SAP BO Interview Question by shalin009


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									1.Is it possible to Create Class & only Detail Object ? Why?
No you can’t Create just Detail Object ,Becz Detail Object need to associated with Dimension

1.1 Is it possible to create Object without Class?
    No you can not

2.What type of Connection you Use for Universe?
Three Type Of Connection:

3.What kind of Connection Use for Importing Universe & Exporting Universe?
For Exporting Universe to CMS Secured connections are required
For Importing Universe to CMS Shared Connections are Required

Giving all users access to a universe
You can make a universe accessible to all Designer users in both workgroup and enterprise mode, by
saving a universe in workgroup mode. The connection for the universe cannot be a secured connection. If
you want to make a universe available to all users, you must save the universe with an unsecured

To make a universe accessible to all Designer users:
Starting Designer
1. Verify that the universe that you want to make available to all users does not have a secured
2. Secured connections are required to export universe to the CMS. If a universe has a secured
connection, select or create a new shared connection. See the section Defining and editing connections
on page 55 for more information.
3. Select File > Save As.
A "File Save" box appears.
4. Select the Save For All Users check box.
5. Click OK.

4.What is Loop? Example of it?

The three major join path problems that you encounter when designing a schema are the following:
• loops
• chasm traps
• fan traps

Loop Example

     Country                Customer


A sales database holds information about products sold to customers on a worldwide basis. These
customers can:
• Reside anywhere in the world
• Order products from the company
• Request that these products be shipped to a destination in any country
For example, a customer residing in the UK can order a vehicle and then ask for it to be shipped to Brazil.
Resolving Chasm Traps
A chasm trap is a common problem in relational database schemas in which a join path returns more data
than expected.
What is a Chasm Trap?
A chasm trap is a type of join path between three tables when two "many-to-one" joins converge on a
single table, and there is no context in place that separates the converging join paths.
The example below shows a part of the Beach universe schema. The three tables have been separated
from the rest of the schema to illustrate the chasm trap. It uses the same Club connection for data. The
Service table receives the one ends of two one-to-many joins.

Resolving a Chasm Trap
To resolve a chasm trap you need to make two separate queries and then combine the results.Depending
on the type of objects defined for the fact tables, and the type of end user environment, you can use the
following methods to resolve a chasm trap:
• Create a context for each fact table. This solution works in all cases.
• Modify the SQL parameters for the universe so you can generate separate SQL queries for each
measure. This solution only works for measure objects. It does not generate separate queries for
dimension or detail objects.

Resolving Fan Traps
A fan trap is a less common problem than chasm traps in a relational database schema. It has the same
effect of returning more data than expected.
What is a Fan Trap?
A fan trap is a type of join path between three tables when a "one-to-many" join links a table which is in
turn linked by another "one-to-many" join. The fanning out effect of "one-to-many" joins can cause
incorrect results to be returned when a query includes objects based on both tables. A simple example of
a fan trap is shown below:

How Do You Resolve a Fan Trap?
There are two ways to solve a fan trap problem.
• Create an alias for the table containing the initial aggregation, then use Detect Contexts (Tools > Detect
Contexts) to detect and propose a context for the alias table and a context for the original table. This is
the most effective way to solve the fan trap problem.
• Altering the SQL parameters for the universe. This only works for measure objects.

Detecting join problems graphically
You can visually detect potential chasm and fan traps in your table schema by arranging the tables in the
Structure pane so that the "many" ends of the joins are to one side of the pane, and the "one" ends to the
other. The example below shows the Beach universe schema arranged with a one to many flow from left
to right.

                                                          Potential chasm

The potential fan traps involve the following tables
Join Problem Detected by Solved by
Using contexts to solve loops
The most common use of contexts is to separate two query paths, so that one query returns data for one
fact table, and the other query returns data for another fact table. You use contexts to direct join paths in
a schema which contains multiple fact tables. Aliases are not appropriate in such schema.

What is a Lookup Table
A lookup (or dimension) table contains information associated with a particular entity or subject. For
example, a lookup table can hold geographical information on customers such as their names, telephone
numbers as well as the cities and countries in which they reside.In Designer, dimension and detail objects
are typically derived from lookup tables.
What is a Fact Table
A fact table contains statistical information about transactions. For example,it may contain figures such as
Sales Revenue or Profit.

5.What is Merge Dimension in Webi?

You can include multiple data providers in a Web Intelligence document. You often need to synchronize the data
returned by these data providers. You do this by incorporating common dimensions into a merged dimension.
Merged dimensions and data synchronization were introduced in Web Intelligence XI R2. They enormously increase
the power and flexibility of Web Intelligence by allowing you to synthesise data from different sources in the same
report, rather than simply including the data.
Choosing which dimensions to merge

The only restriction that Web Intelligence imposes on merged dimensions is that they must be of the same
data type: for example, character data. But it does not make sense to merge unrelated dimensions even when their
data types are the same. For example, it does not make sense to merge a dimension containing customer names
with a dimension containing sales regions.
Merged dimensions often have the same name in both data sources, but this is not obligatory. It can make sense to
merge dimensions with different names if they contain related data.

Includes synchronized dimensions in measure calculations when the dimensions are not in the measure's calculation

To merge dimensions correctly you need to be aware of the semantics of the data (what the data refers to) in the
different data sources. The dimension data types and names are an approximate guide only to dimensions’ suitability
for merging.

Incompatible objects and merged dimensions

As a general rule, Web Intelligence does not allow you to place dimensions from different data providers in the same
table. This is to avoid Cartesian products (the display of all possible combinations of values from unrelated objects) or
other ambiguous results, depending on the universe structure.

6.What is Scopeup Analysis? And What is Drill Mode?

In the universe, the scope of analysis corresponds to the hierarchical levels below the object selected for a query. For
example, a scope of analysis of one level down for the object Year, would include the object Quarter, which appears
immediately under Year.
You can set this level when you build a query. It allows objects lower down the hierarchy to be included in the query,
without them appearing in the Results Objects pane. The hierarchies in a universe allow you to choose your scope
of analysis, and correspondingly the level of drill available.
Levels of scope of analysis

Level                                   Description

                                        Only the objects that appear in the Results Objects pane
                                        are included in the query.

        One level down                 For each object in the Result Objects pane, one, two, or
        Two levels down                three objects lower down the hierarchy tree are included
        Three levels down              in the query. The data from these objects is stored in the
                                        cube until you add them to the document.
Note: This option is available in the All objects added manually to the Scope of Analysis
Java Report Panel and in Web          panel are included in the query.
Intelligence Rich Client only.

Including a scope of analysis in a document increases the document size significantly. This is because the data
necessary for the scope you specify is saved with the document, even though it is not visible in the reports unless you
start drill mode and drill down to the data to display the corresponding values.
In order to minimize the size of documents and optimize performance, we recommend that you only include a scope
of analysis in documents where you are certain that users will need to drill.
Drill paths and hierarchies
A dimension can belong to several hierarchies. When you drill a result on a dimension that belongs to more than one
hierarchy, Web Intelligence prompts you to select the drill path.
You can Create Custom Scope of Analysis if you Create Dimenstion Hierarchy in Universe Level.

Synchronizing drill across multiple tables and charts
A Web Intelligence report can contain several tables or charts. The generic term used to refer to tables and charts in
this guide is a block. There are two ways to drill on a report with multiple blocks:
        drill simultaneously on each block in the report the contains the drilled dimension
        drill on only the current block of data
You set how Web Intelligence performs drill on reports with the Synchronize drill on report blocks option.

When Drill down to Lower Level it will affect to Chart also. When you Enable Drill down mode for report it
will enable for all the element.

Drilling on measures in charts

You can drill on the measures displayed on the following types of chart:
        bar charts – by drilling on the bars
        line and radar line charts – by drilling on the data markers
        pie chart – by drilling on the segments

Limitations when drilling measures on charts

When you drill on charts that are not bar charts, Web Intelligence may perform the drill action only on certain
dimensions instead of performing the drill action on all of the dimensions on the chart axes. When you drill on
measures in the following chart types, Web Intelligence only performs the drill action on the values in the axis legend:
        area charts – 2D, 3D, and stacked
        radar and scatter charts – all types

Note: You cannot drill on measures in 3D surface charts.

Query drill defined

You can set Web Intelligence to drill in query drill mode, which behaves differently from the standard drill mode
described so far in this chapter. When you activate query drill, Web Intelligence drills by modifying the underlying
query (adding and removing dimensions and query filters) in addition to applying drill filters.

7.What is Section?
8.Suppose I Create Report & Beside same report Pie Chart is there what Happen when is Apply Section
on Report Block?
It will Affect the Pie Chart also in Webi Report,Section is divided pie chart same as report block

Quater 1

Quater 2

9.In above Example if I Use Break instead of Section what Happened?

It just Affect only Report Block ,Pie Chart is not change atall.

What is Ranking?What is Database Ranking?

What is Query filters and report filters compared

You can apply filters at two levels within a document:

query filters – these filters are defined on the query; they limit the data retrieved from the data source and
returned to the Web Intelligence document.
report filters – these filters limit the values displayed on reports, tables, charts, sections within the
document, but they don’t modify the data that is retrieved from the data source; they simply hide values at
the report level.

What is Mendatory Requirement for Generating graph in webi?

Atlease on Mesurement Object Require for Generating Graph

What is Index Awareness in Universe Design?

Defining index awareness
The Keys tab allows you to define index awareness for an object. Index awareness is the ability to take
advantage of the indexes on key columns to speed data retrieval.
The objects that you create in Designer are based on database columns that are meaningful to an end
user. For example, a Customer object retrieves the field that contains the customer name. In this situation
the customer table typically has a primary key (for example an integer) that is not meaningful to the end
user, but which is very important for database performance. When you set up index awareness in
Designer you tell Designer which database columns are primary and foreign keys. This can have a
dramatic effect on query performance in the following ways:
• Designer can take advantage of the indexes on key columns to speed data retrieval.
• Designer can generate SQL that filters in the most efficient way. This is particularly important in a star
schema database. If you build a query that involves filtering on a value in a dimension table, Designer can
apply the filter directly on the fact table by using the dimension table foreign key.This eliminates
unnecessary and costly joins to dimension tables.

What is Smart Measures?

Smart measures defined

Smart measures are measures whose values are calculated by the database (relational or OLAP) on
which a Web Intelligence universe is based, rather than by Web Intelligence itself. A measure is defined
as a smart measure in the universe when its data is aggregated in a way not supported by Web

To return values for smart measure, Web Intelligence generates a query to calculate the measure in all
the calculation contexts required in a report. These contexts can change as the report is edited. As a
result, Web Intelligence modifies the query at each data refresh after the required contexts have

Smart measures behave differently from classic measures, which support a basic set of aggregation
functions (Max, Min, Count, Sum, Average) that Web Intelligence can calculate in all contexts without
help from the database. For example, if you build a query containing the [Country] and [Region]
dimensions and the [Revenue] measure (which calculates the sum of the revenue), Web Intelligence
initially displays Country, Region and Revenue in a block. If you then remove Region from the block, Web
Intelligence is still able to calculate the total revenue for each country by summing the revenues for all
the regions in the country.

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