tsunamis detection by EduLopez3

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tsunamis detection

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									Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung




                         Tsunami Detection Systems for
                           International Requirements
                                    EDUARDO LÓPEZ GUIJARRO
                                           1130144




  Vorname Zuname                                                SS 2012   VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                  1
Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung




                                                            OUTLINE
             •    Introduction
                            -What‘s a tsunami?
                            -Recent tsunamis
                            -The Consequences
                            -The goal
             •    System development and production
                            -Previously
                            -DART Stations
                            -Surface Bouy
                            -The mooring subsystem
                            -The BPR Subsystem
                                        -BPR modes
             •    Fabrication and testing
             •    Deployment and side-by-side evaluation
             •    Kuril Islands Tsunamigenic event
             •    Conclusion
             •    References

  Vorname Zuname                                                SS 2012   VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                  2
Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung




                                                 INTRODUCTION
             -Tsunamis are a worldwide phenomena and threat that
               have affected mankind for eons.
             -As the world’s population continues to grow and
               migrate towards the coast

                                                                           The United Nations
                                                                          December 26, 2004
                                                                          The most three-quarters
                                                                          estimates deadly tsunamiof
                                                                          the world’s population will be
                                                                          in recorded history took the
                                                                          lives in coastal areas
                                                                          livingof over 230.000 by
                                                                          people.
                                                                          2025




  Vorname Zuname                                                SS 2012            VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                           3
Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung




                                         WHAT’S A TSUNAMI?
             Is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a
             large volume of a body of water, typically an ocean or a
             large lake. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other
             underwater explosions, landslides, glacier calvings,
             meteorite impacts and other disturbances above or below
             water all have the potential to generate a tsunami.




  Vorname Zuname                                                SS 2012   VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                  4
Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung




                                           RECENT TSUNAMIS
             2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami
             Was a magnitude 9.0 (Mw) undersea megathrust earthquake off
                           15.856 deaths
               the coast of Japan. Duration: 6 minutes.
                                               .

             2010 Chile earthquake and tsunami
             Occurred off the coast of central Chile on Saturday, 27 February
               2010, at 03:34 local time (06:34 UTC), having a magnitude of
                              525 deaths
               8.8 on the moment magnitude scale, with intense shaking.
               Duration 3 minutes
             2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami
             With a magnitude of Mw 9.1–9.3, it is the third largest earthquake
                              230.000 deaths
                ever recorded on a seismograph. The earthquake had the
                                                     .
                longest duration of faulting ever observed. Duration: 10 minutes


  Vorname Zuname                                                SS 2012   VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                  5
Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung




                                       THE CONSEQUENCES
                                                                • Intergovernmental
                                                                  Oceanographic
                                                                  Commission to call for
                                                                  and lead the
                                                                  development of a global
                                                                  tsunami warning and
                                                                  mitigation system
        26 countries Indian
        Ocean formed a
        consortium
                                                                          ICG/IOTWS
  Vorname Zuname                                                SS 2012          VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                         6
Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung




                                                          THE GOAL

             IOC                                                INVESTED SIGNIFICANT

                                          To establish a regional
                                          network of national tsunami
                                          detection networks and
                                          warning centers to provide the
                                          necessary surveillance.


                           SAIC (The private sector)

  Vorname Zuname                                                SS 2012    VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                   7
Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung



                       II. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT AND
                                PRODUCTION
                  The focus of the SAIC Tsunami Bouy program was to
                  produce:
                  - A commercially available, fully operational, tsunami
                  detection system
                  -Built to a set of published standards and subjetc to
                  stringent US goverment testing requirements.




  Vorname Zuname                                                SS 2012   VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                  8
Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung




                                                     PREVIOUSLY
                  Until late 2006, the only operational buoy-based real-
                  time tsunami detection system was the National
                  Oceanic and Athmospheric Administration (NOAA)
                  Deep-ocean Assessment and Recording of Tsunamis
                  (DART)
                                                                      Is a scientific agency
                                                                      within the United States
                                                                      Department of Commerce
                                                                      focused on the conditions
                                                                      of the oceans and the
                                                                      atmosphere.

  Vorname Zuname                                                SS 2012           VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                          9
Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung




                                                     PREVIOUSLY
             • Twenty years ago, the Pacific Marine Environmental
               Laboratory (PMEL) began developing the first-
               generation DART system and has been improving its
               capabilities since.
             • Several years ago, after the introduction of the
               second-generation DART system, it was transitioned
               to the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) and was
               declared operational in 2005

                         NDBC produced, deployed, operated and
                         maintainaded the fleet of national DART
                         systems.
  Vorname Zuname                                                SS 2012   VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                 10
Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung




                                                DART STATIONS
             WORLDWIDE




  Vorname Zuname                                                SS 2012   VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                 11
Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung




                                                DART STATIONS
             IN EUROPE




  Vorname Zuname                                                SS 2012   VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                 12
Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung



                       II. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT AND
                                PRODUCTION

                        DART STB
             This prompted theSYSTEM                                      STB SYSTEM
             project leaders to decide
             that to gain credibility in
             the tsunami sensor
             arena, the design shoul
             be base-lined against
             some type of a standard
                 SUCESSFULL
             and then evaluated by an
             independent team of
             experts in a side-by-side
             comparison.


  Vorname Zuname                                                SS 2012         VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                       13
Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung



                       II. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT AND
                                PRODUCTION
              3 subsystems:
                    Surface Communications bouy subsystem
                    Buoy mooring subsystem
                    Bottom pressure recorder (BPR)




  Vorname Zuname                                                SS 2012   VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                 14
Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung




                                                SURFACE BOUY
                                                                          • Intregrates an ionomer
                                                                            from hull with an
                                                                            electronics well, a
                                                                            The electronics well lifting
                                                                            ring, accoustics
                                                                            houses and protects the
                                                                            modems, a radar
                                                                            GPS, Iridium Satellite
                                                                            LLC’s satellite a solar
                                                                            reflector and
                                                                            communications, on-board
                                                                            powered navigation
                                                                            processing, batery stacks…
                                                                            light.




  Vorname Zuname                                                SS 2012               VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                             15
Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung




                             THE MOORING SUBSYSTEM


             • Includes swivels,
               shackles, mooring
               line, chain and
               anchors.




  Vorname Zuname                                                SS 2012   VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                 16
Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung




                                       THE BPR SUBSYSTEM


      ACOUSTIC MODEM                                            ACOUSTIC TRANSMITTER



                                                                              CPU
                                                                                         BOTTOM
                                        BATTERY                                          PREASSURE
                                                                                         RECORDER



                                                                            ANCHOR


  Vorname Zuname                                                  SS 2012        VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                        17
Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung




                                                                BPR



   Inlet pressure               Oil filler tube                   SIlicon   Quartz      Bourdon Tube




  Vorname Zuname                                                SS 2012        VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                      18
Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung




                                                       BPR MODES
             • The BPR has three modes of operation:
                    – Deployment mode
                    – Normal mode
                    – Tsunami mode




  Vorname Zuname                                                SS 2012   VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                 19
Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung




                                         DEPLOYMENT MODE
             • The BPR tansmits deployment data every two
               minutes to monitor is depth and health as it sinks
               towards its anchor point on the bottom.
             • This data is then uploaded to the satellite every 16
               minutes.
             • The BPR may be deployed in water up to 6,000
               meters in depth. ON the bottom the BPR measures
               pressure every 15 seconds to an extremely high level
               of sensitivity.
             • Temperature is measured concurrently and used to
               correct presure values.

  Vorname Zuname                                                SS 2012   VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                 20
Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung




                                                 TSUNAMI MODE
             • The tsunami detection algorith running on the BPR
               proccesor is designed to recognize the
               characteristics of a tsunami and trigger an event
               mode response to a preset threshold value.
             • The algorithm calculates the magnitude of pressure
               fluctuations and then compares them against
               predicted values that include both tides and other
               low-frequency components. The difference is then
               compared against a threshold value, and if exceeded,
               the tsunami detection system alerts and goes into
               event mode.

  Vorname Zuname                                                SS 2012   VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                 21
Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung



                                                 NORMAL MODE

             • The BPR repots water colum height values for 15
               minute intervals over a six-hour perior. The data
               tranmission periodicity is every six hours in the
               normal or low-power mode.




  Vorname Zuname                                                SS 2012   VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                 22
Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung




                        III. FABRICATION AND TESTING
             • The STB production team, comprised of members
               from three SAIC business units, was comprised of a
               delicated team of highly experienced marine
               engineers, oaceanographers and technicians that
               strickly followed best practices and extensive DART
               system testing and evalutation procedures.
             • The STB team performed all fabrication and testing in
               the SAIC tsunami buoy production facility, located
               just north of San Diego in Poway, California




  Vorname Zuname                                                SS 2012   VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                 23
Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung



                    IV. DEPLOYMENT AND SIDE-BY-SI
                             EVALUATION
             • One of the goals of
               the STB
               development plan
               was to perform a
               side-by-side
               evaluation with an
               established DART
               tsunameter station.



  Vorname Zuname                                                SS 2012   VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                 24
     Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung



                     IV. DEPLOYMENT AND SIDE-BY-SIDE
                               EVALUATION


                      STB STATION                                              NOAA DART
                        46482                                                    46412
SAN DIEGO




               352 KM


                                                    52 KILOMETERS




            Vorname Zuname                                           SS 2012           VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                              25
Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung



                IV. DEPLOYMENT AND SIDE-BY-SIDE
                          EVALUATION
             • Over the last six months, NOAA has performed an
               independent analysis of the STB's operational
               performance and its data.
             • NOAA’s evaluation found the STB system to be
               technically compatible and exchangeable with a NOAA
               DART system




  Vorname Zuname                                                SS 2012   VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                 26
Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung



                   V. KURIL ISLANDS TSUNAMIGENIC
                                EVENT
             • On November 15, 2006 at 11.14 GMT
             • A major earthqueake, having a magnitude of 8.3,
               ocurred near the Kuril Islands in the northwest Pacific
               Ocean.
             • Only a small amplitude tsunami wave was generated.
             • DART tusnameter stations across the Pacific began
               reporting detection of the tsunami as it traveled
               quickly past each station.




  Vorname Zuname                                                SS 2012   VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                 27
Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung



                   V. KURIL ISLANDS TSUNAMIGENIC
                                EVENT
      9 HOURS



                       DART STATION began to
                       detect the initial forcing from
                       the tsunami


     20:08 GMT                          3 MINUTES               The STB station made
                                                                its initial detection
                                                                20:11 GMT



  Vorname Zuname                                                 SS 2012            VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                           28
Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung

                   V. KURIL ISLANDS TSUNAMIGENIC
                                EVENT
             Over the next four hours, the STB and DART responded
             nearly identically to the forcing but with an approximate three-
             minute shift.




  Vorname Zuname                                                SS 2012   VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                 29
Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung




                                                    CONCLUSION
             • This systems don’t work if the epicenter of the
               tsunami is too close to the coast because there would
               be time to evacuate.
             • The NOAA’s system and STB system have a similar
               performance
             • Over the last two years, NDBC has aggresively
               increased the number of DART stations from the
               original six to more than 30 tsunameter stations
               worldwide.
             • The BPR is based on quartz crystal, acoustic waves
               and the Bourdon tube.

  Vorname Zuname                                                SS 2012   VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
                                                                                                 30
Institut für Elektrische Meßtechnik und Meßsignalverarbeitung




                                                      REFERENCE
             •    L. Kong, "Intergovernmental Co-ordination Group for the Pacific Tsunami
                  Warning and Mitigation System," PTWS Tsunami Warning Center Operations
             •    Seminar 2-3 April 2007, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
             •    [2] D. Green, "Transitioning NOAA Moored Buoy Systems from Research to
                  Operations," Proceedings of OCEANS'06 MTSIIEEE Conference, 18-21
             •    September 2006, Boston, MA, CD-ROM.
             •    [3] C. Meinig, S. Stalin, A. Nakamura, H. Milburn, "Real-Time Deep-Ocean
                  Tsunami Measuring, Monitoring, and Reporting System: The NOAA DART II
             •    Description and Disclosure," http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/Dart/dart_ref html
             •    [4] H. Mofjeld, "Tsunami Detection Algorithm,"
                  http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/tda_documentation.html
             •    [5] "Analysis of SAIC Tsunami Buoy System," unpublished…
             •    Wikipedia.com
             •    [6] http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/
             •    [7]
                  http://www.elmundo.es/fotografia/2004/12/maremotos_especial/graficos/detecci
                  on.html
  Vorname Zuname                                                SS 2012   VO Schwingungsmesstechnik
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