FDR reign

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					 FDR was elected by the people in
 Actual inauguration did not occur until
  March 4th
 Obviously people did not want Hoover in
 It use take longer to count all the votes
 The President elect needed more time to
  travel to the capital
 Problem??
 Yes!! You had a president in office with
  weakened authority
 Became known as the “lame duck”
 Changed the inaugural date to January
  20th (1933) but it did not take effect until
  the next election
   Restore hope and confidence in

 2nd Bonus Army, veterans again
  marched to Washington and set up
 Eleanor came to greet the veterans,
  shaking their hands and listening to their
 FDR was a personable guy
 He addressed the nation on Sunday with
  a fireside chat
 Normally a speech about a pressing
  national issue
 http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/media
 FDR wanted to experiment
 New Deal became known as the “three
  R’s” relief, recovery and reform
 Aimed at combating the Depression
 March thru June of 1933 is known as the
  first 100 days
 FDR pushed through record amounts of
  programs to create jobs, provide relief
  and stimulate the economy
 FDR realized that he had to get the
  confidence of the American people
 He ordered a “Bank Holiday”
 Started March 5th, he shut down all the
  banks for 4 days to inspect their financial
 Found that conditions were not as bad
  as one thought
 People started regaining confidence in
  the banking system
 With money in the banks it started
  stimulate the economy
 Glass Steagall Bank Act, encouraged
  more confidence because it set up the
  FDIC, Federal Deposit Insurance
  Corporation, which insured deposits
Let’s Get IT Started
 Many people were not so optimistic of
  the New Deal
 At first the program did little for:
    › Women, actually the NRA allowed lower
      wages for women
    › Women housekeepers were not protected
    › Racial segregation was still supported in the
    › African Americans were not offered
      professional jobs
 He was the first president to ever try any
  type of aid
 They were always the “last to be hired
  and the first to be fired”
 Some were later appointed to policy
  making positions
 Any help was appreciated
   The wealthy thought      Many wanted a
    that the New Deal         quick fix
    did too much             Felt that the New
   They hate Social          Deal didn’t do
    Security                  enough
   American Liberty         Too slow
    League, led by
    Alfred Smith
   The New Deal was
    un-American and
 People who manipulated with ½ truths,
  scare tactics and deceptive promises
 Examples:
    › 1. Father Coughlin, used radio to broadcast
     message to millions
         Did not support FDR
         Openly anti Jewish
         Praised Hitler and Mussolini
         Roman Catholic church removed him
   Huey Long is another example of a
    ›   Popular because of politics
    ›   Senator and governor in Louisiana
    ›   Felt we needed more than FDR
    ›   Created “Share the Wealth”
         Limit income to 1 million and take the rest in
          taxes and redistribute
         Every family would have a $5,000 house and
          2,500 salary
         He was shot and killed
 Modern day critics look back and say
  FDR helped the Depression
 Spent more money than we had
 Created deficit spending, paying out
  more money from the annual federal
  budget than the government receives
 FDR wanted people that would support
  his ideas
 Decided to add an additional 6 to the
  already 9 Supreme Court Justices
 Constitution never stated how many
  justices there should be
 Many people felt it was unfair and
 He was forced to withdraw his idea
It is NOT a Miracle!!!
 The New Deal was not a miracle cure
 Massive government spending only lead
  to temporary relief
 Like a band aid on a missing leg
 The nation will fall into a recession again
 Union membership will increase
 It gave federal protection under the
  Wagner Plan
 The is power in numbers
 CIO, Committee for Industrial
  Organization which tried to organize
  industries and fight for better conditions
  Coalition is an alliance of groups with
   similar goals
The most popular tool used by unions were
Sit down strikes were effective because
   people refused to leave work and it
   stopped the factory and prevented
   scabs, people willing to work for less
 Most successful strikes were in the auto
  industry specifically GM, wives joined,
  heat was turned off etc.
 In the steel industry in Chicago the
  police were called and people were
  injured and forcefully removed
 Even poor people needed to have fun
 Artists were getting federal aid from FDR
 People were reading the Grapes of
  Wrath by John Steinbeck
 Radio was the most popular means
 1st Daytime Drama came out
 Box office hit was the Wizard of Oz
 Mickey Mouse and Snow White were
The Alphabet Soup
 FERA, Federal emergency Relief
  Administration sent funds to agencies
  and put money in PUBLIC WORKS
  PROGRAMS, which helped build public
 1. CWA, Civil Works Administration put
  unemployed men to work
  building/improving roads, parks and
  airports (Morale booster for 4 million)
 2. CCC, Civilian Conservation Corps
 This was FDR’s favorite program
 2.5 million young men went to work
 Maintained forests, beaches and parks
 Earned $30 a month
 Free food, lodging and medical
 NIRA, National Industrial Recovery Act
  spelled out fair business practices,
  regulated wages and set minimum
 PWA built bridges, roads etc.
 HOLC, Home Owner’s Loan Corp
 Refinanced mortgages and improved
  housing standards

 Farmers anyone? AAA tried to raise farm
  prices and paid farmer to make less
 Food was destroyed, not a success
 TVA helped create jobs to least
  developed regions of the US
 Reactivated hydroelectric power which
  provided cheap energy and flood
 FDR’s appointments were known as his
  brain trust
 They were a group of people not in his
  cabinet that gave him advice
Ground breaking appointments he hired
  the first women to a cabinet as Secretary
  of Labor, Francis Perkins
 Also hired African Americans to policy
  making positions
 People wanted dramatic changes fast
 Many worried that the national
  government was getting too powerful
 The Supreme Court struck down some of
  FDR’s programs because they were
 In his second term
 High taxes on the rich
 Social welfare programs
 Business controls
 For the ordinary citizen
 Legalized unions and their practices
 Closed shops were allowed that only
  allowed union members
 Provided financial payment monthly to
  people who could not support
 1. old age pension and survivors benefits
 Age 65 collect
 Workers and employers put money in
 2. unemployment insurances, employers
  with more than 8 employees pay taxes
 The government distributes money to
  those that don’t have a job
 3. aid for dependent children, the blind
  and the disabled
 1936, no one expected Alfred Landon to
  win but no one expected FDR to win by
  a landslide
 FDR won 523 to 8 in the electoral college
 Missed Maine and Vermont