THE REPUBLIC OF RWANDA
MINISTRY OF GENDER AND FAMILY PROMOTION
SECOND REPORT ON THE MEASURES TAKEN TO IMPLEMENT
THE SOLEMN DECLARATION ON
Fax : 2006- 30 June e-mail
B.P. 969 Kigali, Tél. +0252587127, (Period+0252587127, 2009) : firstname.lastname@example.org
Kigali, December 2009
ACTs :Artemisinin based Combination Treatment
ADB : African Development Bank
ANC : Antenatal Care
ART/ARV : Anti Retroviral Therapy
CDC :United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CTX : Cotrimoxazole
DRC : Democratic Republic of Congo
EICVM : Enquete Integrale de Conditions de Vie des Menages
GBV : Gender Based Violence
HF : Health Facilities
H1N1 : Hemagglutinine- Neuraminidase (Human Influenza A)
HBM : Home Based management of Malaria
HIV/AIDS : Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immuno Deficiency
IEC : Information, Education and Communication
IRS : Indoor Residual Spraying
ITN : Impregnated Treated Nets
LLINs : Long Lasting Impregnated Nets
MDR- : Multi Drug Resistant
MIFOTRA : Ministry of Public Sercices and Labour
MIGEPROF : Ministry of Gender and Family Promotion
MINECOFIN : Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning
MOH :Ministry of Health
MTCT : Mother To Child Transmission
NPPA : National Public Prosecution Authority
OVC : Orphans and other Vulnerable Children
PBF : Performance Based Financing
PCR :Polymerase Chain Reaction
PEPFAR : Presidential Emergency Plan For Aids Relief
PLWHA : Persons Living With Hiv and Aids
PLWHIV :Persons Living With HIV
PMTCT :Prevention of Mother To Child Transmission
PNILT /NILTCP: National Integrated Leprosy and Tuberculosis Control Program
PW : Pregnant Women
TB : Tuberculosis
TRAC : Treatment Research Aids Centre
UN : United Nations
VCT :Voluntary Counseling and Testing
WHO : World Health Organization
0.2 Abbreviation .......................................................................................................................2
0.3 Preliminary statement………………………………………………………….……….3
I. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SOLEMN DECLARATION………………………....3
I.1.COMBATING HIV/AIDS, MALARIA, TUBERCULOSIS AND OTHER RELATED
INFECTIOUS DISEASES …………………………………………………………………3
I.1.1 Malaria .............................................................................................................................3
I.1.2 HIV and AIDS .................................................................................................................5
I.1.3 Tuberculosis and Leprosy..............................................................................................12
I.1.4 Epidemic infectious diseases .........................................................................................13
I.2 PEACE AND SECURITY................................................................................................14
I.3 CAMPAIGN FOR SYSTEMATIC PROHIBITION OF THE RECRUITMENT OF
CHILD SOLDIERS ...............................................................................................................18
I.4 TRAFFICKING IN WOMEN AND GIRLS .................................................................19
I.5 PROMOTE THE GENDER PARITY PRINCIPLE ....................................................20
I.6 PROMOTION OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ALL HUMAN RIGHTS FOR
WOMEN AND GIRLS ..........................................................................................................27
I.7 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE LEGISLATION TO GUARANTEE WOMEN’S
LAND, PROPERTY AND INHERITANCE RIGHTS ………………………………….28
I.8 EDUCATION OF GIRLS AND LITTERACY OF WOMEN…………..…………...30
I.9 DOMESTICATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF REGIONAL AND
INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS ON GENDER EQUALITY …………………….32
The present Report follows the one submitted by the Government of the Republic of
Rwanda in 2005, exactly two years after the adoption of the Solemn Declaration on
Gender Equality in Africa, during the Third Ordinary Session of the General Assemble
of the Heads of State and Government of Members States of the African Union, in
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from 6-8 July 2004. The Report covers the period from
January 2006 to June 2009.
0.2 Preliminary statement
The projections made in 2002 had put the estimates of the level of the population of
Rwanda to 9.309.619 inhabitants for 2007, 9.831.501 in 2008 and 10.117.029 in 2009;
the estimates for 2009 suggested that there would be 47, 8% of men and 52, 2% of
I. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SOLEMN DECLARATION
I.1. COMBATING HIV/AIDS, MALARIA, TUBERCULOSIS AND OTHER
RELATED INFECTIOUS DISEASES
The overall objectives are to:
o Ensure that treatment and social services are available at local level
o Enact legislation to end discrimination against women living with
o Increase budget allocations in sectors related to the protection and care of
people living with HIV/AIDS in order to alleviate the women’s burden of
The Malaria program implemented through TRAC PLUS units, under the Ministry of
Health in charge of treatment and research on AIDS has different high impact
interventions and targets at local level
Targets: vulnerable groups:
o pregnant women,
o children under 5 years,
o People living with HIV (PLHIV),
o the persons living in extreme poverty
a) Establishment of a health insurance scheme (Mutuelles de Sante) that facilitates access
to health care for the poorest among the population.
b) Distribution of bed nets (LLINs): currently, 70% of children under five years and 74%
of pregnant women countrywide have received 1 bed net, and at least 60% sleep under
c) Introduction of ACTs (Coartem) as a new treatment protocol for treatment of Malaria
d) Preventive treatment of Malaria (Intermittent Preventive Treatment) for Pregnant
e) Indoor Residual Spray in the highly endemic areas of Kigali City, Kirehe and Nyanza
Districts, at least 2 times a year
f) Early diagnostic and treatment of Malaria, especially for Under five Children and
Pregnant Women, in conjunction with other programmes like PBF
g) Home Based management of Malaria (HBM): this is done to ensure access to malaria
treatment within 24 hours after the onset of fever / malaria for at least 90% of children
under 5 years in the 21 Districts covered by HBM.
h) Setting up of malaria early warning system and production of the map/Districts, to
ensure that at least 90 % of malaria epidemics are detected within two weeks and
i) Training of 710 health agents in using malaria early warning system
j) Sensitization of the population on the prevention against Malaria through a weekly
radio program and billboards.
Results: the results for the period 2007/2008 can be summarized as follows:
Households with at least 1 ITN: 54%
70% of Children under 5 with ITNs: 60%, sleeping under ITN
74%Pregnant Women with ITNs:, 60%using ITNs :
Households beneficiaries of IRS: 202,140 (2008)
Table 1 hereafter shows that the malaria morbidity has reduced regularly from 2003,
due to high impact interventions such as broad distribution of ITNs, utilization of Coartem,
HBM, Community based health insurance, , IEC programs, etc.
Table 1: Reduction of Malaria Morbidity in the Health Centres, 2001-2008
Source: TRAC+/Malaria, annual report 2008
I.1.2 HIV AND AIDS
The HIV/AIDS program is organized through three main interventions:
1. Reinforcement of HIV prevention measures
2. Care and treatment of people leaving with HIV and AIDS
3. Mitigation of the impact of HIV for people infected and/or affected by HIV and
These interventions have contributed to achieving the overall objectives of the first
implementation pillar of the Solemn declaration stated above. Here is a short outline about
1. Ensure that treatment and social services are available at local level
a) Decentralisation of HIV AIDS testing, care and treatment services
Since 1998, Rwanda has scaled up VCT, PMTCT and ART services for a number of health
facilities. The graph below shows the evolution of health facilities providing these services
305 365 381
285 341 345
33 53 120
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Year PMTCT sites
Voluntary Counselling and Testing for HIV (VCT)
1. 430,577 people were tested for HIV; among them 11,843 (2.7%) were found to be
HIV positive: 98,6% know about their results
2. 38,792 couples have been tested, among them 1357 (3.49%) were found discordant
3. 381 Health Facilities (85% of the existing health facilities in Rwanda) were offering
VCT services by June 2009.
The following table provides the details
Table 2: Extension of VCTs and of the number of tested persons
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 (June)
Nb VCT sites 239 256 312 369 381
Nb persons tested 1,146,174 1,643,610 2,543,053 3,306,891 3,710,468
HIV testing among Couples
Table 3: Number of couples tested and % of discordant couples
Year VCT PMTCT Total % of
Couples Discordant Couples Discordant discordant
tested Couples tested Couples couples
2005 59,216 4,375 58,718 2,655 117,934 7,030 6.0
2006 55,885 3,783 126,657 4,652 182,542 8,435 4.6
2007 85,343 4,566 162,555 5,057 247,898 9,623 3.9
2008 101,283 3,877 229,201 6,085 330,484 9,962 3.0
2009 (June) 38,792 1,359 102,124 2,450 139,916 3,807 2,7
Source: TRAC+/HAS, annual report 2008 and semester report 2009
HIV Prevention from Mother To Child Transmission (PMTCT)
Table 4: Testing of Pregnant Women (PW) in the PMTCT program, 2003-2009
2003 2005 2007 2008 2009 (June)
Nr PMTCT sites 13 120 285 345 345
Nr PW tested 88,278 364,057 814,910 1,062,015 1,293,183
An average of 98% of pregnant women attending antenatal (ANC) services accepted to be
tested, along with 84,6% of their male partners.
HIV prevalence (%) among PW and their Male Partners
8 9,1 7,3
4 4,8 4,7 3
2 2,9 2,7
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Pregnant women Male partners
ARV prophylaxis in pregnant women
ARV prophylaxis was introduced in the PMTCT in 2005 and is still in a scale up phase for a
universal access. From January to December 2008, out of 8 742 pregnant women tested HIV
positive and who knew their results, 7 151 (82%) received ARV prophylaxis according to the
current protocol used in Rwanda. This proportion increased to 98% in June 2009.
Considering deliveries, of 7 784 women HIV + expected to give birth in HF, 5903 (76%) gave
birth effectively in the HF and among them, 5 516 (93%) gave birth being on ARV
prophylaxis within the framework of PMTCT.
Infant follow up in PMTCT
Among 6 271 children expected to receive ARV prophylaxis, 5 686 (91 %) have received this
prophylaxis. This represents 86% of all notified births.
Cotrimoxazole was given to 5347 children born to HIV-positive mothers from the age of 6
weeks, representing a proportion of 84% of all eligible children (6 391).
Regarding the Early Infant Diagnosis of children born to the HIV-positive mothers, children
expected to be tested at 6 weeks of age, were 3198 and among them 2790 (87%) were
effectively tested by PCR. This represents approximately 44% of all children born to HIV +
women in need of the first PCR.
The Early Infant Diagnosis showed a rate of 3.2% of HIV transmission from mother to child
among the children tested at 6 weeks. The second PCR test performed at the 5th month of age
involved 1 077 children (72 % of expected) and showed an infection rate of 2.8 %.
Until December 2008, among 2 501 (79% of expected) exposed children tested at the age of
18 months, 174 (6.9%) were HIV positive. In comparison with the results found in children
tested with PCR, the role of the breast-feeding in the MTCT remains sensitive.
b) HIV AIDS care and treatment of infected people
Antiretroviral medicines were also scaled up in health facilities across the country. The chart
below shows the evolution of ART sites.
Evolution of ART Sites and of the Nb of ART Patients
60000 165 63149
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 June2009
ART Patients ART Sites
Source: TRAC+ Annual report 2008 and semester report 2009
By May 31st, 2009:
1. Total patients on ARV 68,520: Adults: 62,626 ( Male: 23150 and female :39476)
2. Children : Under 15 years: 5,894 ( Male: 2943 and female:2951)
3. 38 District hospitals had initiated HIV children and adolescents psychosocial care and
4. 210 (47%) health facilities are currently providing ART services
5. 95 ART sites have been strengthened in TB screening of PLWHA
Figure 1: HIV: Distribution of adult patients on ARVs by sex (end of December 2008)
Source: TRAC+/HAS, annual report, 2008
The figure shows that the proportion of HIV-infected women on ARVs is higher (63%) than
HIV: Adults on ARV by sex (end of May 2009)
Figure 2: HIV: Children on ARV by sex (end of May 2009)
2951 50% Females
Source: TRAC+/HAS, annual report 2008
The figure shows that the proportion of children on ARVs was practically identical for males
(50%) and females (50%).
2. Enact legislation to end discrimination against women living with HIV/AIDS
The Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda contains general equality and anti-discrimination
provisions which applies to women living with HIV/AIDS. Thus, Article 16 of the
Constitution provides: “All human beings are equal before the law. They shall enjoy, without
any discrimination, equal protection of the law”. In Article 11, it provides “All Rwandans are
born and remain free and equal in rights and duties. Discrimination of whatever kind based
on, inter alia, ethnic origin, tribe, clan, color, sex, region, social origin, religion or faith,
opinion, economic status, culture, language, social status, physical or mental disability or any
other form of discrimination is prohibited and punishable by law”.
Moreover, the obligation to refrain from discriminatory acts applies not only to the States but
to individuals as well. Thus, Article 46 of the Constitution provides: “Every citizen has the
duty to relate to other persons without discrimination and to maintain relations conducive to
safeguarding, promoting and reinforcing mutual respect, solidarity and tolerance.” These
provisions are, of course, applicable to women living with HIV. Finally, key principle of the
National Policy on HIV and AIDS (2006) stipulates: “All Rwandans are equal before the law,
regardless of sex, race, religion [and] conviction [or] HIV status”.
Although Rwanda has not enacted a specific legislation to end discrimination against women
living with HIV/AIDS, existing provisions in our constitutions as well as Rwanda’s
obligations under international conventions provide sufficient guarantees and protection to
women living with HIV/AIDS against discrimination on the basis of their perceived or actual
3. Budget allocations in sectors related to the protection and care of people living with
HIV/AIDS in order to alleviate the women’s burden of care
Table 5: Sources of funding for HIV/AIDS in Rwanda in 2006
Financing sources Amount spent 2006
Government of Rwanda 2.426.172.514
UN agencies 1.211.907.456
WB MAP 6.387.617.763
Global Fund 7.174.979.556
Other donors, (bilateral donors, foundations) 13.429.287.334
Other private donors 216.302.449
Exchange rate 2006: 1$=551.74 / Source: UNGAS country report, Rwanda, 2007
During the year 2006, the total expenses in the fight against HIV/AIDS amounted to eighty
seven million and six hundred thousand (87, 6000, 000) US$.
Compared to the previous years, there was a significant increase in the expenses that
amounted to eighty one million and four hundred thousand (81,400,000) US$ in 2005, forty
four million eight hundred (44,850,000) in 2004 and nine million and six hundred thousand
(9,600,000) US in 2003.
Table 6: Funding in VIH/AIDS programs by areas of intervention
Spendig category Indicative expenditures Amount spent 2006
Adjusted to constant 2006 in
Prevention programmes 10.813.999.496 11.519.430.542
Treatment and care 17.421.116.845 14.975.375.517
Programme management and 10.948.334.363 14.250.590.951
Social protection and social 2.532.628.274 3.108.734.148
services excluding OVC
Incentives for human resources Not available 229.596.813
Orphans and vulnerable 3.812.717.238 3.880.904.328
children (including FARG)
Enabling environment and 62.483.758 108.173.109
HIV and AIDS related 2.562.567. 267.783.872
research (excluding operations Update value: 1.137.763.548
Total 44.928.555.072 48.340.589.281
Source: UNGASS Country Progress Report Republic of Rwanda, 2006-2007
As indicated under point 1 above, the prevention of HIV/AIDS, the care, treatment and
support for PLWHIV takes into account the gender dimension.
The allocation and the actual use of funds, whether from the public or private sectors or from
international donors match up with the integration or the will to integrate gender dimension in
the fight against HIV/AIDS.
I.1.3 TUBERCULOSIS AND LEPROSY
As a general rule but in particular during the period under review, the program for the TB
management (PNILT) has been strengthened and provided with means to detect and treat all
the cases of TB.
- Some 450 centres for diagnosis and treatment are already functional. Sixty percent
(60%) of them have capacity to follow HIV+TB patients in the TB services
- Twenty four of the thirty (24/30) country’s Districts run TB detection programs
through Community Health Workers at community level.
- The detection and management of MDR-TB cases are functional in Huye District
Hospital, and 2 other wards will open in Kibungo and Kibagabaga district hospitals
Evolution of number TB Patients per year
12000 10012 9725 9733 9598 9463
10000 8108 7977
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
HIV in TB Patients
40 85,5 86,1
20 45 48 46 44 41 39 38 44,5 44,8
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
% Tested % HIV+ % CTX % ART
I.1.4 EPIDEMIC INFECTIOUS DISEASES:
A unit has been created within TRAC+ to handle this issue. Below is an outline of the main
objectives and achievements as well as the information on the sources of funding:
a) Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)
1. Surveillance and response on Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs): 116 lab
technicians trained on Schistosomiasis diagnosis,
2. Strengthening of preventive measures and behaviour change communication:
mainly in schools
3. National Mass campaign for school aged children through 2nd Mother and Child
Health Week: 2,853,280 school age children were reached with coverage rate of
b) Preparedness and response to human pandemic influenza
1. Table top simulation exercise completed; field simulation exercise completed;
contingency plan reviewed. The national preparedness plan is drafted and refined on
an ongoing basis.
2. 150 heath care workers have been trained on Influenza A (H1N1)
3. Collection of samples, Testing samples by RT-PCR, Data analysis and monthly
feedback to sites and to MOH and Partners, Developing mechanisms for submission
of information, samples to CDC and WHO Collaborative centers
I.2 PEACE AND SECURITY
Initiaties to ensure women’s participation in peace building and reconstruction efforts:
- Including women into the Gacaca jurisdictions as judges and witnesses
- Participation of women in peace keeping missions in Darfur and elsewhere
- Participation of women as mediators in the committees that are in charge of settling
disputes among the population before the cases are submitted to courts of justice’
- The baseline study on the implementation of the resolution 1325 in Rwanda has been
conducted, and the action plan of the same resolution has been elaborated
- Participation of women in the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region
(ICGLR) in 2
Other initiatives have been in place for several years and were included in the previous report.
Special mention however should be made about the establishment of associations bringing
together genocide survivors and women whose husbands are in jail for their participation in the
1994 genocide for activities such as income generating projects, Civic education, fight against
gender-based violence, etc
Citizens Action for Peace Program
The organization and participation in peace building events
- Rwanda was among the 42 countries that attended the Kampala action plan on women and
peace on September 29th - 30th, 2008. Rwanda has signed the declaration on the ratification of
the International Conventions on cluster munitions.
The Participation of women in peace negotiation in the region
Rwanda has a Minister of Foreign Affairs who is a woman who participates in peace
negotiations in the region. Moreover, the Rwanda Women’s Council, as well as National
Women Umbrella organizations are members to the Great Lakes Regional Committees and
Conferences on Peace and Security.
Rwanda peacekeeping missions in Darfour (Sudan) include women and both men and women
are trained, focussing on UN Resolution 1325 and the fight against gender-based violence.
A training module was developed for this purpose and since September 2007 five battalions
have been trained particularly for the mission in Darfour. This training has contributed to an
improved efficiency in providing assistance and protection to women in Darfur who, until
then had been victims to targeted violence during the collection of fire wood and water
This training has also been given to 2,594 officers who went to UN peacekeeping missions in
Darfour, in the DRC, in Liberia, the UN peace keeping department.
Table 7: Some interventions in peace and security domains
Institution Area of intervention in 1325 UN Resolution
1 Office of the - special envoy of the President of the Republic in the Great Lakes
President of the Region; he heads an ICGLR Coordination Committee of which the
Republic National Women’s Council is a member
- Peace negotiation with women’s participation
2 Office of the Prime - Coordination of the concerned ministries to ensure gender sensitivity
Minister - Appointment of national delegations for peace talks and coordination
thereof with inclusion of gender element.
3 MIGEPROF - Develop gender policy and national action plan that ensure women’s
participation in peace and security processes;
- Follow-up the implementation of the Conventions, Laws and
Resolutions related to women issues
- Lobby and advocate for women involvement
- Develop guidelines for the activities to be carried out
- Conduct research, follow-up and evaluation of policy and strategy
- Ensure partnership/networking
4 NWC - Mobilization of women to actively participate in national
- Advocacy for the participation of women in decision making about
peace and security
5 GMO Monitoring and evaluation of the gender equity/equality in all
Development of public awareness programs on gender and GBV
6 MINAFFET - Lead Great Lakes and International Conferences
- Submit report to UN and other regional and international bodies
7 MINADEF - Recruitment and training of peacekeeping troops respecting the
principle of gender equality
- Peacekeeping missions involving both men and women
- Strengthening of Gender desk
- Publication of achievements and opinions in "Ingabo Magazine"
with a "Nyampinga" (woman) chronicle in each issue
8 MININTER/Police - Strengthening of Gender desk
- Publication of the Newspaper "Rwanya ihohoterwa" which sensitizes
people on gender based violence
- Establishment of toll-free telephone lines to report on GBV cases
- Establishment of Community policing committees
9 MINIJUST - Legal Reforms that fill possible gaps in gender equity/equality
- Training of judges on gender and gender based violence and
sensitization on women and child rights
10 MINALOC - Elaboration of Community Development Policy
- Ensuring women’s participation in the decentralized entities
11 CNUR/NURC - Conduct research on conflict management and resolution
- Organize conferences and debates on national reconciliation
- Organize Civic Education (Itorero) and solidarity camps (Ingando)
for the population
12 CNDP - Investigations and reporting on various forms of violence and rights
- Advocacy and training on human rights
13 CNDR - Running of specific programs for ex-combatants including a specific
program for demobilized women (Ndabaga)
- Lobbying and advocacy for the participation of women ex-
combatants in peacekeeping missions
14 Office of the - Hearing and settling disputes on domestic issues and gender based
Ombudsman injustices about land, inheritance etc.;
- Receiving and settling individual or collective complaints against
- Publication of articles relating to women in “UMUVUNYI”
15 Great Lakes - Peace negotiation in the region;
International - Publication of booklets of Pact on Security, Stability and
Conference Development in the Great Lakes Region.
16 IRDP - Research on the obstacles and solutions for lasting peace;
- Dialogue and debates on sensitive issues such as land use,
antecedents to the genocide, unity and reconciliation, Gacaca, ;
- Dialogue clubs at community and schools level;
- Specific training course programme on peace for women leaders.
17 UN AGENCIES - Financial and technical support to the local initiatives.
18 Civil Society - Citizens Action for peace Program (education on tolerance, non
Organizations violence, peaceful coexistence, fight against exclusion, fight against
violence and torture, promote dialogue and mediation);
- Peace clubs in schools and within the communities.
- Launching campaigns to fight against the proliferation of light
weapons and small arms;
- Legal assistance to women and children;
- Dissemination of laws and conventions on women’s and child’s
I.3 CAMPAIGN FOR SYSTEMATIC PROHIBITION OF THE RECRUITMENT OF
Protect children against the consequences of armed conflicts and ensure the compliance
with international humanitarian laws and other international instruments relating to
The main measure taken by the Republic of Rwanda has been the establishment of a
legislation whereby no child can be part of the Rwandan Defence Forces (Presidential Decree
n° 72/01 of 08/07/2002 about the general statutes of the military forces, article 5).
As for children affected by the consequences of armed conflicts, their protection is ensured
through the program of the Rwanda Demobilization and Reintegration Commission.
Other measures have also been put in place to prevent the use of light weapons and fire arms
and taking drugs. A National Focal Point on Light Weapons and Small Arms has been set up
since 2003 and a partnership has been instituted with civil society organizations to sensitize
the population, track down arms caches and collect and destroy any such arms found among
To date two operations have been conducted to destroy small arms : one in 2005 concerning
6000 arms, at Musha (Rwamagana District) and the other one in 2006 concerning 1500 arms
at Ruhango (District of the same name).1
I.4 TRAFFICKING IN WOMEN AND GIRLS
In Rwanda, there is no study that may confirm the existence of cases of human trafficking in
general and that of women and girls in particular but marginal situations in prostitution area
should not be excluded.
According to the data of E.I.C.V.M 2005-2006, 11% of children aged 11 to 15 years were
engaged in activities generating incomes and 5.3% of children aged 7 to 14 years were
engaged in economic activities that could generate trafficking as well as abuses. These could
include domestic labour, work on mines, cutting stones, work in tea and sugar or rice
plantations, livestock caretaking, work in the street as porters ,
From the National Focal Point on Light Weapons and Small Arms
Concerning prevention of trafficking in human beings, the National Police disposes of a unit
in charge that closely collaborates with immigration and National Public Prosecution
Authority (NPPA) in the repression of smuggling and human trafficking cases.
Also, the National service of immigration and emigration collaborates with MIGEPROF
Services concerning children displacements out of the national boarders so as to prevent
trafficking cases that would be hidden behind international adoption or foster placement
At regional and international level, the National Police and the NPPA collaborate closely with
sub regional police and Interpol in preventing and repressing trafficking in human beings
I.5 PROMOTE THE GENDER PARITY PRINCIPLE
The Constitutional “at least 30%” women’s representation is considered at many levels of
administration. This has been achieved due to measures adopted in form of policies and
mechanisms put in place to promote women’s leadership. Thus, the decentralization policy
promotes the representation of women at the various administrative levels: members of the
National Women’s Council become automatic members of the consultative committees at the
level of the Cell, Sector, District and Kigali City. Political parties are required to include at
least 30% of women in their list of candidates for the parliamentary elections. The Ministry of
Gender and Family Promotion which is mainly playing the role of policy formulation and
coordination of implementation of gender related activities is significantly contributing for
active participation of women in decision making.
The newly created Gender Monitoring Office is in charge of monitoring and evaluation of the
gender equity/equality in all development sectors and develops public awareness programs on
gender and GBV issues.
Various programs and projects including awareness raising and capacity building programs
have contributed to the realization of active participation of women at different levels of
decision making as shown by the following figures: at central level Women Senators
represent 35%, women parliamentarians represent 56.25%, women Ministers 38% and women
State Ministers represent 40%. In the Office of the Prosecutor General women represent 20%
and 32% in the positions of Judicial Police at Higher Courts and Judicial Police at Lower
Courts. At decentralized level, women Executive Secretaries of Districts represent 17% while
women Executive Secretaries of Sectors represent 13%. Within the Districts Councils – that
are in charge of the overall development programs – women also represent at least 30%.
The National Gender Policy of 2004 has been reviewed to adapt it to the current reality and its
strategic plan has been elaborated. A Rwanda Gender Prolife was also completed in 2009.
GENDER, DECISION MAKING AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATION
This section of the report examines the role of women in decision making capacities and in
the country's politics.
Gender and decision making
The equality of all Rwandans, with a focus on gender equality is the Rwandan State's concern.
In Article 9 of the Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda, it is said that “The Rwandan State
should conformed to the following fundamental principles: building a state governed by the
rule of law, a pluralistic democratic government, equality of all Rwandans and between
women and men reflected by ensuring that women are granted at least thirty per cent of posts
in decision making organs’’.
Women’s positions in key public posts
In general, although the table below shows an unequal representation of women in key
positions in the public administration the trend is on the increase from 2005.
Number and proportions (in %) of senior managers of the public administration according to
sex, from 2005 to 2007
Senior managers of 2005 2006 2007
Administration Total Women Men Total Women Men Total Women Men
Number 16 1 15 20 4 16 24 6 18
Percentage 100.0 6.3 93.7 100.0 20.0 80.0 100.0 25.0 75.0
Source: MIFOTRA, Statistics Service
Contrary to public administration, the Supreme Court senior managers are in majority women,
as seen in the chart below.
Proportions (in %) of the Supreme Court senior managers according to sex, from 2005 to
Proportion (in %) of senior managers of Supreme Court according to sex,
from 2006 to 2007
60 53,3 53,3
Source: MIFOTRA, Statistics Service
This table shows that the appointment of Senior managers of Supreme Court is in favor of
women, (53% versus 47% in 2006 and 2007).
Number and proportions (in %) of senior managers of Supreme Court according to sex, from
2005 to 2007
Senior managers of 2006 2007
Supreme Court Total Women Men Total Women Men
Number 15 8 7 15 8 7
Percentage 100.0 53.3 46.7 100.0 53.3 46.7
Source: MIFOTRA, Statistics Service
Number and proportions (in %) of judges and clerks of Courts and Tribunals according to sex,
from 2005 to 2007
2005 2006 2007
Category Total Women Men Total Women Men Total Women Men
Judges 306 106 200 257 123 134 257 95 162
% Judges 100 35 65 100 48 52 100 37 63
Clerks 306 131 175 227 91 136 230 91 139
% Clerks 100 43 57 100 40 60 100 40 60
Source: Supreme Court, Annual reports 2005, 2006, 2007
The positions of judges and clerks of Courts and Tribunals show less significant inequalities
in comparison with those noticed previously in public administration. In fact, it is noticed that
the proportion of women judges varies between 35% and 48%, while those of women clerks
varies between 40% and 43% during the study period.
National Public Prosecution Authority (NPPA)
In the National Public Prosecution Authority, the senior managers are in majority men.
Proportions (in %) of senior managers of NPPA according to sex, from 2005 to 2007
Proportion (in %) of senior managers of NPPA according
to sex from 2005 to 2007
2005 2006 2007
Source: MIFOTRA, Statistics Service
Number and proportions (in %) of senior managers of NPPA according to sex, from 2005 to
Senior managers 2005 2006 2007
of NPPA Total Women Men Total Women Men Total Women Men
Number 3 1 2 11 2 9 14 3 11
Percentage 100.0 33.3 66.7 100.0 18.2 81.8 100.0 21.4 78.6
Source: MIFOTRA, Statistics Service
Office of the Ombudsman
From 2005 up to 2007, this institution was led by a male Ombudsman with two deputies, one
woman and one man.
There are 5 managers. In 2005, there was one woman director and four men directors, which
is a representation of 20% for women. In 2006 and 2007, this ratio changed to reflect a
proportion of 40% for women, in that the directorate comprised two women and three men.
Women's representation as managers of private sector enterprises is low. In fact, the available
data for 2007 show that of 185 private enterprises in the Private Sector Federation, women
heads of enterprises numbered 22, i.e. 12%, while the Board of directors of the federation
made up of 17 members, had two women (12%) members, one being the Vice-President.
Gender and political participation
The participation of both men and women at political posts is shown at two levels: Central
- Central level
At Central level, the political participation comes particularly from the Government,
Parliament, Supreme Court and the National Organization of Judicial Proceedings.
The Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda stipulates in article 116, that the Cabinet shall
comprise the Prime Minister, Ministers, Ministers of State and other members who may be
determined, if necessary, by the President of the Republic.
The Rwandan Government composition according to sex for the period from 2005 to 2007 is
shown in the table below.
Number and proportion (in %) of the Government members according to sex, from 2005 to
2005 2006 2007 2008 June 2009
Post Wo Me To Wo M Tot
Wom Tot Wom Tota Wome M Tota men n tal me en al
en Men al en Men l n en l n
Ministers 4 13 17 3 15 18 3 15 18 8 21 28 8 21 28
% 24 76 100 17 83 100 17 83 100 38 62 10 38 62 100
State 2 5 7 2 5 7
s 7 6 13 6 6 12 6 6 12
% 40 60 10 40 60 100
of State 54 46 100 50 50 100 50 50 100
Source: MINECOFIN, Budget Direction
The Rwandan legislative power is carried out by a Parliament made up of two chambers: the
chamber of Deputies and the Senate.
Chamber of Deputies
According to article 76 of the Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda, the chamber of
Deputies is made up of eighty (80) members with at least 30% of women.
During the period from 2005 to 2007, out of 80 Deputies, 39 were women, which is a
proportion of 48.8%. One out of 3 members in the Directory of the Chamber of Deputies was
a woman, that is a proportion of 33.3% whereas in the 11 permanent commissions, three
women could occupy the presidency (27.3%) and six women could be Vice-presidents of the
UNDP, World Report about Human Development 2007/2008, New York USA
Rwandan Women Parliamentarian Forum (FFRP), Gender Equality in the Rwandan
Parliament, July 2008, p.5-6
From 2005 to 2007, women were 9 out of 26 Senators, which is a 34, 6% representation. In
the directory as in permanent commissions of the Senate, women were represented: the
directory was made up of two men and a woman (33, 3%) whereas the four permanent
commissions were presided over by two men and two women (50%) and two women in the
posts of vice-presidents.
Article 40 of the Constitution stipulates that the Judicial Power is exercised by the Supreme
Court and other Courts and Tribunals established by the Constitution and other laws.
From 2005 to 2007, the presidency of the Supreme Court has always been given to a woman,
assisted by a man Deputy from 200610.
I.6 PROMOTION OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ALL HUMAN RIGHTS FOR
WOMEN AND GIRLS
As reported previously Rwanda is party to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), has adopted the Beijing Declaration and Platform
for Action and has ratified other instruments related to women’s rights.
On 14 July 2009, Rwanda has ratified the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), through the
Presidential Order No 34/01 of 14 July 2009.
In addition to the Constitution of 4 June 2003 and other national legal instruments
mentioned in the previous Reports, Rwanda has just promulgated a law providing
legal sanctions against perpetrators of gender based violence (Law n° 59/2008 of 10th
I.7 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE LEGISLATION TO GUARANTEE WOMEN’S
LAND, PROPERTY AND INHERITANCE RIGHTS
In addition to the existence of law regarding matrimonial regimes, liberalities and successions
(O.G. n° 22 of 15/11/1999) there are the other laws and orders like:
- Organic law N° 08/2005 of 14/07/2005 determining the use and management of Land
- Ministerial decree N° 002/2008 of 01/04/2008 determining modalities of land
- Put in place National Land Center
- Land registration in process (in 15 districts)
- Existing of Land committee from Village to National level
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ORGANIC LAND LAW
Establishment of the Land Commissions at all levels by the Presidential order n° 54/01 of
12/10/2006 determining the structure, the responsibilities, the functioning and the
composition of Land Commissions.
Establishment of the National Land Centre by the Law N° 20/2009 of 29/07/2009
determining its responsibilities, functioning, organization and competence.
Establishment of the Office of the Registrar of Land Titles by Presidential Order N°
53/01 of 12/10/2006 determining the structure, the powers and the functioning of the
Office of the Registrar of Land Titles.
Law n° 18/2007 of 19/04/2007 relating to expropriation in the public interest.
Law on mortgages n° 10/2009 of 14/05/2009.
Presidential Order n° 30/01 of 29/06/2007 determining the exact number of years of land
Ministerial Order n°002/2008 of01/4/2008 determining modalities of land registration
Ministerial Order modifying Ministerial Order n° 01/16/00 of 19/09/2001 modifying rates
for renting and selling state owned land.
National systematic land registration in process and has risen from 1% to 4% currently
through the ongoing systematic land registration which is on course to deliver national
coverage by 2012.
Preparation of national land uses Master Plan and will be ready September 2010.
Rural settlement task force was established and so far it has identified 2148 sites for
Imidudugu construction in all cells.
Proposal under evaluation for a central full time team of experts based in Kigali City to
address construction permits for business needs and detailed zoning.
Development of expropriation guidelines and special economic zone law
Comprehensive land administration information system linking all land related systems
due to be completed in Aug 2010.
Streamlining procedures for land allocation and titling.
Backlog clearing of unprocessed requests for land titles and construction permits.
I.8 EDUCATION OF GIRLS AND LITERACY OF WOMEN
Measures have been adopted to advance gender equality at all levels of education. The
adoption of the National Gender Policy (2004), the launch of the Universal Primary Education
in 2007, the adoption of the Girl’s Education Policy (2008), the promotion of private schools
and universities are among other measures that uphold the level of gender equality reached in
education in general. This is illustrated in the gender parity reached at primary education level
and the increase of women’s numbers in higher education that rose from 1,283 in 1997 to
15,465 in 20062. It is worth noting that pregnant girls are not expelled out of school and
married women can attend school.
Free and compulsory primary education, introduction of Nine Year Basic Education, the
multiplication of centres of excellence through FAWE project, TUSEME (let us talk) Clubs at
schools, the creation of GBV clubs in secondary and tertiary education, giving awards to girls
with best performance in science, construction of more facilities to address the thorny issue of
accommodation for women and girls’ students, are among other programs that have boosted
women’s participation in education.
Gender parity has become a reality in private universities; FAWE schools have facilitated
access to significant numbers of girls to science education. Separate toilets were constructed
in 21 out of 30 district primary schools to stop girls’ drop-outs.
MINEDUC, Statistics, 2008.
Many activities have been conducted:
Extending and improving early childhood education and care in favor of both girls and
boys especially those that are most vulnerable or disadvantaged
In order to transform Rwandans into a real asset for the country’s development, the education
policy in Rwanda includes: 1) early childhood education, 2) vocational and technical skills
development, 3) education for orphans and other vulnerable children, 4) special education for
children living with disabilities and 5) literacy education for both youth and adult populations.
Concerning gender parity, during the year 2007, 51% of girls against 49% of boys were
enrolled in primary schools, while 48% of girls against 52% of boys were attending secondary
Reducing by half the numbers of school age children that are not attending any school and,
by the year 2010 reaching a rate of 90% of enrolment in non traditional, quality programs
of education for this category of children
The percentage of school enrolment (rough rates) has increased from 128% to 152% between
200-2003 and 2007. The fact that the percentage exceeds 100% is accounted for by the
enrolment of children from certain categories of older children (i.e. over the primary school
age of 7 – 12 years).
Concerning the standard net enrolment rate, it has grown from 91% to 96% between the
school years 2002-2003 and 2007.3
Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary school education by 2015;
realizing gender parity in education by 2015 by ensuring that girls have full access, on
equal footing, to basic good quality and complete education;
For the last ten (10) years gender equity has been achieved in the primary school education; as
for the secondary school education, the gap is shrinking firmly (see objective b) above), since
the percentage of school enrolment in primary schools for girls represented 51% against 49%
for boys in 2006. 4
Access to primary school is free of charge for all the children irrespective of their sex. And
sensitization campaigns targeting teachers and parents are organized in order to encourage the
girl children to pursue their education to the finish, to undertake studies in sciences and
technology that could raise their status in the society.5
Improving basic education qualitatively so that children and young people can obtain
acceptable and quantifiable results, in particular in the domains such as reading,
reckoning and essential useful competences and skills;
Although since 2003, 85% of the primary schools teachers are trained professionals, the
quality of the primary school education remains weak due to overcrowded classes and the
lack of books for the pupils. However the Government of Rwanda is making important efforts
MINEDUC, Indicateurs du système éducatif : Education primaire, Kigali (Rwanda), 2006
MINEDUC (2006), Statistiques de l’Education primaire : Taux de promotion 2005
MINEDUC/PACFA/FAWE (2006), Campagne scolaire : « Faire la différence pour les filles », Kigali (Rwanda), p.1.
to increase the numbers of school rooms, develop school manuals especially in mathematics
and reading and raise the level of basic skills generally.
Responding to the education needs of all the young people in ensuring their access to
appropriate and varied basic education and skills development programs
The new policy in Education now aims at ensuring a 9-Year basic Education for all the
children. To those who might not be able to carry on their secondary school education, this
will provide the necessary knowledge , competences and practical skills for them to earn a
living; it will benefit them individually as well as it will serve the interest of the country’s
Raising the level of literacy to 50% for the adult population, in particular the women, by
The rate of adult literacy in Rwanda has moved from 68% in 2000 to 78% in 2005 for men;
during the same period the level of adult literacy for women has increased from 58% (in
2000) to 70% (in 2005).6 If the pace was to be kept, there is no doubt that the Rwandan
population would be literate at 100% by 2015.
Higher Learning Institutions
Currently, there are 28 Higher Learning Institutions (HLIs) comprised of, eight Public
Institutions (ILPD, ISAE, KHI, KIE, KIST, NUR, SFB, and UP), five Colleges of Nursing
(Byumba, Kabgayi, Kibungo, Nyagatare, and Rwamagana), two Colleges of Technology
(Kicukiro and Tumba), two Colleges of Education (Kavumu and Rukara), and eleven Private
Institutions of which 5 are fully accredited (AUCA, FTPB, INILAK, ISPG, and ULK) and 6
are provisionally accredited (IPB, KIM, RTUC, UCK, and UNATEK). Compared to 2003, the
number of HLIs has increased by more than three times, i.e., from 9 to 28.
In 2009, a total of 55,323 students enrolled in higher learning institutions. This represents a
significant growth in relation to 2008 with a percentage increment of 16.4% .Currently the
students’ population in public institutions of higher learning is standing at 26,304 (48%)7. The
female population constitutes 33 % while the male’s constitutes 67%. On the other hand, the
number of students in private institutions is 28,909 (52%)8 of which 47% are males and 53%
females. An increase by 9.3% in student’s enrolment has been registered in the private sector.
I.9 DOMESTICATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF REGIONAL AND
INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS ON GENDER EQUALITY
ONAPO (2000), Enquête Démographique et de Santé 2000, p. 31 et INSR (2005), Enquête Démographique et de Santé 2005, pp. 30-
Percentage of gross students enrolment in all Public and Private HLIs
Percentage of gross students enrolment in all Private and Public HLIs
Rwanda has adopted and ratified the Protocol to African Charter of Human and People’s Rights
related to Women’s Rights in Africa. The signature of this regional instrument took place on 11
July 2003 in Maputo, Mozambique; its ratification by the Presidential Order N° 11/01 took
place on 24 June 2004.
This Protocol, and many other regional and international instruments for the promotion and
defence of women’s rights such as the Beijing Platform for Action, the Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, the Declaration on the
Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Resolution 1325 and the Solemn Declaration of
Heads of State and Government on Gender Equality in Africa, have been translated in
Kinyarwanda, the national language. Their dissemination at the level of the 30 Districts in the
country has already started. At the beginning, this sensitisation is intended for leaders of
Districts, Executive Secretaries, officials of the National Women’s Council, the National Youth
Council, Senior officers and leaders of Civil Society and Faith-Based organizations at the level
of Districts and Sectors. After that, it will be extended to Cells and Villages (Imidugudu), which
are the lowest decentralised administrative entities.