Tools and techniques of formative assessment in Mathematics by rashkath


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Tools and techniques of Formative assessment in Mathematics
The concept of formative assessment was first introduced in 1971 by Bloom,
Hastings and Maddaus. They formally introduced the idea that assessment need
not be used solely at the end of term or year end to make summative evaluations
of student performance, but teachers should include bytes of formative
assessment following compartments of teaching. During this process teachers
should provide students with feedback and correction as a way to remediate
student work.
Formative assessment is diagnostic as well as remedial. It is diagnostic because it
helps in knowing the level of achievement of learner, how far the learner has
fulfilled the learning objectives. It is remedial because it helps a teacher in
defining further teaching strategies depending on the assessments results. Also, it
creates a support system for improving the learner’s level at every stage.

Formative Assessment (FA) in Mathematics
In Mathematics, students commit various errors which fall broadly into four
categories viz. conceptual, calculation, expression and wrong interpretation. All
these problems are to be resolved at the right time. For doing so teaching process
has to be designed by using a blend of diagnostic and remedial strategies.
Tools and Techniques of Formative Assessment in Mathematics:
    Checklist
    Rating Scale
    Anecdotal Record
    Type of question (MCQ, LA, SA, VSA)
    Rubric
    Math Clubs
    Practice Assignments on common errors
    Quiz
    Presentations
    Role Play
    Math activities
    Discussions
    Worksheets
    Club activities
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    Model making

Broad 4 Categories
   1. C.W./H.W/Assignments (suggested to take this in each FA)
   2. Math Lab (suggested to take this in each FA)
      Math Project is a part of Math Lab (Suggested to take it in any one of FA)
   3. Creative Activities (suggested to take at least one of them in each FA)
   4. Remedial Tasks (Need based)

    C.W. /H.W. notebooks of students are to be assessed by the teacher in
     specified duration of each Formative assessment.
    You may add marks in each FA
     Home assignment is a task given to students in between or at the end
     consisting of questions other than the prescribed text book. It may include
     all types of questions viz. short/long/MCQ etc which would test knowledge,
     understanding, and application of concepts taught.
    Parameters for assessment
               1. Regularity: Submission on time
               2. Maintenance/ neatness
               3. Completion of work
               4. Accuracy

Sample Rubric for C.W/H.W/Assignment Assessment (10 Marks)

   Parameter              Observation Points    Marks allotted
   Regularity             Work is submitted on On the basis of rating scale
                          time regularly         3          2          1
                                                 Always     Regular Irregular
   Maintenance            Neatness/presentation 2 marks

   Completeness           Work is complete        On the basis of rating scale
                                                   3       2              1
                                                   Always Completes Incomplete

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   Accuracy               Correctness            2 marks
Please remember:

    Talk to students that C.W./H.W./Assignments will be assessed.

    Observe at least 4-5 class work / home work records in each Formative
     assessment period.

    If a child is unable to complete the work due to some reason, then give
     him/her time for the same.

Sample Recording C.W./H.W./Assignments (10 marks)

   Mathematics Laboratory Work

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       Work done by students in the Maths lab is a part of Formative assessment.
       It is further divided into two parts:
             Maths activities: As prescribed in CBSE Mathematics laboratory
               Manual. Students are to be observed in Math lab while doing hands
               on .Teacher may ask questions in between related to Math concept
             Maths Project Work: Some projects are suggested in the CBSE
               Mathematics laboratory Manual as well as in the present Manual.
               Apart from this teacher may select any Maths project in at least one
               Formative assessment duration

Sample Rubric for Recording Math lab activity Work
          Lab Ethics              Performance of Activity              File Record
        (Parameters)                    Scale 5 to 1                  (Parameters)
       (1 mark each)                                                 (1 mark each)
Brings material for              Able to explain concept        Index/Cover
activity                         correctly after completion
                                 Completes activity in the
                                 class independently(5)
Takes interest in class          Takes help and complete        Neatness
                                 the task(4)
Regularly attends Math           Works independently but        Submits work on time
lab class                        not able to complete(3)
Takes care of property in        Tries to perform hands on      Regularly brings file

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Maths lab                        in the lab(2)
Listens attentively during       Just initiate the task          Does correction work (if
demonstration                    allotted(1)                     any)

Sample Rubric for Maths project work:

Parameter                        Observation Points             Marks
Topic                            Selection of Topic             1
Originality                      Collection of data and         2
Presentation                     Creativity                     2
Conclusion                       Inference            and       2
                                 Mathematics involved
Viva                             Explanation                    3

Creative activities

This may include any one of following in each formative assessment period

              Oral assessment
              Quiz
              Discussion
              Presentation by students
              Making of charts/material
              Role play
              Mathematical games
              Math Magazine
              Self composed Math Poem
              Model Making
              Any other

Note: Teacher may plan assessment rubric according to the activity taken.

Example Oral Assessment

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    Oral testing is quite a reliable testing tool. Right from day one till the end it
     could be used for assessing student’s knowledge.
    Marks – after the end of Formative assessment period

Ways of oral assessment

      Discussion
      Asking questions in classroom while teaching
      Explanation of questions by students
      Summarizing concepts/formulae

A tough situation

At times a learner is unable to reply due to some reason…

    May be he/she does not know the answer

    May be he/she is not in a mood to answer

    May be he/she has a fear of answering it wrongly

    May be he/she is not expressive

    Or it could be any other reason…

   Please remember:

        A teacher must not say any negative remark/statement for the child;
         rather give some time for learning.
        Although it is quite a good tool for assessment, but at the same time it is
         to be kept in mind that it creates maximum anxiety in students.When
         oral assessment process is on, a teacher needs to show a high degree of
        Our purpose of oral assessment is to help a child to learn and not to
         create any fear for learning.

Some good techniques of oral assessment

       To encourage non participating students
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    ask simple questions

    Give hints to reach at the correct reply

    Ask questions which are correctly answered by other students

    Give some time to recall or think

    Let one student begin answering and ask the other to complete it.

Parameters for Oral Assessment

              Parameter                  Observation Points
              Participation                 Raise questions
              Response                      Give response to questions asked by
                                              the teacher
              Correct Knowledge             Answers/responses are correct
              Confidence/Expression         Able to express knowledge gained

Note: Teacher may prepare a rating scale for awarding marks.

Sample Recording Oral Assessment Task (5 marks)

Teacher may take a recording sheet for noting the observations while oral
assessment process is on. Ticks/Cross can be marked in the respective columns
according to the student’s response in formative assessment period. On the basis
of observations, marks may be allotted.

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