ campaign reflecting the
present generation youth and associating them with the brands for marketing success)
This is a question which is haunting brand managers for a long time. The answer to this is
not as simple as it seems. Brand valuation as an approach has succeeded in calculating the
financial aspect of a brand. Yet it is not all of branding! Similarly the communication experts
have gone beyond miles in explaining the power of a brand as a tool for identification and recall.
Yet the ability of researchers to look at brands defying the conventional wisdom to explain the
reason of naming a product is still questioned.
The brand has an ability to associate the product with the psycho-graphic of the
customers and customers tend to feel the brand as their own or simply a reflection of their being
in all forms and levels. The underlying concept of branding has not changed that is it still asserts
ownership! The brand other than providing differential advantage has started reflecting the
mindset of a nation. In fact all forms of communication are the bearer of the happenings and
Alma matter of a generation in a country. Brand power is no more looked upon as a financial
power that a company has in the market. It is no more a reflection of the strength of a brand on
parameters like consumer loyalty; repeat buying rate, faster adoption rate and higher shareholder
value for a firm. Advertising is creating a different kind of brand relationship with customers.
Though this has been already there in the west but for us it starts as a new approach towards
looking at brands and advertisement altogether.
The ability of a brand to create an emotional bondage, to explain the mind set of a
generation and to reflect the very essence of the life style is well reflected in the Indian Market
place. Can these brands be able to achieve the commercial objectives of their creation? The
American corporate history stands testimony to this level of brand association with life style
through the success of brands like Harley Davidson Motorcycles. Till date Harley Davidson has
maintained a consistent brand personality based largely on the macho, American and western
folk hero associations, it has been successful at broadening its user imagery by drawing on the
freedom value. While there was a Japanese onslaught in the American auto market, Harley
Davidson withstood the taste of time with this kind of distinct brand association. When most of
the Japanese brands were doing feature-based promotion Harley expressed the real macho image
of American Youth and stayed in the market as a successful story.
Are we experiencing a similar kind of situation in Indian Market? The answer is yes but
the reflection has been bit different. Let’s look at Bajaj Kawasaki Caliber bikes the unshakable
campaign. What do they reflect? Are they expressing Indian youth’s power of perseverance; their
ability to accept failure as it comes in life and reflects the unshakable call of the country where
the youth has to sacrifice the personal happiness for the country.
In the first campaign he accepts his failure and the marriage of his girl friend and comes
out happily from the girls house (Are Indian Youths Ready for this kind of personal setbacks?) In
the second case it is the longish return of the military man to spread happiness on the face of the
family members; yet he gets a call and has to report back for the war. In his return also he
glorifies the happiness and commitment he keeps for the family and country. Bajaj associates its
brand in each of this glorification of Indian Youth.
This kind of emotional bonding does not talk about the product features, the fuel
efficiency, and the price tag or for that matter any kind of so called marketing communication
that helps in marketing brands like the major leader in the market who talks about fuel
efficiency, value for money proposition! Why can’t they think of such kind of Indian origination
of associating brand ownership with life style of Indian youth through their campaign? Of course
this kind of personification is not new to Indian market.
Do you remember Lolitaji in the Surf Ad campaign that brought a drastic change to the
Indian Middle class housewife’s mindset in the 70s and 80s? She came out of the house and
entered to the market place and talked about making an independent choice of her own! This was
a real surprise to the Indian middle class segment during that time. But those studying the social
influence of advertising at macro level will agree that it was a probably a forecast of the future
for the Indian middle-class woman.
Subsequent period has seen the emergence of a strong working out going middle-class
women of India now making their own independent choices in many things including edible oil
for the ailing and stressed husband to the very personal sanitary napkin of various sizes for
herself and for the growing daughter. If Lolitaji is any indicator of forecasting of an emerging
behavioral pattern then the current campaign is reflection of a growing and psychologically
stable Indian Youth.
Indian Youth has always been projected as not too serious and not so much adventure
seeking. The ultimate goal of an average youth has long been a decent job and no to many so-
called vices like boozing. But the story is changing. May I remind you the campaign of ‘Kuchh
Khona hai Kuchh paana hai, pal pal ke jatan se kuchh kar dikhana hai’? This is a campaign
reflecting the changing mindset of Indian Youth where they are moving out to unconventional
area, be it music or opening a garage. Every body understands the risk of venturing in to this
kind of occupations but Indian Youth is ready for this. There is a realization in this campaign
different than that of the unshakable campaign. Where as in unshakable it was a reflection of
accepting the failure the apna label... Campaign is an expression of struggle and success where
you stay back with the brand and people with whom you have grown.
If sociologist studying on advertising impacts has anything to do with this, they can
realize that the brain that goes in creating the campaigns understands the value of brand
association with the life style. He also foresees the advantages of it in building a brand image,
which is difficult to build by feature and value propositions. Brand personality can easily be
created by the application of user imagery. It is based on either typical users (people you see
using the brand) or idealized users (as portrayed in advertising and elsewhere). User imagery is a
powerful driver of a brand personality in a country like India. In these cases the user is already a
person reflecting the aspirations, failures and successes of people for whom the brand is targeted.
The easy going youth in The Unshakable campaign or the struggler in the kuch kar dikhana hai
campaign are reflections of the change of the mind set and life style of Indian Youth. They are
key indicators for a more matured, risk taking generation of young customers of emerging India.
14. Brand Loyalty
Brand Loyalty is one of the important aspects of Brand Equity. It is a crucial goal and result of
successful marketing programs, sales initiatives and product development efforts. There are many
benefits and importance of brand loyalty.
At the core of every successful brand is a nucleus of loyal customers. These "true believers"
understand the brand better, purchase more often and recommend the brand to others. Loyalty is a
core dimension of brand equity and is a way to gauge the strength of a brand. It represents a barrier
to entry, a basis for a price premium, and time to respond to competitive innovations
14.1 Concept of Brand loyalty
Brand marketing is not concerned with making one-off sales. A long-term preference is the aim of all
branding. Few consumers will be 100 percent loyal to one brand. But a strong brand is always
included in the consumer’s repertoire of acceptable brands, and will enjoy a high percentage of
consumer’s purchases within the relevant category. The brand loyalty of the customer base is often
the core of a brand’s equity. If customers are indifferent to brand, and buy with respect to features,
price and convenience, with little concern to brand name, there is little equity. If, on the other hand,
they continue to purchase the brand even in the face of competitors with superior features, price,
and convenience, substantial value exists in the brand and perhaps in its symbol and slogans.
Brand loyalty, long central construct in marketing, is a measure of the attachment that a customer
has to a brand. It reflects how likely a customer will be to switch to another brand, especially when
that brand makes a change, either in price or in product features. As brand loyalty increases, the
vulnerability of the customer base to competitive action is reduced. It is one indicator of brand
equity, which is demonstrably linked to future profits, since brand loyalty directly translates into
14.2 Why Seek Brand Loyalty
Loyal customers can be and should be the foundation for marketing strategy. Beyond the
profit they generate, loyal customers provide the basis for brand development and improvement.
The brand that loses sight of its loyal customers has lost its direction, and is vulnerable to losing
market share. As a brand's percentage of loyal customers goes up, market share increases and the
brand becomes more profitable. Share rises because those customers who become repeat
purchasers are no longer lost to the competition. In addition, repeat customers are more
profitable than new customers - attracting new customers involves investing far more marketing
and promotional funds. Raising your percentage of loyal customers improves growth and market
share. Loyal customers buy your product over and over, while non-loyal customer simply defects
to your competitors. Defection lowers your market share and loyalty raises your market share.
14.3 Who Does This and how?
To some extent, brand loyalty is being developed and managed by all successful brands.
But in many cases loyalty itself is considered simply the result of well-executed marketing
programs. Customer loyalty is the number one priority of Brand Managers.
The best way to achieve greater brand loyalty is by managing the brand loyalty process.
Treat the customer right
Keep in touch
Measure/manage customer satisfaction
Create barriers to shift
Reward loyalty directly
Freebies and discounts
14.4 Value of Loyalty
Reduces marketing cost: It is cheaper to service an existing customer than attract
a new one.
Provides trade leverage: Provides for preferred shelf space
Attracts new customers: Loyal customers while gaining reassurance from the
product also provide assurance to new customers.
Allows time to respond to competitive threats: ‘Colgate Gel’
15. Research and Analysis
Analysis of the Questionnaire
The questionnaire was divided into two sections for better understanding and analysis.
The first section was about the personal information about the respondents.
The second section included the general information regarding different brand of jeans
available and the buying behaviors of the respondent.
Seventy-five students were surveyed from different colleges among different age groups.
Western culture is looming very fast. Today’s Generation X is not clad to formal shirts
and pants. Gone were the days when one used to go to colleges in their traditional ‘dhotis’ and
‘kurta's’. This has been replaced by ‘JEANS’.
In order to gain some insight into the problem, some firsthand research was needed and
that is why the first stone to build the presented research was laid here.
Main objective of conducting the survey was:
1. To study the changes in the brand loyalty in response to change in price and also to find
out price elasticity.
2. One more thing that goes along with the change in price is brand loyalty. Many a times
change in price comes out to be swift in brand loyalty. So the objective was to measure
change in brand loyalty too.
3. To study the change in brand loyalty in response to change in income.
As my survey was among college students, income, which depicts either their pocket
money or a part/full time job and both. This is the crucial factor in determining buying
behaviour. Change in income changes the buying behaviour of a consumer and so do the brand
loyalty. Hence my objective was to study this change.
4. To study the effect of freebies scheme on brand loyalty.
5. To study the aggregate effect of all the factors discussed in questionnaire on brand
6. To study the importance buyers attach to various attributes like price, advertisement,
varieties, etc.) while buying.
7. To study the effectiveness of a good advertisement of a new brand in terms of its ability
to attract consumers loyal to other brands.
1. To study the effect of non-availability of regular brand on the brand loyalty of buyers.
2. To study the impacts of new brand (price of which may be less than, equal to or more
than the price of their regular brand) on the brand loyalty of buyer.
3. To study the reasons for starting wearing jeans.
4. To know the role of reference groups in selection of a particular brand of jeans.
1. Brand loyalty is not affected by change in price.
2. There is no significant difference in brand loyalty among the various income groups due
to change in price (price increases by 25%).
3. Brand loyalty is not affected by change in income.
4. Brand loyalty is not affected by scheme of free gift introduced by other brand.
5. There is no significant difference in brand loyalty between regular buyers and occasional
6. People give more importance to price as compared to other attributes.
7. Good advertisement of the new brand help in switching the brand loyalty
One cannot make such assumptions without any strong basis. To justify brand loyalty among
college students wearing jeans, I have undertaken a small survey. The survey also throws light
on the college students, which influence them in making decision regarding the purchase of jeans
and reasons for buying. To facilitate my purpose, I have formed a questionnaire and got it filled
by 75 respondents.
Analysis of Questions
Source of Income
Tabular representation of the diagram
Pocket Money Part/Full time job Both
63 8 4
Above 84% of the students surveyed depends on pocket money, 11% do part/full time jobs while
5 % students depends on both.
Analysis of data
It can be analysed from above that most of the students surveyed are dependent on their parents
i.e. pocket money, which is their major source of income.
How often do they wear jeans
Tabular representation of the diagram
Regularly (Daily) Occasionally
Above 76% of the students surveyed wear jeans regularly while 24% wears occasionally.
Analysis of data
Jeans is highly popular among college students. Most of the students wear jeans regularly (daily).
While some prefer to wear on some occasions.
Do they wear the same brand every time
Tabular representation of
the diagram Yes No
Above 79% of the student’s surveyed wears same brand of jeans every time while 21% wears of
different brands occasionally.
Analysis of data
It has been seen that in the present scenario each and every people prefer branded products
irrespective of their background. In today’s scenario people are more attracted towards branded
products irrespective of the brand price. It has been found that people see branded goods as a
status symbol and go for it. Thus people have changed their perspective towards the product and
every one prefers branded products compared to others. Since most respondents wear same brand
every time itself reflects their loyalty towards that particular brand
Brand people prefer the most
Tabular representation of the diagram
Above 79% of the student’s wears jeans as it it’s a symbol of prestige. 21% wears out of
curiosity and durability, 17% wears by seeing the respective advertisement while 12 % wears
just for gradual transformation.
Why do student wear jeans
Tabular representation of the diagram
Status & Durability Advertisement Out of Just for gradual
Prestige Curiosity transformation
21 16 16 13 9
Above 29% of the student’s wears jeans as it it’s a symbol of prestige. 21% wears out of
curiosity and durability, 17% wears by seeing the respective advertisement while 12 % wears
just for gradual transformation.
Analysis of data
From the above table, we can conclude that status and prestige symbol is the main reason behind
starting wearing jeans. Advertisement has very little impact on the respondents to start wearing
jeans, so advertisement is not the boost factor at the initial stage. It has been found that majority
of the student’s wears jeans because it symbolizes prestige and status. Some goes for its
durability and advertisement while some wear out of curiosity and for gradual transformation i.e.
just for a change. Prestige is the important factor followed by its durability and advertisement for
buying and wearing the jeans. Thus jeans reflect the symbol of owners’ pride.
People like most about their regular brand
Tabular representation of the diagram
Varieties Colour Advertisement Price
27 27 15 6
It can be seen that 36% of the student’s like different varieties available & colour in their regular
brand. 20% like advertisement while 8% voted for price.
Analysis of data
After the survey it has been found that most students like varieties and colour available in their
regular brand. Advertisement is also another aspect, which is looked upon while price plays a
very negligible role. Today people are willing to pay heavy price if they are getting quality
products alongwith varieties. They are quality conscious and don’t want to compromise on
quality. The above chart shows that the most important factor in buying the jeans is varieties and
its weightage is around 36% and colours and advertisement are secondary factors. Thus, we can
conclude that variety is more important than all the other attributes. Price has very little impact
on the respondent
How come they know about their regular brand
Tabular representation of the diagram
Friend Circle Shop Owner Advertisement
43 22 10
It can be seen that 58% of the student’s came to know from their friends about their regular
brand. While 29% came to know about it from shop owners and 13% are aware because of the
Analysis of data
The above table shows that 58% of respondents came to know their regular brand from their
friends. Only 13% of the respondents have selected the brand after looking its advertisements. In
short, reference group (friends and shop owners) has strong effect on the selection of the brand.
One can say that buying behaviour of today’s youth is driven by their peers and reference
groups. Advertisement plays a secondary role in knowing about a particular brand.
Are they aware of any other brands
Tabular representation of the diagram
From the above table it can be seen that 95% of students are aware of the brands other that their
regular brand while 5% of students are not aware of any other brand.
Analysis of data
Around 98% respondents answered positively. This means that they are aware of the
advertisements of other brands but still prefer their regular brand. This shows that they have
knowledge about various brands but their buying decision is not affected by the advertisement of
other brands. Most of the respondents were able to recollect the advertisements of other brands.
It can be analysed that majority of the students are aware of the advertisement of brands other
than their regular brand. Even though they prefer to wear specific brand, they are aware of the
different brands available in the market.
Most influencing factor in their regular brands
Tabular representation of the diagram
Varieties Celebrities/Models Advertisement Punchline/Logo
29 21 19 6
It can be seen that 39% of the student’s are influenced by the varieties available in their regular
brand. The celebrities and models that endorse for that particular brand while 25% and 8%
contributes to advertisement and punchline/logo respectively influence 28%.
Analysis of data
From the above figure it is clear that most of the students are influenced by the varieties available in
their regular brand. Also the celebrities and models endorsing that brand mainly influence youngsters.
Today’s teenagers associate the brands with the celebrities endorsing it. They can easily recall the name
of brands because of their favourite star endorsing it. Very few of the respondents influenced by the
punchline and logo of the brand. Mainly, the respondents who opted for logo or punchline tried to
match their personality with the model or slogan. So it is a psychological effect of advertisement on the
If they come across an advertisement of new brand, which has influencing factor,
Tabular representation of the diagram
Ask/Inquire for it Ignore it Try it
52 13 10
From the above table it is clear that 70% of the student’s will ask or inquire about the new brand,
17% will ignore it while rest 13% will try it.
Analysis of data
It can be analysed that most students will inquire about the new brand having features of their
regular brands but it won’t ultimately decide their buying behaviour. There are some students
who will totally ignore other brand thus reflecting their brand loyalty while some students would
still love to try it. This shows that today youths are more trendy and adventurous and like to try
new things. They think twice before buying any specific brands. Even though new brand may
have all the factors which they wanted in the advertisement, they will not switch to the new
brand only for the reason that its advertisement is good. So the good advertisement of the new
brand does not significantly attract the respondents to switch their brand.
If the price of their regular brand is increased with the price of other brands remaining
the same, what would be their reaction
Tabular representation of the diagram
Use same brand Shift to some other brand
It can be seen that 83% of the student’s will use the same brand even if the price of their regular
brand is increased with respect to some other brand while 17% will shift to some other brand.
Analysis of data
From the above statistics it can be analysed that majority of the students are loyal to their brand.
Even though the price of their regular brand is increased they won’t switch to some other brand.
While in some cases there is probability of shifting to some other brand. Loyalty increases with
the increase in the age group. Since most of students surveyed were wearing jeans since school
days, they were aware of the particular brand and also loyal to the brand which they were
How much do you spend on your regular brand yearly
Tabular representation of the diagram
Less than 1000 1000-3000 3000-5000 5000 or more
27 24 13 11
It can be seen that 36% of the student’s spends less than Rs.1000 yearly on their regular brand,
32% spend in between 1000-3000, 17% spend in between Rs.3000-Rs.5000 and 15% spends
more than Rs.5000.
Analysis of data
From the above statistics it can be analysed that students spends on their regular brand on the
basis of their source of income. The more income means more spending on the regular brand
yearly. Since income of the most respondents is pocket-money, it’s not possible for them to
spend lavishing even though on their favourite brand.
If your source of income increases what would be your reaction
Tabular representation of the diagram
Buy more jeans of No change Shift to some other
same brand higher quality brand
37 29 9
It can be seen that 49% of the student’s will buy more jeans of same brand if the source of their
income is increased, while 39% said that there will be no change in their buying behaviour and
12% will shift to some other higher quality brand.
Analysis of data
If the source of income is increased by any means than they will tend to buy more jeans of same
brand. While there are respondents who said that there will be no change in their current buying
pattern. They will buy as per their needs. It’s something like if the price of salt is decreased than
people wont intake salt in more quantity.
If they find a new brand at a shop what will they do
Tabular representation of the diagram
Ask/Inquire about it Ignore it Try it
37 29 9
It can be seen that 49% of the student’s will inquire about the new brand, 39% will ignore it
while 12% will love to try it.
If they don’t find their regular brand at a particular Shop, what would they do
Tabular representation of the diagram
Postpone buying at that time Buy another brand
81% of the student’s will postpone buying if they don’t find their regular brand while 19% will
buy another brand.
Analysis of data
This shows that non-availability of a favorite brand has much effect on the youngster to switch their
brand. Overall picture shows that around 19% of respondents go for another brand of jeans, means
switching their brand. There are also respondents who either buy other brand or postpone buying at
that time because they do not want to switch the brand. Availability of favorite brand is most important
for the respondents. If it is not available then around 19% will go to another brand and around 81% who
are brand loyal but may be dissatisfied with the non-availability of their favorite brand. So it’s very
difficult to say how many respondents are strong brand loyal with respect to availability of jeans at a
If the brand other than their regular brand introduces some discount
scheme, what will be their reaction
Tabular representation of the diagram
No change in current buying pattern Shift to that brand
It can be seen that there will be no change in the current buying pattern of 89% of the student’s
while 11% of students will shift to that particular brand.
Analysis of data
Here, respondents who opted for no change in the current buying pattern will be considered as
the brand loyal. From the table itself, we can directly conclude that scheme is ineffective for
switching the brand loyalty of irrespective of their age group and income group.
In today’s volatile and competitive environment, which is very, dynamic and changing
very fast, it is quite difficult to suggest the concrete frame work with regarding to consumer
buying behaviour which is also an ever changing phenomenon. Research can only help to certain
extent. This study was aimed to test loyalty among college students wearing jeans by judging
their buying pattern. Out comes were as follows-
Brand loyalty has no direct relationship with the age group
Number of brand loyal rises with the increase in the age group. Brand loyalty is low in
age group 15-18 because they are new to any particular brand, so they tend to try various brands
keeping price in mind. While in age group 18-24, it is high as compared to 15-20 age groups,
because they are habituated to a particular brand to some extent.
People give more importance to varieties and brand name as compared to other
I wanted to know the most preferred attribute in jeans among the respondents. I found out
that for all the income groups as well as age groups variety is the most important attribute. Its
durability and price is emerged as the second important factor. But however students whose
income is below 1000 Rs. are more price conscious than other age groups and income groups.
The advertisement of new brand does not help in switching the brand loyalty
Attractive advertisement of the new brand does not influence respondents to switch their
brand. Eventhough the most attractive model(s) or overall good presentation of advertisement is
provided by new brand, they will stick to the regular brand. So it fails to attract the significant
respondents of other brand.
Overall we can conclude that:
Advertisement does not have much impact on the respondents who do not wear jeans to
start wearing it.
Friend circle is the main reason behind starting wearing the jeans.
Reference group (friends and shop owners) has strong effect on the selection of particular
A respondent will not shift from one brand to another on finding the advertisement of the
other brand more attractive.
Availability of favourite brand is of utmost importance for a respondent. If it is not
available, then around 19% of the respondent will switch to other brand and 81% will
postpone their buying or may be dissatisfied with the company. So the delivery of the
cigarettes on time to various outlets (shops) is very important.
Variety is more important for the entire age group and income group. Youngsters and
low-income group respondents are more price conscious than other age group and income
A respondent will not shift from one brand to another on finding the advertisement of the
new brand attractive.
Brand loyalty is affected by change in price.
Brand loyalty is affected by change in income.
Brand loyalty is not affected by scheme of freebies and discounts introduced by the other
There is no significant difference in brand loyalty between regular and occasional buyers.
Youngsters are more influenced by the advertisement than other age groups.
Thus, strong brands are important to both marketers and customers as they:
Provide relatively higher return on sales.
Have longer life.
Creates entry barriers for others into the category.
Have better leverage with the trade.
Can bounce back after a mistake.
“No study is fully complete in itself” – said the elders. Even then, not taking opportunistic
shelter in this proverbial saying, I am fully aware of the many lacunas in this piece of survey,
presented in the foregoing pages.
Firstly, the sample size should have been much larger in each category of students sampled.
Secondly, some more intriguing questions must have been addressed to the individuals.
Had these two deficiencies been not there, the outcome of this survey should have been more
interesting and fruitful than what it is in the present form. Alas! The master factor for these two
deficiencies was paucity of time.
As this is only a pilot survey of small sample size, the same can be expanded to a more
efficient and highly useful study. As the ‘proof of the pudding is in eating’, we sincerely hope
and wish that this pudding will prove tasteful and informative to me in the near future.
The books referred to develop the theoretical part for the report were as follows:
Marketing Management - By Philip Kotler
Brand Management - By Y.L.R Moorthy
Market Research - By Naresh Malhotra
Other literature referred were magazines and marketing journals.