What are the recommended daily caloric intake for a moderately by A8I7MPe


									    Chapter 15
Nutrition for Fitness
   and Athletics
Key Concepts
• complete proteins       • latent iron deficiency
• complex                 • monosaccharides
  carbohydrates           • prelatent iron
• disaccharides             deficiency
• essential amino acids   • recommended daily
• frank anemia              caloric intake
• hemochromatosis         • simple carbohydrates
• hypoglycemia            • sports anemia
Review Questions
What are the recommended daily
caloric intakes for a moderately active
adult male and female?

      2900 for a male and 2200 for a female
What are the percentages of
carbohydrate, protein, and fat in a
typical American diet?
      • Carbohydrate:
         – 46%
      • Protein:
         – 12%
      • Fat:
         – 42%
What are the recommended percentages of
carbohydrate, protein, and fat that should
make up a healthy diet for athletes and non-

       • Carbohydrate:
          – 55 to 58%
       • Protein:
          – 12 to 15%
       • Fat:
          – 25 to 30%
What is the maximum percentage of
total caloric intake recommended for
simple sugars?

             10 percent
What percentage of total calories
should come from saturated fat?

• 10 %

What percentage of total calories should
come from mono- and poly-unsaturated

• 20 %
Fat produces more than twice as much
energy per gram as carbohydrates, so why
are carbohydrates favored for athletes?

 Fat requires more oxygen for each calorie, and
 in many athletic events the energy production per
 unit of oxygen consumed is of high importance.
What is the recommended carbohydrate
intake before, during, and after a
  • Before
    – should be based on the athlete’s experiments
      during training
  • During
    – take in 25 to 30 grams of carbohydrate (100 to
      200 kilocalories) every half hour
  • After
    – take in 100 grams of carbohydrate (400
      kilocalories) within 15 to 30 minutes of exercise
      and additional 100-gram feeding every two to four
      hours thereafter
Why is it better to take in carbohydrates
immediately after an event rather than

    Glycogen synthesis is greater when
    carbohydrates are ingested immediately after
    exercise. Failure to replenish glycogen can
    result in poor performance.
What are six factors that affect protein

       •   Mode of exercise
       •   Frequency of exercise
       •   Intensity of exercise
       •   Duration of exercise
       •   Training status
       •   Quality of protein
For strength and endurance athletes, are the
recommended percentages of fat, carbohydrate,
and protein the same, higher, or lower?

          • Fat:
             – same
          • Carbohydrate:
             – same
          • Protein:
             – strength is higher
             – endurance is same
Do people need vitamins to supplement
their normal diet as a result of the
increase in metabolism due to exercise?

 If the diet is sound in the first place,
 supplementary vitamins are not needed. Eating
 larger amounts of food as daily workout levels
 increase usually provides the needed increase
 in vitamins.
Name some groups of athletes who
may require iron supplementation
(under medical guidance).

   •   Male and female endurance athletes
   •   Adolescent athletes
   •   Athletes who lose weight for competition
   •   Vegetarian athletes
Why is it important not to give iron
supplements to athletes without
medical supervision?

 Doing so can induce deficiencies of other trace
 minerals and may produce iron overload in
 some people
What are the three stages of iron
deficiency? Describe the characteristics
of each.
 1. Prelatent iron deficiency:
    characterized by a decrease or absence of
    storage iron
 2. Latent iron deficiency:
    characterized by an increased total iron
    binding capacity and reduced serum iron
 3. Frank anemia:
    characterized by a drop in the hemoglobin
    level below normal values
Summarize the American College of Sports
Medicine’s recommendations regarding fluid intake
before, during, and after exercise.
1. Drink adequate fluids during the 24 hours before an event.
2. Drink about 17 ounces about two hours before exercise.
3. During exercise, consume enough fluids to replace water lost
   through sweating.
4. Fluids should be cooler than ambient temperature, flavored,
   and in containers that make it easy to drink enough without
   disrupting exercise.
5. For events lasting over an hour, fluids should contain proper
   amounts of carbohydrates and electrolytes.
6. During intense exercise lasting more than one hour, drink
   fluids containing 4 to 8 percent carbohydrates.
7. For exercise lasting more than an hour, sodium should be
   included in the rehydration fluid.
What five characteristics should
pre-exercise meals have?

   •   Sufficient fluid to maintain hydration
   •   Be low in fat and fiber
   •   Be high in carbohydrate
   •   Be moderate in protein
   •   Be composed of food familiar to the athlete
Useful Websites
Nutrition Navigator

Food and Nutrition Information Center

American Dietetic Association

Vitamins and Minerals

Nutrition for Physical Activity and Athletics

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