Differentiation Strategies

Document Sample
Differentiation Strategies Powered By Docstoc
					Differentiation Strategies:
    Making the Most of
   Needs-Based Time
      Sharon Walpole
   University of Delaware
We can provide whole-class instruction




  We can use intensive interventions
We can provide whole-class instruction




   But can we differentiate
    during needs-based
         instruction?




We can use intensive interventions
     What do we want
by the end of kindergarten?
  Alphabetic    Text and Language
   Principle     Comprehension
 In addition, what do we want by the end
             of first grade?
Word Recognition     Text and Language
                      Comprehension
       In addition, what do we want
      by the end of second grade?

Word Recognition       Text and Language
                        Comprehension
     In addition, what do we want
         by end of third grade?
Word Recognition      Text and Language
                       Comprehension
       Focused Teaching
Needs-based instruction helps us reach our
             grade level goals

               Small-group
       Flexibly achievement-based
                Data-driven
                 Targeted
                  Explicit
                Systematic
       Given These Goals:
       Today’s Questions

  What data do we already have?
 What additional data do we need?
How can we differentiate realistically
    and in an organized way with
  research-based strategies during
       needs-based groups?
www.guilford.com
 What is the general philosophy of the
cognitive model of reading assessment?
      How is this model helpful?
      Can you give an example?
Phonological                       Sight Word     Fluency
 Awareness          Decoding       Knowledge     & Context



                                                  Automatic
                                                    Word
           Vocabulary                             Recognition


                               Background          Language        Reading
                               Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
           Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                    Strategic
                                                   Knowledge



 Print             General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts           Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                 for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
Phonological                      Sight Word     Fluency
                   Decoding
 Awareness                        Knowledge     & Context



                                                 Automatic
                                                   Word
           Vocabulary                            Recognition


                              Background          Language        Reading
                              Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
            Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                  Strategic
                                                 Knowledge



 Print            General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts          Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
       General philosophy of the “sensible”
      model of needs-based instruction:
Needs-based instruction is costly in terms of
teacher time and effort; we have to make it
realistic for teachers and effective for literacy
acceleration.
Needs-based instruction during the block
must be more explicit, include more
opportunities for individuals to respond, and
provide for more immediate feedback.
Needs-based instruction must be data-based,
organized and systematic.
Once teachers form and manage needs-
      based groups what additional
       roadblocks do they face in
        providing needs-based
       differentiated instruction?
Screening Test
Screening Test



   Serious
  difficulty?
Screening Test



   Serious       No
  difficulty?
Screening Test



   Serious       No
  difficulty?


                  Classroom
                  measures
      Screening Test



Yes      Serious       No
        difficulty?


                        Classroom
                        measures
              Screening Test



        Yes      Serious       No
                difficulty?


Detective                       Classroom
 Work                           measures



 Progress
monitoring
How can we make
   that loop?




What do we need
to do that’s new?
         DIBELS Refresher
                What do you    What do you
                  know?       need to know?
LNF High Risk

NWF High Risk

PSF High Risk

ORF High Risk
  Assessment Information
  for Alphabetic Principle


     Letter names (LNF)
    Letter sounds (NWF)
Phoneme segmentation (PSF)
Reading of CVC words (NWF)
   Spelling of CVC words
             IF LNF weak in K, THEN

The child does not have fully automatic access to
  memory representations for the letters when
  presented out of order . . .
                       BUT
    What alphabet knowledge does s/he have?
                       and
              What should you do?
Provide targeted practice with letters
   If the child can name all   Then use distributed practice,
   of the letters randomly     choosing 5 or 6 different letters
   but not quickly             each day
   If the child can name       Then use distributed practice,
   some of the letters         choosing 4 or 5 troublesome
                               ones every two days
   If the child can only name Then reteach in small sets,
   the letters in order       using the same scope and
                              sequence as the core
   If the child has no         Then teach to sing, then to
   alphabet knowledge          track and say the alphabet
      Provide targeted practice with letters.
   If the child can name      Then use distributed practice,
all of the letters randomly     choosing 5 or 6 different
        but not quickly             letters each day


                              Then use distributed practice,
  If the child can name
                              choosing 4 or 5 troublesome
     the letters in order
                                  ones every two days


                               Then reteach in small sets,
If the child can only name
                               using the same scope and
     the letters in order
                                 sequence as the core.



    If the child has no       Then teach to sing, then track
   alphabet knowledge            and say the alphabet.
What’s the key to making this work?
  Use a letter name inventory.
  Know the order in which letters are
   taught in your core.
  Keep a set of letter cards in your
   needs-based instruction area.
  Keep alphabet strips and materials in
   your needs-based instruction area.
             IF PSF weak in K, THEN

The child does not have relatively effortless ability
  to notice and manipulate the sound structure of
  oral language and may struggle to learn and/or
              use phonics knowledge
                      BUT
 What phonological awareness does s/he have?
                      and
              What should you do?
Provide targeted practice with sound boxes
   If the child can segment         Then use sound boxes,
   fully, but not quickly           choosing 5 or 6 different CVC
                                    words each day
   If the child can segment to Then use sound boxes,
   the onset-rime but not to the choosing words that differ
   phoneme                       only by medial vowel
   If the child can only identify   Then use sound boxes to
   initial sounds                   segment onset-rime

   If the child has no              Then teach to recognize
   demonstrable phonological        syllables and then rhymes
   awareness
  Provide targeted practice with sound boxes.
                                 Then use sound boxes,
 If the child can segment
                                 choosing 5 or 6 different
     fully, but not quickly
                                   CVC words each day


 If the child can segment         Then use sound boxes,
    to the onset-rime but        choosing words that differ
     not to the phoneme            only by medial vowel



If the child can only identify    Then use sound boxes
        initial sounds            to segment onset-rime



   If the child has no
                                 Then teach to recognize
demonstrable phonological
                                 syllable and then rhymes
        awareness
Sound Boxes
Sound Boxes
Sound Boxes
Sound Boxes
   What’s the key to making this
              work?
Look at the phoneme segmentation testing
  protocol
Organize several sets of word cards:
  random CVC, different medial vowel,
  onset-rime within the same word family,
  multi-syllabic words
Keep two-, three-, and four-unit sound
  boxes in your needs-based instruction
  area
            IF NWF weak in K, THEN

The child can neither readily recognize short vowel
  patterns automatically nor apply decoding
  strategies quickly to unknown words
                         BUT
What phonics knowledge and decoding skills does
                      s/he have?
                         and
               What should you do?
  Provide targeted phonics reteaching
If the child can decode    Work with sounding and
nonsense words sound by    blending initial consonants with
sound, but not in larger   several high-frequency vowel
chunks                     spelling patterns each day; ask
                           children to write them
If the child can produce   Work with sounding and
accurate consonant         blending several high-
sounds but not vowel       frequency vowel patterns each
sounds                     week; ask children to write
                           them
If the child does not know Then reteach the letter sounds
consonant sounds in        in small sets, using the same
isolation                  scope and sequence as the
                           core; ask children to write them
   Provide targeted phonics reteaching
 If the child can decode         Work with sounding and
nonsense word sound by       blending initial consonants with
 sound, but not in larger     several high-frequency vowel
          chunks                spelling patterns each day

                                Work with sounding and
  If the child can produce
                                 blending several high-
accurate consonant sounds
                               frequency vowel patterns
     but not vowel sounds
                                       each week
                             Then reteach the letter sounds
   If the child does not     In small sets, using the same
 know consonant sounds           scope and sequence
         in isolation                  as the core
        IF the child can read but
     cannot spell regular CVC words,
                 THEN

The child does not have fully amalgamated
   representations of sound and spelling

                  BUT
   What knowledge of spelling patterns
          does the child have?
     What’s the key to making this
                work?
Look at the NWF protocol to see what units (individual
  sounds or vowel patterns) the child is producing.
Consider using a letter-sound inventory.
Consider using a spelling inventory.
Know the order in which phonics knowledge is developed
  in your core.
Keep a list of previously taught items for review.
Watch children’s spellings for evidence of application of
  phonics concepts previously taught.
Assessment Information for Text and Language
              Comprehension


   Oral vocabulary development (PPVT)
           Concepts about print
 Engagement with narrative and information
                  literature
         Retellings and summaries
        IF oral vocabulary is weak, THEN

Compared with other children of the same age, the
 child has a relatively small oral vocabulary.
                        BUT

            It is impossible to know
           which words are unknown.

              What should you do?
Provide targeted vocabulary reteaching
   for words the children don’t know
If you have presented word Reteach and review those
meanings in whole-group    words, helping each student to
core lessons               generate a personal context

If you have presented word Reteach and review those
meanings in a piece of     words, helping each student to
children’s literature      generate a personal context
If you have taught new     Reteach and review those
concepts in science and    words, helping each student to
social studies             generate a personal context
 Provide targeted vocabulary reteaching

If you have presented word     Reteach and review those
 meanings in whole-group      words, helping each student
        core lessons         to generate a personal context

                              Reteach and review those
If you have presented word
                                 words, helping each
   meanings in a piece of
                                student to generate a
     children’s literature
                                   personal context
                              Reteach and review those
  If you have taught new     words, helping each student
 concepts in science and            to generate a
       social studies             personal context
Provide increased vocabulary exposure
If caregivers are able to read   Allow children to bring home
aloud at night                   narrative and information
                                 trade books from the class or
                                 school library
If caregivers are not able to    Allow children to bring home
read aloud at night              books and audio recordings
                                 and equipment to listen to
                                 books read aloud
Provide increased vocabulary exposure

                             Allow children to bring home
  If caregivers are able       narrative and information
  to read aloud at night      trade books from the class
                                   or school library

                             Allow children to take home
If caregivers are not able   books and audio recordings
   to read aloud at night       and equipment to listen
                                  to books read aloud
     What’s the key to making this
                work?
Review PPVT scores for all kindergartners and identify
  low-scoring children.
Keep lists of vocabulary words that have been taught in
  core read-alouds but that children don’t know.
Keep lists of vocabulary words for teaching and
  reteaching during interactive read-alouds.
Facilitate sending books and/or tapes home.
IF children cannot participate in classroom shared
          readings and read-alouds, THEN

They may not have adequate oral language and
  comprehension skills, and/or they may not have
  had sufficient exposure to read-alouds.

                         BUT
         It is impossible to diagnose their
           specific “stage” of knowledge.
                What should you do?
     Provide targeted text-based talk
If you have conducted a      Reread that book in your
shared reading of a big book small group, allowing each
                             child to echo read with
                             supported finger pointing
If you have read a piece of  Reread it and stop
children’s literature        throughout to allow the
                             children to retell or to ask
                             questions
Once you have reread         Use graphic organizers to
during needs-based time      guide children to produce
                             beginning-middle-end
                             retellings or main idea
            Provide targeted text-based talk
                                  Reread that book in your
  If you have conducted a           small group, allowing
shared reading of a big book     each child to echo read with
                                  supported finger pointing

                                     Reread it and stop
    If you have read a             throughout to allow the
piece of children’s literature      children to retell or to
                                        ask questions
                                  Use graphic organizers to
  Once you have reread            guide children to produce
 during needs-based time           beginning-middle-end
                                    retellings or main idea
  Provide targeted word-based talk
If you have taught a specific   Invite children to review it,
noun                            emphasizing both its general
                                category and its particular
                                attributes
If you have taught a            Invite children to review it,
procedure                       emphasizing the order and
                                how and why to use it


If you have used an             Invite children to review it,
explanation                     emphasizing the links
                                between ideas
Provide targeted word-based talk
                       Invite children to review it,
If you have taught a         emphasizing both
    specific noun       its general category and
                          its particular attributes

                       Invite children to review it,
 If you have taught
                         emphasizing the order
     a procedure
                        and how and why it use it


                       Invite children to review it,
If you have used an      emphasizing the links
     explanation              between ideas
     What’s the key to making this
                work?
Attend to children’s responses during whole-group
   interactions with literature.
Periodically work individually with children to assess and
   develop each child’s capacity to finger-point.
Periodically work individually with children to assess each
   child’s capacity to retell or summarize after a read-aloud.
Encourage talk during whole-group and needs-based
   instruction.
Assessment Information for Word Recognition
        Beginning in First Grade

      Phoneme segmentation (PSF)
      Reading of CVC words (NWF)
    Reading of high-frequency words?
 Growth toward oral reading fluency (ORF)
            IF PSF weak in first, THEN


The child does not have relatively effortless ability
  to notice and manipulate the sound structure of
  oral language and may struggle to learn and/or
  use phonics knowledge

                        BUT

  What phonological awareness doe s/he have?
             What should you do?
Provide targeted practice with spelling for sound
 If the child can segment         Then use spelling tasks,
 fully, but not quickly           choosing 5 or 6 different
                                  words from the current
                                  phonics instruction each day
 If the child can segment to      Then have children spell
 the onset-rime but not to        words that differ only by
 the phoneme                      medial vowel

 If the child can only identify   Then have children spell
 initial sounds                   initial and final sounds for
                                  pictures
 If the child has no              Then consider using
 demonstrable phonological        intensive intervention
 awareness                        materials
Provide targeted practice with spelling for sound
                                  Then use spelling tasks,
 If the child can segment         choosing 5 or 6 different
    fully, but not quickly         words from the current
                                 phonics instruction each day

 If the child can segment         Then have children spell
    to the onset-rime but          words that differ only
     not to the phoneme              by medial vowel


                                  Then have children spell
If the child can only identify     initial and final sounds
        initial sounds                     for pictures


   If the child has no               Then consider using
      demonstrable                  intensive intervention
 phonological awareness                    materials
What’s the key to making this work?
Look at the phoneme segmentation protocol
Understand the scope and sequence of phonics
  instruction
Link additional phonemic awareness work to
  current phonics work
Use letters during phonemic awareness instruction
  (have children spell or manipulate plastic letters)
Make word lists and picture sorts
      IF NWF weak in first or second, THEN


The child does not have relatively effortless ability
  to recognize common phonograms or to apply
  synthetic decoding strategies

                        BUT

What phonics knowledge and decoding strategies
                does s/he have?
             What should you do?
           First, investigate
• Is there a phonics pretest included in your
  core? If so, use it!
• If not, consider the Informal Phonics
  Inventory, McKenna and Stahl, p. 138
  – It will help you understand whether to reteach
    consonant sounds, consonant digraphs, short
    vowels, consonant blends, silent e, vowel
    digraphs, vowel diphthongs, or r- or l-
    controlled vowels
     Then find a starting point
• Is there a phonics intervention manual? If
  so, use it!
• If not, using the core scope and sequence
  from your manual AND the manual from
  the previous year, start where the child’s
  knowledge ends
  Then reteach, quickly and explicitly
Use direct explanation:
   Today we will practice a strategy you can use to
   read new words. I want you to make each sound
   and then blend them together. Watch me do it.
Use guided practice:
   I will show you a new word that you can sound and
   blend.
Remember that when you find a new word, one thing
   you can do is make each sound and blend them
   together.
www.guilford.com
  Then reteach, quickly and explicitly
Use direct explanation:
    Today we will practice three letters/patterns. We will learn
    that _____ pattern/letter represents the sound _____. You
    can use that information when you read and spell new
    words.
Use guided practice:
    I will show you a word with one of our patterns and I want
    you to read it. When you see the word, think about which of
    our patterns you see. Then say the word.
    I will tell you a word with one of our patterns and I want you
    to spell it. When you hear the word, think about which of
    our patterns you hear.
Remember to that ____ represents the sound ____.
What’s the key to making this work?
  Use a phonics inventory.
  Know the intervention materials provided in
    your core.
  Know the order in which phonics is taught in
    your core, both for your grade level and the
    one below.
  Keep a set of letter and word cards in your
    needs-based instruction area.
              IF ORF is weak THEN


The child cannot process grade-level text
  automatically
                      BUT

  Is it a fluency problem or a decoding problem?
                What should you do?
           First, investigate
Review the ORF testing protocol:
• If the child read all words accurately, but
  too slowly, consider fluency work
• If the child struggled with high-frequency
  words, consider high-frequency word work
• If the child struggled with all areas of word
  recognition, go back to the phonics
  investigation.
       For a fluency problem
Have all children whisper-read from
 previously taught texts.
Use an assisted fluency procedure:
 You read the text while children track
 Children reread several times in pairs
 You read the text again while children
 track
 Children reread in pairs
For a high-frequency word problem
First, figure out which high-frequency words
  are troublesome.
  If there is a sight-word inventory in your
  core, use it!
  If you can easily construct one from the
  scope and sequence, do it!
  For a model see the Fry Sight-Word
  Inventory, beginning on page 130 of
  McKenna and Stahl
  Then reteach quickly and explicitly
Use direct explanation:
   Today we will practice three common words. We
   will listen to see how many sounds they have, and
   then we will see how the sounds are represented
   in spellings. That will help you to remember these
   words when you see them.
   Our first word is they. How many sounds do you
   hear in they? TH-A. Two sounds. Now watch me
   spell it. The first sound is spelled TH. The second
   sound is spelled EY. Two sounds, four letters.
Use guided practice.
 Now I want you to work with our three
 words. I’ll say the word, and I want you to
 count the sounds and then write the
 spellings.
What’s the key to making this work?
  Use a high-frequency word inventory.
  Know the order in which high-frequency words
    are taught in your core, both for your grade
    level and the one below.
  Keep a set of high-frequency word cards in your
    needs-based instruction area.
  Keep sound boxes, white boards, and paper in
    your needs-based instruction area.
           IF comprehension of text and
           oral language is weak, THEN


The child does not have relatively effortless ability
  to construct meaning using information and prior
  knowledge
                      BUT
     We don’t have a developmental theory for
                   comprehension
Assessment Information for Comprehension of
         Text and Oral Language


       Oral classroom interactions
     Response during shared reading
 Engagement with narrative and information
                literature
       Retellings and summaries
 Build Background Knowledge
Look at the next story in the core.
For children struggling with comprehension
  and oral language development, decide
  what background knowledge is needed to
  understand. Preteach that knowledge.
 Build Background Knowledge
Look at the next story in the core.
For children struggling with comprehension
  and oral language development, decide
  what background knowledge is needed to
  understand. Preteach that knowledge.

 What the author
                              What the reader
 assumes the
                              actually knows
 reader knows
Teaching children to answer
        questions
  Question-Answer Relationships
          (Raphael,1986)


   In the Book      In Your Head
   Right There      Author and You

 Think and Search   On Your Own
                                     QAR (Questions Answer Relationships)
Title ______________________________________________________________________

Right There   The words used to make up the question and words used to    Author and Me      The answer is not in the story. I need to think about what
              answer the question are Right There in the same sentence.                      I already know, what the author tells me in the text and
                                                                                             how it fits together.




              ________________________________________                               ____________________________________________

____________________________________________________                      _____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________                      _____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________                      _____________________________________________________

___________________________________________________                       _____________________________________________________


Think and Search    Words for the question and words for the answer are   On My Own       The answer is not in the selection. I can even answer the
                    not found in the same sentence. They come from                        question without reading the selection. I need to use my
                    different places in the selection.                                    own experience.




              ________________________________________________            ________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________            ________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________            ________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________            ________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________            ________________________________________________________________
                                                                                                              See Page 57 in Manual
   Teaching children to make
          inferences
Questioning the Author (Beck, McKeown,
  Hamilton, & Kucan, 1997)
    Teaching children to make
           inferences
Interrupt reading with generic queries
   What is the author trying to say here?
   What is the author’s message?
   What does the author mean here?
   How does this connect with what the author
     has told us before?
   Why do you think this happened?
    Teaching children to retell
• Start with a story map, appropriate to the
  grade level
   – Simple beginning, middle, end map for first
     grade
   – More complex map for second and third
     grade
• Model, model, model using the story map
  to retell stories you are reading aloud or
  reading in small groups
               Think about it
    To increase your ability to differentiate . . .

What additional information do you have to gather
 about student achievement?
What additional information do you have to gather
 about the scope and sequence of instruction?
What materials do you have to
 gather/make/organize?
And, finally, how can you do it as quickly and
               easily as possible?

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:9
posted:5/21/2012
language:
pages:85