Subjects - British Dam Society.xls

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					Subjects used in summaries

Arch dam design/construction
Asphaltic concrete
Burrowing animals
Catastrophic failures
Concrete buttress design/construction
Concrete deterioration
Concrete face rockfill
Concrete gravity design/ construction
Concrete mix and cement
Concrete temperature
Culverts under embankments
Cut-off trenches
Dam break studies
Databases
Diaphragm & slurry trench walls
Discontinuance/ abandonment
Drainage
Earthquake damage
Embankment dam construction
Emergency plans
Environment/social/planning
Estuarial barrages
Flood estimation/hydrology
Flood storage reservoirs
Geochemistry
Geomembranes
Geophysical investigation
Geotextile filters
Grouting
Guides & surveys
Hazard & risk management
Heightening
Ice
Incident/failure databases
Instrumentation/monitoring
Internal erosion/filters
Legislation
Mining subsidence
Movement monitoring/analysis
New materials
Numerical analysis
Outlet & intake works
Overflow works
Overtopping
Pore pressure (construction)
Pore pressure (seepage)
Post tensioning/ rock anchors
Puddle clay
Reservoir drawdown
Reservoir operation
River bed erosion
Rockfill
Roller compacted concrete
Safety surveillance
Sedimentation
Seepage & leakage
Seismic assessment
Service reservoirs
Siphon spillways
Slope stability
Spillway gates
Spillway hydraulics
Tidal barriers
Total stress
Tracers
Tunnel failures
Uplift/overturning in concrete dams
Upstream slope protection
Vegetation
Waste impoundment
Wind & waves
BNCOLD News and Views




BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 1, May 1967
 Date    Page   First author                      Contents/Reference                Dams                                         Subjects                         Brief summary
 1967     2      Brown         Foreword by the President of the International                                                                                     Some background to the establishment, growth and purpose of ICOLD is given. News and Views should enable
                               Commission on Large Dams by J Guthrie Brown to the                                                                                 engineers in Great Britain to be kept fully informed on developments in this country and elsewhere in dam
                               first edition of News and Views.                                                                                                   design and construction.
 1967     3      Banks         Introduction by the Chairman of the British National
                               Committee to the first edition of News and Views.

 1967     4                    British Section - Notes.                                                                                                           Provides committee list and programme of events.

 1967     4      Dixon         The British Section of ICOLD.                               Cow Green, Clywedog, Guma (Sierra                                      Brief descriptions of dams which have recently been completed or are under construction are given.
                                                                                           Leone)

 1967     6      Brown         The Emblem of the International Commission on Large
                               Dams.

 1967     7      Serafim       Serafim J L (1967). New developments in arch dam            Grande Dixence (Switzerland),         Arch dam design/construction,    The paper is based on the lecture given to the inaugural meeting of the British National Section of the
                               design and construction. BNCOLD News and Views,             Malpasset (France), Vaiont (Italy),                                    International Commission on Large Dams. The design and analysis of arch dams and their foundations are
                               no 1, pp 7-20.                                              Chicamba (Mozambique), Funil                                           discussed with numerous examples showing dam profiles from 30 to 200m high. The influence of foundation
                                                                                           (Brazil), El Vellon and El Atazar                                      geology and structure on dam stability is illustrated with examples. In replying to the discussion, Serafim made
                                                                                           (Spain), Gran Suarna                                                   reference to the causes of the Malpasset failure.
 1967     21     Cassell       Cassell A C (1967). Arch dam design by dynamic                                                    Arch dam design/construction,    A brief one page paper describing arch dam analysis using finite differences. Reference is made to a paper on
                               relaxation. BNCOLD News and Views, no 1, pp 21.                                                   Numerical analysis               dynamic relaxation published in the Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers 1966.

 1967     23                   Notebook.                                                   Backwater, Scammonden                                                  Brief description of Backwater dam giving details of river diversion using a cast iron lined tunnel and concrete
                                                                                                                                                                  lined tunnel and the formation of a grout cut-off.

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 2, November 1967
 Date    Page   First author                     Contents/Reference                        Dams                                  Subjects                         Brief summary
 1967     2                    Ninth Congress of ICOLD at Istanbul
 1967     2                    The 35th Executive meeting of ICOLD
 1967     3      Rodin         Review of Question 32: The safety of dams from the          Backwater, Gepatsch (Austria),        Drainage, Grouting,
                               point of view of the foundations and the stability of       Sylvenstein, Valgrosina               Uplift/overturning in concrete
                               reservoir banks. Report by S Rodin.                                                               dams
 1967     4      Oliver        Review of Question 33: Temporary and permanent                                                    Flood estimation/hydrology,      Topics discussed included design flood, cavitation, overtopping rockfill dams, gated and ungated spillways
                               provisions for the control of floods. Report by H Oliver.                                         Spillway gates and barriers

 1967     6      Vaughan       Review of Question 34: Behaviour and deterioration of                                             Concrete deterioration,          A valuable summary of the deterioration of both embankment and concrete dams is provided.
                               dams. Report by P R Vaughan and A I B Moffat.                                                     Instrumentation/monitoring

 1967     8      Lane          Review of Question 35: Dams in earthquake areas or                                                Earthquake damage, Seismic
                               other unfavourable situations. Report by R G T Lane.                                              assessment

 1967     10     Dixon         The study tours of the Ninth Congress.                      May, Altinapa, Hasanlar, Caygoren,                                     A brief descriptions of each of dam is given.
                                                                                           Keban, Porsuk, Gokcekaya, Homa
                                                                                           (Turkey)
 1967     13     Dixon         Post Congress tour of the UAR.                              High Aswan (Egypt),
 1967     14                   Visit to Clywedog dam, 5 June 1967.                         Clywedog                                                               The design of the 74m high concrete buttress dam which was under construction at the time of the visit is
                                                                                                                                                                  described.
 1967     18                   Visit to Scammonden dam, 7 June 1967.                 Scammonden
 1967                          Visit to Backwater dam, 9 June 1967.                  Backwater                                                                    A brief description of the dam is given showing plan and cross-section.
 1967     23     Oliver        OLIVER H (1967). Through and overflow rockfill dams -                                                                              Summary of a paper published in Proc. Instn. Civ. Engnrs. March 1967, pp 433-471. Laboratory work is
                               new design techniques. BNCOLD News and Views, no                                                                                   described to investigate the possibilities of overflow of rockfill dams that eliminate the requirement for flood
                               2, pp 23-24.                                                                                                                       gates or spillway.
 1967     25     Ruffle        RUFFLE N J (1967). Derwent Reservoir. BNCOLD          Derwent (Co Durham)                         Drainage, Embankment dam         Summary of the construction of Derwent dam which was completed in 1967. A section through the dam is given
                               News and Views, no 2, pp 25-26.                                                                   construction, Instrumentation/   showing extensive drainage of the embankment and foundations. Reference is made to detailed paper by
                                                                                                                                 monitoring.                      RUFFLE N J (1965). Derwent Reservoir. Journal of Institution of Water Engineers, vol 19, no 5, July, pp 361-
                                                                                                                                                                  408.
 1967     27                   BNCOLD page.                                                                                                                       Programme of meetings and list of participants from Great Britain attending the Istanbul Congress.



 1967     28                   Bibliography for 1966.                                                                                                             The bibliography includes papers published under five groups; Group I -Projects; methods of computation,
                                                                                                                                                                  models, tests on foundation rocks, Group II - Construction problems, Group III - Construction materials, Group
                                                                                                                                                                  IV - Methods and results of observation, Group V - Various questions.
 1967     30                   Table of large dams under construction in Great Britain                                                                            The table contains information that is included in the World Register of large dams.
                               in 1967.
 1967     32                   Notebook.                                                                                                                          The notebook refers to a number of publications including the report of the Tribunal that inquired into the
                                                                                                                                                                  disaster at Aberfan in October 1966.

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 3, May 1968



                                                                                                                                                            3
BNCOLD News and Views



 Date    Page   First author                  Contents/Reference                        Dams                                   Subjects                     Brief summary
 Date    Page   First author                  Contents/Reference                        Dams                                   Subjects                     Brief summary
 1968     2                    James Arthur Banks.                                                                                                          Obituary of James Arthur Banks, past president of the Institution of Civil Engineers and Chairman of the British
                                                                                                                                                            National Committee of ICOLD from 1961 to 1967.
 1968     3      Back          Aspects of the design of the Orange River Project,       Hendrick Verwoerd, Van der Kloof       Flood estimation/hydrology,  The Orange River Project involves the construction of two large concrete arch dams. The design flood, flood
                               South Africa. Lecture presented to meeting of            (South Africa)                         Seismic assessment, Spillway routing and spillway design form the main part of the paper. Hydraulic model studies were undertaken at
                               BNCOLD on the 26 February 1968 by P A A Back.                                                   hydraulics, Arch dam         Wallingford Hydraulics Research Station and structural model studies at Imperial College. Seismic studies are
                                                                                                                               design/construction          also reported.
 1968     8      Poskitt       Dungonnell Dam, Northern Ireland by F F Poskitt .        Dungonnell                             Asphaltic concrete,          A brief description is given of the construction of Dungonnell rockfill dam showing a cross section of the dam
                                                                                                                               Embankment dam construction with the asphaltic concrete membrane and cut-off arrangements. This was the first dam in the UK to be
                                                                                                                                                            constructed using an asphaltic concrete membrane. Further details are given in Poskitt ( Proceedings of
                                                                                                                                                            Institution of Civil Engineers, 1972, vol 51, March, pp 567-579).
 1968     10     Berry         Berry D W (1967). The raising of Sasumua Dam,          Sasumua (Kenya)                          Heightening                  A section of the original and raised section is given. Designs of alterations to the embankment, spillway and
                               Kenya. BNCOLD News and Views, no 3, pp 10-12.                                                                                valve tower are discussed.
 1968     12                   Methods of determining the effects of creep, shrinkage Cruachan, Clywedog                       Concrete temperature         The note prepared by the BNCOLD sub-committee on concrete is reproduced.
                               and temperature on concrete for large dams.

 1968     13     Parkman       Parkman C C (1967). Llysyfran Dam.                       Llysyfran                              Concrete gravity                The construction of the 52m high mass concrete gravity Llysyfran dam was completed in 1972.
                                                                                                                               design/construction
 1968     15     Sparks        Report on Symposium on arch dams by S R Sparks.                                                 Arch dam design/construction,   The Symposium presented a review of British research and development in arch dams that had been carried
                                                                                                                               Numerical analysis              out mainly at British Universities during the last eight years. The papers describe various methods of analysis.

 1968     16                   BNCOLD Items. Notebook.

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 4, November 1968
 Date    Page   First author                    Contents/Reference                      Dams                                   Subjects                        Brief summary
 1968     1                    Visits to Pennine dams, June 1968.                       Scammoden, Booth Wood, Cow                                             Brief descriptions of the construction of the dams are given. A cross section of Booth Wood dam is shown..
                                                                                        Green
 1968     2      Roberts       Study tour in Norway by C M Roberts.                     Slettedalen, Svartevatn, Hyttejuvet,                                   The study tour followed the ICOLD 36th Executive meeting held in Stavanger. Brief descriptions of all the dams
                                                                                        Ringedals, Muravatn, Zakariasvatn                                      listed are given.
                                                                                        (Norway)
 1968     5      Newbery       NEWBERY J (1968). The influence of the geology on                                                                               The introduction to a BNCOLD informal discussion held on the 17 June 1968 emphasises the importance of
                               the design of dams. BNCOLD News and Views, no 4,                                                                                geology on design and performance of dams. Method and scope of the investigations are summarised.
                               pp 5-9.                                                                                                                         Foundation requirements and problems are reviewed under the following rock groups: intrusive igneous,
                                                                                                                                                               volcanics, metamorphics, clastic sediments, limestones and evaporites, and superficial deposits.

 1968     10                   Bibliography for 1967.                                                                                                          The bibliography includes papers published under five groups; Group I -Projects; methods of computation,
                                                                                                                                                               models, tests on foundation rocks, Group II - Construction problems, Group III - Construction materials, Group
                                                                                                                                                               IV - Methods and results of observation, Group V - Various questions.
 1968     12     Dixon         BNCOLD meeting at Oban-April 1968 by H H Dixon.          Cruachan

 1968     12     Lane          Engineering in rock and concrete-a philosophy of         Farahnaz, Pahlavi (Iran), Kariba                                       A precis of an address given to BNCOLD at Oban on 20 April 1968. Four methods of testing rocks are
                               design by R G T Lane.                                    (Zimbabwe/Zambia)                                                      described; laboratory testing of intact rock samples, insitu plate bearing tests, insitu seismic tests, and insitu
                                                                                                                                                               shear tests. The complex properties of rocks are considered and the effects of water on them are mentioned.

 1968     14                   British practice in concreting large dams. Prepared by                                          Concrete mix and cement         The article covers preparation and curing of concrete, and control methods.
                               the BNCOLD Sub-committee on concrete.
 1968     16                   Presentation to the Institution of Civil Engineers.
 1968     16                   Brianne dam, South Wales.                                Llyn Brianne                                                           Announcement of contract for the construction of Brianne dam.
 1968     17                   BNCOLD News.

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 5, May 1969
 Date    Page   First author                   Contents/Reference                       Dams                                   Subjects                        Brief summary
 1969     2      Gruner        GRUNER E (1969). Behaviour of reservoirs. BNCOLD         Gepatsch (Austria), Hoover (USA)       Movement monitoring/analysis    Following a brief description of the formation of ICOLD, the lecture covered various aspects of the behaviour of
                               News and Views, no 5, pp 2-7. Lecture presented to       Kauner (Austria), Lake Nasser                                          different types of dam including the settlement of foundations due to embankment fill and reservoir pressure,
                               the Annual Meeting of BNCOLD, 24 February 1969.          (Egypt), Mattmark (Switzerland),                                       the initiation of earth tremors recorded at a number of dams and the initiation of valley slides due to increase
                                                                                        Grand Dixence (Switzerland)                                            pore pressure from reservoir filling. The problems of differential settlement and crack formation across
                                                                                                                                                               embankment dams adjacent to steep abutments and differential settlement of the core, filters and shoulder
                                                                                                                                                               material are discussed. The effect of different foundation conditions on dam behaviour is illustrated with
                                                                                                                                                               examples of faults and dipping strata. The simplification of measurements from instruments was advocated.
 1969     7      Penman        PENMAN A D M (1969). Instrumentation for earth and Chingford, Knockendon, Muirhead,             Instrumentation/monitoring      The development and value of different instruments installed during construction of embankment dams is
                               rockfill dams. BNCOLD News and Views, no 5, pp7-   Scammonden, Usk,                                                             illustrated by a number of classic examples in the UK. Instruments described include hydraulic piezometers,
                               10.                                                                                                                             earth pressure cells, overflow water settlement gauges and plate gauges to measure internal horizontal strains.

 1969     11     Kennard       History of Spanish dam building by M F Kennard.                                                                                 The article summarises a paper presented to the Newcomen Society by N A F Smith on Early Spanish Dams.

 1969     11     Reid          Rochon Dam by J M Reid.                                  Rochon (Seychelles)                    Arch dam design/construction,   A brief description is given of the construction of the thin cylindrical concrete arch Rochon dam on the island of
                                                                                                                               Concrete mix and cement,        Mahe in the Seychelles. A large aggregate concrete consisting of 25% stones up to 450mm across was used to
                                                                                                                               Concrete temperature            reduce temperature rise.

 1969     12                   Large dams designed by British engineers and under
                               construction overseas in 1968.



                                                                                                                                                         4
BNCOLD News and Views



 Date    Page    First author                   Contents/Reference                      Dams                                     Subjects                         Brief summary
 1969     15                    Civic Trust Awards 1968.                                Derwent (Co Durham), Grafham             Environment/social/planning      Civic Trust awards, whose object is to improve the appearance of town and country, were received for four
                                                                                        Water, Llyn Celyn, Erwood                                                 reservoirs completed in 1968.
 1969     16                    BNCOLD Items.                                                                                                                     This includes information on the Aberfan report, a book review on Dams in Africa and a request for information
                                                                                                                                                                  by the ICOLD Technical Committee on Concrete.

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 6, November 1969
 Date    Page    First author                    Contents/Reference                     Dams                                     Subjects                         Brief summary
 1969             Dixon         Study tours in Poland and in Czechoslovakia after the   Czaniec, Czchow, Goczalkowice,
                                37th Executive Meeting of ICOLD in Warsaw by H H        Myczkowce, Niedzica, Porabka,
                                Dixon.                                                  Roznow, Solina, Tresna, Wloclawek
                                                                                        (Poland), Nechranice, Nosice, Orlik,
                                                                                        Sance, Slapy, Zelivka, Zermanice
                                                                                        (Czechoslovakia)
 1969     4     Subramaniam     Clunas dam, Scotland by A Silva Subramaniam.            Clunas                                   Embankment dam construction The 16m high embankment dam has a rolled clay core and glacial moraine shoulders of sandy gravel fill. The
                                                                                                                                                             cut-off was formed by tube-a-manchette grouting. A cross-section of the embankment is provided.
 1969     5                     Papers submitted to the 10th Congress-Montreal,
 1969     5                     1970.
                                Programme for BNCOLD, 1970.
 1969     6                     Bibliography for 1968.                                                                                                            The papers are listed in five groups as in previous years.
 1969     7                     The 37th Executive Meeting of ICOLD, Warsaw,
                                September 1969.
 1969     8      Kennard        Dams in Northern Ireland by M F Kennard.                Altnahinch, Ben Crom, Dungonnell,        Concrete gravity            Brief descriptions of seven dams visited on a BNCOLD visit to Northern Ireland are described. They ranged
                                                                                        Killylane, Lough Island Reavy , Silent   design/construction,        from Lough Island Reavy which was engineered by Bateman in mid 1800s to Dungonnell which was under
                                                                                        Valley, Spelga,                          Embankment dam construction construction in 1969.

 1969     11     Farrar         Siblyback Reservoir, Cornwall by R E S Farrar.          Siblyback                                Concrete gravity            A description is given of this 21m high concrete gravity dam completed in 1969 on a tributary of the river Fowey.
                                                                                                                                 design/construction
 1969     13     Cuthbertson Cuthbertson R H (1969). Inauguration of West Water         West Water, Fruid                        Embankment dam construction Brief descriptions of the construction of the two embankment dams are given.
                             and Fruid reservoirs, Scotland.

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 7, May 1970
 Date    Page    First author                Contents/Reference                         Dams                                     Subjects                         Brief summary
 1970     2       Olivier       Some developments in rockfill dam construction by H     Mangla, Tarbela, (Pakistan)              Embankment dam construction,     The concept of integrated planning of river basin development has emerged and involves assessment of the
                                Olivier.                                                                                         Sedimentation, Flood             total water resources for a given catchment. Factors that affect flood flow are discussed. Developments in rock
                                                                                                                                 estimation/hydrology, Flood      and earthfill plant have allowed large dams to be built in remote areas. Costs and equipment associated with
                                                                                                                                 storage reservoirs               the construction of Mangla and Tarbela dams, the two largest dams in the world at the time, are discussed.

  1970    5      Kennard        Water resources in the North by M F Kennard.                                                     Environment/social/planning      The report by the Water Resources Board considers the programme of storage reservoirs required to meet the
                                                                                                                                                                  anticipated water supply in the North of England to the year 2001. Consideration is given to the construction of
                                                                                                                                                                  41 inland reservoirs and to the construction of barrage schemes. The key scheme in the programme is a large
                                                                                                                                                                  reservoir at Otterstone (Kielder) with an aqueduct linking the Tyne to the Tees. (This was completed in the early
                                                                                                                                                                  1980s and is known as the Kielder Water Scheme).
  1970    6      Bass           Visit to dams in S.E. Scotland by T Bass.               Fruid, West Water, Whiteadder                                             Brief descriptions of the dams which form part of the resources of the S.E. of Scotland Water Board, are given.

  1970    8      Little         Problems of the inspection of embankment dams by A Balderhead, Lluest Wen                        Flood estimation/hydrology,  Lack of construction drawings or altered drawings particularly of older dams presents inspection difficulties. The
                                L Little.                                                                                        Legislation, Overflow works, problems at Lluest Wen and Balderhead are mentioned. The dilemma of repair costs for private owners of
                                                                                                                                                              limited resources, the limitations of the Reservoirs (Safety Provisions) Act, 1930 with regard to enforcement,
                                                                                                                                 Safety surveillance, Seepage &
                                                                                                                                 leakage,                     flood estimation and inadequate drawdown capability are all discussed.
  1970    10     MacKirchan The Kainji Hydro-electric Development by R W A              Kainji (Nigeria)                                                      The Kainji dam provides regulation of the river Niger for the benefit of power generation, flood control,
                            MacKirchan. The account is based on a lecture to                                                                                  navigation and irrigation. The account describes the investigations to find a suitable site, the design of the
                            BNCOLD by J D Gwynn on the 29 October 1969.                                                                                       dams, hydraulic model testing and construction. The two floods on the river Niger had a major influence on
                                                                                                                                                              construction. The hydro-electric generation facilities are described. The reservoir is 135 km long with an area of
                                                                                                                                                                        3
                                                                                                                                                              124 x 10 hectares and over 40,000 people were displaced.
  1970    13     Dymock         The inauguration of Backwater Reservoir, Scotland by Backwater                                   Embankment dam construction, The description of the dam construction includes the investigation and treatment of the difficult foundation
                                T Dymock.                                                                                        Grouting                     conditions. It was the first dam to dam in the UK to incorporate a cut-off formed entirely by injection grouting.
                                                                                                                                                              The volume of grout injected for the grout curtain was equivalent to 17% of the ground treated.
  1970    14     Zaky           The Aswan High Dam by H Zaky. Summary of lecture        Aswan High Dam (United Arab              Embankment dam construction The design of the 111m high dam on dune sand deposits would consist of a clay core and rockfill shoulders. A
                                to a BNCOLD meeting January 1970.                       Republic)                                                             grout curtain was to extend 200m deep through the dune sane to prevent leakage under the dam. The dam
                                                                                                                                                              creates a reservoir with a capacity of 164 x 10 6 m3 .

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 8, November 1970
 Date    Page    First author                   Contents/Reference                      Dams                                     Subjects                         Brief summary
 1970     2                     The 38th Executive Meeting of ICOLD, Montreal, May
                                1970.
  1970    3                     Reports on meetings of ICOLD technical committees.

  1970    3      Kennard        Review of Question 36: Recent developments in the       Balderhead, Duncan (Canada),             Internal erosion/filters         This question dealt with cracks and their limitation in embankment dams. A list of recommendations was
                                design and construction of earth and rockfill dams,     Mattmark (Switzerland), Tarbela                                           provided in the General Report to limit transverse cracking.
                                report by M F Kennard.                                  (Pakistan),




                                                                                                                                                            5
BNCOLD News and Views



 Date    Page   First author                    Contents/Reference                      Dams                                  Subjects                           Brief summary
 1970     5      Haws          Review of Question 37: Recent developments in the        Datchet, Wraysbury                    Cut-off trenches, Diaphragm &      Subjects covered included leakage on first filling, techniques of design and construction towards minimizing
                               design and construction of dam and reservoirs on                                               slurry trench walls, Grouting,     leakage particularly with karst foundation, permissible hydraulic gradients through grout curtains and cut-off
                               deep alluvium, karstic and other unfavourable                                                  Internal erosion/filters,          walls, and erosion, solution and clogging. The significance and measurement of residual strength in poor
                               formations, report by E T Haws.                                                                Numerical analysis                 quality formations and faults in rock masses was discussed.
  1970    7      Reed          Review of Question 38: Supervision of dams and                                                 Instrumentation/monitoring,        The General reporter was L H Dickerson (Chief Civil Engineer of North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Board).
                               reservoirs in operation by E C Reed and P Cooley.                                              Safety surveillance, Seepage &
                                                                                                                              leakage
  1970    9      Allen         Review of Question 39: Recent developments in the                                              Concrete Gravity                   Topics included static methods of calculation of arch dams, new techniques for producing materials and placing
                               design and construction of concrete dams, report by A                                          design/construction, Concrete      concrete, means of preventing cracks and remedial measures if they occur, resistance to aggressive media,
                               C Allen.                                                                                       mix and cement                     new methods of testing concrete, recent examples of constructing dams.
  1970    11     Keefe         Post Congress study tours by H G Keefe, J H Fleming, WAC Bennett, Duncan, Hugh                                                    Descriptions of four tours to Canadian dams are given. Reference is made to many dams and hydro-electric
                               D J Coats and C F Spens.                              Keenleyside, Mica, Terzaghi (Canada)                                        projects with very brief descriptions of construction and design.

  1970    18                   BNCOLD Items
  1970    19     Gibb          Estuarial barrages. Informal lecture by O Gibb and C C                                         Estuarial barrages           The merits and disadvantages of estuarial barrages are discussed in relation to studies of the natural
                               Marshall to BNCOLD meeting April 1970.                                                                                      environment, economics and water distribution. Preliminary investigations had been carried out at four major
                                                                                                                                                           estuaries and published by the Water Resources Board. Various options for a Morecambe Bay Barrage are
                                                                                                                                                           described.
  1970    23     Fookes        Welsh water for Wales: visit to Llysyfran and Llyn       Llysyfran, Llyn Brianne               Concrete gravity design/     Design and construction of the two dams are described with sections and plans of both dams. Reference is
                               Brianne dams. Report by P G Fookes.                                                            construction, Embankment dam made to more detailed publications about the dams.
                                                                                                                              construction
  1970    27     Berg          The Abu Simbel Project by L Berg and P Lucano.                                                                              Construction of the High Aswan dam would cause flooding of two temples in the Nubian desert on the western
                               Lecture presented to BNCOLD meeting February                                                                                bank of the river Nile. Work involved construction of a protective cofferdam and cutting rock forming the
                               1970.                                                                                                                       temples into blocks to be reassembled at a higher level.
  1970    31                   Bibliography for 1969.                                                                                                            The papers are listed in five groups as in previous years.

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 9, May 1971
 Date    Page   First author                    Contents/Reference                   Dams                                     Subjects                           Brief summary
 1971     1      Dickerson     Inspection and maintenance for safety in dams. Report                                          Flood estimation/hydrology,        The introduction to the discussion deals with routine inspections by operating staff, statutory inspections under
                               by L H Dickerson of a joint meeting of BNCOLD and                                              Instrumentation/monitoring,        the Reservoirs (Safety Provisions) Act 1930, examination and analysis of instrumentation results, geological
                               the British Geotechnical Society on the 9 December                                             Internal erosion/filters,          examinations, special inspections after major floods and analysis of leakage water. The proposal to increase
                               1970. The report includes discussion contributions.                                            Legislation, Safety surveillance   the size of reservoirs that require a statutory inspection from 5 million gallons to 10 million gallons was rejected
                                                                                                                                                                 by a number of contributions to the discussion. Many examples of incidents and unsatisfactory dam behaviour
                                                                                                                                                                 were reported.
 1971     5      Little        Problems of embankment dams. Report by A L Little        Balderhead, Bodgyndd, Chingford,     Catastrophic failures, Internal     A brief history of dam failures is given with many of the well known incidents in the UK being included such as
                               of the joint meeting of BNCOLD and British               Coedty, Eigiau, Lluest Wen,          erosion/filters, Mining             Dolgarrog, Balderhead, Chingford, Harrogate. The rapidity of the piping failure of Baldwin Hills in the USA 12
                               Geotechnical Society on 9 December 1970. The report      Warmwithens, Artajea (Peru), Baldwin subsidence, Slope stability         years after completion is summarised. The significance of mining on a number of dams is discussed. Cracking
                               includes discussion contributions.                       Hills (USA), Malpasset, (France),                                        in dams had received much attention at the Montreal Congress in the general report by Lowe. Slope instability
                                                                                        Vaiont (Italy),                                                          both during construction and long after construction are discussed with a recommendation to install
                                                                                                                                                                 piezometers in old dams when they are inspected under the Reservoirs (Safety Provisions) Act 1930. The
                                                                                                                                                                 discussion reports includes many failure case histories.
 1971     13                   The effect of sonic bangs on reservoirs. Report by                                                                                It is concluded in the report the low intensity and short duration of sonic bangs make their effect on dams and
                               Working Party of The Institution of Civil Engineers.                                                                              reservoirs negligible.
 1971     13                   Book reviews of "World dams today" published by the
                               Japan Dam Association and "Technical Dictionary of
                               Dams" published by the Japanese National Committee
                               on Large Dams.
 1971     14     Clarke        Prevention of horizontal sliding at Muda dam by C L  Muda (Malaysia)                           Concrete buttress                  The use of post-tensioned re-stressable cables to provide additional resistance against sliding at the concrete
                               Clarke.                                                                                        design/construction, Post          buttress dam is described where the foundation was found to have low strength near horizontal layers of
                                                                                                                              tensioning/ rock anchors           mudstone.
 1971     15     Johnston      Bradan dam by T A Johnston.                              Bradan.                               Concrete gravity design/           Bradan dam, a 29m high mass concrete gravity structure, is currently under construction in south-east Ayrshire.
                                                                                                                              construction
 1971     15                   Booth Wood completed.                                    Booth Wood                            Concrete gravity design/           Brief description of the recently completed 58.5m high the concrete gravity dam which began impounding of the
                                                                                                                              construction                       reservoir in February 1971.
 1971     16     Casagrande Liquefaction phenomena. lecture by Professor        Fort Peck                                                                        Very brief description of lecture is given with some examples of liquefaction.
                            Casagrande presented to a joint meeting of BNCOLD
                            and the British Geotechnical Society November 1970.
                            Synopsis prepared by P A Green and P A S Ferguson.

 1971     16     Smith         Heritage of Spanish dams. Note by Norman A F Smith.                                                                               Reference is made to the publication of "The Heritage of Spanish Dams " and "A History of Dams " .

 1971     17                   Note on Committee on Insurance of dams.                                                                                           An ICOLD committee is being formed to conduct an inquiry into the insurances practices in use in member
                                                                                                                                                                 countries.
 1971     17                   Reservoir (Safety Provisions) Act 1930.                                                        Legislation                        The need for continuous surveillance of dams by an appropriate panel engineer between statutory inspections
                                                                                                                                                                 was highlighted in discussions on the need for new legislation.
 1971     17     Scott         Letter to the Editor from P A Scott, C M Roberts, E B                                                                             Request that the Reservoirs Act Consultative Committee should prepare guidelines for reservoirs owners and
                               Wilson, N J Cochrane, C L Clarke and R S Baxter.                                                                                  Inspecting engineers in two sections for concrete and embankment dams respectively.


BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 10, November 1971
 Date    Page   First author                    Contents/Reference                      Dams                                  Subjects                           Brief summary



                                                                                                                                                          6
BNCOLD News and Views



 Date    Page   First author                    Contents/Reference                     Dams                                     Subjects                        Brief summary
 1971     2      Roberts       Concrete dams - methods to be employed for rapid        Bradan, Meldon                           Concrete Gravity                The design of concrete dams is discussed with particular emphasis on methods to increase rate of construction
                               construction and effect economies by C M Roberts.                                                design/construction, Concrete   and mix design to reduce heat of hydration to prevent cracking. Research projects undertaken at the Cement
                                                                                                                                mix and cement, Concrete        and Concrete Association were reported which included reduction of safety factor, special cements and
                                                                                                                                temperature                     concrete cooling methods.
 1971     7      Young         Recent work at the BHRA Laboratory. Report by G A J Kariba(Zimbabwe/Zambia ),                    Spillway hydraulics             Three recent projects using physical scale models carried out at the British Hydromechanics Research
                               Young.                                              Moawhango (New Zealand),                                                     Association's Laboratory at Cranfied are described. Detailed references are provided to these and other
                                                                                   Murchison Falls ( Uganda)                                                    investigations.
 1971     9      Kennard       Visit to Ireland by M F Kennard.                    Ballyshannock, Turlough Hill (Ireland) Asphaltic concrete                    Construction details are given with photographs and cross-sections for the two dams.

 1971     12                   Bibliography for 1970.                                                                                                           The papers are listed in five groups as in previous years.
 1971     14                   BNCOLD NEWS.
 1971     14                   Book reviews: The hydraulics of river channel closure
                               by S V Izbash and K Y Khaldre. Water resources
                               project economics by E Kuiper. Hydro-electric
                               engineering practice-vol II mechanical and electrical
                               engineering edited by J Guthrie Brown.
 1971     15     Moffat        A note on instrumentation and the behaviour of                                                   Concrete gravity                The merits of instrumentation and monitoring of concrete dams is described together with a proposed system
                               concrete dams by A I B Moffat.                                                                   design/construction,            for collating and sharing monitoring information from concrete dam projects in the UK. A proposed specially
                                                                                                                                Instrumentation/monitoring      created study unit would prepare and publish Technical Notes relating to selected performance characteristics
                                                                                                                                                                of concrete dams and provide an instrumentation advisory service.
 1971     16                   USCOLD Model Law for state supervision of safety of                                              Legislation                     The United States Commission on Large Dams committee on model legislation published in 1970 a proposed
                               dams and reservoirs.                                                                                                             model law and distributed it to the governors of the 50 states. The principles of the model law are outlined.


BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 11, May 1972
 Date    Page   First author                     Contents/Reference                 Dams                                        Subjects                        Brief summary
 1972     1                    Hugh Hume Dixon elected as ICOLD Vice-President                                                                                  A brief summary of Hugh Dixon's career and his involvement with ICOLD is given.
                               for Europe for 1971 to 1974.
 1972     2                    BNCOLD News
 1972     2      Lane          Seismic activity at man made reservoirs by R G T                                                 Earthquake damage               The full paper and discussion which refer to the many cases of seismic activity following dam construction and
                               Lane. Report of a joint meeting of ICE with BNCOLD                                                                               impounding of reservoirs was published in the Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1971, (vol 50,
                               and the Society for Earthquake and Civil Engineering                                                                             September, pp 15-24)
                               Dynamics.
 1972     3      Penman        Observed and predicted deformations in a large       Scammonden                                  Movement monitoring,            The full paper and discussion were published in the Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1971 (vol
                               embankment dam during construction by A D M                                                      Numerical analysis, Rockfill    49, May, pp 1-21).
                               Penman, J B Burland and J A Charles. Report of a
                               joint meeting of ICE with BNCOLD and the British
                               Geotechnical Society.
 1972     3      Binger        Tarbela dam project, West Pakistan by W V Binger.    Tarbela (Pakistan)                          Embankment dam construction Site selection, design and construction of the main 143m high dam are outlined. The zoned embankment dam
                               Report of a joint meeting of ICE with BNCOLD and the                                                                         has an upstream sloping impervious core and granular shells. A major part of the dam was founded on deep
                               British Geotechnical Society.                                                                                                pervious alluvium. An impervious blanket was chosen to control under seepage through the alluvium, rather
                                                                                                                                                            than a deep grout curtain or cut-off wall. Extensive discussion of the presentation is reported.

 1972     12     Hamilton      Study Tour A in Yugoslavia, ICOLD Executive             Bajina, Baste, Djerdap, Globecica,                                       The article provides some history of the former Yugoslavia and descriptions with cross-sections of two of the
                               Meeting. Report by D M Hamilton.                        Mavrovo, Mratinje, Spilje (Yugoslavia)                                   embankment dams visited on the tour. The Mratinje dam location resembled that of Vaiont dam; a 220m high
                                                                                                                                                                double curvature arch dam is to be built in a steep sided valley. Globocica is a rockfill dam with a thick clay core
                                                                                                                                                                and wide transition zones founded on alluvial deposits.
 1972     16     Humphreys     Winscar dam approved. Note by J D Humphreys.            Winscar                                                                  Notice that approval had been given for the construction of the dam.
 1972     16                   Book Review: Dam Geology by R C S Walters.                                                                                       Publication of second edition.

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 12, November 1972
 Date    Page   First author                     Contents/Reference                  Dams                                       Subjects                        Brief summary
 1972     1      Furley        Finite elements applied to dams by A E Furley. Report Clywedog, Scammonden                       Numerical analysis              The application of the finite element method for the design and prediction of behaviour of both concrete and
                               of a meeting introduced by O C Zienkiewicz.                                                                                      embankment dams is reported by discussion contributors. The types of two dimensional and three dimensional
                                                                                                                                                                elements are described. The original simple triangle used in two-dimensional analysis is widely used and
                                                                                                                                                                Clywedog was the first dam using such elements. The limitations of the two-dimensional idealization and
                                                                                                                                                                simplification of material properties particularly with soils are discussed. Nevertheless, the method provides a
                                                                                                                                                                powerful tool for stress analysis of many structures.
 1972     9      Dixon         Study tour in New Zealand by H H Dixon.                 Arapuni, Whakamani, Whakamaru                                            Brief descriptions are given of dams and hydro-electric schemes In New Zealand. They included some of the
                                                                                       (New Zealand)                                                            seven dams on the Waikato river on North Island.
 1972     10                   The 49th Executive Meeting of ICOLD Canberra, April
                               1972.
 1972     10     Kennard       Visit to Wasbury and Datchet Reservoirs by M F      Datchet, Wraysbury                                                           Brief descriptions are given of Wraysbury dam which was completed in 1970 and Datchet dam which was due
                               Kennard.                                                                                                                         for completion in 1974 for the Metropolitan Water Board. A cross-section of Datchet embankment is shown
                                                                                                                                                                together with various stages of construction.
 1972     11                   BNCOLD News
 1972     12     Spens         Study tour in Australia by C H Spens.                   Cardinia, Devils Gate, Gordon,                                           Dams on the study tour included some of the Snowy Mountain Hydro-electric Scheme and others on Tasmania.
                                                                                       Jindabyne, Murray, Serpentine,
                                                                                       Talbingo (Australia)
 1972     14                   Register of large dams in Great Britain.                                                                                         A recent update of British dams in the World Register.
 1972     16                   Bibliography for 1971.                                                                                                           The papers are listed in five groups as in previous years.




                                                                                                                                                          7
BNCOLD News and Views



 Date    Page   First author                   Contents/Reference                       Dams                                Subjects                         Brief summary

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 13, May 1973
 Date    Page   First author                   Contents/Reference                       Dams                                Subjects                         Brief summary
                               BNCOLD News.                                                                                                                  Programme of meetings, Member's papers to 11th ICOLD Congress and publications available for inspection.
          2
 1973     3                    Opening of Brianne Dam                                                                                                        Official opening on 15 May 1973.
 1973     4      Kennard       BNCOLD visit to dams in French and Swiss Alps.           Emosson, Genissiat, Seyssel,        Concrete gravity, Arch, Buttress Three large hydro-electric schemes in mountainous areas were included in this BNCOLD visit to the French and
                               Report by M F Kennard.                                   (Switzerland), Roselend (France)    design/construction,             Swiss Alps. Dams included were a massive arch gravity dam, a buttress and arch dam, and a thin arch dam.
                                                                                                                                                             The foundation conditions directly affected the selection of the type of dam. Extensive geological investigations
                                                                                                                                                             at Emosson involved two exploration tunnels with a total length of 479m.
 1973     7      Poskitt       Asphaltic concrete by F F Poskitt. Report of the         Dungonnell, Chowilla (Australia),   Asphaltic concrete               The introduction provides a concise summary of design and construction methods using upstream asphaltic
                               introduction and discussion at the BNCOLD meeting        Pedu (Malaysia), Turlough Hill                                       linings and central cores for dams. A significant proportion of upstream lined dams have been for the upper
                               November 1972.                                           (Ireland)                                                            reservoirs of hydro-electric pump storage schemes to avoid the threat of instability due to frequent rapid
                                                                                                                                                             reservoir drawdowns. The relative merits of central core and upstream linings are discussed. The importance of
                                                                                                                                                             connexions between linings or cores and rigid structures adjacent to or embedded in them to allow for
                                                                                                                                                             movement was emphasised. Appropriate testing for quality control was discussed. Asphalt was used for slope
                                                                                                                                                             protection of Chowilla, a sand fill dam that had a clay core.
 1973     13     Wardle        Cabora-Bassa hydroelectric scheme on the Zambezi         Cabora-Bassa (Mozambique)           Arch dam design/construction     The Cabora-Bassa hydro-electric scheme involved construction of a 170m high, 300m long concrete arch dam.
                               River (civil works). Report of BNCOLD meeting                                                                                 Construction details of the powerhouse containing five 415 MW generating sets, the diversion facilities and the
                               February 1973 by D C Wardle based on presentation                                                                             cofferdams are described. The scheme was due to come into operation in April 1975.
                               by F Lemperière.

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 14, November 1973
 Date    Page   First author                    Contents/Reference                      Dams                                Subjects                         Brief summary
 1973     1                    Eleventh International Congress on Large Dams.
 1973     1                    The 41st Executive Meeting, Madrid, 8-9 June, 1973.
 1973     2                    Reports on meetings of technical committees.
 1973     4      Baxter        Review of question 40: the consequences on the                                               Environment/social/planning      The sessions devoted to this topic were spread over two days and attracted the largest attendance of any
                               environment of building dams by R S Baxter.                                                                                   question in the history of ICOLD. General F Clarke, Chairman of the session, observed that it came as a shock
                                                                                                                                                             to engineers to have to face up to the fact that dams could have significant disadvantages as well as
                                                                                                                                                             advantages.
 1973     6      Coxon         Review of question 41: flow control and energy control                                                                        Topics covered included regime of rivers, design flood and problems with reservoir operation, spillway
                               during construction and after completion by R E                                                                               construction and stilling pools, flood diversion during construction and estuary dams.
                               Coxon.
 1973     8      Penman        Review of question 42: impervious elements and slope                                         Internal erosion/filters,        Types of core, their properties, their location and dimensions were discussed in relation to avoiding leakage and
                               protection on earth and rockfill dams by A D M                                               Upstream slope protection        erosion. The need for more information of the geotechnical properties of clay core was highlighted by De Mello.
                               Penman.                                                                                                                       The effect of heavy compaction on high plasticity clays when placed drier than optimum led to brittle behaviour.
                                                                                                                                                             With regard to upstream protection, it was reported that riprap failures do not cause dam failures but well
                                                                                                                                                             designed riprap reduces maintenance costs.
 1973     10     Farrar        Review of question 43: new ideas for more rapid and                                          Concrete mix and cement          The main topics included mass production, continuous construction and minimising the number of construction
                               economic construction of concrete dams by R E S                                                                               joints.
                               Farrar.
 1973     13                   List of participants from Great Britain.                                                                                      There were some 80 participants from Great Britain at this Congress and the majority were accompanied by
                                                                                                                                                             their wives.
 1973     14     Farrar        Congress study tours by R E S Farrar, H W Baker and Albarellos, Arenous, Bolarque,                                            Reports of three of the nine Congress study tours are described with information about the dams visited and
                               P B Mitchell.                                       Guadalhorce, Guadarranque, Las                                            places of interest in Spain.
                                                                                   Portas, Portodemouros, Tibi (Spain)
 1973     27     Moffat        Instrumentation and performance studies on concrete                                          Concrete dams,                   The case is made for the study of performance records on concrete dams, and instrumentation observations. A
                               dams by A I B Moffat.                                                                        Instrumentation/monitoring       supplementary note outlines the principal objectives of instrumentation and the equipment and techniques
                                                                                                                                                             available for concrete dams in the UK which are predominately gravity and buttress. A note on "Instrumentation
                                                                                                                                                             and behaviour of concrete dams" was published in No 10 of News and Views.
          31                   Book reviews: Inventory of Spanish dams, Lessons
                               from dam incidents and Dictionary of water and water
                               engineering.
          31                   Bibliography for 1972.                                                                                                        The papers are listed in five groups as in previous years.

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 15, November 1974
 Date    Page   First author                    Contents/Reference                      Dams                                Subjects                         Brief summary
 1974     1                    42nd Executive Meeting, Athens, 13-14 May 1974.
 1974     1                    Reports on meetings of technical committees.
 1974     3                    BNCOLD News.
 1974     3                    Post executive meeting study tours.
 1974     3      Paton         Tour A by Sir Angus Paton.                               Kremasta (Greece)
 1974     5      Roberts       Tour B by C M Roberts.                                   Mornos, Ladhon (Greece)
 1974     8      Griffiths     Study tour in Cyprus by F N Griffiths.                   Yermasoyia (Cyprus)
 1974     9                    Visit to Empingham and Foremark dams.                    Empingham, Foremark                                                  Brief descriptions of the two dams are given both of which were at an early stage of construction at the time of
                                                                                                                                                             the visit.




                                                                                                                                                      8
BNCOLD News and Views



 Date     Page   First author                     Contents/Reference                   Dams                              Subjects                        Brief summary
 1974      11     Moffat        Inspection, operation and improvement of existing
                                dams. Introduction to the first BNCOLD conference, to
                                be held at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, by A
                                I B Moffat.
 1974      12    Tye            Visit to dams in Germany by P F Tye                    Dhunn, Eicherscheid, Weilerbach                                   The visit was arranged to see the progress made on the development of asphaltic concrete as a material in
                                                                                       (Germany)                                                         dam construction. Dhunn dam, which was completed in 1962, was the first dam with a central asphaltic core.

 1974      13    Reeve          El Chocon- Cerros Colorados complex, Argentina.         El Chocon (Argentina)                                            The 92m high El Chocon dam has a clay core and sandy gravel shoulders. Construction was substantial
                                Report of BNCOLD meeting March 1974 by W T N                                                                             complete by December 1972.
                                Reeve.
 1974      14    Ford           High Island Dams, Hong Kong. Report of BNCOLD           High Island (Hong Kong)          Upstream slope protection
                                meeting March 1974 by S E H Ford.
 1974      15    Kennard        Reservoirs Bill by M F Kennard.                                                          Legislation                     Extracts of the Reservoirs Bill which had its First Reading in the House of Lords on the 31 July 1974. With the
                                                                                                                                                         dissolution of Parliament, the Bill was lost.
 1974      19                   12th Congress on Large Dams- Mexico 1976, list of
                                the four technical questions.
 1974      19    Lane           Meeting on design of dams in earthquake areas.                                           Earthquake damage               Introductory notes on 1) The basis for the aseismicity of a dam, 2) Design of concrete dams and 3) Earth and
                                Report of joint meeting between BNCOLD and Society                                                                       rockfill dams subject to seismic loading. A report of the discussion by I P Haigh was published in the
                                for Earthquake and Civil Engineering Dynamics                                                                            Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, May 1974, vol 56, pp 195-198.
                                November 1973, by G T Lane, J P Germond and R L
                                Brown.
 1974      21    Piesold        Tailings dams by D D A Piesold. Introductory note and                                    Waste impoundment               The design and construction principles of tailings dams are described briefly. Special problems such as solids in
                                discussion of BNCOLD meeting February 1974.                                                                              suspension and chemicals which may pollute river systems are discussed. Extensive discussion provides
                                                                                                                                                         examples on the construction of tailings dam and their performance.
 1974            Baker          Visit to Brenig and Winscar dams. Report of the visit   Brenig, Winscar                                                  Brief details of design with basic cross-sections of the two dams are provided.
                                to the two dams under construction by H W Baker.

 1974      29    Lloyd          Proposed Craig Goch Dam by D G Lloyd.                   Craig Goch                                                       The proposed scheme, which includes a 125m high buttress dam to augment flows in the rivers Wye and
                                                                                                                                                         Severn, is outlined.
 1974      30                   Bibliography for 1973                                                                                                    The papers are listed in five groups as in previous years.

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 16, 1975
 Date     Page   First author                    Contents/Reference                     Dams                             Subjects                        Brief summary
 1975      1      Bertinelli    Tachien dam project by E Bertinelli. Report of          Tachien (Taiwan)                 Arch dam design/construction    The main dam for the Tachien hydro-electric project is a 181m high double curvature thin arch dam with a crest
                                BNCOLD meeting October 1974.                                                                                             length of 290m. Brief description of design and construction is given.
 1975      3     Fives          Turlough Hill pump storage scheme. Report of            Turlough Hill (Ireland)          Asphaltic concrete, Rockfill    The design, specification and testing of the rockfill compaction are provided for the upper 34m high dam of the
                                BNCOLD meeting December 1974 by M O Fives.                                                                               Turlough Hill pump storage scheme. The upstream slope and basin are lined with asphaltic concrete. The
                                                                                                                                                         performance specification for the asphaltic concrete included seepage rates and ability to withstand a maximum
                                                                                                                                                         drawdown rate of 4.5m/hour.
 1975      5                    43rd Executive Meeting, Tehran, 6-9 October. Reports
                                on meetings of technical committees
 1975      8                    Study tours, Tehran                                                                                                      The cultural and geographical descriptions of Iran make for an interesting report of the tour. A list of the dams
                                                                                                                                                         visited with basic construction details is given.
 1975      11                   BNCOLD News                                                                                                              A list of dams currently under construction in the UK is included.
 1975      12    Poskitt        The heightening and enlarging of dams. Report of        Argal,                           Heightening, Post tensioning/   Staged construction of dams was becoming increasingly common. Little information was available about
                                BNCOLD meeting March 1975 by F F Poskitt.                                                rock anchors                    materials that proved incompatible in heightening embankment dams particularly existing and new core
                                                                                                                                                         materials. Many examples of heightened dams are given in the discussion contributions. Argal dam, a concrete
                                                                                                                                                         gravity dam was the only known example in the UK of a dam raised using anchor tendons.
 1975      14    Knill          Engineering geology of the Lar project, Iran by J K     Lar (Iran)                                                       The Lar project which was due for completion in 1980 involves construction of a 105m high embankment dam
                                Knill                                                                                                                    and 26 km diversion system of tunnel and aqueduct to divert water from the river Lar to the Farahnaz Pahlavi
                                                                                                                                                         reservoir to supply Tehran. The underlying bedrock is composed of Jurassic and Cretaceous limestones.

 1975      15                   BNCOLD visits to Bewl Bridge dam and the Wash          Bewl Bridge,                                                      Construction of the 30m high, rolled clay core Bewl Bridge dam commenced in May 1973. The wave wall and
                                storage scheme.                                                                                                          concrete slabbing were under construction at the time of the visit.
 1975      16    Jackson        Criteria and assumptions for the numerical analysis of                                   Numerical analysis              Although an impressive array of analytical tools is available, the real problem is no longer one of solving
                                dams. Report by E A Jackson on the international                                                                         equations but one of defining boundary conditions and material properties which must be built into the
                                symposium, Swansea, September 1975                                                                                       mathematical analysis.

 1975      17                   Mexico City Congress: British Section papers
 1975      17    Williams       Floods and reservoir safety. Note by J D Williams                                        Flood estimation/hydrology      "Floods and reservoir safety an engineering guide" to be published in 1976 after approval by the ICE Council.

 1975      18    Groner         Address by C F Groner, President of ICOLD, to the                                                                        The history of legislation for hydropower in Norway and the inspection and maintenance of its dams are
                                Newcastle-upon Tyne symposium (1st BNCOLD                                                                                outlined.
                                Conference), September 1975.
 1975      19    Moffat         Newcastle-upon-Tyne symposium on inspection,                                                                         All the papers published in the symposium are listed and a summary of the main points discussed in each
                                operation and improvement of existing dams, 24-26                                                                    session is given. (This symposium was the first of what were to become British Dam Society biennial
                                September, 1975. Report by A I B Moffat.                                                                             conferences, the 16th being held in 2010.)
 1975      22    Carlyle        CARLYLE W J and BRAMLEY M E (1975). Brianne             Llyn Brianne                     Embankment dam construction A brief description of the construction and early performance of the dam is presented. (Details of design,
                                dam: construction and subsequent performance.                                                                        construction and performance are to be found in the many papers listed in the bibliography of British dams.)
                                BNCOLD News and Views, no 16, pp 22-23.
   1975    24                   Bibliography for 1974                                                                                                    The papers are listed under the names of the journals in which they were published.
   1975    25                   ICOLD publications.



                                                                                                                                                    9
BNCOLD News and Views



 Date    Page   First author                   Contents/Reference                      Dams                                      Subjects                        Brief summary

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 17, 1976
 Date    Page   First author                     Contents/Reference                    Dams                                      Subjects                        Brief summary
 1976     1                    Twelfth International Congress on Large Dams,
                               Mexico City, 1976 - Reports on meetings of the
                               technical committees.
 1976     3      Penman        Report on Question 44: Problems associated with         Scotspeck (Australia),                    New materials, Waste            Topics included use of poor quality materials such as permafrost, alterable rock and silt, mine tailings including
                               special types of fill by A D M Penman.                                                            impoundment                     groundwater pollution, new materials and methods.
 1976     5      Parkman       Report on Question 45: Leakage investigation and        Zoccolo (Italy)                           Drainage, Seepage & leakage     Topics included methods of determining the origin and quantity of leakage and seepage, analysis of the history
                               drainage of dams and their foundations by H C                                                                                     of seepage, significance of leakage in relation to safety and operation, design of drainage systems, and
                               Parkman.                                                                                                                          monitoring and maintaining drainage systems.
 1976     7      Newbury       Report on Question 46: Preliminary planning of dam
                               developments by J Newbury.
 1976     8      Baxter        Report on Question 47: The effect on dams and                                                     Environment/social/planning
                               reservoirs of some environmental factors by R S
                               Baxter.
 1976     10     Williams      Congress study tours. Study tour No. 1 by J D           Ignacio Allende, Santa Rosa (Mexico)
                               Williams.
 1976     11     Hunt          Congress study tours. Study tour No. 5 by H M Hunt.     Cointzio, Infiernillo (Mexico)

 1976     13     Fleming       Congress study tours. Study tour No. 7 by J Fleming     Angostura, Chicoasen, Malpaso
                               and F G Johnson.                                        (Mexico)
 1976     15                   Mr John Guthrie Brown - Obituary.
 1976     16     Paton         Dams and their interfaces by Sir Angus Paton. Eighth    High Aswan (Egypt), Hoover (USA),         Dam design,                     The growth in environmental and social objections to reservoir schemes is balanced against the benefits. Eight
                               Royal Society Technology Lecture delivered on the 28    Kariba (Zimbabwe/Zambia) Owen             Environment/social/planning,    branches of technology are described in the design of dams. Increasing attention to site investigation is
                               April 1976.                                             Falls (Uganda), Roseires (Sudan),         Flood estimation/hydrology,     required in the development of more difficult sites. Some developments in design of both concrete and
                                                                                       Mangla, Tarbela (Pakistan), El Cadillal   Legislation,                    embankment dams are summarised. Interface problems include the foundations, control of floods, cavitation
                                                                                       (Argentina)                                                               and earthquakes. Reservoir safety, guidance on floods estimation and the development of legislation in Great
                                                                                                                                                                 Britain are outlined.
 1976     23     Curtis        Discussion: Results of a thermocouple study in mass     Tamar Upper                               Concrete deterioration,         The full paper by Dunstan and Mitchell was published in the Institution of Civil Engineers, February 1996. The
                               concrete in the Upper Tamar dam by G R Curtis.                                                    Concrete temperature            problem of cracking associated with the use of modern cements, use of pfa and methods of reducing cracking
                                                                                                                                                                 was described.
 1976     24     Baldassarrini Tarbela dam repair works. Report of BNCOLD              Tarbela (Pakistan)                        Spillway gates and barriers,    Extensive damage occurred to the diversion and regulating tunnels and gates in August 1974 following closure
                               meeting March 1976 by M Baldassarrini.                                                            Tunnel failures                 of some gates to the tunnels. A 70m length of tunnel had collapsed, large quantities of the abutment had been
                                                                                                                                                                 washed through the collapsed section and steel liner had been torn from the concrete. Drawdown revealed a
                                                                                                                                                                 number of holes in the upstream blanket. Damage also occurred at the stilling basins. Remedial works are
                                                                                                                                                                 described.
 1976     25     Baker         BNCOLD visit to Scottish Dams, 20-22 September ,
                               1976. Report of visit by H W Baker, W A Watson and
                               E G Hall.
 1976     26     Baker         BNCOLD visit to Wimbleball Reservoir July 1976.         Wimbleball
                               Report by H W Baker.
 1976     27                   Reza Shar Khabir Dam, Iran. Report of BNCOLD            Reza Shah Khabir (Iran)                   Arch dam design/construction, A brief description of the construction of the 200m high double curvature arch dam is given including the
                               meeting December 1975 by D Launay and J Muller.                                                   Concrete temperature, Grouting diversion scheme, rock stabilisation, grouting and foundation treatment.

 1976     27                 BNCOLD News.
 1976     28     Cuthbertson The Megget Reservoir-Selection of the site and            Megget                                    Embankment dam construction Design options are discussed in relation to the lack of suitable materials available for a clay core dam.
                             preliminary design approach. Report of BNCOLD
                             meeting January 1976 by R H Cuthbertson.
 1976     29     Howells     Design of dams for earthquake. Report of joint                                                      Seismic assessment,             The report summarises the views of a working group set up to consider the design of dams for earthquake.
                             SECED/BNCOLD meeting May 1976 by D A Howells.                                                       Earthquake damage

 1976     30                   Book reviews of Case-histories in engineering geology
                               by J G C Anderson and C F Trigg, The Guinness Book
                               of Structures: bridges, towers, tunnels, dams by J H
                               Stephens and The Engineering of large dams by H H
                               Thomas.
 1976     31                   Bibliography for 1975.                                                                                                            The papers are listed under the names of the journals in which they were published.
BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 18, 1977
 Date    Page   First author                      Contents/Reference                 Dams                                        Subjects                        Brief summary
 1977     2                    BNCOLD News
 1977     3                    ICOLD: 45th Executive Meeting, Salzburg,14-16
                               September 1977.
 1977     12     Williams      Finite element method in analysis and design of dams.                                             Numerical analysis              Professor O Zienkiewicz introduced the first report of the ICOLD Committee on Analysis and Design of Dams.
                               Report of a joint meeting of BNCOLD and ICE                                                                                       This deals with the use of the finite element method in the design of both concrete and embankment dams.
                               Computer Methods and Applications Group March
                               1977 by J D Williams.
 1977     13     de Mello      17th Rankine Lecture: reflections on design decisions                                                                             This brief summary of the Rankine Lecture mentions drainage, filters, grouting of cracks, compaction of fill,
                               of practical significance to embankment dams by V F                                                                               factors of safety for slope stability, interpretation of instrumentation and problems associated with discontinuities
                               B de Mello. Report by D Morris.                                                                                                   in structures. The full paper is published in Geotechnique, September 1977.




                                                                                                                                                           10
BNCOLD News and Views



 Date    Page   First author                Contents/Reference                            Dams                                   Subjects                         Brief summary
 1977     15     Andrew        Moawhango Dam, New Zealand. Paper presented at             Moawhango (New Zealand)                Arch dam design/construction     The arch gravity design of dam was chosen as a thin arch dam would have been unsuitable mainly on account
                               BNCOLD meeting October 1976 by J H Andrew.                                                                                         of continuous clay-filled fractures in the foundation. The design and analysis of the 64m high dam are discussed
                                                                                                                                                                  briefly.
 1977     16     Allen         ALLEN A C , KITCHING B W and MOFFAT A I B          Castlehill                                     Arch dam design/construction,    The selection of the dam type and the design are summarised together with the concrete mix design. Horizontal
                               (1977). Castlehill dam. BNCOLD News and Views, no                                                 Concrete mix and cement          and vertical movements will be measured by the laser alignment method.
                               18, pp 16-17.
 1977     18                   13th Congress on Large Dams - New Delhi 1979. List
                               of questions to be discussed at ICOLD Congress.

 1977     19     Moffat        New materials: dry lean concrete applied to fill                                                  Roller compacted concrete        Dry lean concrete (DLC) placed as a fill for dam construction would allow continuous placing of concrete and
                               construction of dams. Paper presented to BNCOLD                                                                                    would produce a set material with the properties of a low to medium strength concrete. Tests indicated
                               meeting December 1976 by A I B Moffat and A C                                                                                      adequate durability but the higher permeability due to low cement content suggested the concrete may be
                               Price. Report by J D Williams.                                                                                                     prone to leaching. The characteristics of the material indicates it would be suitable for a conventional concrete
                                                                                                                                                                  gravity cross-section dam or for slimmed down embankment dams.
 1977     21     Carlyle       The dams for the Dinorwig project by W J Carlyle and       Marchlyn Mawr                          Asphaltic concrete               A brief description of the pumped storage hydro-electric project under construction at Llanberis in North Wales
                               R W Buchanan (1977). BNCOLD News and Views, no                                                                                     is given together with a section of Marchlyn Mawr dam which has an upstream asphaltic membrane.
                               18, pp 21-22. Report by J D Williams.
 1977     22                   Visit of Dr Flavio H Lyra, President of ICOLD.
 1977     23                   Geological defects in dam foundations by J Newbery,        Ban Chao Nen (Thailand), Guma          Grouting, Tunnel failures        Selected cases of foundation problems at dams around the world are summarised.
                               M F Kennard, R Marwick and C W Isherwood. Report           (Sierra Leone), Cow Green, Meldon,
                               of joint meeting of the British Geotechnical Society and   Wimbleborne, Roseries (Sudan) El
                               the Engineering Group of the Geological Society by J       Chocon (Argentina), Tarbela
                               D Williams.                                                (Pakistan)
 1977     24     Douglas       BNCOLD visit to Ardingly Reservoir May 1977. Report        Ardingly                                                                A very brief description of the rolled clay core embankment under construction for the Mid-Sussex Water
                               by T H Douglas.                                                                                                                    Company is given.
 1977     24     Baker         BNCOLD visit to Dinorwig pumped storage hydro-
                               electric project. Report by H W Baker.
 1977            Williams      Teton dam failure. Report by J D Williams.                 Teton (USA)                            Catastrophic failures            The overall time from the first emergence of water from the downstream face of the embankment until a
                                                                                                                                                                  complete breach developed was only two and half hours. The failure caused some 1000 million US dollars
          25                                                                                                                                                      damage and 14 deaths.
 1977     26     Williams      Tidal barriers. Summary of discussion of BNCOLD                                                   Tidal barriers
                               meeting March 1977 by J D Williams.
 1977     27                   Bibliography for 1976.                                                                                                             The papers are listed under the names of the journals in which they were published.

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 19, 1978
 Date    Page   First author                   Contents/Reference                         Dams                                   Subjects                         Brief summary
 1978     2                    BNCOLD News
 1978     2                    BNCOLD visit: Thames Barrier Site.                         Thames Barrier
 1978     3                    ICOLD: 46th Executive Meeting, Cape Town, 11-12
                               October 1978.
 1978     7      Griffiths     Study tour A. Report by F N Griffiths.                     Churchill, Hendrik Verwoerd, Loerie,
                                                                                          Paul Sauer, P K Le Roux, Stompdrift

 1978     9      Kennard       Study tour B. Report by M F Kennard.                       Driekloof, Midmar, P K Le Roux,
                                                                                          Sterkfontein, Wagendrift
 1978     12                   BNCOLD visit: Kielder dam site and Grimwith                Grimwith, Kielder
 1978     13     Geddes        GEDDES W G N (1978). Kielder water scheme -                Bakethin, Kielder,                     Embankment dam construction A summary of the Kielder Water Scheme is outlined together with the design of the rolled clay embankment
                               Kielder and Bakethin dams. BNCOLD News and                                                                                    dam including plans and a cross-section. The core is linked to an upstream clay key by a substantial clay
                               Views, no 19, pp 13-16. Paper presented at BNCOLD                                                                             blanket. A diaphragm wall cut-off using cement bentonite was formed across the existing river bed. Flood
                               meeting October 1977. Report by J D Williams.                                                                                 control, valve tower and culvert design, and landscaping are outlined.

 1978     17     Sakaria       Itaipu hydropower project by G S Sakaria. Report of                                                                                The Itaipu project is one of 58 projects for the ultimate development of the 3000 km long Parana river which
                               BNCOLD meeting December 1977 by F N Griffiths                                                                                      forms the boarder between Paraguay and Brazil. The project involves three dams, the main dam being a 180m
                                                                                                                                                                  high hollow concrete gravity type, the others being rockfill and earthfill dams.
 1978     19     Chadwick      Failure of Teton Dam, Idaho, June 1978 . Report of     Teton (USA)                                Catastrophic failures            Design, construction and foundation conditions of the 93m high dam and the events that led to the catastrophic
                               lecture by W Chadwick at BNCOLD meeting                                                                                            failure on first filling are outlined. Eleven people lost their lives and approximately 100,000 acres were
                               December 1977. Report by I Hay and J D Williams.                                                                                   inundated with considerable damage.
 1978     21     Tasso         Bakolori Project, Nigeria - dam and irrigation system  Bakolori (Nigeria)                                                          Bakolori projects provides an example of reducing the implementation time of large development projects. The
                               by E Tasso, C Lotti and V F Gioia. Report of BNCOLD                                                                                basic design of the 5500m long dam is outlined. The 48m high central concrete section is flanked on both side
                               meeting March 1978 by H W Baker.                                                                                                   by earthfill embankments.
 1978     23     Coxon         Risks to third parties by R E Coxon and F N Griffiths.                                            Hazard & risk management         A general discussion of hazards posed by dam failures is given. The role of commercial insurers and the need
                               Report of BNCOLD meeting September 1978 by J D                                                                                     for third party insurance was raised. The possibility of producing codes of practice or guidelines was discussed
                               Williams.                                                                                                                          and how this would affect liabilities in the event of a failure .
 1978     24     Haws          Economics of instrumentation and surveillance of                                                  Instrumentation/monitoring       The benefits of instrumentation during the commissioning stage are outlined. The policy of North of Scotland
                               dams by E T Haws and G R Curtis. Report of                                                                                         Hydro-Electric Board is to have all dams of significance instrumented. The frequency of monitoring and types of
                               BNCOLD meeting January 1978 by H W Baker.                                                                                          instruments are listed.
 1978     26                   Bibliography for 1977.                                                                                                             The papers are listed under the names of the journals in which they were published.
 1978     27                   ICOLD publications.

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 20, 1979
 Date    Page   First author                    Contents/Reference                        Dams                                   Subjects                         Brief summary




                                                                                                                                                             11
BNCOLD News and Views



 Date    Page   First author                   Contents/Reference                       Dams                                  Subjects                        Brief summary
  1979    2                    BNCOLD News
 1979     3                    ICOLD: 47th Executive Meeting, New Delhi, October
                               1979. Reports of Committees.
 1979     6      Reed          Study tour 1. Report by E C Reed.                        Beas, Bhakra, Nangal (India)          Concrete Gravity                The two very hydro-electric projects visited in northwest India provide irrigation and flood control. Bhakra dam,
                                                                                                                              design/construction             at 225m, was the highest straight concrete gravity dam in the world at the time.
 1979     8      Milne         Study tour 11. Report by G A Milne.                      Cheruthoni, Indukki, Kulamava,        Arch dam design/construction,   The dams are in Kerala State in the south west of India. Construction of Thenmala dam was labour intensive
                                                                                        Thenmala (India)                      Concrete Gravity                and was being built using rough stone blocks set in mortar for the hearting concrete.
                                                                                                                              design/construction
 1979     11     Fleming       Study tour 12. Report by J H and E M Fleming.            Nagarjunasagar, Srisailam (India)     Concrete Gravity                Rubble masonry was used to form the main part of the dams, the majority of which was quarried and placed
                                                                                                                              design/construction             entirely by hand. Concrete was used at higher levels as it was quicker and cheaper.
 1979     13     Kennard       13th International Congress on Large Dams - New
                               Delhi 1979.
 1979     13     Green         Report on Question 48: Interface problems of dams by
                               P A Green.
 1979     14     Earp          Report on Question 49: Deterioration or failure of dams
                               by D N W Earp.
 1979     16     Kennard       Report on Question 50: Large capacity outlets and
                               spillways by M F Kennard.
 1979     17     Haws          Report on Question 51: Seismicity and aseismic          Lower San Fernando (USA)               Earthquake damage, Seismic      The General reporter for this question was R G T Lane. Professor Bolton Seed gave a presentation quoting
                               design of dams by E T Haws.                                                                    assessment.                     from work leading to his Rankine Lecture. Earthquakes has not so far caused any major dam disasters
                                                                                                                                                              although Lower San Fernando came very close where the upstream slope failed almost completely and the
                                                                                                                                                              freeboard was reduced by 1m. California now design for the largest conceivable earthquake.

 1979     19     Bolton Seed 19th Rankine Lecture: Considerations in the            Hebgen, Lower San Fernando (USA)          Earthquake damage, Seismic      A brief summary of the Rankine Lecture is given which was published in Geotechnique. Potential damage
                             earthquake-resistant design of earth and rockfill dams                                           assessment.                     arising from earthquakes and mitigation measures are listed. Much of the summary concentrates on the failure
                             by H Bolton Seed., March 1979. Report by D Morris.                                                                               of San Fernando and its subsequent analysis. It was concluded that the liquefaction of the hydraulic fill sand
                                                                                                                                                              was the cause of the failure.
 1979     23     Knill         Reservoirs: dams and mining by J L Knill and A Little.   Avon (Australia), Cow Green,          Mining subsidence               A number of examples of settlement and cracking of dams due to mining subsidence are given. There seemed
                               Report of BNCOLD meeting October 1979 by G A             Cwmtillery, Rufford Lake, Toddbrook                                   to be few examples of connection between reservoirs and mines although this was investigated at Cow Green.
                               Milne.
 1979     25     Blaj          Dams on the Bandama River - Ivory Coast by S Blaj.       Kossou, Taabo (Ivory Coast)           Embankment dam construction The 58m high Kossou embankment dam, which has rockfill shoulders and an upstream sloping core, was
                                                                                                                                                          completed in 1971. Construction of the 35m high Taaso dam was expected to be completed in 1979.
 1979     29     Baxter        The Craig Goch scheme planning issue by R S Baxter,                                            Environment/social/planning
                               G E Lewis and R G Sharp.
 1979     31     Mitchell      Thames Barrier Site, BNCOLD visit during            Thames Barrier                                                             Brief description of the structure and its function are given together with an aerial view showing construction.
                               construction. Report by A O Mitchell
 1979     32     Morris        Megget dam site, BNCOLD visit June 1979, report by Megget
                               D Morris.
 1979     33                   Bibliography for 1978                                                                                                          The papers are listed under the names of the journals in which they were published.

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 21, 1980
 Date    Page   First author                 Contents/Reference                         Dams                                  Subjects                        Brief summary
 1980     2      Carlyle       Mudhiq dam by W J Carlyle and W P Field. Report of       Mudihiq (Saudi Arabia)                Concrete temperature, Arch      The 73m high cylindrical arch dam was recently completed to regulate flow of the Wadi Najram for irrigation in
                               BNCOLD meeting December 1980 by L J Attewill.                                                  dam design/construction         the south of Saudi Arabia. Foundation conditions and dam construction are described with plans and sections.

 1980     4      Williams      Floods studies report - 5 years on. Report of the                                              Flood estimation/hydrology      The Flood Studies Report (FSR) was published by the Natural Environment Research Council in 1975.
                               conference held at Manchester University, July 1980, J                                                                         Although the conference papers dealt with all aspects of flood hydrology and the many applications of FSR, four
                               D Williams.                                                                                                                    papers were identified as being of particular interest to dam engineers. Concerns were expressed about the use
                                                                                                                                                              of FSR and the Institution of Civil Engineer's Floods and Reservoir Safety; an Engineering Guide in relation to
                                                                                                                                                              the cost of enlarging spillways and increasing freeboards.
 1980     5      Paine         Poechos dam, Peru by N Paine and H Fanshaw               Poechos (Peru)                                                        Summary of the design and construction of the embankment dam is given with plan and cross section.
                                                                                                                                                              Including dykes, the dam is 9km long.
 1980     6                    ICOLD: 48th Executive Meeting, Rome, October 1980:
                               Reports of the ICOLD committees.
 1980     11     Coxon         Study tour A. Report by R E Coxon.                  Chiotas, Colle Laura, Piastra (Italy)
 1980     11     Griffiths     Study tour B. Report by F N Griffiths.              Corbara, Montedoglio, Ridracoli (Italy)
 1980     11     Milne         Study tour C. Report by G A Milne.                  Castello, Cimia, Montecotungno,
                                                                                   Naro, Passante, Rosamarina (Italy)
 1980     12     Carlyle       Storm surge barrier of the Eastern Scheldt. BNCOLD
                               visit report by W J Carlyle.
 1980     13     Williams      Deterioration and failure of dams. Report of BNCOLD Clubbiedean, Cwmtillery, Lluest Wen, Catastrophic failures                 The report reviews the work of the ICOLD Committee on Deterioration of Dams and Reservoirs which was
                               meeting by J D Williams.                            Torduff, Keban (Turkey), Tarbela                                           formed after the disasters of Malpasset, Vaiont and Baldwin Hills. Survey results from member countries led to
                                                                                   (Pakistan),                                                                two ICOLD publications; "Lessons from Dam Incidents" (1974) and "Cases collected and their preliminary
                                                                                                                                                              assessment" 1979. Some statistic on the type and number of incidents are presented.
 1980     15     Simek         Dam construction and monitoring of dam safety in                                               Legislation                     New legislation between 1973-1975 places responsibility for reservoirs on the owners and operators who are
                               Czechoslovakia by M Simek.                                                                                                     also liable for any losses in the event of failure.
 1980     16                   ICOLD Materials Committee: New Materials - Resins                                              Asphaltic concrete, New         The progress of the sub-committee on "New material" of the ICOLD Materials Committee is reported with
                               and Bitumens.                                                                                  materials                       respect to resins and bitumens. Relevant publications are listed in a selected bibliography.
 1980     17     Coats         Megget dam, BNCOLD visit during construction of          Megget                                Asphaltic concrete
                               asphaltic concrete core in May 1980. Report by D J
                               Coats.
 1980     18                   BNCOLD News.



                                                                                                                                                        12
BNCOLD News and Views



 Date    Page   First author                   Contents/Reference               Dams                                          Subjects                     Brief summary
 1980     18     Attewill      Conference on the design of dams to resist                                                     Earthquake damage, Numerical Four sessions covered seismiscity, materials behaviour, structure behaviour, and environment and risk.
                               earthquake. Report of joint SECED/BNCOLD meeting                                               analysis, Seismic assessment Although earthquakes are traditionally associated with catastrophic destruction, few dams have been seriously
                               May 1976 by L J S Attewill.                                                                                                 damaged. This reflects the low probability of seismic disturbance and the inherent resistance of embankment,
                                                                                                                                                           gravity and earth dams. The value of complex analytical tools was questioned when there was limited
                                                                                                                                                           understanding of material behaviour.
 1980     19                   ICOLD publications.

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 22, October 1981
 Date    Page   First author                   Contents/Reference                      Dams                                   Subjects                       Brief summary
 1981     2                    ICOLD: 49th Executive Meeting, Stockholm, May
                               1981: Reports of the ICOLD committees.
 1981     3      Berry         BNCOLD visit to British Hydromechanics Research
                               Association, Cranfield. Report by D W Berry.
 1981     3                    ICOLD 51st Executive Meeting, London, September
                               1983.
 1981     4      Muir Wood     Tunnels associated with dams. Discussion introduced                                            Culverts under embankments
                               by A M Muir Wood. Report of meeting by J D
                               Williams.
 1981     5      Attewill      Rolled concrete for dams. Report of CIRIA Conference Milton Brook, Willow Creek (USA)          Roller compacted concrete      The design criteria for Milton Brook dam in England and Willow Creek dam in the USA are compared.
                               in June by L J Attewill.
 1981     5                    BNCOLD Meetings in London; 1981/82.
 1981     5                    14th ICOLD Congress Rio de Janeiro.
 1981     5                    BNCOLD Conference September 1982. Performance                                                                                 Announcement of the BNCOLD Conference to be held at the University of Keele.
                               of dams and reservoirs.
 1981     6      Kenter        Foundation aspects of the Eastern Scheldt Storm
                               Surge Barrier. Summary of lecture by C J Kenter
                               March 1981. Report by T R M Wakeling.
 1981     7      Williams      Sulby dam; Isle of Man. Report of BNCOLD visit to    Sulby                                     Asphaltic concrete,         The report includes a cross-section of the dam which incorporates a central asphaltic core.
                               Sulby dam July 1981 by J D Williams.                                                           Embankment dam construction

 1981     8                    ICOLD publications.

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 23, April 1982
 Date    Page   First author                   Contents/Reference                      Dams                                   Subjects                       Brief summary
 1982            Duscha        The US Corps of Engineers programme relating to                                                Guides & surveys
                               their dams and non-Federal dams Lecture by L A
          2                    Duscha, December 1981. Report by A C Meigh.
 1982     3                    BNCOLD meetings 1982/83.
 1982     3                    BNCOLD Conference September 1982. Performance
                               of dams and reservoirs.
 1982     4      Evans         BNCOLD visit to France. Report by D E Evans.            Chambon, Grand Maison, Vernay,                                        Brief descriptions are given of each dam visited.
                                                                                       Roselend ( France)
 1982     6      Williams      Reservoir flood standards and the flood studies report;                                        Flood estimation/hydrology     The purpose of the seminar was to explain the application of the Flood Studies Report 1975 to senior engineers
                               seminar in London, December 1981. Report by J D                                                                               concerned with the Institution's 1978 Guide to Floods and Reservoir Safety.
                               Williams.
 1982     7                    ICOLD 51st Executive Meeting, London, September
                               1983.
 1982     7                    ICOLD 14th Congress, Rio de Janeiro, 1982, BNCOLD
                               representation.
 1982     8      Young         Megget dam; a discussion introduced by Mr A Young. Megget                                      Embankment dam construction The 56m high gravel fill embankment has a central vertical asphaltic concrete core.
                               Report of BNCOLD meeting, January 1982, by A S
                               Subramaniam.
 1982     10     Back          Victoria and Kotmale dams, Sri Lanka; a discussion      Victoria, Kotmale (Sri Lanka)          Arch dam design/construction   Both dams will be about 100m high: Victoria is a concrete arch dam and Kotmale is a concrete faced rockfill
                               introduced by Dr P A Back and Mr C L Clarke. Report                                                                           dam.
                               of BNCOLD meeting, March 1982, by D N W Earp.

 1982     12                   ICOLD publications.

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 24, December 1982
 Date    Page   First author                   Contents/Reference                      Dams                                   Subjects                       Brief summary
 1982     2                    ICOLD: 50th Executive Meeting, Rio de Janeiro, April
                               1982: Reports of the ICOLD Technical Committees.

 1982     2                    ICOLD 15th Congress and future Executive meetings.

 1982     4      Griffiths     BNCOLD summer visit 8-10th July 1982; In search of      Bilberry, Cowm, Dale Dyke, Damflask,                                  The report provides a list of the dams visited most of which were designed by Bateman or Hawksley. Basic
                               Bateman and Hawksley. Report by F N Griffiths.          Greenfield, Piethorne, Redmires,                                      details of the dams are given. The theme of the visits was suggested by Geoffrey Binnie who had recently
                                                                                       Spring Mill, Yeomans Hay                                              published his book "Early Victorian Water Engineers".

 1982     4                    BNCOLD Meetings 1982/83.



                                                                                                                                                      13
BNCOLD News and Views



 Date    Page   First author                     Contents/Reference                   Dams                                    Subjects                        Brief summary
 1982     6      Attewill      BNCOLD 1982 Conference: University of Keele "The                                                                               The topics of the conference are summarised in the report. The first paper entitled Spillways and Flood
                               performance of dams and reservoirs". Conference                                                                                Estimation outlined the train of events that lead to the Flood Studies Report (1975) and to the ICE Floods and
                               report by L J Attewill.                                                                                                        Reservoir Safety: An Engineering Guide. Concern was expressed that the Guide could be over conservative
                                                                                                                                                              and prove needlessly expensive. Other topics included upstream slope protection, remedial works,
                                                                                                                                                              instrumentation, reservoir operation and maintenance and dam deterioration.
 1982     8      Winder        BNCOLD Meeting, London September 1982 ICOLD                                                                                    A resume of papers to each of the questions at the 14th ICOLD Congress are presented. The questions were:
                               14th Congress " The Lessons to be learned". Report                                                                             52: Safety of dams in operation, 53: The influence of geology and geotechnics on the design of dams, 54:
                               by A J H Winder.                                                                                                               Sedimentation and slope stability; technical and environmental effects, 55: Materials and construction methods
                                                                                                                                                              for embankment dams and coffer dams. Arthur Penman was the General Reporter for question 55.

 1982     14                   New ICOLD Bulletins, 40: Fibre reinforced concrete,
                               41: Automated observation for control of dam safety,
                               42: Bituminous cores for earth and rockfill dams.

 1982     16                   ICOLD Publications available.

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 25, August 1983
 Date    Page   First author                    Contents/Reference                    Dams                                    Subjects                    Brief summary
 1983     2      Carlyle       The Ilisu and Cizre dams on the River Tigres in        Cizre, Illisu (Turkey)                  Embankment dam construction The proposed dams are for development of the Tigres for hydro-power. Geology, foundation conditions and site
                               Turkey. An informal discussion introduced by W J                                                                           investigation are described together with the proposed design of the dam which has involved a seismic
                               Carlyle, R Bunn and J G Cowie. London, January                                                                             assessment. A design acceleration of 0.2g and a maximum credible value of 0.4g were proposed. Under the
                               1983.                                                                                                                      design earthquake there would be minimal damage to the structure and the dam would remain safe under
                                                                                                                                                          maximum credible forces.
 1983     4      Londe         Lessons from earth dam failures. An informal        Oros (Brazil), Tarbela (Pakistan),         Catastrophic failures,      Failures continue to occur despite recent advances in soil mechanics and flood hydrology. Lessons to be
                               discussion introduced by Pierre Londe. London,      Baldwin Hills, Hell Hole, North ridge,     Incident/failure databases  gained from studying failure of earth dams are of vital importance in improving the safety of future designs.
                                                                                   San Fernando, Seven Sisters,                                           Failures were discussed under the three main causes; failure by sliding, failure by overspilling and failure by
                                                                                   Sheffield, Teton, Waco (USA),                                          seepage water. Statistics on the causes of dam failures provided by Middlebrooks in 1953 are listed.
 1983     6      Newbery       Khao Laem - The dam on the river Kwai. A discussion Khao Laem (Thailand)                       Embankment dam construction The adverse geological conditions of karst, weathered and soft ground involved construction of a deep secant
                               introduced by J Newbery and J I Hilton, March 1982.                                                                        diaphragm cut-off wall. In the right abutment 22km of tunnel have been driven to locate caverns in the
                                                                                                                                                          limestone and grouting is being carried out over a 3.5km length. The 90m high concrete faced rockfill dam was
                                                                                                                                                          the optimum choice for the site.
 1983     8                    BNCOLD summer visit to Northern Ireland May 1983.      Ben Crom, Dungonnell, Lough Island                                  Brief descriptions of the dams visited are given. Sections of Silent Valley dam are given where large boulders
                                                                                      Reavy, Silent Valley, Spelga,                                       encountered in the site investigation were thought to be bedrock which was subsequently found to be as much
                                                                                      Woodburn                                                            as 40m lower.
 1983     10                   The Thames Flood Barrier now operational.                                                                                  The Thames Flood barrier was sufficiently complete for all the 10 gates to be raised on the 31st October 1982.
                                                                                                                                                          The first actual emergency took place in February 1983. The barrier was ready for the return, thirty years and
                                                                                                                                                          one day later, of conditions similar to the East Coast floods of the 31st January 1953 which initiated the whole
                                                                                                                                                          project.
 1983     11                   Reservoirs Act 1975 to be implemented.                                                                                     During a debate in the House of Lords on 25 April 1983, Lord Skelmersdale stated that the Government had
                                                                                                                                                          decided to follow the Select Committee's recommendation and implement the Reservoirs Act 1975.
 1983     11                   BNCOLD Meetings and Conferences 1983/84.
 1983     11                   Recent ICOLD Publications.                                                                                                     Bulletin 43 - Synthetic resins for facings of dams. Bulletin 44 - Mine and Industrial tailings dams and dumps,
                                                                                                                                                              bibliography. Bulletin 45 - Manual of tailings, dams and dumps. Bulletin - 46 Seismicity and dam design.


BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 26, January 1984
 Date    Page   First author                   Contents/Reference                     Dams                                    Subjects                        Brief summary
 1984     2                    51st Executive Meeting of ICOLD, London,
                               September, 1983: Reports of the ICOLD committees.
 1984     5                    Study Tours A, B, C, and D: 4-9 September 1983                                                                                 A map shows the extensive range of the tours. Very brief descriptions of the dams visited are provided

 1984     5      Rocke         Study tour A, report by G Rocke.                        Bakethin, Carsington, Castlehill,
                                                                                       Empingham, Kielder, Megget,
 1984     7      Evans         Study tour B, report by D E Evans.                      Pitlochry
                                                                                       Devils Dingle, Ffestiniog, Llyn Brenig,
                                                                                       Llyn Celyn, Marchlyn
 1984     7      Mitchell      Study tour C, report by P B Mitchell.                   Bewl Bridge, Colliford, Meldon,
                                                                                       Portworthy, Wimbleball
 1984     8      Fleming       Study tour D, report by J H Fleming.                    Barking Creek, Thames Barrier.
 1984     9      de Mello      The development of Hydro-Electric Sites on the          Euclides da Cunha, Foz do Areia,        Catastrophic failures          Seventy-seven dams have been constructed in the Parana basin supplying hydro-electricity to the southeast of
                               Parana River in Brazil: lecture by Ing Flavio Miguez de Itaipu, Limoeiro (Brazil)                                              Brazil. The lecture concerned 24 dams and brief descriptions were given of Foz do Areia, a 160m high CFRD
                               Mello: London, 12 September 1983. Report by E                                                                                  and 92m high Euclides de Cunha which failed due to overtopping.
                               Jackson.
 1984     10     White         Hydraulic model testing: Discussion papers by W R                                               Sedimentation, Spillway        Experience with Loose Boundary models and Solid Boundary Model was provided by the presenters. The
                               White and M J Prosser: London, 5 December 1983.                                                 hydraulics                     limitations of "Loose Boundary Models" to model movement of sediments by flowing water in rivers are
                               Report by P Heaton-Armstrong.                                                                                                  described. "Solid Boundary Models" are used to help understand the hydraulic performance of a number of
                                                                                                                                                              structures. Although cavitation cannot be represented in a Froude scale model, the likelihood of cavitation can
                                                                                                                                                              be predicted in critical areas by measurements of pressure distributions.
 1984     11     Phillips      The Reservoirs Act 1975: Paper presented to ICE and                                            Legislation                     The proposed implementation and provisions of the Reservoirs Act 1975 are summarised.
                               BNCOLD by J W Phillips: London, 5 December 1983.




                                                                                                                                                         14
BNCOLD News and Views



 Date    Page   First author                   Contents/Reference                  Dams                                        Subjects                         Brief summary
 1984     12     Clarke        Floods and Reservoir Safety: An Engineering Guide:                                              Flood estimation/hydrology
                               Report of the Review Working Party presented by the
                               Chairman C L Clarke. London, 13-15 December 1983.

 1984     13                   Hydraulic Aspects of Floods and Flood Control: Joint                                            Spillway hydraulics              The report lists topics discussed at the conference and the benefits of both mathematical and physical model
                               Conference of BHRA and BNCOLD: London, 13-15                                                                                     studies relating to dams and flood defence banks.
                               September 1983.
 1984     14                   52nd Executive Meeting of ICOLD: Tokyo, 29 May-1
                               June 1984.
 1984     14                   BNCOLD Cardiff Conference.                                                                                                       List of papers for the BNCOLD conference to be held in September 1984.
 1984     15                   15th ICOLD Congress: Lausanne, Switzerland, 24-28
                               June 1985, Questions 56, 57, 58 and 59.

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 27, November 1984
 Date    Page   First author                     Contents/Reference                    Dams                                    Subjects                         Brief summary
 1984     2                    52nd Executive Meeting of ICOLD: Tokyo, 29 May-1
                               June 1984. Reports of the ICOLD Technical
                               Committees.
 1984     5      Cochrane      Insidious threats to dams and reservoirs: N J                                                   Hazard & risk management         Only a brief two page summary is given of this first BNCOLD Lecture (in 1990 the BNCOLD Lecture was
                               Cochrane, The First BNCOLD Lecture: Cardiff, 13                                                                                  renamed the Geoffrey Binnie Lecture) in the 1984 Conference Proceedings. Most embankment dams were
                               September. Report by J D Williams.                                                                                               constructed before 1950 in days when few experienced engineers had received formal geological training or
                                                                                                                                                                had given sufficient attention to the new science of soil mechanics. The unique combination of hazards in
                                                                                                                                                                South Wales, with an average annual rainfall of 2.6 m per year, instability of geologically over-steepened valley
                                                                                                                                                                sides and large areas of mineral workings, posed many problems and significant risks for dam safety. In such
                                                                                                                                                                an environment, the safe disposal of floods may be the least of the problems for a dam engineer.

 1984     5                    Future BNCOLD Meetings
 1984     6                    BNCOLD Conference: Cardiff, 13-15 September 1984                                                                             The seven invited papers and discussion at the conference are summarised in this report. The papers and the
                                                                                                                                                            BNCOLD Lecture are summarised in the 1984 Conference worksheet.
 1984     11                   Carsington Embankment Dam Failure                       Carsington                              Catastrophic failures        A brief description of the failure is given showing the failed section. The article announces that that the owner
                                                                                                                                                            has commissioned independent experts to report on the cause of the failure and that the Secretary of State for
                                                                                                                                                            the Environment has appointed Roy Coxon to advise him.
 1984     12     Knight        Monsavau Dam, Fiji: A discussion paper by D J Knight, Monsavau (Fiji)                           Embankment dam construction, Construction of the 85m high rockfill dam with a very wet core was extensively instrumented. In designing the
                               London, March 1984. Report by E S Jackson.                                                      Instrumentation/monitoring,  instrumentation gauge houses provision was made for 3.5m settlement of the core. Pore pressures approached
                                                                                                                               Slope stability              overburden pressure during construction but reduced to between 30 and 40% of the overburden pressure at
                                                                                                                                                            the end of construction. The location of the dam 300m upstream of the 126m high Monasavu falls is shown in a
                                                                                                                                                            section.
 1984     14     Evans         BNCOLD Spring visit to dams in North Wales and          Clywedog, Entwistle, Greenbooth,                                     Brief descriptions of each of the dams is given together with accounts of investigations and remedial works.
                               Northern England: April 1984. Report by D E Evans.      Jumbles, Vyrnwy, Wayoh
 1984     15                   ICOLD Bulletins 48 and 49.                                                                                                       Bulletin 48: River control during dam construction. Bulletin 49: Operation of hydraulic structures of dams.

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 28, May 1985
 Date    Page   First author                     Contents/Reference                    Dams                                    Subjects                       Brief summary
 1985     2      McKenna       Vaturu dam, Fiji; discussion paper presented by J M     Vaturu (Fiji)                           Embankment dam construction The 56m high earth-rockfill dam was completed in 1982 for public water supply. A brief description of the
                               McKenna. London, September 1987.                                                                                               foundation and dam construction is given.
 1985     4      Massey        Old Embankment Dams, a legacy of the 18th and 19th                                              Outlet & intake works, Seepage
                               centuries: Lecture presented by J E Massey.                                                     & leakage,
                               Manchester, October 1984.
 1985     4                    The BNCOLD Prize - 1984                                                                                                          The first BNCOLD prize (now the BDS Prize) for younger engineers attracted 10 papers.
 1985     5      Kennard       Dams in Cyprus: Discussion papers presented by M F      Asprokremmos, Dhypotamos,               Diaphragm & slurry trench        Brief descriptions of each dam and its foundations are given. At Asprokremmos, a concrete diaphragm wall was
                               Kennard, C G Gregory, E H Taylor and J L Beaver.        Evretou, Kalavasos (Cyprus)             walls, Embankment dam            installed as a cut-off through gravels, but a 0.5m deep gap was found between the bedrock and the bottom of
                               London, January 1985.                                                                           construction                     the wall. Remedial grouting was required.
 1985     8      Ackers        Aeration of the Spillways of major dams and its         Llyn Brianne                            Overflow works, Spillway gates   Interest in air entrainment at spillways with gates had been developed recently because of structural damage to
                               influence on cavitation. Presented by P Ackers. Joint                                                                            chute spillways caused by cavitation. Factors contributing to cavitation are outlined. Determination of air content
                               meeting of BNCOLD and International Association for                                                                              of flows is very difficult. The importance of concrete quality, surface finish and the need for repeated aeration
                               Hydraulic Research: London, February 1985.                                                                                       was emphasised.

 1985     10     Penman        Tailings dams: A discussion paper by A D M Penman:      Devils Dingle, Portworthy, El Cobre     Waste impoundment                ICOLD publications on tailings dams and some failures are listed. Mechanisms of failure are described. In
                               London, November 1984, British Geotechnical Society.    (Chile)                                                                  discussion the upstream method of construction was defended.
                               Report by J D Williams.
 1985     10     Beaver        Novel methods of overcoming difficulties in dam         Evretou (Cyprus). Kotmale (Sri          Embankment dam construction,
                               construction: A discussion paper presented by J L       Lanka), Muda (Malaysia)                 Concrete buttress
                               Beaver and J Reeves: Manchester, February 1985.                                                 design/construction
                               Report by A K Hughes.
 1985     11     Haws          Ash lagoons: A discussion paper presented by E T        Brotherton Ings, Devil's Dingle, Gale   Waste impoundment                Although specifically excluded under Section 1 of the Reservoirs Act 1975, the Central Electricity Generating
                               Haws, R G Clark and P L Martin: London, December        Common, Oxbow.                                                           Board had always subjected its ash dams to the requirements of the Reservoirs (Safety Provisions) Act 1930
                               1984. Report by J D Williams.                                                                                                    and, it is understood, will continue this policy under the new legislation. Factors in ash dam and lagoon design
                                                                                                                                                                are outlined including mining subsidence, liquefaction of pfa and prevention of pollution of aquifers.




                                                                                                                                                        15
BNCOLD News and Views



 Date    Page   First author                     Contents/Reference                 Dams                              Subjects                        Brief summary
 1985     13     Connery       CONNERY P (1985). Doffcocker Lodge, Bolton: slurry Doffcocker Lodge                    Diaphragm & slurry trench walls Description of the repair of a leaking puddle clay core with a self-hardening slurry trench wall.
                               trench replacement of core. Report by J A Charles of
                               visit on 16 March 1985. BNCOLD News and Views, no
                               28, p 13.
 1985     13                   Future BNCOLD Meetings 1985/86
 1985     14     Rofe          Inspection of old earth dams: Presented by B H Rofe                                    Instrumentation/monitoring
                               and R Arah: Joint informed discussion meeting with
                               ICE Ground Engineering Group: London, April 1985.
                               Report by J D Williams.

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 29, December 1985
 Date    Page   First author                     Contents/Reference                Dams                               Subjects                          Brief summary
 1985     1                    News Items
 1985     2                    15th ICOLD Congress and 53rd Executive meeting:
                               Lausanne, June 1985. Reports from ICOLD Technical
                               Committees.
 1985     5                    News Items.
 1985     5                    Future BNCOLD meetings: 1986.
 1985     5                    Reservoirs'86.
 1985     6      Back          Victoria dam, Sri Lanka. Discussion paper presented Victoria, (Sri Lanka)              Arch dam design/construction      The investigation and design of the 122m high double curvature arch dam is outlined. Because of the high
                               by P A A Back and J Stevenson, London, March 1985.                                                                       retention level and to minimise the extra height required for flood storage, a spillway capable of immediately
                               Report by P J Mason.                                                                                                     responding to sudden large floods was required. Automatic gates were developed to safely discharge any size
                                                                                                                                                        of flood without the need for a power supply or an operator.
 1985     8      Hoyle         Problems during the construction of Victorian earth
                               dams: Presentation by N Hoyle: Manchester, March
                               1985. Report by A K Hughes.
 1985     8      Winder        Empingham Reservoir: report of a joint meeting of          Empingham                   Slope stability                   Three papers that were published in the ICE Proceedings in April 1985 were presented. The construction
                               BNCOLD and Institution of Civil Engineers. London                                                                        programme is summarised and the concerns relating to the stability of the clay foundation and embankment are
                               May 1985 by A J H Winder, R G Cole, G E Bowyer, R                                                                        described. Sections of dams with its very flat slopes and numerous drainage blankets are given. A trail
                               C Bridle, P R Vaughan, H N Jones, J M McKenna and                                                                        embankment was completed in 1972, the works were completed by 1977 and the reservoir was fully
 1985     10                   P Horswill.
                               Joint BNCOLD/ICID visit in the South West England,         Dowdeswell, Draycote                                          impounded in March 1979.
                               September 1985.
 1985     10     Johnston      Colliford dam: report of a joint meeting of BNCOLD         Colliford                   Asphaltic concrete,         Construction details are provided together with a section of the dam which was constructed of sand waste from
                               and Institution of Civil Engineers, London, September                                  Embankment dam construction the china clay industry with an upstream asphaltic membrane. The paper presented at the meeting was
                               1985 by T A Johnston and J D Evans.                                                                                published in the ICE Proceedings in August 1985.
 1985     11                   Hollingworth Lake, Rochdale: Remedial Works. Report        Hollingworth Lake
                               of visit, October 1985.

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 30, August 1986
 Date    Page   First author                      Contents/Reference                      Dams                        Subjects                          Brief summary
 1986     1                    News Items                                                                                                               J A Charles accepts invitation to become first Honorary Technical Secretary of BNCOLD.
 1986     2                    Future BNCOLD meetings: 1986/7.
 1986     3      Hughes        Jackhouse reservoir; grass lined spillway trials. Report   Jackhouse                   Overtopping                       The design and performance of the reinforced grassed water ways are published by Hewlett et al (1987) in
                               on site visit, October 1985. Report by A K Hughes.                                                                       CIRIA Report 116.
 1986     4      Novak         Energy dissipation at high dams P Novak and A                                          Spillway hydraulics
                               Ervine. Report of a joint meeting of BNCOLD and
                               IAHR London February 1986.
 1986     5      Skempton      Carsington dam; the post slip investigation by A W         Carsington                  Slope stability                   The report outlines the events that led to failure and the results of the post incident investigations. Numerous
                               Skempton, P R Vaughan, R M Nisbet and G Rocke.                                                                           publications on the failure and reconstruction of Carsington dam can be found in the Bibliography of British
                               Report of a joint meeting of BNCOLD and BGS,                                                                             Dams.
                               London, January 1986.
 1986     7      Johnson       The surveillance and deterioration of concrete dams;       Gaur, Loch Dubh, Monarch,   Concrete deterioration,           A dam surveillance policy was formulated in 1971 by North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Board for its 84 dams
                               Presented by F G Johnson, Manchester, March 1986.          Mullardoch, Quoich,         Drainage, Uplift/overturning in   following comprehensive inspections instigated by recent reservoir disasters overseas. Five main types of
                                                                                                                      concrete dams.                    concrete deterioration are listed. Maintenance of drainage systems for foundation uplift pressures has involved
                                                                                                                                                        a flexible drilling system. Further details of the topics discussed are contained in the 1986 BNCOLD Lecture "
                                                                                                                                                        Experience with the Concrete dams of the North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Board".
 1986     9      Penman        The 26th Rankine Lecture - 'On the embankment dam' Teton (USA)                         Catastrophic failures, Internal   A summary of the Rankine lecture is given covering embankment dam behaviour, internal erosion and dam
                               by A D M Penman. March 1986.                                                           erosion/filters, Movement         failures. The full lecture was published in Geotechnique, vol 36, no 3, pp 303-348.
                                                                                                                      monitoring/analysis
 1986     11     Le May        Monitoring the performance of French dams by M                                         Instrumentation/monitoring        Nationalisation of the power companies in 1946 allowed monitoring of a large number of dams on a national
                               Yvon Le May. Report of discussion meeting, London                                                                        level. The policy within EDF for instrumentation development involves sensitive, reliable instruments capable of
                               March 1986 by C I Newbery.                                                                                               giving early warning of malfunction.
 1986     12     White         Assessment and control of sedimentation in reservoir                                   Sedimentation                     Sedimentation in reservoirs is a major problem in many tropical and sub-tropical countries and can be the most
                               by W R White. Report of a joint meeting of BNCOLD                                                                        important factor in controlling the economic value of the project. Methods for assessing sedimentation based
                               and IAHR, London, October 1985.                                                                                          on past measurements to determine trapping efficiency of reservoirs are presented. The concept of a reservoir
                                                                                                                                                        half life is described.

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 31, March 1987
 Date    Page   First author                 Contents/Reference                           Dams                        Subjects                          Brief summary
 1987     2                    54th ICOLD Executive Meeting, Jakarta, 1986.




                                                                                                                                                16
BNCOLD News and Views



 Date    Page   First author                     Contents/Reference                  Dams                                     Subjects                         Brief summary
 1987     3                    British representation on ICOLD Technical Committees
                               and Working Parties.
 1987     4                    BNCOLD/IWES Conference: Reservoirs 1986, Heriot                                                                                 Summaries of each of the nine papers presented to the 1986 conference are given.
                               Watt University, Edinburgh.
 1987     6      Bramley       Field trials on Reinforced Grass Spillways. Report on Jackhouse                                Overtopping                      A joint BNCOLD/CIRIA discussion and site meeting inspected the £150,000 field trials which were established
                               visit to Jackhouse reservoir site, July 1986 by M E                                                                             to evaluate and demonstrate the performance of reinforced grass systems under extreme flow conditions for
                               Bramley                                                                                                                         applications in auxiliary spillways and protection against overtopping in extreme flood events. Ten 1m wide
                                                                                                                                                               channels were tested under progressively higher velocities.
 1987     8      Novak         Energy dissipation at high dams P Novak and D A        Foz de Areia (Brazil), Morrow Point,    Spillway hydraulics              Research into high head hydraulics and the need for greater energy dissipation at dams in terms of size and
                               Ervine. Report of a joint meeting of BNCOLD and        (USA), Tarbela (Pakistan)                                                economy are outlined. The interdependence between cavitation, aeration and energy dissipation is highlighted.
                               IAHR London February 1986 by P J Mason.                                                                                         Five distinct phases of energy dissipation were identified in a typical overfall spillway with a ski jump. The
                                                                                                                                                               behaviour of jets falling through the atmosphere has been studied. Concrete lined plunged pools provide an
                                                                                                                                                               economical means of dissipating energy from free turbulent plunging jets.
 1987     10                   Future BNCOLD Meetings 1987-1988
 1987     11     Marulanda     The Guavio Project - Columbia. Presented by A          Guavio (Columbia)                       Embankment dam construction The Guavio hydro-electric project comprises a 245m high zoned rockfill dam with an inclined clay core, a 14km
                               Marulanda.                                                                                                                 long power tunnel and a 1159m operating head. A summary of the construction is given.
 1987     13     Massey        MASSEY J E and CONNERY P (1987). Hollingworth          Hollingworth Lake
                               Lake remedial works. Report of discussion paper
                               presented in Manchester on 16 October 1986.
                               BNCOLD News and Views, no 31, pp 13-14.

 1987     14                   BNCOLD Prize.

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 32, July 1987
 Date    Page   First author                 Contents/Reference                       Dams                                    Subjects                         Brief summary
 1987     2                    16th ICOLD Congress, San Francisco, June 1988.                                                                                  List of questions at the San Francisco Congress.
 1987     2                    BNCOLD Summer Conference 1988.                                                                                                  Topics on which papers were invited for the BNCOLD Conference. Summaries of each paper are given in
                                                                                                                                                               worksheet 1988.
 1987     3                    Correspondence. The way ahead? by J A Charles.                                                                                  Draws attention to the decline in new construction work but increase in membership of the British Section of
                                                                                                                                                               ICOLD due to the greater focus on safety of existing structures under the 1975 Reservoirs Act.
 1987     3                    DOE promote guide on safety of Embankment Dams.                                                                                 Guide to be prepared by Babtie Shaw & Morton in liaison with the Building Research Establishment.

 1987     4      Back          Roller Compacted Concrete. A discussion paper          Upper Stillwater, Willow creek (USA)    Concrete mix and cement,         The development, history and different types of mix and method of placement are outlined. Three types of roller
                               introduced by P A A Back, J B Bowcock and M R H                                                Roller compacted concrete,       compacted concrete (RCC) were identified depending on their cement and flyash content. The first full use of
                               Dunstan, December 1986, London. Report by C D                                                  Concrete temperature             RCC was Willow Creek where there was considerable leakage at the joints. Upper Stillwater dam which was
                               Parkinson.                                                                                                                      under construction was described in some detail with information provided on design mix, permeability
                                                                                                                                                               measurements, hydration temperatures and cracking.
 1987     7      Bramley       Reinforced Grass Spillways and Slopes. A discussion                                            Overtopping                      The purpose of the trials of reinforced grass spillways and slopes at Jackhouse reservoir was outlined. Topics
                               paper introduced by M Bramley, M Kennard, H                                                                                     discussed included effect of air in the flow on failure, the effect of different types of vegetation, erosion of the
                               Hewlett, E Wilson and Barker, January 1987, London.                                                                             underlying fill, effect of grass fires on geotextiles and cracking and death of grass during dry periods.
                               Report by A K Hughes.
 1987     8                    Future BNCOLD Meetings 1987/88
 1987     9      Charles       Instrumentation for dams. A discussion paper                                                   Instrumentation/monitoring,      The benefits and limitations of instrumentation and monitoring as an aid to assessing the safety of old
                               presented by J A Charles and P Tedd in Manchester,                                             Tracers, Total stress            embankment dams are described. The use of earth pressure measurements in puddle clay cores as a means
                               January 1987.                                                                                                                   to assess their susceptibility to hydraulic fracture is outlined. Infra-red thermography has been used to assess
                                                                                                                                                               its value in locating wet areas on the downstream slopes of old embankment dams and identifying the source of
                                                                                                                                                               the water. Reference is made to detailed publications on the subject.
 1987     10     Loraine       The Mrica Hydro-electric project, Indonesia. An           Mrica (Indonesia)                                                     Funding of the project is outlined together with description of the major modifications of the Russian designed
                               informal discussion introduced by R K Loraine, I                                                                                spillway arrangements following hydrological studies. The layout of the scheme and section of the dam are
                               Jernelius, H Van Es, W D C Murray and J L Hinks                                                                                 shown. Details of the auxiliary spillway are given. The 110m high rockfill dam has a core of highly plastic
                               March 1987.                                                                                                                     halloysite clay.
 1987     13     Charles       Measurement and significance of horizontal earth          Challacombe, Cwmwernderi, Gorpley, Internal erosion/filters, Puddle   The paper was published in the Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Part 1, vol. 82, Feb.1987 and
                               pressures in the puddle clay cores of old earth dams      Walshaw, Dean Lower                clay, Total stress                 the discussion was published in vol 82, December 1987. The research described in the paper deals with the
                               by J A Charles and K S Watts. Report of joint meeting                                                                           susceptibility of puddle clay cores to hydraulic fracture as a function of horizontal stress. Field measurements of
                               with the Institution of Civil Engineers, April 1987, by P                                                                       horizontal stress in puddle clay cores at a number of dams are presented as a function of core geometry and
                               Tedd.                                                                                                                           location. A semi-empirical study of some existing records for 43 dams where 7 failures due to internal erosion
                                                                                                                                                               are presented.

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 33, March 1988
 Date    Page   First author                    Contents/Reference                    Dams                                    Subjects                         Brief summary
 1988     2                    Formation of BNCOLD (North) Section.
 1988     2                    ICOLD XVI Congress, San Francisco 1988                                                                                          List of the 11 British papers submitted to the San Francisco Congress
 1988     3                    Reports on ICOLD Technical Committee meetings,
                               Beijing 1987.
 1988     4      Lawson        BNCOLD Site visits, Autumn1987. Report on the          Combs, Gale Common, Kinder,             Overflow works, Seepage &       Brief descriptions are given of the construction and remedial works undertaken at each the reservoirs, two of
                               Sheffield meeting, September 1987 by J D Lawson.       Toddbrook.                              leakage, Slope stability, Waste which had undergone major incidents. Spillway enlargement works were being carried out at Kinder dam. Gale
                                                                                                                              impoundment                     common ash disposal works are described and a cross-section of the 72m embankment is provided.

 1988     8                    Forthcoming Programme of meetings 1988.




                                                                                                                                                       17
BNCOLD News and Views



 Date    Page   First author                       Contents/Reference                     Dams                                 Subjects                     Brief summary
 1988     9      Sims          Alkali silica reaction in dams. A discussion paper         Kambura (Kenya), Val de la Mare      Concrete deterioration       The conditions for ASR (alkali silica reaction) to manifest itself in concrete are outlined. Diagnosis and
                               introduced by G P Sims, G P Hammersley, R G Cole,                                                                            investigation of ASR in concrete dams are described and illustrated with two cases histories. Methods of
                               P G Mackay, October 1987, London.                                                                                            mitigating the expansion effects are described.
 1988     13     Eadie         Isanlu dam, Nigeria. The use of a plastic membrane         Isanlu (Nigeria)                     Embankment dam construction, Lack of suitable ground conditions and availability of core material led to the construction of the 18m high
                               cut-off in a rockfill dam. Synopsis of a paper presented                                        Geomembranes                 rockfill dam with an 3.5mm thick HDPE membrane beneath the upstream slope. The suitability of the
                               by H S Eadie to a joint meeting of BNCOLD and the                                                                            membrane for the situation is discussed in detail and a life expectancy of longer than 60 years was expected.
                               Institution of Civil Engineers, December 1987. Report                                                                        Details of the membrane protection and the anchor block junction at the upstream toe are given.
                               by J G Cowie.
 1988     15     Rennie        Joint ICE/BNCOLD 90th Birthday celebration for W J H       Aswan, (Egypt), Chenderoh                                            The 70 year long career of Mr Rennie is summarised with particular reference to his work on dams. Of
                               Rennie held at the Institution of Civil Engineers,         (Malaysia), Hermitage (Jamaica)                                      particular note was that he had been a member of the All Reservoirs Panel/ Panel 1 for over 50 years.
                               September 1987.
 1988     17     Phillips      Reservoir research projects of the Department of the                                            Flood estimation/hydrology,     Projects described included probability risk assessment undertaken by the Safety and Reliability Directorate of
                               Environment. Report of a meeting in December 1987                                               Hazard & risk management,       the UKAEA and Binnie and Partners, hydrological research by the Institute of Hydrology, and work at the
                               introduced by J W Phillips, M F Kennard, P B Clark, P                                           Incident/failure databases      Building Research Establishment on internal erosion, development of a database of incidents, deterioration and
                               B Rumsey, J Clifton, G Thompson, D Reed and J A                                                                                 remedial works, and production of "An engineering guide to the safety of embankment dams". A list of current
                               Charles.                                                                                                                        and proposed DoE dam safety research projects is given.

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 34, November 1988
 Date    Page   First author                   Contents/Reference                         Dams                                 Subjects                        Brief summary
 1988     2                    News Items
 1988     2      Hughes        Book review by A K Hughes.                                                                                                      "Reservoirs from Rivington to Rossendale" by Norman Hoyle.
 1988     2                    Future BNCOLD Conferences
 1988     3      Hughes        Correspondence from A K Hughes                                                                                                  Reply to correspondence in July 1987 edition emphasising the importance of regional meetings.
 1988     3                    Forthcoming Conferences
 1988     4      Coats         The concerns of a dam engineer; the BNCOLD                 Carsington, Chingford, Knockendon,   Guides & surveys, Slope         Dam engineers have particular difficulties in the current climate of commercialism as they experience increasing
                               Lecture by D J Coats, presented at BNCOLD                  Muirhead, William Girling.           stability                       responsibility, liability and lack of appreciation. The professional engineer has an obligation to keep up-to-date
                               conference, September 1988, Manchester.                                                                                         and the ICE Proceedings and the reports and bulletins emerging from the work of the ICOLD Technical
                                                                                                                                                               Committees are of considerable value. The Reservoirs Act places responsibility on individual engineers who
                                                                                                                                                               should be free to act as they see fit and should not be constrained by inappropriate codes of practice. Dam
                                                                                                                                                               engineers should be both ingenious and ingenuous, that is they should demonstrate intelligence in invention
                                                                                                                                                               and construction while conducting themselves in an honourable, straight-forward and open manner.

 1988     9                    56th ICOLD Executive meeting San Francisco, June
                               1988. Reports of the ICOLD Technical Committees.
 1988     13     Phillips      Engineering guide to the safety of Embankment Dams.                                                                             Sections of the guide which were under preparation were introduced under the following headings: Historical
                               Report on discussion meeting introduced by J W                                                                                  development of UK embankment dams and geotechnical principles; Surveillance of embankments,
                               Phillips, T A Johnston, J P Millmore, J A Charles and P                                                                         Foundations and structures; Investigations, instrumentation and remedial works. Some panel engineers voiced
                               Tedd March 1988.                                                                                                                concerns that the guide would be over-prescriptive on issues such as acceptable factors of safety against slope
                                                                                                                                                               instability. Alan Johnston gave an assurance that comments made at the seminar would be taken into account
                                                                                                                                                               in the preparation of the guide.
 1988     16     Moffat        Dams: Earthfill, Rockfill and now Concrete Fill.                                                Roller compacted concrete
                               Summary of a discussion paper presented by A I B
                               Moffat in Edinburgh, January 1988. Report by F G
                               Johnson.
 1988     16     Adams         Environmental Impact Assessment of Water Resource                                               Environment/social/planning     The substantial effect of dam projects on subsistence agriculture in the developing world emphasises the
                               Schemes in Developing Countries. Summary of joint                                                                               responsibility that promoters of projects have to determine the impact of their projects where no strong
                               BNCOLD/ICID meeting introduced by W M Adams and                                                                                 environmental body exists. Reference is made to work on environmental impact assessment published in
                               P Garrett, February 1988. Report by R M Wingfield.                                                                              ICOLD Bulletins 35, 37 and 50.

 1988     17     Skempton      Case histories of two centuries of earth dam                                                                                    The contents of the lecture are published in "Historical development of British embankment dams to 1960. Clay
                               construction. Summary of lecture by A W Skempton,                                                                               Barriers for Embankment Dams. Proceedings of Institution of Civil Engineers Conference, October 1989, pp 15-
                               Manchester, March 1988. Report by A K Hughes.                                                                                   52. Thomas Telford, London, 1990."

 1988     18     Tombs         Design, operation and maintenance of hydraulic gates                                            Spillway gates              Operating machinery for gates at dams are expected to have a very long life, but are infrequently used. Ease
                               at dams in relation to dam safety. Report of a                                                                              and simplicity of operation and maintenance are key design features. These were illustrated with a number of
                               discussion paper presented by S G Tombs, February                                                                           examples including a flood defence scheme where the gate weighing 380 tonnes has to be stored 32m above
                               1988, London.                                                                                                               normal high water. An automatic float operates a radial 9m high gate on a dam in France. Owners of float
                                                                                                                                                           operated gates have either expressed complete satisfaction or have been so dissatisfied that they have had
                                                                                                                                                           them replaced with conventional hoists.
 1988     21     Morison       Report on visit to Roadford dam May 1988 by Tony           Roadford                             Embankment dam construction A brief description of the 40m high embankment dam with an upstream asphaltic membrane is given.
                               Morison.

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 35, May 1989
 Date    Page   First author                  Contents/Reference                          Dams                                 Subjects                        Brief summary
          2                    Change of Society Name.                                                                                                         The Committee has been considering a change of name for the society and for this publication. The views of
 1989                                                                                                                                                          members are sought.
 1989     2                    BNCOLD Committee 1989/90.
 1989     2                    Forthcoming events 1989/90.
          3      Bowles        Risk assessment for dam safety evaluation, joint                                                Hazard & risk management        Modest claims were made for probabilistic methods, emphasising that simple, incomplete analyses would often
                               meeting with British Hydrological Society, November                                                                             be good enough and that completeness was usually unjustified even if it were attainable. Reference is made to
 1989                          1988, presented by D Bowles.                                                                                                    the DoE sponsored research reported by Cullen in 1988.




                                                                                                                                                         18
BNCOLD News and Views



 Date    Page   First author                     Contents/Reference                  Dams                                      Subjects                         Brief summary
 1989     3      Brabben       Desilting of reservoirs, a discussion meeting of      Grimwith                                  Sedimentation                    Methods of removing silt such as interception, digging, dredging and flushing are described. Some information
                               BNCOLD/CEDA presented by T E Brabben, H                                                                                          is given about costs.
                               Lovenbury, A W Wakefield and G Eldridge, November
                               1988, London.
 1989     4      Hopkins       Hydraulic model studies: reservoir spillways, an                                                Spillway hydraulics              The system evolved by North West Water for commissioning and evaluating hydraulic models is described. I
                               informal discussion introduced by J K Hopkins and D B                                                                            the discussion, the decision to build new spillways over the central section of old earth dams was questioned.
                               Wickham, January 1989, Manchester.
 1989     5      Harnett       An inundation study using DAMBRK on the River Lee - Inniscarra (Ireland)                        Dam break studies                The requirement to identify emergency situations in Cork led the Irish Electricity Supply Board undertaking dam
                               Ireland. Report on a discussion paper presented by M                                                                             break studies. The methodology and use of DAMBRK developed by the US National Weather Service and used
                               Hartnett and R O'Flaherty, December 1988, joint                                                                                  by the US Army Corps of Engineers are outlined. Computed hydrographs for the 10,000 year flood and dam
                               meeting of BNCOLD/British Hydrological Society/ ICE                                                                              breach are presented. Limitations and development of a modified DAMBRK program are described.
                               Water Engineering Board.
 1989     8      Lombardi      The State of the Art of Swiss Arch Dams presented by Grimsel, Zuezier (Switzerland)             Arch dam design/construction,    The cracking and repair at Zuezier dam after 20 years of satisfactory performance is mentioned. Extensive
                               Lombardi, February 1989. Report by A Hockey and L                                               Concrete deterioration           publications are available on this dam. The cracks were caused by settlement associated with the driving of an
                               Middleton.                                                                                                                       exploratory tunnel below the water table for a proposed road. Large settlements of the dam coincided with the
                                                                                                                                                                maximum discharge rate of 1000 l/s in the tunnel.
 1989     10     Cooper        Remedial works at Altnaheglish reservoir, by G A        Altnaheglish                            Concrete deterioration,          Completed in 1934, the 42m high concrete gravity dam showed deterioration of the downstream face in 1952.
                               Cooper and F F Poskitt. Summary of paper presented                                              Uplift/overturning in concrete   Investigation indicated high water pressures beneath and within the dam causing concerns about stability with
                               at a Joint meeting of the Northern Ireland Local                                                dams                             regard to overturning and sliding. To improve the stability, a rockfill buttress was placed on the downstream
                               Association, the Institution of Civil Engineers and the                                                                          face and a new grout curtain and pressure relief system was constructed from the inspection galleries.
                               Northern Ireland branch of the Institution of Water and
                               Environmental Management, April 1988.
 1989     13     Reid          How likely is a 10,000 - year flood? by D Reid.                                                 Flood estimation/hydrology       Annual non-exceedance probability is a safer way of describing the likelihood of a flood than quoting a return
                                                                                                                                                                period, since the engineer will understand it and the layman will see that there is a element of roulette! The
                                                                                                                                                                collective risk assessment procedure in Flood Studies Supplementary Report No. 18 is introduced.

 1989     13     Claydon       BNCOLD's 6th Conference: The embankment dam,                                                                                     The topics for the conference are listed.
                               September 1990, Nottingham. Report by J R Claydon.

 1989     14                   Proposed technical questions for XVII ICOLD
                               Congress
 1989     14                   Visit by ICOLD President.                                                                                                        In November 1988 Dr Jan Veltrop visited Britain
 1989     15     Thompson      The application of a general purpose finite element       Turkwel (Kenya)                       Arch dam design/construction,    Finite element analysis has been used to analyse the three dimensional behaviour of the jointed rock
                               program to slope stability analysis with reference to a                                         Numerical analysis               abutments of the 155m high double curvature Turkwel arch dam. The types of element and choice of
                               concrete arch dam in north-west Kenya by N A                                                                                     parameters, and the ability to model rock joints are described. Analyses are more suitable for the prediction of
                               Thompson.                                                                                                                        strength and stability against failure than deformation characteristics. Accuracy of results is limited by the
                                                                                                                                                                impracticality of obtaining the large numbers of parameters needed to reproduce the actual discontinuity
                                                                                                                                                                behaviour.
 1989     22                   New ICOLD Publications.                                                                                                          Bulletin 66 - Dams and the environment. Bulletin 67 - Sedimentation control of reservoirs. Bulletin 69 - Moraine
                                                                                                                                                                as embankment and foundation material.

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 36, January 1990
 Date    Page   First author                     Contents/Reference                      Dams                                  Subjects                         Brief summary
 1990     2                    BNCOLD Committee 1989/90.
 1990     2                    List of forthcoming events 1990.
 1990     3                    News Items.                                                                                                                      Proposal for changing name of the Society to British Dam Society. Change of name of the BNCOLD lecture to
                                                                                                                                                                the Geoffrey Binnie Lecture.
 1990     3      Kramer        Design review work at the US Bureau of Reclamation -                                                                             Arising from the Teton dam failure, presidential and state legislation had been reviewed. A Peer review system
                               discussion meeting presented by R C Kramer, October                                                                              had been introduced in the US Corps of Engineers similar to the review panel system in the UK. Positive and
                               1989, London. Report by P G Mackey.                                                                                              negative aspects of the review system are listed.

 1990     4      Molyneux      Clay barriers for embankment dams. Report of the                                                                                 Brief descriptions of the six invited papers presented to the conference by eminent dam engineers are given.
                               joint ICE/BNCOLD/BGS/ICID conference, October                                                                                    The Keynote Paper "Historical development of clay barriers in British dams" by A W Skempton was included in
                               1989, London, by J D Molyneux.                                                                                                   the proceedings.
 1990     5      Kennard       Dam instrumentation in Great Britain - some success       Carsington, Cow Green, Derwent,       Instrumentation/monitoring       The types of instrument are listed. The reasons for installing instrumentation are given. Case histories are listed
                               and failures. Summary of talk by M F Kennard to           Grimwith, Kielder, Ladybower, Selset,                                  where instrumentation has been used to assess factor of safety during embankment construction. Despite
                               BNCOLD meetings at Newcastle-on-Tyne and                                                                                         extensive instrumentation and monitoring during construction Carsington dam failure was not averted.
                               Manchester.
 1990     6      Gosschalk     Correspondence from E M Gosschalk.                                                                                               Correction to report on "Desilting of Reservoirs" in may 1989 edition.
 1990     7                    BNCOLD Conference 1990 - The embankment dam.
 1990                          BNCOLD visit to North Wales, October 1989.                Maentwrog, Marchlyn                   Concrete gravity design/       The new 40m high concrete gravity Maentwrog dam was being built to replace the old dam, 75m upstream, that
                                                                                                                               construction, Concrete mix and was suffering from leaching and ASR. Construction and design details are summarised.
           7                                                                                                                   cement
 1990     11                   57th ICOLD Executive Meeting, Copenhagen, July
                               1989. Reports of the Technical Committees.
 1990     14                   New ICOLD Publications.                                                                                                          Bulletin 70 - Rockfill dams with concrete facings Bulletin 71 - Exposure of dam concrete to special aggressive
                                                                                                                                                                waters.

BNCOLD NEWS & VIEWS No. 37, October 1990
 Date    Page   First author              Contents/Reference                             Dams                                  Subjects                         Brief summary
 1990     2                    BNCOLD Committee 1990/91.



                                                                                                                                                         19
BNCOLD News and Views



 Date    Page   First author                   Contents/Reference                      Dams      Subjects                         Brief summary
 1990     2                    Programme of Activities 1990/91.
 1990     3      Payne         PAYNE P L (1990). Hydro-electricity in the north of               Environment/social/planning      The paper is based on the author's book The Hydro: A Study of the Development of the Major Hydro-Electric
                               Scotland, 1943-1975: some social and economic                                                      Schemes undertaken by the North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Board . Development of hydro-electricity in
                               issues. BNCOLD News and Views, no 37, pp 3-11.                                                     Scotland for public supply which began in 1885 at Greenock increased dramatically 1895 with the construction
                                                                                                                                  of schemes for the production of aluminium. The history of other schemes is outlined following the passing of
                                                                                                                                  the Hydro-Electric Development (Scotland ) Act.
 1990     12                   58th ICOLD Executive Meeting Sydney, May 1990.
                               Reports of the Technical Committees.
 1990     17                   An Engineering Guide to the Safety of Embankment                                               Notice advertising the sale of the guide prepared by Babtie, Shaw and Morton and the Building Research
                               dams in the United Kingdom.                                                                    Establishment.
 1990     17     Perfect       Broomhead reservoir: report of visit March 1990, by H Broomhead   Drainage, Mining subsidence, Construction problems of the concrete cut-off for the 33m high puddle clay core dam were resulted from with
                               G Perfect.                                                        Seepage & leakage,           high artesian pressures in the valley floor associated with the succession of thick beds of relatively
                                                                                                                              impermeable shale and narrow permeable beds of gritstone. Downstream drains are used to control the
                                                                                                                              artesian pressures. Mining activities beneath the reservoir resulted in serious leakage on first filling. Stability
                                                                                                                              problems during spillway construction and long term stability problems of the embankment were investigated
                                                                                                                              following emergence of water at the bottom of the upper berm.
 1990     19     Baker         Pre-cast concrete blocks for dam spillways. Report of             Spillway hydraulics          Work at the CIRIA funded project at Jackhouse reservoir which included trials on the performance of concrete
                               BNCOLD meeting January 1990, Manchester                                                        blocks is outlined together with 1:4 scale model work at the University of Salford. The performance of wedge
                               presented by R Baker.                                                                          blocks for spillways based on laboratory trials is discussed. References to more detailed descriptions of the
                                                                                                                              work are given.
 1990     20     Macdonald     The Foundations of Roadford dam. Summary of a     Roadford        Embankment dam construction, A concise description is given of the site investigation and the foundation conditions encountered during the
                               paper presented by A Macdonald and F E Shannon to                 Slope stability              construction of the embankment, the overflow tower and culvert, and cut-off trench . A grout curtain was placed
                               joint meeting of BNCOLD and British Geotechnical                                               beneath the concrete filled cut-off with provision for further grouting from the inspection gallery. Grouting details
                               Society, December 1989, London, by A C Wilson.                                                 are provided. Many papers have been published on the design, construction and long term performance of this
                                                                                                                              40m high embankment which was constructed of weathered mudstone and sandstones with an upstream
                                                                                                                              asphaltic membrane.




                                                                                                                          20
Dams Reservoirs



Dams & Reservoirs
Dams & Reservoirs, vol 1, no 1, May 1991

 Date     Page    First author                   Contents/Reference                      Dams                                 Subjects                        Brief summary
  1991    5                      Dams & Reservoirs: origin and objectives of the new
                                 Journal of the British Dam Society.

  1991    5       Charles        17th ICOLD Congress, Vienna, June 1991. List of the Balanga (Nigeria), Carsington, Khasab
                                 BDS papers for the four Questions that form the       (Oman), Maentwrog, Mullardoch
                                 subject of the Congress: Question 64 - Environmental
                                 issues in dam projects; Question 65 - Ageing of dams
                                 and remedial measures; Question 66 - Dams on
                                 difficult foundations; Question 67 - New developments
                                 for fill dams.

  1991    6       Charles        Report on current meetings and research on seismicity
                                 and UK dams.
  1991    6                      Book review: 'Dams in Europe and USSR - a
                                 geographical approach', ICOLD, Paris, 1991.

  1991    6                      New ICOLD Bulletins: 76 - Conventional methods in
                                 dam construction; 77 - Dispersive soils in embankment
                                 dams.

  1991    7                      UK representation on ICOLD Committees.


  1991    8       Claydon        Report on the 6th conference of the British Dam
                                 Society, 'The embankment dam', Nottingham,
                                 September 1990. Also report on conference site visits
                                 to Carsington and Draycote.

  1991    10      Back           BACK P A A (1991). The 1990 Geoffrey Binnie Lecture: Dokan (Iraq), Kariba                    Concrete deterioration,         Ten criteria or features are advanced which are desirable for the ultimate dam: durable materials of construction,
                                 The Ultimate dam. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 1, no 1,    (Zimbabwe/Zambia), Maentwrog,           Earthquake damage,              flood routing independent of power and operator, ability to survive overtopping, redundancy in structural
                                 May, pp 10-13.                                       Mangla (Pakistan), Victoria (Sri Lanka) Environment/social/planning,    behaviour, ability to accommodate deformations, resistant to internal erosion, capable of withstanding seismic
                                                                                                                              Internal erosion/filters,       shock, resistant to destruction by acts of sabotage, reservoir can be drawn down to at least half height and
                                                                                                                              Overtopping, Reservoir          preferably emptied in a few weeks, and, finally, that in the long term the project will be a good thing for mankind.
                                                                                                                              drawdown
  1991    14      Hoyle          HOYLE N (1991). James Diggle. Dams & Reservoirs,        Ashworth Moor, Cowpe, Hurstwood,     Cut-off trenches, Heightening   James Diggle began his career in 1866 as a 15-year old pupil with the Heywood Waterworks Company in
                                 vol 1, no 1, May, pp 14-15.                             Naden Higher, Naden Middle                                           Lancashire; in 1936 he received a presentation on his retirement from the Heywood and Middleton Water Board
                                                                                                                                                              after 70 years connection with their undertaking! The construction and performance of a number of dams are
                                                                                                                                                              described with particular emphasis on the cut-off trenches.
  1991    16      Cole           Report on Queen's Valley reservoir project, Jersey.     Queen's Valley (Jersey)              Asphaltic concrete, Rockfill    A cross-section of the dam is given.
                                 Construction work is rapidly proceeding with the target
                                 date of the end of October 1991 to start impounding.

  1991    18      Kingston       Report on BDS meeting at Manchester on remedial      Woodhead                                Flood estimation/hydrology,
                                 works at Woodhead reservoir, November 1990. The                                              Heightening, Overflow works
                                 speakers were Stuart Kingston, David Evans and
                                 George Rocke.
  1991    20      Musson         MUSSON R M W (1991), The Earl's Burn dam burst of Earlsburn*                                 Catastrophic failures,          It seems likely that the Earl's Burn collapse was an accident waiting to happen to a poorly built 6 m high
                                 1839: an earthquake triggered dam failure in the UK?                                         Earthquake damage               embankment dam waterlogged after two days of heavy rain. However, it is reasonable to suppose that the
                                 Dams & Reservoirs, vol 1, no 1, May, pp 20-23.                                                                               Comrie, Perthshire, 4.8ML magnitude earthquake on 23rd October 1839 triggered the collapse even if it was not
                                                                                                                                                              the principal cause of the dam failure.

Dams & Reservoirs, vol 1, no 2, November 1991

 Date     Page    First author                   Contents/Reference                      Dams                                 Subjects                        Brief summary
  1991    5       Dunstan        DUNSTAN M R H and LAKIN M (1991). New Mill dam - New Mill                                    Flood storage reservoirs, Roller Floods occurred in Truro in 1988 due to the inadequate capacity of a culvert running under the city. The solution
                                 a roller-compacted concrete approach to flood                                                compacted concrete               was to upgrade the culvert and construct a flood alleviation dam at new Mill on the River Kenwyn. The 10 m high
                                 alleviation dams. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 1, no 2,                                                                             roller-compacted concrete dam contains a culvert with a radial gate. Under normal conditions the Kenwyn flows
                                 November, pp 5-8.                                                                                                             through the culvert without restriction, but when the flow exceeds a pre-determined limit the radial gate
                                                                                                                                                               automatically partially closes causing excess flow to be impounded behind the dam and thus protects Truro from
                                                                                                                                                               flooding.




                                                                                                                                                       21
Dams Reservoirs



  1991    8       Knight         KNIGHT D J (1991). Behaviour of five dams in the           Aya (Philippines), Canili (Philippines),   Earthquake damage                 On 16th July 1990 an earthquake of Richter magnitude MS 7.7 occurred in Luzon and it was estimated that the
                                 Philippines during the 1990 earthquake. Dams &             Diayo (Philippines), Masiway                                                 maximum horizontal bedrock acceleration was 0.34g at Aya, Masiway and Pantabangan dams and 0.38g at
                                 Reservoirs, vol 1, no 2, November, pp 8-14.                (Philippines), Pantabangan                                                   Canili and Diayo dams. The Masiway 25 m high zoned earthfill dam suffered the most damage, although this
                                                                                            (Philippines)                                                                was generally confined to slope failure in the outer shoulders of the embankment, particularly on the upstream
                                                                                                                                                                         side. The crest settled by as much as 1.0 m, but the reservoir was 7 m below crest level at the time of the
                                                                                                                                                                         earthquake. The core appeared to have remained intact and able to fulfil its water-retaining function.

  1991    15      Anon           ANON (1991). A visit to Cant Clough: the collapse in  Cant Clough                                     Cut-off trenches, Puddle clay     The article is of historical interest; it describes conditions of the men employed. Details of the construction
                                 the puddle trench. Dams & Reservoirs, 1991, vol 1, no                                                                                   method of the cut-off trench are given. It is as much as 200 feet (60 m) deep and some 145 feet (44 m) deep at
                                 2, November, pp 15-16 (reprinted from Burnley and                                                                                       the location where the collapse occurred. The trench had been filled with puddle clay to within 55 feet (17 m) of
                                 East Lancashire Mid-Weekly Gazette, Wednesday 21st                                                                                      the crest of the dam at the time at the time of the collapse on Friday 16th September 1887.
                                 September 1887.) See discussion by D J Knight, Dams
                                 & Reservoirs, 1992, vol 2, no 1, pp 6-7.

  1991    17      Charles        Reports on 17th ICOLD Congress, Vienna, June 1991:
                                 meetings and technical committees.
  1991    20      Haws           Report on ICOLD technical session: Question 64 -                                                      Environment/social/planning
                                 Environmental issues in dam projects.

  1991    21      Sims           Report on ICOLD technical session: Question 65 -                                                      Concrete deterioration
                                 Ageing of dams and remedial measures.
  1991    22      Charles        Introductory remarks by member of panel of experts for     Ajaure (Sweden), Finstertal (Austria),     Asphaltic concrete, Internal
                                 Q65 on 'Embankment dam earth cores: hydraulic              Great Dhunn (Germany), Megget,             erosion/filters
                                 fracture and erosion risk, early detection'.               Storvatn (Norway)
  1991    25      McKenna        Report on ICOLD technical session: Question 66 -           Lar (Iran)
                                 Dams on difficult foundations.
  1991    25      Penman         Report on ICOLD technical session: Question 67 - New       Cethana (Australia), Quchi (Japan),        Geomembranes, Overtopping,
                                 developments for fill dams.                                Teton (USA)                                Rockfill
  1991    27      Coats          Report on ICOLD study tour in Czechoslovakia, June         Slezska Harta (Czechoslovakia), Vir
                                 1991.                                                      (Czechoslovakia)
  1991    28      Lovenbury      Request for information on the performance of                                                         Upstream slope protection
                                 blockwork and slabbing protection for dam faces.
  1991    28      Charles        Failure of dam at Horndoyne farm, Oyne,                    Horndoyne                                  Catastrophic failures, Internal
                                 Aberdeenshire, 17th/18th November 1990.                                                               erosion/filters
  1991    29                     Book news: 'The embankment dam', Thomas Telford,
                                 London, 1991; 'Advances in rockfill structures', Kluwer,
                                 Dordrecht, 1991; 'An engineering guide to seismic risk
                                 to dams in the United Kingdom', BRE report BR 210,
                                 1991; 'Supervision and control of long lateral
                                 embankments', PIANC, Brussels, 1990.

  1991    29                     New ICOLD Bulletin: 79 - Alkali-aggregate reaction in
                                 concrete dams.



Dams & Reservoirs, vol 2, no 1, February 1992

 Date     Page    First author                    Contents/Reference                        Dams                                       Subjects                          Brief summary
  1992    6                      Roadford reservoir: impounding commenced in
                                 October 1989 and by May 1991 it was close to
                                 overflowing.
  1992    6       Knight         The Cant Clough puddle trench collapse 1887 - the                                                                                       The postulated mechanisms of failure are given with the aid of a section of the puddle trench at the location of
                                 facts pondered and the causes postulated. Discussion                                                                                    the failure.
                                 by D J Knight on 'A visit to Cant Clough: the collapse in
                                 the puddle trench.'
  1992    8       Earp           Report on visit to Roundhill dam, north Yorkshire, 29th Roundhill                                     Flood estimation/hydrology,
                                 October 1991. The construction of a new spillway                                                      Overflow works,
                                 forms the subject of a paper for the BDS conference to                                                Uplift/overturning in concrete
                                 be held in Stirling in June 1992.                                                                     dams
  1992    9       Thurwell       Summary of talk on analysis of open channel spillway Catcleugh, Faughlin, Kielder                     Spillway hydraulics
                                 flow by Dr J Ellis, BDS meeting, Manchester, 5th
                                 February 1991.

  1992    11      Charles        The 1991 British Dam Society Prize was awarded to
                                 Ian Holton: the other finalists were S P Gibson, J S
                                 Malia and K A Ross. All four entrants for the 1991
                                 competition are to be published in Dams & Reservoirs.




                                                                                                                                                                22
Dams Reservoirs



  1992    12      Holton         HOLTON I R (1992). In-service deformation of a        Ramsden                                  Movement monitoring, Puddle     The 25 m high Ramsden puddle clay core embankment dam has settled more than 1 m since construction in
                                 puddle clay core dam. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 2, no 1,                                          clay, Reservoir drawdown        1883. Field measurements combined with laboratory consolidation tests have shown that the pattern and
                                 February, pp 12-18. (This paper won the 1991 BDS                                                                               magnitude of the in-service deformations of the dam are largely controlled by the stress changes caused by
                                 prize competition.)                                                                                                            fluctuations in reservoir level. There was no evidence of internal erosion or slope instability.

  1992    18                     Book news: 'Locating, selecting and documenting
                                 materials for use in fill dams', Galloway, New Zealand,
                                 1991; 'Hydraulic structures', Novak et al , Unwin
                                 Hyman, London, 1990.
  1992    19      Ross           ROSS K A (1992). Design and construction of the core Carsington (2)                            Internal erosion/filters        The design of the vertical filter drain immediately downstream of the core was a key element in the
                                 filter for Carsington dam. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 2, no                                                                        reconstruction of the Carsington embankment. Three design methods were used to establish the filter grading
                                 1, February, pp 19-23.                                                                                                         required to prevent erosion of the core material: the 'perfect filter' method (Vaughan and Soares), the 'critical
                                                                                                                                                                filter' method (Sherard and Dunnigan), the 'conventional' method (Terzaghi). No erosion filter tests were
                                                                                                                                                                undertaken to test the performance of the designed filter. Trial excavations of the vertical filter through the initial
                                                                                                                                                                construction showed that compaction of the adjacent fills led to ingress into the filter, reducing its effective width.
                                                                                                                                                                Trenching was found to be a more satisfactory method of placing the filter.
  1992    24      Kennard        KENNARD M F, READER R A and HUGHES A K                  Symvoulos (Cyprus), Xylourikos         Geomembranes, Roller            This discussion paper was presented in London on 30th September 1991. Since independence in 1960 there
                                 (1992). Xylourikos and Symvoulos dams in Cyprus.        (Cyprus)                               compacted concrete              has been an extensive programme of dam construction in Cyprus and there are now 32 dams listed in the
                                 Dams & Reservoirs, vol 2, no 1, February, pp 24-27.                                                                            ICOLD register of large dams. Xylourikos will be a 48 m high roller compacted concrete dam and construction
                                                                                                                                                                should commence in 1992. The 37 m high Symvoulos rockfill dam which was completed in 1991 incorporates a
                                                                                                                                                                high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane on the upstream face.

  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 2, no 2, June 1992

 Date     Page    First author                   Contents/Reference                      Dams                                   Subjects                        Brief summary
  1992    4                      New ICOLD Bulletins: 80 - Dam construction sites
                                 accident prevention; 81 - Spillways, shockwaves and
                                 air entrainment; 82 - Selection of design flood; 83 -
                                 Cost impact on future dams; 84 - Bituminous cores for
                                 fill dams.
  1992    5                      Report on meeting of the Midland Geotechnical Society
                                 introduced by Dr G Walton on 'The design of tips and
                                 lagoons', Birmingham, 3rd February 1992.

  1992    5                      Report of half-day BDS meeting on 'Seismicity: UK and   Blackbrook, Hoover (USA),              Dynamic behaviour & analysis,
                                 overseas dams' held at the Institution of Civil         Hsingfengkiang (China), Kariba         Earthquake damage
                                 Engineers on 27th January 1992. In session 1 on         (Zimbabwe/Zambia), Koyna (India),
                                 seismic risk to UK dams the six invited speakers who    Lower Crystal Springs (USA),
                                 introduced the subject were E M Gosschalk, J L Hinks,   Marathon (Greece), Masiway
                                 J A Charles, C P Abbiss, R M W Musson and C Taylor.     (Philippines), Monteynard (France),
                                 in session 2 on seismic risk to overseas dams the       Nagawado (Japan), Pacoima (USA),
                                 invited speakers were D J Knight and P J Mason.         Pantabangan (Philippines), Pine Flat
                                                                                         (USA), Sefid Rud (Iran)
  1992    17      Smith          SMITH R A (1992). The failure of Cwm Carne             Cwm Carne                               Catastrophic failures           The failure of the Cwm Carne embankment dam occurred due to overtopping on the night of 14th July 1875
                                 reservoir, 1875. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 2, no 2, June,                                                                         following several days of heavy rain in South Wales. It resulted in the loss of 13 lives. The reservoir had been
                                 pp 17-19.                                                                                                                      constructed circa 1800 to supply water to the Monmouthshire canal, but it had been neglected for many years
                                                                                                                                                                prior to the failure with leakage and crest settlement observed but not remedied. The Times report on the
                                                                                                                                                                incident is reproduced together with illustration of the damage downstream of the reservoir.

  1992    19      Sims           SIMS G P (1992). Design of dams to resist natural                                              Flood estimation/hydrology,     The paper, which formed a contribution to the seminar on Natural hazards and their implications held at the
                                 hazards. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 2, no 2, June, pp 19-                                          Hazard & risk management,       Institution of Civil Engineers on 22nd January 1992, describes the approach taken to the design of dams to
                                 24.                                                                                            Seismic assessment              resist the effects of earthquakes and floods. Two levels of occurrence are often identified: firstly, the extreme
                                                                                                                                                                events that the dam is required to survive, albeit in a severely damaged condition, are usually the maximum
                                                                                                                                                                credible earthquake (MCE) and the probable maximum flood (PMF); secondly, the dam may be required to
                                                                                                                                                                survive events such as the design basis earthquake (DBE), which have much shorter return periods,
                                                                                                                                                                substantially free of damage. The power of modern computers has facilitated the improved design of dams to
                                                                                                                                                                resist natural hazards, including the use of complex finite element analyses and better understanding of the
                                                                                                                                                                fundamental meteorology of floods.
  1992    25      Malia          MALIA J S (1992). The design of seepage control         Woodhead                               Dam heightening, Seepage &      The solution adopted to provide adequate flood capacity for the Longdendale reservoirs involved raising
                                 measures for the raised Woodhead dam. Dams &                                                   leakage                         Woodhead dam by 7 m to increase temporary flood storage and the construction of a throttled orifice spillway
                                 Reservoirs, vol 2, no 2, June, pp 25-30.                                                                                       channel. It was also necessary to install seepage control measures at Woodhead to ensure stability of the raised
                                                                                                                                                                dam during flood conditions. It was predicted that the total seepage flow to be controlled in the event of a
                                                                                                                                                                probable maximum flood was 0.3 m3/s and a detailed seepage analysis indicated that seepage flows would be of
                                                                                                                                                                the same order.




                                                                                                                                                           23
Dams Reservoirs



  1992    31      Gibson      GIBSON S P (1992). Gorpley reservoir tunnel grouting. Gorpley                                     Grouting, Outlet & intake works Until 1982 the section of the outlet tunnel upstream of the central clay core at Gorpley dam had operated as a
                              Dams & Reservoirs, vol 2, no 2, June, pp 31-35.                                                                                   wet tunnel. With the installation of a new draw-off system the tunnel was drained, significantly altering the
                                                                                                                                                                loading condition of the tunnel. In 1988 numerous jets of water from the sides of the upstream section of the
                                                                                                                                                                tunnel became a cause for concern and it was feared that internal erosion could lead to failure of the dam.
                                                                                                                                                                Cement grouting of the tunnel structure and the surrounding ground was adopted as it was considered to be the
                                                                                                                                                                most effective remedial method. Grouting was undertaken in three closely monitored phases. It is believed that a
                                                                                                                                                                grouted annulus enhancing the tunnel structure was achieved; all running leaks were sealed and the walls and
                                                                                                                                                                the roof of the tunnel were substantially drier.

  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 2, no 3, October 1992

 Date     Page    First author Contents/Reference                                       Dams                                    Subjects                           Brief summary
  1992    4                   News item - Abstracts of ICOLD publications -
                              software.
  1992    4                   News item - Water International: background,
                              objectives and training courses.
  1992    5       Pircher     PIRCHER W (1992). The 1992 Geoffrey Binnie                Akosombo (Ghana), Aswan (Egypt),          Environment/social/planning      The work of the dam engineer should be seen as dealing with one aspect of the basic problem facing mankind
                              Lecture: 36000 large dams - and still more needed.        Ataturk (Turkey), Danjiangkou (China),                                     of transforming the natural environment into a human environment that provides a growing number of people
                              Dams & Reservoirs, vol 2, no 3, October, pp 5-16.         Grande Dixence (Switzerland), Hoover                                       with an better life on the basis of sustainable growth. This has to be achieved at a time when large dams
                                                                                        (USA), Itaipu (Brazil), Kainji (Nigeria),                                  increasingly attract negative comments and sometimes downright rejection. In providing solutions to the urgent
                                                                                        Kariba (Zimbabwe/Zambia), Kielder,                                         task of providing the increasing world population with a reliable supply of water, a 'no dams' policy is not realistic,
                                                                                        Keban (Turkey), Kossou (Ivory Coast),                                      rather 'better projects' are needed. The paper provides many interesting statistics on the growth and distribution
                                                                                        Mangla (Pakistan), Sardar Sarovar                                          of large dams. Benefits and social and environmental impacts of large reservoirs are discussed.
                                                                                        (India), Sobradinho (Brazil), Tarbela
                                                                                        (Pakistan)

  1992    17      Airey       Summary of talk 'An introduction to dam break             Buffalo Creek (USA), Cascade Lake  Dam break studies, Waste
                              analysis', presented by Dr Bob Matthew to BDS             (USA), Dale Dyke, Lawn Lake (USA), impoundment
                              meeting, Manchester, 28th January 1992.                   Teton (USA)
  1992    18      Wickham     WICKHAM D B (1992). Collapse of an earth                  Warmwithens*                            Catastrophic failures, Internal    The 10 m high dam, which impounded the uppermost of a chain of three reservoirs, had heterogeneous clay fill
                              embankment dam. Dam & Reservoirs, vol 2, no 3,                                                    erosion/filters, Outlet & intake   in the upstream shoulder and a puddle clay core. A 250 mm diameter iron outlet pipe passed through the
                              October, pp 18-19.                                                                                works                              embankment and was controlled by a valve at the downstream end. During remedial works in 1964 and 1966 a
                                                                                                                                                                   1.5 m diameter tunnel formed in concrete segments was driven through the embankment to contain new outlet
                                                                                                                                                                   pipes. The original outlet pipe was plugged at the upstream end and filled with grout. The first indication of an
                                                                                                                                                                   escape of water was detected at 7.30am on 24th November 1970. The outflow reached a maximum within 2
                                                                                                                                                                   hours and the dam was breached to foundation level by 1.30pm. The breach was 20 m wide at crest level and
                                                                                                                                                                   over the line of the drawoff works; it extended down to the tunnel, which was washed out, large sections of the
                                                                                                                                                                   concrete segments being deposited downstream. It is thought that internal erosion took place along the line of
                                                                                                                                                                   the tunnel which led to a cavity being formed, leading to subsidence and eventual overtopping of the crest.



  1992    20      Simpkin     Report of BDS meeting on the Rivington reservoirs
                              held at Manchester on 3rd March 1992.
  1992    20      King        KING N H (1992). A short history of the Rivington         Anglezarke, High Bullough, Horwich*,                                       The eight reservoirs, collectively known as the Rivington reservoirs, were completed between 1850 and 1875 to
                              reservoirs. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 2, no 3, October,      Rake Brook, Rivington Lower,                                               supply the increasing demand for water to Liverpool. The paper provides a valuable summary of the historical
                              pp 20-27.                                                 Rivington Upper, Roddlesworth Lower,                                       development and construction of the dams. Over the last twenty years substantial improvements have been
                                                                                        Roddlesworth Upper, Yarrow                                                 undertaken to ensure that modern reservoir safety standards are met. The oldest reservoir was 140 years in
                                                                                                                                                                   1992 and with regular surveillance and occasional remedial works there is no reason why the reservoirs should
                                                                                                                                                                   not be in use 140 years from now. Emergency drawdown procedures were prepared in 1986. A list of relevant
                                                                                                                                                                   books, published reports, technical papers and internal reports is appended to the paper.

  1992    28                  New book information: 'Water resources and reservoir
                              engineering', proceedings of 7th BDS conference.

  1992    29      Wright      WRIGHT C E, COATS D J and CHARLES J A (1992).                                                     Dam break studies, Databases,      The Department of the Environment is responsible for reservoir safety legislation in Great Britain and sponsors a
                              The reservoir safety research programme of the                                                    Flood estimation/hydrology,        research programme to promote adequate, consistent and cost-effective reservoir safety standards and, in
                              Department of the Environment. Dams & Reservoirs,                                                 Guides & surveys, Hazard &         particular, to provide panel engineers with an appropriate background for carrying out their duties under the
                              vol 2, no 3, October, pp 29-34. (First published in                                               risk management, Internal          Reservoirs Act 1975. An outline description is given of the various projects in hydrology, hydraulics, structures
                              Water Resources and Reservoir Engineering (eds N M                                                erosion/filters, Movement          and risk carried out between 1983 and 1991 as part of the research programme. An assessment of the research
                              Parr, J A Charles and S Walker). Proceedings of 7th                                               monitoring, Seepage &              programme is being undertaken by Dr David Coats and following publication of the assessment the future
                              British Dam Society Conference, Stirling, pp 411-424.                                             leakage, Spillway hydraulics,      direction of the programme will be re-examined. (See discussion in supplementary issue of Dams and
                              Thomas Telford, London.)                                                                          Uplift in concrete dams,           Reservoirs, October 1992, pp 39-48.)
                                                                                                                                Upstream slope protection,
                                                                                                                                Winds & waves

  1992    35      Claughton   Report on a discussion paper on 'The influence of                                                 Rockfill, Roller compacted         Examples of new dam design are given for roller compacted concrete dams and rockfill dams to reduce their
                              costs on the evolution of future dams', introduced by F                                           concrete                           cost.
                              Lemperiere, following BDS AGM on 30th March 1992.




                                                                                                                                                         24
Dams Reservoirs



  1992    39                     Reservoirs Act 1975: revised appointment fees and list                                              Legislation
                                 of Statutory Instruments.

Dams & Reservoirs, vol 3, no 1, February 1993

 Date     Page    First author                    Contents/Reference                       Dams                                      Subjects                        Brief summary
  1993    4                      New ICOLD Bulletin: 87 - Improvement of existing dam
  1993    5                      monitoring.
                                 British Dam Society Annual Report for 1992
  1993    6       Tedd           TEDD P, ROBERTSHAW A C and HOLTON I R                     Holmestyes                                Puddle clay, Seepage &          The 25 m high Holmestyes dam was built in 1840 with a central puddle clay core and has generally performed
                                 (1993). Investigation of an old embankment dam with                                                 leakage                         satisfactorily after an upstream clay blanket was added in 1857, although remedial works to the valve shaft and
                                 an upstream clay blanket and clay central core. Dams                                                                                tunnel were required in the 1930s to reduce leakage. Piezometric measurements confirm that the clay blanket is
                                 & Reservoirs, vol 3, no 1, February, pp 6-9.                                                                                        generally effective and continued monitoring should indicate the development of any major leakage. Reservoir
                                                                                                                                                                     drawdown caused a small heave along the wave wall and upstream pitching. Permanent crest settlement
                                                                                                                                                                     caused by reservoir fluctuations is significantly smaller on embankment dams with upstream membranes than
                                                                                                                                                                     on those with central puddle clay cores.
  1993    10      Hogg           Summary of talk by Ted Gosschalk and Jonathan             Austria (USA), Blackbrook,               Dynamic behaviour & analysis, The brief report lists the ten largest earthquakes in the UK since 1700 and provides examples of significant
                                 Hinks on 'Seismic risk to dams and applications in the    Chatsworth (USA), Cogoti (Chile),        Earthquake damage             earthquake damage to some overseas earthfill and rockfill dams.
                                 UK' at BDS meeting, Manchester, 24th November             Douhe (China), Earlsburn, El Infiernillo
                                 1992.                                                     (Mexico), Hebgen (USA), Koyna
                                                                                           (India), La Calera (Mexico), La
                                                                                           Marquesa (Chile), La Palma (Chile),
                                                                                           La Villita (Mexico), Lower San
                                                                                           Fernando (USA), Malpaso (Peru),
                                                                                           Masiway (Philippines), Miboro (Japan),
                                                                                           Minase (Japan), Ono (Japan), Oroville
                                                                                           (USA), Paiho Main (China), San
                                                                                           Andreas (USA), Sheffield (USA),
                                                                                           Upper Crystal Springs (USA), Upper
                                                                                           San Fernando (USA)

  1993    12                     Guidance for applicants to panels set up under the
                                 Reservoirs Act 1975.
  1993    13                     Reports of ICOLD Technical Committees, Granada,
                                 September 1992.
  1993    15      Kennard        KENNARD M F (1993). A brief history of 25 years of                                                                                  In March 1988, the British Section of the International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) celebrated twenty-
                                 BNCOLD and BDS - 1967 to 1992. Dams &                                                                                               one years of existence in a form where individual and corporate members elected the British National
                                 Reservoirs, vol 3, no 1, February, pp 15-17. (First                                                                                 Committee on Large Dams (BNCOLD). Prior to 1967, the British National Committee comprised representatives
                                 published in Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference,                                                                                      of the Institution of Civil Engineers, the Institution of Water Engineers and other interested bodies, and the British
                                 Manchester, 1988, with added material relating to the                                                                               Section of ICOLD was identical with the National Committee. Information is presented on the early chairmen,
                                 last four years.)                                                                                                                   vice-chairmen and committee members, and conferences.
  1993    18      Penman         PENMAN A D M (1993). BNCOLD – 25 years of                                                                                           A better understanding of dam behaviour can be derived from detailed field observations, the development of
                                 science-based advances in dam building. Dams &                                                                                      numerical models which can replicate the observed behaviour, improved material testing and better hydrological
                                 Reservoirs, vol 3, no 1, February, pp 18-23. (First                                                                                 and geological knowledge. New features introduced in British embankment dams built since the 1960s have
                                 published in Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference,                                                                                      included rolled clay cores and drainage layers, upstream asphaltic membranes and central asphaltic cores. The
                                 Manchester, 1988, with added appendix relating to the                                                                               significance of progressive failure and the presence of pre-existing slip surfaces in heavily over-consolidated
                                 last four years.)                                                                                                                   clay foundations has been better appreciated. Field instrumentation has become an integral part of
                                                                                                                                                                     embankment dam construction.

  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 3, no 2, June 1993

 Date     Page    First author                    Contents/Reference                       Dams                                      Subjects                        Brief summary
  1993    2       Penman         PENMAN A D M (1993). BNCOLD – 25 years of                 Alpe Gira (Italy), Brianne, Carsington,   Earthquake damage,              The appendix covers recent developments in the implementation of the Reservoirs Act, slope stability analysis,
                                 science-based advances in dam building. Dams &            Holbeam Wood, Maentwrog, Megget,          Environment/social/planning,    the measurement of movements and pore suction, new dam construction and the growth of environmental
                                 Reservoirs, vol 3, no 2, June, pp 2-7. (First published   Milton Brook, New Mill, Queen's Valley    Flood estimation/hydrology,     opposition to dams.
                                 in Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference, Manchester,          (Jersey), Ramsden, Roadford,              Legislation, Roller compacted
                                 1988, with added appendix relating to the last four       Shihmen (Taiwan), Shimajigawa             concrete
                                 years.) Concluding section and appendix.                  (Japan), Sulby (Isle of Man), Willow
                                                                                           Creek (USA), Wimbleball, Woodhead

  1993    7       Holton         Summary of talk by I R Holton and Dr P Tedd on            Holmestyes, Ramsden                       Movement monitoring, Puddle     The report summarised a study undertaken to investigate the effects of reservoir fluctuations on embankment
                                 'Deformation of embankment dams' to BDS meeting,                                                    clay, Reservoir drawdown        deformations. Published papers relevant to the work are given.
                                 Manchester, 26th January 1993.
  1993    10      Mason          MASON P J (1993). Hydrology or climate change? A                                                                                    The Nile is one of the most studied and carefully gauged rivers in the world, with its source identified in 1862 as
                                 case study. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 3, no 2, June, pp                                                                                Lake Victoria. The lake level depends principally on a delicate balance between rainfall and evaporation. An
                                 10-12.                                                                                                                              apparent correlation between lake levels and sunspot activity was first noted in 1923. Subsequent observations
                                                                                                                                                                     have led to the tentative conclusion that for discrete periods such a correlation does exist.




                                                                                                                                                            25
Dams Reservoirs



  1993    13      Tedd           Report on Supervising Engineers Forum, 'The role of                                                     Burrowing animals, Legislation,
                                 the supervising engineer', held at Manchester, 6th April                                                Upstream slope protection,
                                 1993. Session 1 dealt with the Reservoirs Act 1975                                                      Vegetation
                                 and the supervising engineer, session 2 with the
                                 supervising engineer and safety surveillance, and
                                 session 3 with continuing professional development of
                                 the supervising engineer.
  1993    17      Scivier        Report on BDS meeting on Kolnbrein dam                   Kolnbrein (Austria)                                                              The report provides a good summary of the cracking that occurred at Kolnbrien dam on initial impounding and
                                 rehabilitation, speaker Dr Pius Obernhuber, held at                                                                                       the remedial works undertaken which involved constructing an thrust block some 68m high on the downstream
                                 Institution of Civil Engineers, 7th December 1992.                                                                                        side.
                                 During initial impounding cracks formed in the
                                 upstream heal of the 200 m high double curvature arch
                                 dam.
  1993    20      Landolt        Report of a State-of-the-Art review of Roller compacted Roller compacted concrete                       New Victoria (Australia),         Three types of RCC dams are identified: lean mix RCC dams, high paste RCC dams and roller compacted dams
                                 concrete dams by Dr Malcolm Dunstan, Institution of                                                     Platanovrgssi (Greece), Upper     (RCD). High paste RCC dams are now the preferred choice of construction. The advantages of RCC dams
                                 Civil Engineers, 8th February 1993.                                                                     Stillwater (USA), Willow Creek    include non-erodibility, speed and economy of construction, and the spillway can be incorporated in the dam
                                                                                                                                         (USA)                             structure; disadvantages include the need for a good foundation and good control during construction, and the
                                                                                                                                                                           necessity of transporting cementitious materials to the site.


  1993    22      Moorhead,      Book reviews: 'The dammed - rivers, dams and the
                  Kay            coming world water crisis', Fred Pearce, Bodley Head.
                                 (Two reviews of this controversial book are presented.)

          22      Charles        Book review: 'Land of singing waters - rivers and great
                                 floods of Northumbria'.
  1993    24                     New ICOLD Bulletin: 88 - Rock foundations for dams.
                                 (An updated version of ICOLD Bulletin 'Rock
                                 mechanics and dam foundation design' published in
                                 1973.)
Dams & Reservoirs, vol 3, no 3, October 1993

 Date     Page    First author                    Contents/Reference                          Dams                                       Subjects                          Brief summary
  1993    2       Lewin          LEWIN J (1993). The flood relief scheme of the city of                                                  Spillway gates and barriers       The increasing severity of flooding at Venice can be attributed to settlement of the city and rising water levels in
                                 Venice 1993. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 3, no 3, October,                                                                                     the Adriatic. Extensive political and technical developments have led to a scheme to safeguard the city. The
                                 pp 2-6.                                                                                                                                   scheme utilises bottom hinged buoyant gates which are free to move under wave action.
  1993    7       Hoskins        HOSKINS C G (1993). Embankment dams, vegetation                                                         Vegetation                        Engineers inspecting and supervising embankment dams should assess the condition of two types of
                                 and engineers. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 3, no 3,                                                                                            vegetation; firstly, grasses, herbs and smaller shrubs, and, secondly, trees and larger shrubs. Trees and shrubs
                                 October, pp 7-9. (This paper is a summary of a                                                                                            need to be identified and it should be established that they are developing as intended. Their beneficial and
                                 presentation given at the Supervising Engineers'                                                                                          detrimental effects need to be understood before taking remedial action including removal and replacement.
                                 Forum at Manchester on 6th April 1993 and follows a
                                 paper presented by Hoskins and Rice at the 1992 BDS
                                 conference at Stirling.)
  1993    10      McKillop       McKILLOP G (1993). Burrowing mammals and the                                                            Burrowing animals                 Certain mammals can cause serious problems by digging into embankment dams. While badgers and rabbits
                                 safety of embankment dams and reservoirs: potential                                                                                       present the greatest threat, foxes, rats, moles and water voles can occasionally cause difficulties. The paper has
                                 problems and solutions. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 3, no                                                                                      two main sections: the first part describes the activities of the different burrowing species, the second part
                                 3, October, pp 10-12. (This paper is a summary of a                                                                                       indicates how these activities can be managed. An extensive bibliography is given on behaviour and control of
                                 presentation given at the Supervising Engineers'                                                                                          animals.
                                 Forum at Manchester on 6th April 1993.)

  1993    13      Henry          HENRY D (1993). Geographical information systems.                                                                                         A geographical information system (GIS) is a computer tool which can store, manipulate, analyse and display
                                 Dams & Reservoirs, vol 3, no 3, October, pp 13-15.                                                                                        geographically referenced information. There are many potential applications for GIS within dam engineering in
                                                                                                                                                                           the planning, design, construction, operation and maintenance of dams and their ancillary structures, as well as
                                                                                                                                                                           reservoir and catchment management.
  1993    15                     New ICOLD Bulletin: 89 - Reinforced rockfill and
                                 reinforced fill for dams - state of the art; 90 - Dams and
                                 environment - geophysical impacts.
  1993    16      Charles        Some current reservoir safety research and                                                                                                Some 18 current research projects are listed under the following headings; (a) hydrology, (b) hydraulics, (c)
                                 development projects.                                                                                                                     geotechnics, (d) structures and (e) general. Relevant publications are listed.



  1993    19      Charles        Report on international workshop on 'Dam safety              Belci (Romania), Blue Ridge (USA),                                           The workshop was organised by the journal, Dam Engineering in nine sessions covering static loading, seismic
                                 evaluation' held at Grindelwald, April 1993.                 Carsington, Kardjali (Bulgaria), Karun I                                     loading, reliability and risk assessment. The proceedings were published in four volumes, with a special fifth
                                                                                              (Iran), Peruca (Croatia), Priest (USA),                                      volume on Peruca dam.)
                                                                                              WAC Bennett (Canada), Wahleach
                                                                                              (Canada), Zoeknog (South Africa),




                                                                                                                                                                26
Dams Reservoirs



  1993    25      Knight         Correspondence from Derek Knight arising from        Tarbela (Pakistan)                            Internal erosion/filters,        Three matters are raised concerning, respectively, sinkholes at Tarbela, a new dam surviving leakage of 6 m 3/s
                                 Professor Vaughan's lecture 'Engineering science and                                               Overtopping, Seepage &           from the downstream toe, and the need for research on the erosion resistance of old clay fills.
                                 assessment of old embankment dams' given at the                                                    leakage
                                 annual general meeting of BDS on 29th March 1993.


  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 4, no 1, February 1994

 Date     Page    First author                    Contents/Reference                       Dams                                     Subjects                         Brief summary
  1994    2       Moffat         1993 British Dam Society Prize Competition. Keith
                                 Elliott was the winner of the competition and his paper
                                 is published in this issue of Dams & Reservoirs. It was
                                 also considered appropriate to publish the papers of
                                 the two runners-up, Louise Hopkins and Hasan Yener,
                                 and their papers appear in a subsequent issue of
                                 Dams & Reservoirs.

  1994    3                      British Dam Society annual report for 1993.
  1994    4       Charles        Report on international conference on Engineered Fills, Evretou (Cyprus), Kalavasos (Cyprus), Culverts under embankments,
                                 Newcastle, September 1993.                              Nova Avanhandava (Brazil), Reva,      Rockfill
                                                                                         Scammonden, Symvoulos (Cyprus),
                                                                                         Tees Barrage

  1994    5       Elliott        ELLIOTT K (1994). Removal of head limitation - Kotri      Kotri Barrage (Pakistan)                 Geophysical investigation,       Kotri Barrage on the River Indus was commissioned in 1955 and has a major role in the economy of Pakistan,
                                 barrage, Pakistan. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 4, no 1,                                                 Instrumentation, Pore pressure   diverting water into three canal systems that provide both irrigation and the Karachi water supply. The barrage,
                                 February, pp 5-10.                                                                                 (seepage), Seepage &             which comprises forty-four 18 m wide gated sluices, has been operating at limited capacity since 1981 due to
                                                                                                                                    leakage,                         concerns over seepage through cracks in the downstream pavement. Vibrating wire piezometers installed in
                                                                                                                                                                     1990 confirmed that high pore pressures existed beneath the western end of the barrage and a ground
                                                                                                                                                                     penetrating radar survey determined the state of the downstream pavement. Pressure relief wells are the
                                                                                                                                                                     preferred solution and a limited number have been installed in a pilot scheme.
  1994    11      Claydon        Report on technical symposium on Maintenance of           Carsington, Cercy (France), Colliford,                                    The four sessions dealt with, respectively, the maintenance of embankment dams, the maintenance of masonry
                                 Older Dams, Chambery, September 1993.                     Derwent [Derbyshire], Eider                                               dams, the ageing of concrete dams, and research and development programmes. (This was the first
                                                                                           (Germany), La Girotte (France),                                           international symposium organised under the auspices of the ICOLD European Club.)
                                                                                           Megget, Mohne (Germany),
                                                                                           Mullardoch, Paduli (Italy), Pracana
                                                                                           (Portugal), Puentes (Spain), Queens
                                                                                           Valley (Jersey), Roadford, Schrah
                                                                                           (Switzerland), St Ferreol (France),
                                                                                           Vega de Tera (Spain)

  1994    13      Claydon        Report on visit to Grand Maison hydro-electric project, Grand Maison (France), Verney
                                 25 September 1993.                                      (France)
  1994    14      Fraser         Report on visit to Chambon dam, 25 September 1993. Chambon France)

  1994    15                     Reports of ICOLD Technical Committees, Cairo,
                                 November 1993.
  1994    17      Freer          Report on BDS meeting on 'Will the Reservoirs Act                                                  Legislation                      A principal part of the meeting was a presentation by six engineers who had visited seven European countries
                                 survive European legislation?', June 1993.                                                                                          (Austria, Finland, Republic of Ireland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland), as members of a Department of
                                                                                                                                                                     Trade and Industry expert mission, to collect information on the safety assessment of masonry and concrete
                                                                                                                                                                     dams.

  1994    20      Charles        Book review: 'Filters in geotechnical and hydraulic                                                Internal erosion/filters         The 46 conference papers cover four themes: geometrical design, hydraulic design and clogging, application of
                                 engineering', edited by J Brauns, U Schuler and M                                                                                   filters and case studies, suffosion and piping.
                                 Heibaum, Balkema, Rotterdam, 1993.

  1994    21                     New ICOLD Bulletins: 91 - Embankment dams,
                                 upstream slope protection; 92 - Rock materials for
                                 rockfill dams. Other ICOLD publications: 'Water for
                                 dams in Syria'; Transactions of 4th ICOLD symposium
                                 , Granada, 1992; Transactions of 5th ICOLD
                                 symposium, 'High Aswan dam (HAD): a vital
                                 achievement fully controlled', Cairo, 1993.
  1994    23      Price          PRICE D T (1994). Aquatic weed - a world wide         Kafue (Zambia)                               Vegetation                       Severe problems can be caused by the growth of aquatic weeds in reservoirs, lakes, rivers and canals in tropical
                                 problem. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 4, no 1, February, pp                                                                               and sub-tropical regions. When the water surface is covered with weed, sunlight cannot penetrate into the water
                                 23-25.                                                                                                                              and therefore oxygen is removed and fish and other aquatic life will die. Herbicides are still widely used in weed
                                                                                                                                                                     management but are subject to increasingly stringent regulation. An innovative approach to mechanical aquatic
                                                                                                                                                                     weed control is described.
  1994    26      Penman         Report of informal lecture on Tailings Dams given by                                               Waste impoundment
                                 Dr Arthur Penman to a joint BDS/BGS meeting at the
                                 Institution of Civil Engineers, 29th November 1993 .




                                                                                                                                                               27
Dams Reservoirs




  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 4, no 2, June 1994

 Date     Page    First author                    Contents/Reference                        Dams                               Subjects                         Brief summary
  1994    4                      New book: N J Schnitter, A history of dams - the useful
                                 pyramids, Balkema, Rotterdam, 1994.
  1994    4                      Register of British dams: a register containing basic
                                 information on over 2500 dams which come within the
                                 ambit of the Reservoirs Act 1975 has been compiled by
                                 BRE.
  1994    5       Macdonald      MACDONALD A (1994). The failure of the Gouhou         Gouhou (China)                          Catastrophic failures, Concrete This note summarises the presentation on the failure of Gouhou dam made by Professor Zuyu Chen at the
                                 dam, Qinghai province, China. Dams & Reservoirs, vol                                          faced rockfill, Internal        international symposium on high earth-rockfill dams held at Beijing in October 1993. The 71 m high concrete
                                 4, no 2, June, pp 5-6.                                                                        erosion/filters                 faced sand and gravel embankment dam failed on 27th August 1993 when the reservoir was at its highest
                                                                                                                                                               recorded level just above the footing slab of the crest wall. A number of factors are highlighted: the failure
                                                                                                                                                               commenced in the upper part of the dam; the fill was finer than at other dams of this type; the fill was less
                                                                                                                                                               permeable than envisaged at the design stage; the crest wall had defects and it was not the normal practice for
                                                                                                                                                               the joint between the face slab and the crest wall to be below top water level.
  1994    7       Hopkins        HOPKINS L (1994). Dam Break UK. Dams &                     Dale Dyke                          Catastrophic failures, Dam       There is a need for reservoir hazard assessment and contingency planning and the DAMBRK UK program can
                                 Reservoirs, vol 4, no 2, June, pp 7-8.                                                        break studies                    assist in quantifying inundation and flood damage caused by a dam failure. The sensitivity of the program to the
                                                                                                                                                                failure mode and the breach parameters of an embankment dam is examined using the well documented Dale
                                                                                                                                                                Dyke failure. The mode of failure is critical in determining the worst case scenario on which conservative
                                                                                                                                                                contingency plans for the emergency services can be based.
                  Yener          YENER H (1994). Mathematical analysis for piping in                                           Internal erosion/filters        The design of weirs and barrages on permeable foundations requires an assessment of exit hydraulic gradients
                                 pervious foundations. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 4, no 2,                                                                         to ensure safety against piping failure. An improved method of numerical analysis is presented, but the warning
                                 June, pp 8-11.                                                                                                                is given that however rigorous the mathematical solution is, there will always be uncertainties in modelling the
                                                                                                                                                               natural ground. It will therefore be necessary to apply conservative factors of safety to ensure the security of the
                                                                                                                                                               structure.
  1994    12      Coxon          COXON R E (2004). Dam safety: some considerations Roppa (Norway), Tarbela (Pakistan),         Catastrophic failures, Hazard & The basic identification of hazards requires experienced engineers, but is not difficult or costly; historical, or even
                                 of risk assessment and management. Dams &            Teton (USA)                              risk management, Legislation subjective, probability evaluation enables some comparative assessment of risks and facilitates the preparation
                                 Reservoirs, vol 4, no 2, June, pp 12-16. (An                                                                                  of action plans. However, the cost of a detailed probabilistic risk analysis study can be high. Insurance provides
                                 abbreviated version of a talk presented to a BDS                                                                              a means of spreading fortuitous losses over the community, but until recent years the insurance of completed
                                 meeting at the Institution of Civil Engineers on 4th                                                                          dams has been the exception rather than the rule. It is appropriate to divide risk into three layers: an upper layer
                                 October 1993.)                                                                                                                covering catastrophic risks which are very rare but which would financially cripple the dam owner, a middle layer
                                                                                                                                                               of moderately predictable non-catastrophic risks which have serious financial impacts, a lower layer of high
                                                                                                                                                               frequency small losses for which insurance is not cost-effective.

  1994    17      Reed           REED D W (1994). On the Gradex method of                                                      Flood estimation/hydrology       The 'Gradex' method for extrapolating flood frequency curves to very high return periods has been used in
                                 estimating extreme floods. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 4,                                                                           France and other French-speaking countries for many years. The most serious weakness which has been
                                 no 2, June, pp 17-19.                                                                                                          identified is that the Gradex rainfall frequency analysis lacks any significant element of regionalization and until
                                                                                                                                                                this is introduced into the analysis the author does not recommend using the method in any country which has
                                                                                                                                                                substantial rainfall records.
  1994    19      Harrison       HARRISON P C (1994). Ponden reservoir spillway             Ponden                             Overflow works, Spillway         A statutory inspection in 1988 recommended that a hydraulic model of the overflow should be made to
                                 improvements. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 4, no 2, June,                                           hydraulics                       determine whether further overflow provision was required. The model testing demonstrated that the current
                                 pp 19-23.                                                                                                                      arrangements could not safely discharge the probable maximum flood due to inadequate size of the tumblebay
                                                                                                                                                                and restriction in the upper spillway channel. Numerous options were investigated by model testing. The solution
                                                                                                                                                                finally adopted involved widening and lowering the floor of the tumblebay. Ground anchors were used to resist
                                                                                                                                                                uplift on the tumble bay. There was some concern about potential hillside instability, but the contract was
                                                                                                                                                                successfully completed in September 1993.

  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 4, no 3, October 1994

 Date     Page    First author                    Contents/Reference                        Dams                               Subjects                         Brief summary
  1994    2       Tedd           Book news: Brian Robinson, 'Walls across the valley -      Derwent, Howden, Ladybower
                                 the building of the Howden and Derwent dams',
                                 Scarthin Books, Cromford.
  1994    2       Johnston       ANCOLD publications: Guidelines on risk assessment;
                                 Guidelines on dam safety management.

  1994    2                      New ICOLD Bulletins: 93 -Ageing of dams and
                                 appurtenant works; 94 - Computer software for dams -
                                 validation; 95 - Embankment dams - granular filters
                                 and drains - review and recommendations.

  1994    3                      Lesotho Highlands Water Project - Report of joint          Katse (Lesotho), Muela (Lesotho)                                    The meeting was held in two sessions: the first session was concerned with the design and construction of
                                 meeting of British Dam Society and British Tunnelling                                                                          Katse dam and the second session with the tunnelling works and Muela dam. Both dams are concrete arch
                                 Society held at the Institution of Civil Engineers, 28th                                                                       dams and are described in more details subsequent issues of Dams & Reservoirs and in the BDS Conference
                                 March 1994.                                                                                                                    Proceedings. The final height of Katze is 185m being the highest in Africa at the time.
  1994    13      Tedd           Activities of the British Dam Society.
  1994    15                     Reservoirs Act 1975: proposed changes to panel                                                Legislation
                                 structure.



                                                                                                                                                          28
Dams Reservoirs



  1994    17      Swannell       SWANNELL N G (1994). Simplified seismic safety                                                  Seismic assessment              A methodology is presented for the simplified seismic safety evaluation of embankment dams based on Sarma's
                                 evaluation of embankment dams. Dams & Reservoirs,                                                                               method for pseudo-static slope stability analysis and semi-empirical methods for the prediction of displacements.
                                 vol 4, no 3, October, pp 17-19.                                                                                                 Estimated displacements under the safety evaluation earthquake are assessed in terms of the available
                                                                                                                                                                 freeboard and the risk of breaching. The method is considered to be cost effective and to meet the requirements
                                                                                                                                                                 of the BRE report 'An engineering guide to seismic risk to dams in the United Kingdom'.

  1994    20      Wright         WRIGHT C E (1994). UK reservoir failures and safety        Bilberry, Birsemore Loch, Castle   Catastrophic failures,            Almost 2500 reservoirs come within the ambit of the Reservoirs Act 1975. Although no deaths have been
                                 legislation. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 4, no 3, October,      Malgwyn, Clandeboye, Clydach Vale, Legislation                       reported due to dam failures since the 1930 Act came into force, this may be fortunate as there have been many
                                 pp 20-21.                                                  Coedty, Creggan Upper, Cwm Carne,                                    catastrophic failures. A list of ten catastrophic dam failures between 1960 and 1971 includes two from Northern
                                                                                            Dale Dyke, Darwen, Diggle Moss,                                      Ireland where the Reservoirs Act 1975 does not apply. However, no catastrophic failures are known since the
                                                                                            Glanderston, Hyes Pond, Low Dam,                                     1975 Act came into force in 1985-86. Even very small reservoirs can in some locations pose a significant threat,
                                                                                            Lurgashall, Rishton, Skelmorlie,                                     but those posing a very low hazard need not have the same stringent safety procedures as high hazard dams.
                                                                                            Sligneath, Swinhopehead, Trewitt
                                                                                            Lake, Tunnel End, Warmwithens,
                                                                                            Welsh Harp, Whinhill

  1994    22      Bridle         BRIDLE R C and ROBERTSHAW A (1994). Open                   Winscar                              Upstream slope protection       Following erosion of a bedded sandstone slope below the spillweir at Winscar reservoir, it was decided to
                                 stone asphalt wave protection. Dams and Reservoirs,                                                                             protect the surface with a 200 mm deep layer of open stone asphalt placed on a 400 mm deep bituminous sand
                                 vol 4, no 3, October, p22.                                                                                                      regulating layer. The protection was laid in October and early November 1991 when the reservoir level was low,
                                                                                                                                                                 and to date it has performed satisfactorily.

  1994    23      Thompson       The report is a summary of a presentation on the                                                Environment/social/planning     The project aims to exploit the hydropower potential of the river Danube in Slovakia.
                                 Gabcikovo- Nagymaros project, Slovakia, by Miroslav
                                 Liska to a joint BDS/ICE meeting at the Institution of
                                 Civil Engineers, 16th May 1994.

  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 5, no 1, February 1995

 Date     Page    First author                    Contents/Reference                        Dams                                 Subjects                        Brief summary
  1995    2       Tedd           Books on British dams.                                                                                                          A number of books have been published in recent years relating to the history of British dams. G M Binnie, Early
                                                                                                                                                                 dam builders in Britain , Thomas Telford, 1987; G M Binnie, Early Victorian water engineers , Thomas Telford,
                                                                                                                                                                 1981; H D Bowtell, Reservoir railways of the Yorkshire Pennines , Oakwood Press, 1979; H D Bowtell,
                                                                                                                                                                 Reservoir railways of Manchester and the Peak, Oakwood Press, 1979; T Quayle, Reservoirs in the hills - the
                                                                                                                                                                 story of the construction of the reservoirs in the Longdendale Valley , Mopok Graphics, Glossop; B Robinson,
                                                                                                                                                                 Walls across the valley - the building of the Howden and Derwent dams , Scarthin Books, 1993; N Hoyle and K
                                                                                                                                                                 Sankey, Thirlmere Water: a hundred miles, a hundred years , Centwrite, Bury, 1994; N Hoyle, Reservoirs from
                                                                                                                                                                 Rivington to Rossendale , North West Water, 1987; D Archer, Land of singing waters - rivers and great floods of
                                                                                                                                                                 Northumbria , Spredden Press, Stocksfield, 1992.

  1995    2                      New ICOLD Bulletins: 96 - Dams and environment,
                                 water quality and climate; 97 - Tailings dams, design of
                                 drainage.
  1995    3                      British Dam Society annual report for 1994.
  1995    4                      Reports of ICOLD Technical Committees.
  1995    6                      Summaries of ten British papers submitted to 18th          Benutan (Brunei), Gaborone           Concrete deterioration,
                                 ICOLD Congress, Durban, November 1994.                     (Botswana), Glendevon Upper,         Environment/social/planning,
                                                                                            Roadford, Roseires (Sudan),          Heightening, Legislation, Outlet
                                                                                            Roundhill, Val de la Mare (Jersey)   & intake works, Overflow
                                                                                                                                 works, Rockfill, Waste
                                                                                                                                 impoundments
  1995    7       Kennard        KENNARD M F and HAY I (1995). A 17th century               Willey Park Lower Pool               Outlet & intake works            The Lower Pool at Willey Park in Shropshire was built to half its present height in about 1650 and subsequently
                                 timber draw-off. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 5, no 1,                                                                                 raised. In 1993 a leak developed in the upper of two existing culverts and lowering the reservoir revealed old
                                 February, pp 7-8.                                                                                                                timber draw-off structures on both culverts, which closely resembled the design of the naturalist John Taverner
                                                                                                                                                                  published in 1600.
  1995    9       Appleby        Report on BDS visit to Elvington balancing and settling Elvington                               Geomembranes                     Papers on the scheme and the performance of the HDPE lined reservoirs are published June 1996 of Dams &
                                 reservoirs project, 28th September 1994.                                                                                         Reservoirs and in the 2004 BDS Conference.
  1995    10      Sims           SIMS G P (1995). Some aspects of the design of          Carhuaquero (Peru)                      Grouting, Overflow works,        The 40 m high concrete dam was completed in 1991 in the foothills of the Andes in a narrow gorge in solid rock.
                                 Carhuaquero dam, Peru. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 5, no                                             Seismic assessment               The design had to take account of three major shears in the volcanic foundation rock and a grout curtain was
                                 1, February, pp 10-13.                                                                                                           constructed around the dam. Relatively deep radial gates were chosen in order to allow the upper levels of the
                                                                                                                                                                  reservoir near the dam to be flushed of sediment. The design philosophy adopted with respect to the effects of
                                                                                                                                                                  floods and earthquakes was in terms of two events; a design event at which the dam should continue to be fully
                                                                                                                                                                  operational and an extreme event which the dam should survive without major structural damage. Peruvian
                                                                                                                                                                  National Regulations stipulate how structures have to be designed to withstand earthquakes; the horizontal peak
                                                                                                                                                                  ground acceleration was 0.12g for the design earthquake and 0.25g for the maximum credible earthquake.




                                                                                                                                                        29
Dams Reservoirs



  1995    14      Daniell        DANIELL W E and MADABHUSHI S P G (1995).                  Castaic Lake (USA), Hollywood Upper Earthquake damage                      Following the Northridge earthquake of 17th January 1994, which measured 6.6 on the Richter scale, several
                                 Performance of dams and appurtenant works during          (USA), Los Angeles (USA), Pacoima                                          dams in the affected area were visited by the UK Earthquake Engineering Field Investigation Team. Generally
                                 the 1994 Northridge earthquake, Los Angeles. Dams &       (USA), San Fernando Lower (USA),                                           the dams performed satisfactorily with minor cracking in some embankments and significant cracking in the
                                 Reservoirs, vol 5, no 1, February, pp 14-17. (The paper   San Fernando Upper (USA)                                                   earth dams at the Los Angeles reservoir and at the 113 m high Pacoima concrete arch dam. At the time of the
                                 is a summary of a presentation made to a BDS                                                                                         earthquake the reservoir level at Pacoima was below the cracked portion of the dam; had the water level been
                                 meeting at the Institution of Civil Engineers on 3rd                                                                                 higher the damage might have been more serious. A number of access bridges to intake towers were damaged.
                                 October 1994.)                                                                                                                       Since there are many dams in the Los Angeles region and only two suffered notable damage, which in neither
                                                                                                                                                                      case was sufficient to lead to failure, it can be concluded that the dams performed very well during this moderate
                                                                                                                                                                      earthquake.
  1995    18      Penman         Some impressions of the ICOLD 62nd Executive              Boundary (USA), Cajura (Brazil),                                           This is the first section of Dr Penman's article; the second part appears in the June 1995 edition of Dams &
                                 Meeting and 18th International Congress, Durban,          Chambon (France), Charlwood                                                Reservoirs. This section of the report deals with the Executive Meetings, Question 68 'Safety control, monitoring,
                                 1994.                                                     (Canada), Contra (Switzerland),                                            safety assessment and remedial measures for existing dams' and Question 69 'Environmental experience
                                                                                           Glendevon Upper, La Rive (France),                                         gained from reservoirs in operation'.
                                                                                           Pongolapoort (South Africa),San
                                                                                           Fernando (USA), Tucurui (Brazil), Val
                                                                                           de La Mare (Jersey), Zoeknog (South
                                                                                           Africa)
  1995    25      Tedd           BDS members' comments on proposed changes to                                                                                         A footnote informs readers that the Reservoirs Committee had decided not to recommend any changes in the
                                 panel structure of Reservoirs Act 1975.                                                                                              existing panel structure.

  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 5, no 2, June 1995

 Date     Page    First author                     Contents/Reference                      Dams                                       Subjects                        Brief summary
  1995    3       Kennard        KENNARD M F (1995). 1994 Geoffrey Binnie lecture          Aldenham, Balderhead, Backwater,           Cut-off trenches, Grouting,     The last forty years have seen a tremendous growth in geotechnical engineering which has had a major
                                 1994: Four decades of development of British              Carsington (1), Carsington (2), Chew       Instrumentation/monitoring,     influence on the design and construction of embankment dams. The development of British embankment dams
                                 embankment dams. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 5, no 2,          Valley Lake, Cow Green, Derwent            Movement monitoring, Pore       is described in four areas: embankment cross-sections and slope stability; reservoir drawdown; seepage and cut-
                                 June, pp 3-14. (Also published in Supplementary issue     (Durham), Draycote, Grafham Water          pressure (construction), Pore   offs; construction control and instrumentation. Extensive reference is made to published papers and the
                                 of Dams and Reservoirs, pp 1-30.)                         (Diddington), Kielder, Knockendon,         pressure (seepage), Puddle      importance of these for the design engineer is emphasised. In the light of this the author expresses the hope
                                                                                           Ladybower, Lluest Wen, Llyn Celyn,         clay, Reservoir drawdown,       that one day a comprehensive bibliography will be published.
                                                                                           Muirhead, Rutland Water                    Seepage & leakage, Slope
                                                                                           (Empingham), Selset, Shira Lower,          stability
                                                                                           Sutton Bingham, Usk, William Girling
                                                                                           (Chingford)
  1995    15      Charles        Report on European Research and Development
                                 Working Groups. (These working groups were formed
                                 subsequent to the first European Symposium on Dams
                                 held at Chambery in 1993.)
  1995    16      Essex          Report on ICE seminar on 'Reservoirs - an                 Aswan High (Egypt), Bewl, Farmoor,         Environment/social/planning
                                 environmental gain?', held at the Institution of Civil    Kielder, Three Gorges (China)
                                 Engineers on 13th February 1995. (The keynote
                                 speaker was David Bellamy.)
  1995    17      Tedd           Books on British dams.                                                                                                               The following books on dams can be added to the list given in the previous issue of Dams & Reservoirs: H D
                                                                                                                                                                      Bowtell, Lesser railways of Bowland Forest and Craven country and the dam builders in the age of steam ,
                                                                                                                                                                      Plateway Press, 1988; H D Bowtell, Lesser railways of the Yorkshire Dales and the dam builders in the age of
                                                                                                                                                                      steam , Plateway Press, 1991; H D Bowtell, Dam builders' railways from Durham's Dales to the Border ,
                                                                                                                                                                      Plateway Press, Brighton, 1994; G Hill, Tunnel and dam - the story of the Galloway Hydros , South of Scotland
                                                                                                                                                                      Electricity Board; P L Payne, The hydro - a study of the development of the major hydro-electric schemes
                                                                                                                                                                      undertaken for the North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Board, Aberdeen University Press, 1988; D Tipper, The
                                                                                                                                                                      Talybont saga, Welsh Water.
  1995    18      Penman         Some impressions of the ICOLD 62nd Executive              Arrow (Canada), Foz do Areia (Brazil),                                     This is the concluding section of Dr Penman's article; the first part appears in the February 1995 edition of Dams
                                 Meeting and 18th International Congress, Durban,          Guri (Venezuela), Itaipu (Brazil), Karun                                   & Reservoirs. This section of the report deals with Question 70 'Staged construction' and Question 71
                                 1994.                                                     I (Iran), Katse (Lesotho), Moehne                                          'Deterioration of spillways and outlets'.
                                                                                           (Germany), Pit 6 (USA), Renegado
                                                                                           (Spain), Roosevelt (USA), Roseires
                                                                                           (Sudan), Sebwarkwe (Zimbabwe),
                                                                                           Stettynskloof (South Africa), Tarbela
                                                                                           (Pakistan), Tolla (Corsica, France),
                                                                                           Wriggleswade (South Africa)

  1995    22      Hardwick       HARDWICK J D (1995). Spillways ancient and                Arminou (Cyprus), Dale Dyke (2),           Overflow works                  Physical model studies of existing spillways and projected spillways have differing aims: in the former case a
                                 modern. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 5, no 2, pp 22-25.         Underbank                                                                  physical model can provide a reliable prediction of spillway capacity and can be used to investigate the
                                 (The paper is a summary of a talk given to BDS in                                                                                    effectiveness of proposed modifications; in the latter case the primary objective is to achieve the required
                                 Bristol, November 1994.)                                                                                                             capacity at the lowest cost and since the structure is still at the design stage radical alternatives can be
                                                                                                                                                                      considered. Three examples illustrate the use of physical models: Dale Dyke completed in 1887; Underbank
                                                                                                                                                                      completed in 1907; the projected Arminou dam to be built near Paphos in Cyprus. For Dale Dyke a two-
                                                                                                                                                                      dimensional model was used and it was concluded that the probable maximum flood (PMF) could be discharged
                                                                                                                                                                      without posing a serious threat to the dam. At Underbank tests using a 1:40 scale model indicated that
                                                                                                                                                                      significant modifications were required. The spillway for the projected Arminou dam was modelled at a scale of
                                                                                                                                                                      1:65.
  1995    26      Hughes         Hughes A K (1995). Another dam failure in the UK!         Blakedown (Ladies Pool)                    Catastrophic failures           An article describes the dam failure in 1848 in which failure of a small dam led to the overtopping and failure of
                                                                                                                                                                      an 8m high dam containing some 130 x 103 m3.



                                                                                                                                                              30
Dams Reservoirs



  1995    27      Coxon          Obituary of John Michael McKenna.

  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 5, no 3, October 1995

 Date     Page    First author                    Contents/Reference                       Dams                                    Subjects                     Brief summary
  1995    2                      Book news: E Jones and D Gwyn, Dolgarrog: an
                                 industrial history , Gwynedd Archives; Canadian Dam
                                 Safety Association, Guidelines for existing dams .

  1995    2       Charles        Bibliography of British dams: BRE is compiling a
                                 comprehensive bibliography relating to all dams which
                                 come within the ambit of the Reservoirs Act 1975.

  1995    3                      Report on 2nd BDS Supervising Engineers Forum,            Combs                                                                The forum had three sessions: session 1 - implementing safety recommendations; session 2 - monitoring and
                                 April 1995.                                                                                                                    surveillance; session 3 - emergency planning.




  1995    5       Tedd           Report on 4th International Symposium on Field            Clocotis (Romania), Fontenelle (USA),                                The symposium had three sessions: session 1 - use of instrumentation and monitoring systems to resolve
                                 Measurements in Geomechanics, Bergamo, April              Ravedis (Italy), Segredo (Brazil),                                   problems; session 2 - problems related to the use of instrumentation and monitoring; session 3 - new
                                 1995.                                                     Valea de Pesti (Romania)                                             technologies.




  1995    7                      Reports of ICOLD Technical Committees
  1995    11                     New ICOLD Bulletins: 98 - Tailings dams and
                                 seismicity, review and recommendations; 99 - Dam
                                 failures, statistical analysis; 100 - Dams and
                                 environment, Ridracoli - a model achievement; 101 -
                                 Tailings dams, transport, placement and decantation.
  1995    12      Penman         Report of ICOLD Annual Meeting, Oslo, July 1995.          Cahora Bassa (Mozambique),                                           The report summarises the one day symposium " Reservoirs in river basin development". Three special lectures
                                                                                           Dokkfloy (Norway), Elf Creek (USA),                                  were given; roller compacted concrete, public relations and innovative financing of dams and river projects.
                                                                                           Hunderfossen (Norway), Kariba
                                                                                           (Zimbabwe/Zambia), Mangla
                                                                                           (Pakistan), Pareloup (France), Peruca
                                                                                           (Croatia), Three Gorges (China),
                                                                                           Willow Creek (USA)
  1995    17      Collier        COLLIER C G and HARDAKER P J (1995). Radar and                                                    Flood estimation/hydrology   Design floods for major reservoirs are often based on the probable maximum flood (PMF) which arises from the
                                 storm model-based estimation of probable maximum                                                                               probable maximum precipitation (PMP); the spillway is usually designed to take the maximum flow occurring
                                 precipitation in the tropics. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 5,                                                                        during the PMF. A thermodynamic storm model has been developed and used to estimate PMP for a catchment
                                 no 3, October, pp 17-21.                                                                                                       in peninsular Malaysia. The storm model provides estimates of PMP which are reasonably consistent with
                                                                                                                                                                previously published estimates, but somewhat lower than the largest published values. A twelve hour storm
                                                                                                                                                                model PMP hyetograph has been compared with the hyetograph observed from a convective storm over Hong
                                                                                                                                                                Kong with encouraging results.

  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 6, no 1, February 1996

 Date     Page    First author                    Contents/Reference                       Dams                                    Subjects                     Brief summary
  1996    2                      ICOLD Technical Committees: UK representatives.
  1996    3       Johnston       BDS Annual Report for 1995.



  1996    4       Tedd           Report on 2nd European Symposium, Research and            Grande-Dixence (Switzerland),                                        The four sessions dealt with, respectively, embankment dams, hydrology, concrete dams and monitoring.
                                 Development in the field of Dams, Crans-Montana,          Karameh (Jordan), Zeuzier                                            Technical tours to Zeuzier, Z'Mutt and Grande-Dixence are also described.
                                 September 1995.                                           (Switzerland), Z'mutt (Switzerland)
  1996    6       Law            Dam failures                                              Bilberry, Dale Dyke                     Catastrophic failures        Two accounts are reproduced from H Schroder's compilation "The Annals of Yorkshire" published in 1852.
  1996    7       Robinson       ROBINSON B (1996). Walls across the valley - the         Derwent, Howden                                                       On 9th August 1899 the Derwent Valley Water Act received the royal assent and by it the Derwent Valley Water
                                 building of the Howden and Derwent dams. Dams &                                                                                Board (DVWB) was incorporated. In 1900 Edward Sandeman was appointed as the Engineer to the DVWB and
                                 Reservoirs, vol 6, no 1, February, pp 7-14. (The paper                                                                         he proposed that the Howden and Derwent dams should be constructed of masonry. Excavations for the
                                 is a condensed version of the talk that Dr Robinson                                                                            foundations of the Howden dam began in July 1901 and for the Derwent dam in July 1902. At both sites an
                                 gave to BDS at the Institution of Civil Engineers on 2nd                                                                       unexpected geological feature required a deeper foundation excavation than had been anticipated. The heart of
                                 October 1995.)                                                                                                                 both dams consists of large displacers, comprising undressed stones up to six tonnes in weight, embedded in
                                                                                                                                                                concrete. Reservoir impounding at Howden commenced in 1912 and at Derwent in 1915. A full account of the
                                                                                                                                                                construction of the dams is given in the book by the author.




                                                                                                                                                           31
Dams Reservoirs



  1996    14      Robertshaw British Dam Society Prize 1995. David Smith won the
                             1995 prize, Andrew Dodd and Fiona Murphy were
                             runners-up. The papers of all five entrants have been
                             published in Dams & Reservoirs.


  1996    15      Smith          SMITH D A (1996). Pollan dam - incorporating                 Pollan (Irish Republic)   Environment/social/planning   The proposed 21 m high Pollan dam comprises a central concrete gravity section between two rockfill
                                 environmental mitigation into dam design. Dams &                                                                     embankments. The effects of reservoir development were carefully examined through environmental
                                 Reservoirs, vol 6, no 1, February, pp 15-20. (This                                                                   assessments. The Crana river contains major salmonid spawning grounds and juvenile salmon populate areas
                                 paper was awarded the 1995 British Dam Society                                                                       upstream of the dam site. Mitigation measures to prevent damage to the fishery include a complex
                                 Prize)                                                                                                               compensation flow strategy and the provision of a fish lift. The mitigation measures, which amounted to as
                                                                                                                                                      much as 20% of the basic scheme, had a major influence on the design of the dam but enabled it the scheme to
                                                                                                                                                      proceed smoothly through the public inquiry.
  1996    20      Dodd           DODD A (1996). Lesotho Highlands water project: the          Katse (Lesotho)           Arch dam design/construction, Foundation excavation for the 185 m high double curvature arch dam was completed in August 1993 and
                                 first 500 000 cubic metres of Katse dam concrete.                                      Concrete mix and cement       consolidation and curtain grouting was then carried out. The 24 MPa mass concrete incorporates 70% ordinary
                                 Dams & Reservoirs, vol 6, no 1, February, pp 20-24.                                                                  portland cement and 30% pulverised fuel ash, various additives, water from the river and aggregate quarried
                                 (This paper was a runner-up in the 1995 British Dam                                                                  and processed on site. Initial mix trials were performed including a mass concrete test block which included
                                 Society Prize competition.)                                                                                          thermocouples. The dam blocks are 2.5 m high and by the end of March 1994, some 500 000 cubic metres of
                                                                                                                                                      concrete had been placed.
  1996    24      Murphy         MURPHY F (1996). The design and installation of an           Elvington                 Geomembranes                     Three settling and balancing reservoirs have been constructed at Elvington Water Treatment Works, near York,
                                 exposed high density polyethylene reservoir liner.                                                                      on a cut-and-fill basis. Since concrete would not withstand long term differential settlement, an impermeable
                                 Dams & Reservoirs, vol 6, no 1, February, pp 24-28.                                                                     flexible reservoir liner of 2.5 mm thick HDPE was installed over a total area of 95 000 square metres. Strong,
                                 (This paper was a runner-up in the 1995 British Dam                                                                     sound and continuous welds are vital and welds were tested both on site and in the manufacturer's laboratory.
                                 Society Prize competition.)                                                                                             The reservoirs are currently being tested and the whole scheme should be operational in October 1995.

  1996    29      Sims           Report on conference on repairs to Peruca dam, Split.                                                                   The inspection gallery of Peruca dam was mined by the Serbian army in January 1993. The 470 page
                                                                                                                                                         proceedings of the conference records the entire investigation in detail.

  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 6, no 2, June 1996

 Date     Page    First author                    Contents/Reference                          Dams                      Subjects                         Brief summary
  1996    2                      New ICOLD Bulletins: 102 - Vibrations of hydraulic
                                 equipment for dams; 103 - Tailings dams and
                                 environment.
  1996    2       Vincent        The reservoirs safety research programme of the                                                                         The following published guides have resulted from research projects that have received funding from DoE: (a)
                                 Department of the Environment.                                                                                          An engineering guide to the safety of embankment dams in the United Kingdom; (b) An engineering guide to
                                                                                                                                                         seismic risk to dams in the United Kingdom; (c) Floods, waves and reservoir safety - an engineering guide; (d)
                                                                                                                                                         Engineering guide to the safety of concrete and masonry dam structures in the UK; (e) Small-embankment type
                                                                                                                                                         reservoirs for water supply and amenity use; (f) Performance of blockwork and slabbing protection for dam
                                                                                                                                                         faces; (g) Valves, pipework and associated equipment - a guide to condition assessment; (h) Investigating
                                                                                                                                                         embankment dams: a guide to the identification and repair of defects.

  1996    3       Ervine         ERVINE D A (1996). Recent advances in spillway               Spillway hydraulics                                        Current research is reviewed in five areas: stepped spillways, impinging jet spillways, 'Hydroplus' fusegate
                                 research and modelling. Dams and Reservoirs, vol 6,                                                                     spillways, labyrinth spillways and aerators for chute spillways. A helpful reference list is provided for each subject
                                 no 2, June, pp 3-11.                                                                                                    area. The two sections on stepped spillways are of particular interest: there has recently been renewed interest
                                                                                                                                                         in stepped spillways since 80-90% of the head available can be dissipated before the flow enters the
                                                                                                                                                         downstream dissipator. The focus of the paper is on design and physical modelling, a later paper deals with
                                                                                                                                                         numerical modelling (Ellis J, Dams and Reservoirs, vol 6, no 3, November 1996).
  1996    12      Hewitt         HEWITT T M (1996). Construction of remedial works to Glendevon Upper                   Outlet & intake works, Rockfill, Downstream leakage and high uplift pressures at the 45 m high Upper Glendevon concrete gravity dam had led
                                 Upper Glendevon dam, Scotland. Dams and                                                Uplift/overturning in concrete   to restrictions on the impounding capacity. A rockfill embankment was designed and constructed to support the
                                 Reservoirs, vol 6, no 2, June, pp 12-16. (This was one                                 dams                             downstream face, with work commencing in May 1992 and substantially complete by December 1993. During
                                 of the papers submitted to the 1995 BDS prize                                                                           rock excavation for the spillweir and upper section of the spillway large scale wedge failures became apparent
                                 competition.)                                                                                                           on clay slickensided shear planes, necessitating a redesign of the excavation with a much greater excavation of
                                                                                                                                                         rock.
  1996    17      King           KING R A (1996). Seismic risk assessment for                                           Seismic assessment                An assessment of seismic risk has been made for the proposed Dande dam in northern Zimbabwe and at two
                                 embankments in regions of low seismic activity. Dams                                                                    existing dams in Yorkshire. The possibility of reservoir induced seismicity is considered in assessing the stability
                                 and Reservoirs, vol 6, no 2, June, pp 17-22. (This was                                                                  of the Dande embankment dam. It is concluded that the safety and operation of most UK embankment dams will
                                 one of the papers submitted to the 1995 BDS prize                                                                       not be compromised by seismic activity during their expected lifetimes and the possibility of failure during a
                                 competition.)                                                                                                           maximum credible earthquake is minimal.
  1996    23      Parker         PARKER J and REA J (1996). Improving the                     Farmoor                   Environment/social/planning      In 1988 a master plan for Farmoor recommeded the following features to improve public access and wildlife
                                 environment at Farmoor. Dams and Reservoirs, vol 6,                                                                     conservation: the construction of a circular footpath; the creation of wetland habitats; additional tree planting; a
                                 no 2, June, pp 23-25.                                                                                                   picnic area and disabled viewing area; grassland management to diversify habitats; tern rafts; provision of bird
                                                                                                                                                         hides and interpretation centre. All the recommendations have been implemented at minimal cost. It is
                                                                                                                                                         emphasised that a reservoir offers huge scope for promoting wildlife and the provision of safe access, which
                                                                                                                                                         encourages responsible members of the public onto the site, can discourage vandalism.

  1996    26      Smith          Floods, waves and reservoir safety: a report on the                                    Flood estimation/hydrology,
                                 joint meeting of the British Dam Society and the British                               Guides & surveys, Hazard &
                                 Hydrological Society at the Institution of Civil Engineers                             risk management, Overtopping,
                                 on 25th March 1996 to introduce the new edition of                                     Upstream slope protection,
                                 'Floods and reservoir safety'.                                                         Wind & waves




                                                                                                                                                32
Dams Reservoirs



  1996    29                     Bibliography of British dams: the main purpose of the
                                 bibliography is to list publications which provide
                                 information about specific dams to which the
                                 Reservoirs Act 1975 applies.

  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 6, no 3, November 1996

 Date     Page    First author                    Contents/Reference                     Dams                                 Subjects                        Brief summary
  1996    2                      New ICOLD Bulletins: 104 - Monitoring of tailings
                                 dams; 105 - Dams and related structures in cold
                                 climate.
  1996    3       Robbroeck      ROBBROECK T van (1996). Geoffrey Binnie Lecture         High Aswan (Egypt), Katse (Lesotho), Environment/social/planning,    Reservoir developments face opposition from an environmental lobby which is not only opposed to large dams,
                                 1996: Reservoirs: bane or boon? Dams & Reservoirs,      Mangla (Pakistan), Quoich, Vaal      Sedimentation                   but also to economic development of any kind: the people who campaign against hydro-electric projects are also
                                 vol 6, no 3, November, pp 3-10.                         (South Africa)                                                       opposed to fossil fuel and nuclear power stations. Over and against such views it is asserted that modern
                                                                                                                                                              science and technology have upset the population balance and now only modern science and technology can
                                                                                                                                                              retrieve the situation. The moderate environmentally conscious public needs to be made aware of the benefits of
                                                                                                                                                              reservoirs. However, legitimate criticisms of reservoir projects from informed sources must be acted upon.
  1996    10      Perrings       BDS 9th Biennial Conference, York, September 1996:
                                 opening remarks by Professor Charles Perrings.

  1996    11      Penman         The reservoir as an asset: an impression by Dr A D M Badinsgill, Carron, Cow Green,                                          The report provides a comprehensive summary of the papers, presentations and discussion under the headings
                                 Penman of the 9th Biennial Conference of the British Glensherup, Grimwith, Katse                                             of spillways, embankment dams, concrete and service reservoirs, detection deterioration and faults, the role of
                                 Dam Society, York, September 1996.                   (Lesotho), La Paloma (Chile), Longtan                                   the inspecting engineer and the reservoir as an asset.
                                                                                      (China), Mangla (Pakistan),
                                                                                      Messochora (Greece), Muela
                                                                                      (Lesotho), Mujib (Jordan),
                                                                                      Platanovryssi (Greece), Porce II
                                                                                      (Colombia), Rivelin Upper, Scar
                                                                                      House, Stillwater Upper (USA),
                                                                                      Tannur (Jordan), Tarbela (Pakistan),
                                                                                      Torr Achilty, Wala (Jordan), Walshaw
                                                                                      Dean Lower, Winterburn
  1996    17      Carter         Repair and upgrading of dams: report on 3rd European Barasona (Spain), Bostal (Germany),                                     The four sessions dealt with, respectively, concrete dams, embankment dams, upgrading for extreme floods,
                                 Symposium, Stockholm, June 1996.                     Porjus (Sweden), Solbergfloss                                           European Working Groups. (The first European Symposium on dams was held in Chambery in 1993 and the
                                                                                      (Norway), Suorva (Sweden)                                               second in Crans-Montana in Switzerland in 1995.)

  1996    20      Binnie         Derwent valley reservoirs - past and present. Report  Derwent, Howden, Ladybower
                                 on joint meeting of the British Dam Society and the
                                 Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental
                                 Management to celebrate the centenary of the founding
                                 of the Institution of Water Engineers, May 1996.

  1996    21      Lewin          Review of ICOLD Bulletin 102 - Vibration of hydraulic
                                 equipment for dams.
  1996    23      Gardiner       GARDINER K D, SELLARS P R C AND BAKER R               Brushes Clough*                        Discontinuance/abandonment, In 1988 the inspecting engineer recommended that the overflow capacity at Brushes Clough reservoir should be
                                 (1996). The discontinuance of Brushes Clough                                                 Overflow works, Spillway    increased to meet the requirements of a category A reservoir. Rather than undertake the extensive remedial
                                 reservoir. Report of British Dam Society meeting at                                          hydraulics                  works that this would have necessitated, it was decided to remove the reservoir from the ambit of the Reservoirs
                                 UMIST, 17th October 1995. Dams and Reservoirs, vol                                                                       Act 1975 by reducing its capacity to below 25Ml. Discontinuance required the crest to be lowered by 9 m and the
                                 6, no 3, November, pp 23-28.                                                                                             provision of a new overflow. A wedge block spillway was constructed and has performed satisfactorily, although
                                                                                                                                                          it has proved somewhat vulnerable to vandalism.
  1996    28      Ellis          ELLIS J (1996). Numerical modelling of spillway                                              Spillway hydraulics, Overflow   In the design of open channel spillway chutes a number of aspects of flow assume greater importance as the
                                 chutes. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 6, no 3, November, pp                                         works                           velocity of flow increases, including air entrainment, turbulent pressure fluctuations on the spillway floor and the
                                 28-33. (This paper is a sequel to Dr Ervine's paper                                                                          risk of cavitation. Physical scale models have often been used to resolve some of these issues, but more
                                 published in Dams & Reservoirs, vol 6, no 2, June                                                                            attention is now being given to the use of numerical models. The paper illustrates the use of a numerical model
                                 1996.)                                                                                                                       of two-dimensional, predominantly supercritical flow in a spillway channel. It is concluded that numerical models
                                                                                                                                                              have an important role in the preliminary design of new spillways where a range of options are available.


  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 7, no 1, March 1997

 Date     Page    First author                    Contents/Reference                     Dams                                 Subjects                        Brief summary
  1997    2                      New ICOLD Bulletin 106 - A guide to tailings dams and                                        Waste impoundment
                                 impoundments - design, construction, use and
                                 rehabilitation.
  1997    3                      British Dam Society - Annual Report for 1996.
  1997    4                      1997 BDS Prize Competition - notice of next
                                 competition in December 1997 and list of previous
                                 prize winners.
  1997    4                      ICE awards to BDS members.




                                                                                                                                                     33
Dams Reservoirs



  1997    5       Robertshaw Report on technical visits to Grimwith and Scar House Angram, Gouthwaite, Grimwith, Scar
                             reservoirs at 1996 BDS Conference held at York by A House
                             C Robertshaw
  1997    7       Sammons    Review of ICOLD Bulletin 104 - Monitoring of tailings                                                    Safety surveillance, Waste
                             dams by J Sammons                                                                                        impoundment
  1997    8       Penman         Shared experience - a report on the ICOLD 64th             Barahona (Chile), Caren (Chile), El       Catastrophic failures,          The report describes problems of shared rivers included in the papers of the one day symposium. A summary of
                                 Annual Meeting, Santiago, Chile, 1996, by A D M            Cobre (Chile), El Infiernillo (Mexico),   Earthquake damage, Waste        tailings dam construction and performance in Chile is given with detailed construction drawings.
                                 Penman                                                     Emosson (France), Irabia (Spain),         impoundment
                                                                                            Itaipu (Brazil), Los Leones (Chile),
                                                                                            Perez Caldera (Chile), Three Gorges
                                                                                            (China), Tortolas (Chile), Val d'Aran
                                                                                            (Spain), Yacyreta (Paraguay)
  1997    15      Hinks          Platanovryssi dam, Greece by JL Hinks and M R H            Platanovryssi (Greece)                    Concrete temperature, Roller    The article is a summary of the presentation given by J L Hinks and M R H Dunstan at the Institution of Civil
                                 Dunstan                                                                                              compacted concrete, Seismic     Engineers on 2nd December 1996. It is primarily concerned with the thermal modelling of the 95 m high roller
                                                                                                                                      assessment                      compacted concrete dam to avoid the problems of temperature induced cracking. The end product of the
                                                                                                                                                                      analysis is a pattern of induced joints. The seismic design based on a peak horizontal ground acceleration of
                                                                                                                                                                      0.38g.
  1997    18      Tedd           TEDD P, CHARLES J A and HOLTON I R (1997).                 Holmestyes, Ogden, Ramsden                Guides & surveys, Movement The measurement of crest settlement can have an important role in the safety management of an old
                                 Settlement of old embankment dams: a guide to              (Holmfirth), Walshaw Dean Lower,          monitoring, Safety surveillance embankment dam and it is important to determine whether movements measured in some cases more than 100
                                 measurement and interpretation. Dams and                   Widdop, Yateholme                                                         years after dam construction are due to some incipient malfunction. Mechanisms causing embankment
                                 Reservoirs, vol 7, no 1, March, pp 18-23.                                                                                            deformations are reviewed and guidance on the interpretation of crest settlement is given based on observations
                                                                                                                                                                      at a number of dams. The crests of dams with central cores of puddle clay settle when the reservoir is drawn
                                                                                                                                                                      down and only partially recover when the reservoir is refilled: these settlements do not necessarily indicate the
                                                                                                                                                                      development of an adverse situation.

  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 7, no 2, July 1997

 Date     Page    First author                    Contents/Reference                        Dams                                      Subjects                        Brief summary
  1997    2                      Obituary of Peter Milne
  1997    2                      Membership of the British Dam Society - age
                                 distribution of the members.
  1997    3       Martin         A communication from the Chairman by J Martin.             Ajdabiya (Libya), El Chocon
                                                                                            (Argentina), Mallaha (Jordan), Mosul
                                                                                            (Iraq), Samanalawewa (Sri Lanka)
  1997    5       Carter         Report on BDS visit to Pollan dam and reservoir            Pollan (Irish Republic)
                                 project on 26th September 1996 by I C Carter.
  1997    6       Tedd           Review of Geotechnique paper "Analysis of
                                 progressive failure and cracking in old British dams' by
                                 Dounias, Potts and Vaughan.
  1997    7       Charles        CHARLES J A (1997). Acceptable risk and reservoir          Bilberry, Dale Dyke, Fontenelle (USA), Catastrophic failures, Dam         Increasingly, it is expected that some form of risk analysis should be carried out for activities which impose risks
                                 safety. Dams and Reservoirs, vol 7, no 2, July, pp 7-      Peruca (Croatia), Warmwithens          break studies, Emergency           on the public and it is necessary to define the acceptable levels of individual and societal risk. A hazard such as
                                 12.                                                                                               plans, Hazard & risk               a dam failure which may affect a large number of people in a single catastrophe is less acceptable than every
                                                                                                                                   management, Legislation            day hazards, such as road accidents, which may in aggregate cause far more deaths but in each incident affect
                                                                                                                                                                      only one or two individuals. The reservoir safety research programme of the Department of the Environment has
                                                                                                                                                                      included several projects of direct relevance to risk assessment. One area in which the United Kingdom might
                                                                                                                                                                      be perceived to be weak in comparison with many European countries is the lack of specific legal requirements
                                                                                                                                                                      for emergency procedures.
  1997    12      Claydon        Report on joint BDS and BGS meeting on 'Deighton tip -                                               Catastrophic failures,          Deighton tip failed in February 1992 without warning and some 100, 000 m3 of sewage sludge flowed across
                                 failure, analysis and remedial works' presented by Jim                                               Legislation, Slope stability,   the river Colne causing it to rise 150mm per hour. The tip was regarded as a tailings dam and an AR panel
                                 Claydon, Hamish Eadie and Colin Harding. (The                                                        Waste impoundment               Engineer was appointed to supervise the remedial works.
                                 authors' paper has been published in the Transactions
                                 of the 19th International Congress on Large Dams,
                                 Florence, Q75, pp 233-245.)
  1997    15      Hoskins        Review of CIRIA report 161 - Small embankment                                                        Environment/social/planning,    The guide provides basis information for all aspects of small reservoir creation from conception, design,
                                 reservoirs by C G Hoskins                                                                            Guides & surveys                construction to maintenance and monitoring.
  1997    17      Knight         KNIGHT D J (1997). Embankment dams worldwide -             Acu (Brazil), Carsington, Coedty,         Catastrophic failures, Pore     The author spent his entire full-time career with Sir Alexander Gibb and Partners, and most of the time he was
                                 lessons and personal reflections from the past 40          Cowlyd, Eigiau, El Chocon                 pressure (seepage), Seepage     engaged in geotechnical and embankment dam engineering. His paper represents a major contribution to
                                 years - part 1. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 7, no 2, July, pp   (Argentina), Gaborone (Botswana),         & leakage, Slope stability,     embankment dam engineering. Part 1 of the paper covers various commonly encountered problems and the
                                 17-25. (The paper, which is in three parts, records the    Kiri (Nigeria), Loma de la Lata           Upstream slope protection       lessons that can be drawn from them in the areas of foundation geology, basic cross-section design,
                                 presentation on embankment dams made by the                (Argentina), Mangla (Pakistan),                                           construction processes, and slope protection. These topics are illustrated by reference to dams round the world,
                                 author at a BDS meeting held at the Institution of Civil   Portezuelo Grande (Argentina),                                            with many of which the author had direct personal involvement.
                                 Engineers on 27th January 1997.)                           Roseires (Sudan), Shashe
                                                                                            (Botswana), Tarbela (Pakistan), Teton
                                                                                            (USA), Upper Mun (Thailand)

  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 7, no 3, November 1997

 Date     Page    First author                    Contents/Reference                        Dams                                      Subjects                        Brief summary




                                                                                                                                                               34
Dams Reservoirs



  1997    2       Secretary,     Panel engineers appointed under the Reservoirs Act
                  Reservoirs     1975 - advice on reappointment to panels.
                  Committee
  1997    3                      Arthur Penman - Skempton Gold Medal Award.                                                                                              The Skempton Gold Medal is the highest accolade bestowed by the British Geotechnical Society.
  1997    3       Johnston       ICOLD news. New committee on dam safety and new
                                 Bulletin 107: Concrete dams - control and treatment of
                                 cracks.
  1997    4       Johnston       Obituary of (John) David Evans.
  1997    5       Scriven        Report on third BDS Supervising Engineers Forum,       Barrow no 3, Elton, Glascarnoch,            Guides & surveys, Legislation, Session 1 gave an owner's interpretation of the role of the supervising engineer. Session 2 was concerned with
                                 UMIST Manchester, 2nd April 1997 by J Scriven, G       Luxhay, Megget, Moor Loch, Ogden            Flood estimation/hydrology,     the use of the BRE, CIRIA and ICE technical guides by supervising engineers. Recent case histories of dam
                                 Yarwood and C Owens                                    Upper, Prescot, Walshaw Dean                Outlet & intake works, Overflow behaviour were presented in Session 3.
                                                                                        Middle, Walshaw Dean Upper                  works, Seepage & leakage,
                                                                                                                                    Slope stability

  1997    13      Penman         Report on 19th ICOLD Congress, Florence by A D M           Aswan High (Egypt), Bila Desna          Catastrophic failures, Culverts      The four questions dealt with, respectively, innovative financing of dam projects, special problems with earthfill
                                 Penman.                                                    (Czech Rep), Bilancino (Italy),         under embankments,                   dams, the performance of reservoirs, and, dam failures and lesser incidents. The report has a high technical
                                                                                            Canales (Spain), Dashidaira (Japan),    Earthquake damage, Internal          content covering subjects including internal erosion, acceptable deformations and liquefaction.
                                                                                            Genissiat (France), Itaipu (Brazil),    erosion/filters, Outlet & intake
                                                                                            Katse (Lesotho), Kolnbrein (Austria),   works, Overtopping,
                                                                                            Mohne (Germany), Mondely (France),      Sedimentation
                                                                                            Peruca (Croatia), Ringlet (Malaysia),
                                                                                            Santa Helena (Brazil), Seton
                                                                                            (Canada), Sorpe (Germany), Tarbela
                                                                                            (Pakistan), Terzaghi (Canada), Teton
                                                                                            (USA), Three Gorges (China),
                                                                                            Whitemans (Canada), Zoeknog
                                                                                            (South Africa)
  1997    19      Findlay        Report on Hydropower 97 conference, Trondheim, July                                                                                     One of the four conference themes was dam safety and risk management and the conference was preceded by
                                 1997 by J W Findlay                                                                                                                     a workshop on risk analysis for dam safety.
  1997    21      Harrison       HARRISON P C (1997). Bilberry reservoir leakage            Bilberry                                Culverts under embankments, Cavities were revealed around the outlet/overflow shaft during the 1995 drought. When the reservoir was
                                 repairs - August to October 1995. Dams and                                                         Seepage & leakage           pumped down for the remedial works to the shaft a sinkhole was discovered near the upstream toe close to the
                                 Reservoirs, vol 7, no 3, November, pp 21-24.                                                                                   mitre. The sinkhole was sealed with the unusual combination of fleece wool waste and bentonite. With the shaft
                                                                                                                                                                remedial works completed and the sinkhole sealed, on reservoir refilling leakage into the culvert was lower than
                                                                                                                                                                that quoted in the 1933 and 1943 statutory inspection reports.
  1997    25      Sammons        Report of a BDS meeting on 'Discontinuance of              Hewlett's no 4                          Discontinuance/abandonment, The report summarises the presentation given by Dejan Ajzenkol. It includes descriptions of leakage and slope
                                 Hewlett's no 4 service reservoir' held at Institution of                                           Service reservoirs          stability incident, and of the extensive geotechnical investigation that led to the discontinuance.
                                 Civil Engineers, 7th October 1996 by J Sammons.
  1997    27      Law            Dam failures by F Law                                      Crabtree Beck, Skelmorlie               Catastrophic failures
  1997    28      Knight         KNIGHT D J (1997). Embankment dams worldwide -             Ajdabiya (Libya), Brianne, El Chocon    Culverts under embankments,          The second part of the paper deals with concrete/earth interfaces, the use of instrumentation, dam raising,
                                 lessons and personal reflections from the past 40          (Argentina), Gaborone (Botswana),       Geomembranes, Heightening,           geomembranes, outlet culverts, tidal construction, wet cores, and dispersive clays. It is emphasised that there is
                                 years - part 2. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 7, no 3,            High Island (Hong Kong), Hinze          Instrumentation/monitoring,          a great difference between the general safety of an embankment dam as denoted by a factor of safety against
                                 November, pp 28-36.                                        (Australia), Huai Takien (Thailand),    Internal erosion/filters, Outlet &   slope instability and the unquantifiable margin of safety at critical locations such as where an outlet culvert
                                                                                            Huai Mai On (Thailand), Kantalai (Sri   intake works, Pore pressure          passes through the embankment. There have been numerous dam failures attributable to internal erosion along
                                                                                            Lanka), Monasavu (Fiji), Plover Cove    (construction)                       the soil/concrete interface due to bad geometrical design and absence of adequate filter protection. Under the
                                                                                            (Hong Kong), Roseires (Sudan),                                               section on dispersive clays, the spectacular explosive failure of Huai Takien due to internal erosion in less than
                                                                                            Samanalawewa (Sri Lanka), Shashe                                             nine hours is illustrated.
                                                                                            (Botswana), Wadaslintang
                                                                                            (Indonesia), Wadi Qattarah (Libya)

Dams & Reservoirs, vol 8, no 1, March 1998

 Date     Page    First author                     Contents/Reference                       Dams                                    Subjects                             Brief summary
  1998    2                      New ICOLD Bulletins:108 - Cost of flood control in
                                 dams; 109 - Dams less than thirty metres high - cost
                                 savings and safety improvements; 110 - Cost impact of
                                 rules, criteria and specifications.
  1998    3                      British Dam Society - Annual Report for 1997.

  1998    4       Hay            British Dam Society Prize - 1997. The winner of the
                                 competition was Mark Denny; Debbie Hay-Smith and
                                 Kevin Whaley were runners-up.
  1998    5       Denny          DENNY M (1998). Refurbishment of deep sluices at     Roseires (Sudan)                              Outlet & intake works,               Roseires dam, which is located on the Blue Nile 300 miles south of Khartoum, was constructed in the early
                                 Roseires dam. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 8, no 1, March,                                               Sedimentation                        1960s primarily to provide water for irrigation of the area between Roseires and Khartoum. Subsequently, the
                                 pp 5-10.                                                                                                                                hydro-power potential has been utilised. The reservoir is impounded by a 66 m high concrete buttress dam with
                                                                                                                                                                         earth embankment sections on each flank. The deep sluice stainless steel linings have deteriorated due to
                                                                                                                                                                         abrasion wear over thirty years. Design solutions for their refurbishment are discussed. Deterioration of other
                                                                                                                                                                         equipment at the deep sluices including wire ropes and caterpillar rollers is described. It is concluded that new
                                                                                                                                                                         equipment and refurbishment work on dams in remote locations must incorporate minimum maintenance
                                                                                                                                                                         features to ensure a long operating life in difficult environments.




                                                                                                                                                             35
Dams Reservoirs



  1998    11      Penman         Report by Dr Arthur Penman of lecture given by            Foz do Areia (Brazil), Segredo (Brazil), Concrete faced rockfill,          The construction and instrumentation of four concrete faced rockfill dams is described together with the results
                                 Professor Pedricto Rocha Filho on 'Behaviour of           Tianshenqiao (China), Xingo (Brazil) Movement monitoring                   of some of the equipment. Electro-levels were used to measure face deflections at two of the dams.
                                 concrete faced rockfill dams' at a joint meeting of BDS
                                 and BGS at the Institution of Civil Engineers on 26th
                                 January 1998.
  1998    15      Bridle         Institution of Civil Engineers - Reservoirs Committee.
                                 The status, composition and function of the committee
                                 is described by R C Bridle
  1998    15      Bridle         Recent and current CIRIA work on dams and
                                 reservoirs. Relevant reports are listed.
  1998    16                     ICOLD news: technical committees are listed and BDS
                                 papers in 1997 ICOLD congress transactions are
                                 identified.
  1998    17      Martin         MARTIN J (1998). The economics of reservoir asset         Cluanie, Dundreggan, Loyne,                Emergency plans, Hazard &       Hydro-Electric is the largest generator of conventional hydro-power in the United Kingdom, operating 66 hydro-
                                 management and maintenance. Dams & Reservoirs,            Mullardoch, Quoich, Sloy                   risk management, Legislation,   power stations. Out of a total of 84 dams, there are 45 concrete gravity dams, 7 buttress dams, 4 arch dams, 17
                                 vol 8, no 1, March, pp 17-20.                                                                        Outlet & intake works,          embankment dams and a number of composite embankment and concrete dams. Reservoir surveillance,
                                                                                                                                      Reservoir operation, Safety     operating costs, long term planning, risk assessment and refurbishment works are discussed. Two studies with
                                                                                                                                      surveillance, Seismic           implications for reservoir safety have recently begun: the first involves the seismic assessment of all dams and
                                                                                                                                      assessment                      the second is concerned with inundation mapping.
  1998    21      Millmore       Review of ICOLD Bulletin 103 -- Tailings dams and                                                    Environment/social/planning,
                                 environment: review and recommendations.                                                             Waste impoundment
  1998    22      Kennard        Dam failures. Further information is given on the         Skelmorlie                                 Catastrophic failures
                                 Skelmorlie failure of 1925 by M F Kennard
  1998    23      Knight         KNIGHT D J (1998). Embankment dams worldwide -            Aya (Philippines), Canili (Philippines),   Culverts under embankments,     The third and concluding part of the paper deals with fuse sections and overtopping, sinkholes, earthquakes,
                                 lessons and personal reflections from the past 40         Diayo (Philippines), Euclides de           Dynamic behaviour & analysis,   and filter relationships, all illustrated by practical examples drawn from the author's wide international experience
                                 years - part 3. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 8, no 1, March,    Cunha (Brazil), Gaborone (Botswana),       Earthquake damage, Internal     of embankment dams. The main lessons to be drawn are summarised: dam engineering requires an essentially
                                 pp 23-31.                                                 Karameh (Jordan), Magat                    erosion/filters, Overtopping,   three-dimensional outlook; outlet culverts and pipes through embankment dams are a potential danger unless
                                                                                           (Philippines), Masiway (Philippines),      Seismic assessment              they are properly engineered; site geology requires careful consideration throughout the design and construction
                                                                                           Pantabangan (Philippines), Shashe                                          process. While the recorded knowledge of the behaviour of dams will grow, its effective application depends on
                                                                                           (Botswana), Tarbela (Pakistan), Upper                                      a sensible dissemination and use of the collected experience.
                                                                                           Mun (Thailand), WAC Bennett
                                                                                           (Canada)
  1998    32      Jackson        Guidelines for articles for publication in Dams &
                                 Reservoirs, provided by the Technical Editor, Edward
                                 Jackson.

Dams & Reservoirs, vol 8, no 2, July 1998

 Date     Page    First author                    Contents/Reference                       Dams                                       Subjects                        Brief summary
  1998    2       Knight         Author's correction to minor error in paper published in
                                 vol 8, no 1 (p24).
  1998    3       Hay-Smith      HAY-SMITH D (1998). Remedial works to rip-rap            Megget                                      Grouting, Upstream slope        Damage to the rip-rap protecting the steep upstream slope (1 in 1.5) of the 56 m high gravel embankment
                                 protection at Megget Reservoir - assessment of                                                       protection                      occurred during first filling of the reservoir in 1983/84 and then during winter storms in a number of the following
                                 reinforcement with bituminous grout. Dams &                                                                                          years. A long term solution is required to increase the protection of the vulnerable area of the upstream face and
                                 Reservoirs, vol 8, no 2, July, pp 3-9. (This paper was                                                                               ensure that only minimum maintenance is required. Site trials have been carried out to examine the
                                 submitted to the 1997 BDS prize competition.)                                                                                        effectiveness of grouting reinforcement of the existing rip-rap face using bituminous or cementitious grout. The
                                                                                                                                                                      trials investigated the suitability of pattern grouting to improve resistance to wave attack while allowing for
                                                                                                                                                                      dissipation of wave energy between the voids.
  1998    10      Findlay        Risk analysis for dam safety: report on two-day                                                      Hazard & risk management        On the first day reports were presented from eleven countries and on the second day key topics on risk analysis
                                 international workshop on dam risk that preceded                                                                                     for dams were discussed including the relative merits of quantitative and qualitative approaches and technical
                                 Hydropower 97 conference by J W Findlay.                                                                                             standards.
  1998    11      Makinson       MAKINSON C (1998). Downstream slope protection of Ajdabiyah (Libya), Chadarra                                                        In an arid climate, where grass is not an option, earthfill embankments are usually protected by sandy gravel
                                 embankment dams. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 8, no 2, (Kazakstan), El Chocon (Argentina),                                                 mixtures or clean gravel layers of screened or crushed material. Inadequate downstream slope protection can
                                 July, pp 11-14.                                   Gaborone (Botswana), Kafrein                                                       lead to severe maintenance problems associated with gulley formation which concentrates run-off from
                                                                                   (Jordan), Karameh (Jordan), Mornos                                                 occasional heavy rainstorms. A chart summarises the types of material used for slope protection plotted against
                                                                                   (Greece), Roseires (Sudan), Wadi                                                   different combinations of slope height and slope angle. Nine brief case records are presented.
                                                                                   Schueib (Jordan)
  1998    15      Whaley         WHALEY K (1998). The reconstruction of Kagara dam, Kagara (Nigeria)                                  Outlet & intake works, Overflow Construction of the 30 m high embankment dam and its ancillary works commenced in the early 1980s, but was
                                 Nigeria. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 8, no 2, July, pp 15-                                                works, Spillway hydraulics      abandoned in 1982 due to lack of funding. In 1992 a contract was let to complete the dam incorporating as much
                                 20. (This paper was submitted to the BDS prize                                                                                       of the earlier work as practicable. However, it was found that it was not always possible to incorporate existing
                                 competition, 1997.)                                                                                                                  structures into the new scheme; in some circumstances even an extensive investigation could not guarantee
                                                                                                                                                                      that an existing structure could be upgraded to the necessary standard. Furthermore, the cost of removing an
                                                                                                                                                                      existing structure and then building a new one could be less than the cost of upgrading.




                                                                                                                                                               36
Dams Reservoirs



  1998    21      Sawyer         SAWYER J R (1998). Design of Katse dam. Dams &             Katse (Lesotho)                         Dynamic behaviour & analysis, Phase 1A of the Lesotho Highlands Water Project, which is nearing completion, includes the 185 m high Katse
                                 Reservoirs, vol 8, no 2, July, pp 21-25.                                                           Instrumentation/monitoring,   double curvature arch dam. The arch was analysed using a succession of finite element analyses: initial design
                                                                                                                                    Spillway hydraulics           used linear elastic models, subsequent non-linear analysis considered the effect of water pressure in potential
                                                                                                                                                                  joints and cracks, and finally dynamic analysis of the dam, foundation and reservoir was carried out. A section of
                                                                                                                                                                  the spillway was modelled at 1:30 and the entire dam, ancillary works and river channel at 1:70 for hydraulic
                                                                                                                                                                  model tests. An extensive instrumentation system is installed in the dam.

  1998    26      Cotterell      COTTERELL C C (1998). The construction of Katse            Katse (Lesotho)                         Concrete mix & cement,            The contract for the construction of Katse double curvature concrete arch dam was awarded in December 1990
                                 dam. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 8, no 2, July, pp 26-28.                                               Concrete temperature,             and substantial completion of the 72 month contract was achieved in May 1997. Within the body of the dam a
                                                                                                                                    Drainage                          labyrinth of 7300 m of galleries was formed, mostly extending into the abutting bedrock for drainage purposes.
                                                                                                                                                                      Construction joints between adjacent blocks of the dam were made watertight by rubber waterstops beneath the
                                                                                                                                                                      upstream face and PVC beneath the downstream face. Katse reservoir is now full and water transfer to South
                                                                                                                                                                      Africa commenced early in 1998.
  1998    29      Martin         Los Niños by J H Martin.                                                                                                             The mechanisms of Los Niños in the Pacific basin, raising the water level by wind shear, is described.

  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 8, no 3, December 1998
 Date     Page    First author                    Contents/Reference                        Dams                                    Subjects                          Brief summary
  1998    3       Hay            Report on 10th BDS Conference, Bangor, September           Alwen, Barrow no 3, Bewl Water,                                           Five technical sessions covered the following subjects: (1) safety management and risk analysis for dams; (2)
                                 1998: 'The prospect for reservoirs in the 21st century'    Brenig, Brent, Brianne, Broadwood                                         (3) developments in legislation and practice; (4) assessment of dam performance; (5) reservoir operation and
                                 by J Hay.                                                  Loch, Chambon (), Coedty, Eigiau,                                         management; construction and rehabilitation case histories.
                                                                                            Enguri (Russia), Holmestyes,
                                                                                            Llysyfran, Luxhay, Maentwrog,
                                                                                            Marchlyn, Megget, Rufford Lake,
                                                                                            Stwlan, Tai Tam Tuk (Hong Kong),
                                                                                            Tarbela (Pakistan), Walshaw Dean
                                                                                            Upper, Winscar.
  1998    11      Charles        CHARLES J A (1998). Geoffrey Binnie Lecture 1998:          Audenshaw, Beliche (Portugal),          Asphaltic concrete,               An account of British dams is presented in the form of an analogy with human life, no period of which, from birth
                                 Lives of embankment dams: construction to old age.         Brianne, Canales (Spain), Carsington,   Catastrophic failures, Culverts   to death, is exempt from troubles. Similarly dams are vulnerable to different types of problems in the successive
                                 Dams & Reservoirs, vol 8, no 3, December, pp 11-23.        Dale Dyke, Fontenelle, Guavia           under embankments, Hazard &       stages of their existence. There is an ageing population of old embankment dams and the major threat to these
                                 (Presented at BDS conference, Bangor, 10th                 (Colombia), Mohne (Germany),            risk management, Internal         dams comes from internal erosion. However, while there has been major expenditure on overflow works to meet
                                 September 1998.)                                           Peruca (Croatia), Queen's Valley        erosion/filters, Movement         improved flood standards, there has not been any comparable effort to upgrade old embankments.
                                                                                            (Jersey), Songa (Norway), Teton         monitoring, Seepage &
                                                                                            (USA), Warmwithens, William Girling     leakage, Slope stability, Total
                                                                                            (Chingford)                             stress

  1998    24      Bridle         Vote of thanks to Dr Andrew Charles for presenting the                                                                               Quote from the vote of thanks, "Andrew's Binnie lecture will become a vitally important reference for all
                                 1998 Geoffrey Binnie Lecture by R Bridle                                                                                             engineers responsible for our embankment dams"
  1998    25      Smith          SMITH R (1998). The use of asphalt in dam              Ardsley, Arlington, Dowry, Megget,          Asphaltic concrete, Upstream      Hydraulic asphalt technology developed in coastal engineering and has been successfully used on several dam
                                 maintenance work. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 8, no 3,      Mixenden, Ponden, Walshaw Dean              slope protection                  maintenance and repair projects. Asphalt is a mixture of bitumen and mineral aggregate, and the various mixes
                                 December, pp 25-31.                                    Lower, Winscar, Withens Clough                                                that are used can be categorised by the degree of filling of the mix. Lean sand asphalt and open stone asphalt,
                                                                                                                                                                      which are underfilled mixes, have been used to protect upstream slopes from wave attack. Dense asphaltic
                                                                                                                                                                      concrete, in which the voids are practically completely filled with bitumen, has been used to provide the main
                                                                                                                                                                      waterproof membrane on upstream slopes of number of dams in the UK. The repair of the dense asphaltic
                                                                                                                                                                      concrete lining at Winscar is described.
  1998    31      Law            Data of interest to dam engineers by F Law.                Castle Malgwyn, Kenogami (Canada), Catastrophic failures                  (1) dam failures and extreme hydrological events in Britain prior to 1930; (2) landslide induced overtopping
                                                                                            White Coppice                                                             incident; (3) the management of dams in Quebec; (4) national performance of dams program, Stamford
                                                                                                                                                                      University, USA.
  1998    32                     Application Note to An engineering guide to seismic
                                 risk to dams in the United Kingdom. A brief indication
                                 of the purpose and content of the application note is
                                 given.
  1998    33      Hinks          Pembroke Mill dam - one of Britain's oldest large raised                                                                             The old dam which probably dates back eight hundred years or so is still in position, although it may have been
                                 reservoirs by J Hinks.                                                                                                               reconstructed several times, and carries the A4139 road which enters Pembroke from the north.


Dams & Reservoirs, vol 9, no 1, April 1999

 Date     Page    First author                    Contents/Reference                        Dams                                    Subjects                          Brief summary
  1999    3       Dodd           DODD A and SAWYER J (1999). Appropriate remedial Dinas, Kariba (Zimbabwe/Zambia),                  Concrete deterioration            Alkali silica reaction (ASR) is a reaction of alkaline pore fluid from the cement with particular silica minerals in the
                                 works to AAR dams and hydroelectric power stations. Maentwrog, Owen Falls (Uganda)                                                   aggregate. In the United Kingdom ASR is the most common form of alkali aggregate reaction (AAR). The most
                                 Dams & Reservoirs, vol 9, no 1, April, pp 3-7.                                                                                       visible indication of the presence of AAR is cracking of the concrete. A number of examples of remedial works
                                                                                                                                                                      illustrate the wide range of solutions available for different circumstances. While the consequences of AAR need
                                                                                                                                                                      to be assessed and addressed to determine what function and safety issues are compromised, it is stated that
                                                                                                                                                                      'AAR alone does not destroy a structure's capability'. Appropriate solutions can range from monitoring and
                                                                                                                                                                      observation to complete replacement.




                                                                                                                                                             37
Dams Reservoirs



  1999    7                       Edward Jackson - Technical Editor 1985-1998.                                                                                       Edward Jackson became Technical Editor of BNCOLD News and Views in 1985 and has been Technical Editor
                                                                                                                                                                     of Dams & Reservoirs since its inception in May 1991 up to the July 1998 edition. BDS records its deep gratitude
                                                                                                                                                                     for his diligent and painstaking labours over many years in producing a journal of high technical standard which
                                                                                                                                                                     has appeared on time.

  1999    8                       British Dam Society - Annual Report for 1998.

  1999    9        Morison        Report of a presentation by A I B Moffat on 'Puddle clay   Abercribban, Aldenham, Alwen no 2, Puddle clay                          The majority of larger British embankment dams completed in the period 1850 to 1960 were constructed with a
                                  and the "Pennines" embankment dam', made at a BDS          Bann, Barrow no 2, Blaen-y-cwm,                                         relatively thin central core of puddle clay. The nature and geotechnical characteristics of puddle clay are
                                  meeting at the Institution of Civil Engineers, 7th         Burnhope, Carno Lower, Coulter,                                         described. A more comprehensive paper on the work was published by Moffat in the 2002 BDS Conference.
                                  December 1998.                                             Cyfartha Lake, Harelaw, Hury, King
                                                                                             George V, Lambieletham, Muirhead,
                                                                                             Ponsticill, Selset, Silent Valley, Sutton
                                                                                             Bingham, Toddbrook, Vehar (India),
                                                                                             West Hallington, William Girling
                                                                                             (Chingford)

  1999    15       Martin         Year 2000 and all it implies by J Martin.
  1999    16       Hinks          Report on ICOLD visit to Sardar Sarovar project in         Sardar Sarovar (India)                 Environment/social planning      Resettlement aspects of the project have caused massive opposition to the project, the World Bank withdrawing
                                  India by J Hinks.                                                                                                                  funding and the Indian Supreme Court has temporarily halted work with the dam well below its final height.




  1999    17       Bridle         Report compiled from the notes of Rod Bridle, Arthur                                                                               The report includes a summary of the Executive Meeting, the ICOLD position paper concerning the World
                                  Penman and Jonathan Hinks on the ICOLD 66th                                                                                        Commission on Dams, a summary of Technical Committee activities and a summary of the board meeting of the
                                  Annual Meeting, New Delhi, November 1998.                                                                                          Club of European ICOLD members.
  1999    22       Sims           Dam rehabilitation - report on the work of the ICOLD       Ennepe (Germany)                       Drainage, Internal               The paper was the opening presentation at the ICOLD symposium on the rehabilitation of dams held in New
                                  committee on rehabilitation by G Sims.                                                            erosion/filters,                 Delhi, November 1998. One particular emphasis in the report is that it was only fifty years ago that engineers
                                                                                                                                    Uplift/overturning in concrete   grudgingly accepted that uplift should be a fundamental aspect of the design of concrete gravity dams and many
                                                                                                                                    dams                             masonry dams were designed without taking this into account.
  1992   25                      List of BDS corporate members.
  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 9, no 2, August 1999
 Date     Page     First author                    Contents/Reference                        Dams                                   Subjects                         Brief summary
  1993    2                       Reservoirs Act: increase in panel membership
                                  application fees.
  1999    3        Owens          Report by Chris Owens, Alan Brown, Ian Davison and         Anglezarke, Barrow no 3, Carron,       Dam break studies, Dynamic       Session 1 dealt with reservoir risk and update on technical guides and session 2 was on recent case histories of
                                  Paul Tedd on the 4th BDS Supervising Engineers             Glendevon Upper, Lluest Wen,           behaviour & analysis,            dam behaviour. This comprehensive report provides information on leakage incidents, the effect of reservoir
                                  Forum, Manchester, 15th April 1999.                        Luxhay, Megget, Monkswood,             Emergency plans, Guides &        level and the rate of drawdown in the case of an emergency. The use of software for dam break analysis using
                                                                                             Pateshill, Pebley, Rotton Park,        surveys, Hazard & risk           DAMBREAK is described.
                                                                                             Stobshiel, Teton (USA), Thornley       management, Legislation,
                                                                                                                                    Reservoir drawdown, Seepage
                                                                                                                                    & leakage, Seismic
                                                                                                                                    assessment, Upstream slope
                                                                                                                                    protection
  1999    12                      List of BDS corporate members.

  1999    13       Wickham        WICKHAM D B (1999). Poaka Beck Reservoir - failure Poaka Beck                                     Outlet & intake works            The 19 m high embankment dam was completed in 1867 and the original outlet from the reservoir was provided
                                  of a cast iron outlet pipe. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 9, no                                                                           by a 15 inch (0.38 m) diameter cast iron pipe laid in the embankment, with only a downstream valve. The
                                  2, August, pp 13-14.                                                                                                               inherent hazard posed by an unprotected cast iron pipe passing through an embankment dam has long been
                                                                                                                                                                     recognised and in the early 1980s a medium density polyethylene (MDPE) liner was inserted into the cast iron
                                                                                                                                                                     pipe and grouted into place. However, subsequent investigations showed that the liner had distorted restricting
                                                                                                                                                                     flow through the pipe. During an attempt to remove the liner, long-standing fractures were discovered in the
                                                                                                                                                                     upstream section of the cast iron pipe and it was decided to abandon and seal it. An alternative outlet structure
                                                                                                                                                                     has been constructed.
  1999    15       Tedd           This report by Paul Tedd is a summary of an informal                                              Geomembranes, Seepage &          The earthworks for a 325000 m3 capacity bunded storage reservoir were completed in February 1995 and an
                                  discussion introduced by Adrian Needham at a joint                                                leakage                          HDPE lining was then installed. The reservoir was half filled in March and drawn down during the summer. In
                                  meeting of the British Geotechnical Society, the                                                                                   January 1996 refilling commenced, but on 8th February the reservoir level started to drop. Major collapses and
                                  International Geosynthetics Society and the ICE                                                                                    leaks had occurred at the base of the reservoir. Post-failure investigations indicated that loosely filled sinkholes
                                  Ground Board at the Institution of Civil Engineers on                                                                              were susceptible to collapse following infiltration and rendered the site unsuitable for construction of a
                                  9th December 1998.                                                                                                                 membrane-lined reservoir unless extensive preventative measures had been first undertaken. The failure did not
                                                                                                                                                                     pose any hazard to public safety.

  1999    16       Bridle         New Chairman's acceptance address given at BDS
                                  AGM on 22nd March 1999.
  1999    18       Binnie         BINNIE C and CLIFTON S (1999). Dams and the                Abberton, Aswan (Egypt), Darwell,       Environment/social/planning     Increasingly the engineering performance of dams and reservoirs is taken for granted and they are judged by
                                  environment. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 9, no 2, August,       Kariba (Zimbabwe/Zambia), Kielder,                                      their environmental impacts and benefits. It is important, therefore, that environmental considerations are fully
                                  pp 18-21.                                                  Mangla (Pakistan), Marchlyn,                                            incorporated into the development process from the outset of the scheme. Many of the adverse effects of earlier
                                                                                             Pitlochry, Seletar (Singapore), Tarbela                                 reservoir schemes could have been identified by a thorough environmental assessment and appropriately
                                                                                             (Pakistan), Three Gorges (China)                                        mitigated. Future proposals for new reservoirs will need to satisfy the environmental requirements of legislation,
                                                                                                                                                                     planning authorities, statutory and non-statutory consultees, society at large and funding agencies.




                                                                                                                                                            38
Dams Reservoirs



  1999    22      Bridle         World Commission on Dams - the dams debate, South                                               Environment/social/planning    This is a report on a media symposium 'Integrating the dams debate', held under the auspices of the World
                                 Africa House, London, 14th July 1999 by R Bridle.                                                                              Commission on Dams.


Dams & Reservoirs, vol 9, no 3, December 1999

 Date     Page    First author                    Contents/Reference                       Dams                                  Subjects                       Brief summary
  1999    3       Besley         BESLEY P, ALLSOP N W H, ACKERS J C, HAY-                  Alton Water, Ardleigh, Arlington, Bewl Upstream slope protection,    Severe wave action in reservoirs can cause damage to embankment dams due to the erosion of rip-rap
                                 SMITH D and McKENNA J E (1999). Waves on                  Water, Bough Beech, Covenham,          Wind & waves                  armouring, movement of blockwork or damage to crest walls. Wave induced overtopping may erode the crest or
                                 reservoirs and their effects on dam protection. Dams &    Farmoor, Feltwell, Grafham, Kielder,                                 the downstream slope. Unfortunately simple wave prediction methods cannot be fully relied upon to produce
                                 Reservoirs, vol 9, no 3, December, pp 3-13. (This         Megget, Plover Cove (Hong Kong),                                     accurate estimates of wave conditions in reservoirs. It is often helpful to use several methods and compare the
                                 paper was presented at a BDS meeting at the               Queen Mother, Wraysbury                                              results. Donelan/JONSWAP is probably the best method of predicting wave conditions. Recent research is
                                 Institution of Civil Engineers, 22nd March 1999).                                                                              summarised and examples of best practice are described.
  1999    14      Charles        CHARLES J A and TEDD P (1999). Reservoir safety:                                                                               It is no longer a simple task for the engineer concerned with reservoir safety to keep in touch with all relevant
                                 review of publications 1998-99. Dams & Reservoirs,                                                                             developments. Consequently the research programme of the Department of the Environment now includes the
                                 vol 19, no 3, December, pp 14-20.                                                                                              preparation of an annual review of technical publications relevant to reservoir safety in the United Kingdom. This
                                                                                                                                                                first annual review covers the period from January 1998 to September 1999. The main sources of information
                                                                                                                                                                are the BDS biennial conference and the BDS journal Dams & Reservoirs. The subject areas are as follows: (A)
                                                                                                                                                                embankment dams; (B) concrete and masonry structures; (C) hydrology; (D) hydraulics; (E) seismic risk; (F)
                                                                                                                                                                safety management and risk assessment; (G) dam failures; (H) guidance and legislation.

  1999    21      Bridle         Report of ICOLD Annual Meeting, Antalya, Turkey,                                                                                Includes reports on symposium on dam foundations, workshop on benefits and concerns about dams,
                                 September 1999.                                                                                                                interaction with World Commission on Dams and European Club meeting.




  1999    22      Hinks          Report of ICOLD visit to Turkish dams.                    Dim, Manavgat, Oymapinar

  1999    24      Bridle         BRIDLE R C and SIMS G (1999). The benefits of dams                                              Environment/social/planning    A brief account of the history and development of reservoirs in the UK is given. It is concluded that UK reservoirs
                                 to British society. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 19, no 3,                                                                           not only have proved to be sustainable, surviving for centuries, but also versatile, providing increasing benefits
                                 December, pp 24-29. (This paper was presented to the                                                                           over time. It is likely that countries currently considering reservoir developments for power generation or
                                 Workshop on Benefits and Concerns about Dams at                                                                                irrigation will in future derive recreational, conservation and other benefits adding to the benefits to their
                                 the ICOLD Annual Meeting held at Antalya, September                                                                            communities and to the environment derived from the reservoirs' primary functions.
                                 1999.)
  1999    30      Jamieson       Ladybower reservoir - dam refurbishment scheme.         Ladybower                               Environment/social/planning,   Settlement of the crest in the middle of the 43 m high embankment since the completion of the dam in 1945
                                 Report of BDS site visit on 8th September 1999 and                                              Heightening, Movement          amounts to 1.5 m. In 1986/7 a 2 m high reinforced concrete wave wall was added to provide flood storage for
                                 presentation given at the site visit by Jane Jamiseson.                                         monitoring, Outlet & intake    the probable maximum flood. It was concluded that the significant ongoing settlement was largely due to the
                                                                                                                                 works, Slope stability         reservoir drawdown cycles. A new higher crest is to be constructed slightly downstream of the existing one by
                                                                                                                                                                adding a downstream shoulder of sandstone rockfill with a 1 in 2.1 slope. The contraction detail at the top of the
                                                                                                                                                                dam involves a cement-bentonite slurry wall and an HDPE membrane to provide the watertight element. A brief
                                                                                                                                                                description of valve replacement works with the reservoir in operation is given.
  1999    35      Lillie         LILLIE C and HITCHMOUGH M (1999). Are your data                                                 Hazard & risk management       The importance of having a secure networked electronic system for storing and accessing data kept under the
                                 less secure than your dams? Dams & Reservoirs, vol                                                                             1975 Reservoirs Act is demonstrated.
                                 9, no 3, December, pp 35-36.



Dams & Reservoirs, vol 10, no 1, April 2000
 Date     Page    First author                    Contents/Reference                       Dams                                  Subjects                       Brief summary
  2000    2                      Reservoirs Act 1975: arrangements for panel                                                     Legislation
                                 engineers post devolution.
  2000    3       Sandilands     Report on British Dam Society Prize 1999, 29th
                                 November 1999.
  2000    4       Hughes         HUGHES R A N (2000). Throttling Rutland Water's           Rutland Water                         Flood estimation/hydrology,    This paper won the 1999 BDS Prize competition. The bellmouth spillway was designed to discharge 18 cubic
                                 spillway. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 10, no 1, April, pp 4-                                         Overflow works, Spillway       metres per second, the peak outflow derived from a 'normal maximum flood' as defined in the 1960 ICE
                                 8.                                                                                              hydraulics                     publication 'Floods in relation to reservoir practice'. Subsequent application of the 1996 ICE publication 'Floods
                                                                                                                                                                and reservoir safety' found that the probable maximum flood (PMF) was 49.6 cubic metres per second. It was
                                                                                                                                                                considered that flows larger than the original design discharge would cause damage in the overflow tunnel and
                                                                                                                                                                that the capacity of the spillway should be reduced by a throttle. For a PMF event, the flood rise would be safely
                                                                                                                                                                accommodated in the reservoir. A physical model at a scale of 1:10 was used to refine the design of the
                                                                                                                                                                hydraulic throttle.
  2000    9       Skinner        SKINNER H (2000). The use of historical data in                                                 Hazard & risk management,      This paper won one of two second place prizes in the 1999 BDS Prize competition. The statistical analysis of
                                 assessing the risks posed by embankment dams.                                                   Incident/failure databases     historical data describing the frequency and severity of problems found in embankment dams of a particular
                                 Dams & Reservoirs, vol 10, no 1, April, pp 9-12.                                                                               range of age and size has been used to estimate the probability of failure of a dam by a number of different
                                                                                                                                                                modes. Although there have been few total failures, the rate of occurrence of major problems has reduced only
                                                                                                                                                                slightly. An analysis of the major types of problems and remedial works is given. With an ageing population of
                                                                                                                                                                embankment dams there can be no substitute for careful monitoring and surveillance in maintaining a high level
                                                                                                                                                                of reservoir safety.
  2000    12      Tedd           Report of meeting of European Working Group on Risk                                             Hazard & risk management,
                                 Analysis and Databases at HR Wallingford, 1st                                                   Incident/failure databases
                                 September 1999 by P Tedd and J Findlay.



                                                                                                                                                        39
Dams Reservoirs



  2000    13      Bridle         British Dam Society - Annual Report 1999 by R Bridle.

  2000    15      Smith          Report of BDS meeting on remedial works to             Monkswood, Pebley                        Diaphragm & slurry trench       The report focused mainly on the use of slurry trench was walls used to repair leaking embankment dams. A
                                 embankment dams using slurry trench cut-off walls, 4th                                          walls                           number of case histories was presented and the properties of the set material containing a very high water
                                 October 1999 by J Smith.                                                                                                        content was discussed.
  2000    17      Morris         A review of ICOLD Bulletin 111 - Dam-break flood                                                Dam break studies               It is concluded that Bulletin 111 provides a useful introduction to dambreak modelling and explains the types of
                                 analysis by Mark Morris.                                                                                                        model that may be applied.
  2000    18                     Effects on dams of the Taiwan earthquake of 21st                                                Earthquake damage               The earthquake with a magnitude of 7.3 on the Richter scale resulted in the death of 2250 people and the
                                 September 1999.                                                                                                                 collapse of 9909 buildings. Damage occurred at a number of dams but there were no failures.
  2000    19                     Enforcement of reservoir legislation.                                                                                           The article refers to partial failure of a beaver dam in the USA.

Dams & Reservoirs, vol 10, no 2, July 2000
 Date     Page    First author                    Contents/Reference                       Dams                                  Subjects                        Brief summary
  2000    3                      Report of meeting to Launch of guide to the Reservoirs                                          Legislation                     The purpose and contents of the guide are summarised.
                                 Act 1975 held at the Institution of Civil Engineers on
                                 24th January 2000.
  2000    4                      Flood Estimation Handbook (FEH): discussion by                                                  Flood estimation/hydrology,
                                 Richard Vincent (DETR), Rod Bridle (BDS Chairman)                                               Overflow works, Spillway
                                 and Duncan Reed (CEH Wallingford) on revised                                                    hydraulics
                                 design storm rainfall estimates obtained from the FEH
                                 by D E MacDonald and C W Scott.
  2000    6       Dodd           DODD A (2000). Outline design of Cine dam, the first Cine (Turkey)                              Overflow works, Roller          This paper won one of two second place prizes in the 1999 BDS Prize competition. The outline design of the
                                 RCC dam in Turkey. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 10, no 2,                                             compacted concrete, Seismic     Cine dam involves the design of a 130 m high dam which will be one of the highest roller compacted concrete
                                 July, pp 6-10.                                                                                  assessment                      dams in the world. The stability analysis is dominated by the seismic loading as the site is in a region of high
                                                                                                                                                                 seismicity: the design basis earthquake is 0.25g and the maximum credible earthquake is 0.4g. Foundation
                                                                                                                                                                 conditions and their stability in relation to sub-horizontal joints are discussed.
  2000    11      Green          GREEN J (2000). Walthamstow no 4 and no 5                 Walthamstow no 4 and no 5             Movement monitoring,            This paper was submitted to the 1999 BDS prize competition. Over the past eleven years three incidents have
                                 reservoirs - a recent history. Dams & Reservoirs, vol                                           Seepage & leakage, Slope        occurred at Walthamstow no 4 and no 5 reservoirs which have affected reservoir safety: firstly, a slip occurred in
                                 10, no 2, July, pp 11-16.                                                                       stability, Vegetation           the outer slope of one of the embankments in March 1988; secondly, settlement of up to 100 mm was observed
                                                                                                                                                                 over a 25 m crest length between 1986 and 1992 which was related to the presence of trees; thirdly, a leakage
                                                                                                                                                                 was present for many years at one embankment location which was related to a raised part of the embankment.
                                                                                                                                                                 The events, subsequent investigations, monitoring and remedial works are described.

  2000    17      Gaskin         GASKIN M (2000). Remedial works at Tromie dam.            Tromie                                Culverts under embankments, This paper was submitted to the 1999 BDS prize competition. Tromie is a 15 m high embankment dam with a
                                 Dams & Reservoirs, vol 10, no 2, July, pp 17-20.                                                Outlet & intake works           concrete core wall. The dam was constructed in 1941 and, following a recent inspection, it was decided that
                                                                                                                                                                 remedial works were required to the culvert which had been used to divert river flow during construction and
                                                                                                                                                                 then had been closed with stoplogs at its upstream end. It was decided to construct a mass concrete bulkhead
                                                                                                                                                                 at the intersection of the culvert and the concrete core wall. An outlet pipe was installed through the bulkhead
                                                                                                                                                                 and along the culvert to its downstream end with appropriate valves. On completion of these works, the stoplogs
                                                                                                                                                                 are to be removed. Arrangements to improve fish migration following deterioration of intake screens are
  2000    21      Gosden         GOSDEN J, BROWN A and OXLEY N (2000).                     Gojeb (Ethiopia), Tekeze (Ethiopia)   Concrete face rockfill,         discussed.
                                                                                                                                                                 The paper takes the form of a detailed report by Alan Hockey of a presentation by John Gosden, Alan Brown
                                 Hydropower developments in Ethiopia. Dams &                                                     Environment/social/planning,    and Nick Oxley at a BDS meeting on 24th January 2000 and the ensuing discussion. Three hydro-electric power
                                 Reservoirs, vol 10, no 2, July, pp 21-27.                                                       Overflow works, Slope stability projects are described. The Tekeze project in the far north of Ethiopia involves the construction of a 175 m high
                                                                                                                                                                 concrete arch dam. The Gojeb scheme in the south-west of the country involves the construction of a 126 m
                                                                                                                                                                 high concrete faced rockfill dam. Construction at Tekeze and Gojeb are currently postponed while the client
                                                                                                                                                                 concentrates on other works.
  2000    27      Lewin          Report on USA interagency committee on dams                                                     Spillway gates & barriers       Some conference papers at this event are summarised. Problems at spillway gates in the USA are mentioned
                                 (ICODS) dam safety technical seminar: Spillway gates -                                                                          including the collapse of a spillway gate on the Folsom dam. This event led to the examination of the trunnion
                                 a critical aspect of dam safety by J Lewin and M Noble.                                                                         bearings of many older radial gates.

  2000    29      White          Review of ICOLD Bulletin 115 - Dealing with reservoir                                           Sedimentation
                                 sedimentation.
  2000    31      Hinks          Review of ICOLD Bulletin 113 - Seismic observation of                                           Seismic assessment
                                 dams.
  2000    32      Freer          FREER R (2000). The Three Gorges Project - a           Three Gorges (China)                                                     Construction work on the project which includes a 183 m high concrete gravity dam started in 1993 and should
                                 progress report on a major new dam on the Yangtze                                                                               be completed in 2009. It is the largest hydro-electric power station currently under construction, but the main
                                 river in China. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 10, no 2, July,                                                                          purpose of the project is flood control. The reservoir will extend 660 km upstream to the city of Chongqing and it
                                 pp 32-35.                                                                                                                       will become possible to transfer surplus water from the Yangtze basin to the Yellow river in the north. This brief
                                                                                                                                                                 paper was intended to give BDS members some background to the project prior to study tours being undertaken
                                                                                                                                                                 following the ICOLD Congress in Beijing.

Dams & Reservoirs, vol 10, no 3, December 2000
 Date     Page    First author                    Contents/Reference                       Dams                                  Subjects                        Brief summary
  2000    3                      Report on 11th BDS conference, Bath, June 2000.




                                                                                                                                                        40
Dams Reservoirs



  2000    5       Johnston       JOHNSTON T A (2000). Geoffrey Binnie Lecture 2000:      Bradan, Broomhead, Carsington,      Asphaltic concrete, Hazard &     Nine dams are selected to represent significant features of twentieth century dams. Seathwaite (1907)
                                 Taken for granted. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 10, no 3,     Dungonnell, Glen Shira main dam,    risk management, Legislation,    demonstrated that expensive masonry facings were not essential for gravity dams. Three eminent engineers
                                 December, pp 5-13. (Also in Discussion volume for       Knockendon, Ladybower, Megget,      Pore pressure (construction),    were brought in as advisers at Broomhead (1934), a forerunner of a review panel. Knockendon (1947) was one
                                 Dams 2000, BDS Conference, Bath, June 2000, pp          Seathwaite Tarn,                    Slope stability                  of the first dams to benefit from soil mechanics when the importance of construction pore pressures in reducing
                                 127-151.)                                                                                                                    stability was recognised. Dungonnell (1970) was the first dam in the United Kingdom to have an upstream
                                                                                                                                                              asphaltic facing. The major slip in the upstream slope at Carsington (1984) was a salutary lesson to dam
                                                                                                                                                              engineers. From such past experiences it is reasonable to assume that design standards and construction
                                                                                                                                                              methods will change, our understanding of dam behaviour will improve, new materials will come into use and
                                                                                                                                                              operational and environmental constraints will increase.
  2000    13      Sims           Vote of thanks to Alan Johnston for presenting the
                                 2000 Geoffrey Binnie Lecture by Geoff Sims.
  2000    14      Morison        Report on pre-conference visit to Bristol Water         Barrow no 3, Blagdon, Chew Valley                                    The report on the three dams provides a useful summary of the construction and problems. A total of 15 major
                                 reservoirs by Tony Morison                                                                                                   slips took place at Barrow No 3 with construction taking place between 1887 and 1936.
  2000    18      Lewin          LEWIN J (2000). Tidal barriers and barrages. Dams &                                         Environment/social/planning,     Many of the densely populated areas of the world are clustered around river estuaries and are vulnerable to tidal
                                 Reservoirs, vol 10, no 3, December, pp 18-27.                                               Flood estimation/hydrology,      storm surges. Major storm surges, like the North Sea event in 1953, have prompted the construction of tidal
                                                                                                                             Hazard & risk management,        defence barriers and barrages in the United Kingdom and western Europe. The different objectives, surge
                                                                                                                             Spillway gates & barriers        protection, amenity and tidal power which result in the construction of barrages are summarised and the types of
                                                                                                                                                              control structure are reviewed.

  2000    28      Sandilands     Report on BDS seminar and workshop on risk                                                  Hazard & risk management
                                 management in dam safety practice, May 2000 by Neil
                                 Sandilands.
  2000    31      Thomas         Construction problems never change by Andrew            Cilcain no 3                                                         Record of construction of Cilcain no 3 reservoir (1902-04) from extracts of the minutes of Board meetings of the
                                 Thomas.                                                                                                                      Hawarden and District Water Company. The minutes provide the method of working with the problems of the
                                                                                                                                                              contract and those of the Engineer.
  2000    35                     Guidance on application of Flood Estimation                                                 Flood estimation/hydrology       DETR commissioned research to examine the consequences for reservoir safety of the differences between
                                 Handbook: technical recommendations and interim                                                                              rainfall estimation methodologies used in the 3rd edition of the ICE publication Floods and Reservoir Safety and
                                 guidance for panel engineers.                                                                                                the new Flood Estimation Handbook .

  2000    38      Charles        CHARLES J A and TEDD P (2000). Reservoir safety: Abberton, Barcombe, Dundreggan,            Concrete deterioration, Dam      An annual review of technical publications relevant to reservoir safety is an important element in the DETR
                                 review of publications 1999-2000. Dams & Reservoirs, Green Withens, Guide, Ladybower,       break studies, Dynamic           reservoir safety research programme. This second annual review covers the period from October 1999 to
                                 vol 10, no 3, December, pp 38-44.                    Lednock, March Haigh, Monkswood,       behaviour & analysis, Hazard &   September 2000 and the main sources of information are the 11th BDS biennial conference held at Bath in June
                                                                                      Pebley, Rotton Park, Rutland Water,    risk management                  2000 and the BDS journal, Dams & Reservoirs. The publication in January 2000 of 'A guide to the Reservoirs
                                                                                      Tromie, Walthamstow no 4 & no 5,                                        Act 1975' is of particular importance.
                                                                                      Winscar
  2000    45      Brown          BROWN A J (2000). Environmental impact of dams - Birecik (Turkey),                          Environment/social/planning      The reservoir of Birecik dam will flood the lower 20% of Zeugma, an ancient city in south-east Turkey. With only
                                 an archaeological case study. Dams & Reservoirs, vol                                                                         a few weeks to go before impounding was completed, an emergency archaeological rescue operation was
                                 10, no 3, December, pp 45-47.                                                                                                carried out.
  2000    48                     Risk management for UK reservoirs - CIRIA report                                            Hazard & risk management
                                 C542.

Dams & Reservoirs, vol 11, no 1, May 2001
 Date     Page    First author                   Contents/Reference                      Dams                                Subjects                         Brief summary
  2001    2                      New ICOLD Bulletins: 117 The gravity dam: a dam for
                                 the future; 118 Automatic dam monitoring systems;
                                 119 Rehabilitation of dams and appurtenant works.

  2001    3       Beaver         BEAVER J and VOYCE K (2001). Clywedog past and          Clywedog                            Environment/social/planning,     At 72 m high, Clywedog, a round-headed mass concrete buttress dam, is the highest concrete dam in the United
                                 present. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 11, no 1, May, pp 3-                                        Instrumentation/monitoring,      Kingdom and it was constructed between 1964 and 1968. Prior to construction a complex finite element analysis
                                 10.                                                                                         Reservoir operation, Seepage     was carried out by Swansea University, taking into account pore pressures and the possibility of cracks in the
                                                                                                                             & leakage                        buttresses. The reservoir has a pivotal role in the River Severn Regulation System, balancing the demands of
                                                                                                                                                              abstractors without compromising the ecological needs of the river environment. The reservoir can only offer a
                                                                                                                                                              modicum of flood alleviation to the area immediately downstream of the dam.

  2001    11      BRE            BUILDING RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT (2001).                                                     Guides & surveys, Legislation    Guidance is given on the reports required under Section 10(3) of the 1975 Reservoirs Act, expanding on the
                                 Guidance on preparation of Section 10 inspection                                                                             outline given in Appendix E4 of 'A guide to the Reservoirs Act 1975' (Institution of Civil Engineers, 2000). The
                                 reports. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 11, no 1, May, pp 11-                                                                        objective was to provide a basis for quality management of inspecting engineer activities. There are many old
                                 17.                                                                                                                          embankment dams in the United Kingdom which were built before the era of modern soil mechanics and one
                                                                                                                                                              important recommendation is that the stability of all dams should be assessed as a matter of routine during
                                                                                                                                                              reservoir inspections.
  2001    18      Attewill       ATTEWILL L and SPASIC-GRIL L (2001). Lake Sarez Sarez (Tajikistan)                          Hazard & risk management,        Lake Sarez was formed in Tajikstan in 1911 when a magnitude 7.4 earthquake triggered a massive landslide
                                 risk analysis. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 11, no 1, May, pp                                     Landslide dam, Seismic           with a volume of 2.2 cubic kilometres, damming the Murgab river. The landslide dam has a maximum height of
                                 18-22.                                                                                      assessment                       720 m and the impounded water is 500 m deep, with a minimum freeboard of 50 m, and has a volume of 17
                                                                                                                                                              cubic kilometres. A preliminary safety assessment has been carried out. A method of risk analysis is described
                                                                                                                                                              which can be used to establish the sensitivity of the overall risk to the probability of individual hazards, rank
                                                                                                                                                              alternative structural measures to reduce risk, and compare the costs/benefits of safety measures at Lake Sarez
                                                                                                                                                              with other projects in Tajikstan.




                                                                                                                                                   41
Dams Reservoirs



  2001    23      Morison        MORISON A and SIMS G (2001). Dams and                                                           Environment/social/planning        The World Commission on Dams was formed under the auspices of the World Bank and the World
                                 development - final report of the World Commission on                                                                              Conservation Union to investigate the role of large dams in development and, in particular, the social and
                                 Dams. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 11, no 1, May, pp 23-                                                                                 environmental controversy that large dams have caused. The Commission presented its final report in
                                 32.                                                                                                                                November 2000. It was concluded that while dams had made an important and significant contribution to human
                                                                                                                                                                    development, in some cases the social and environmental costs had been unacceptable and sometimes
                                                                                                                                                                    unnecessary. Mitigation, compensation and resettlement programs were often inadequate. Some BDS members
                                                                                                                                                                    considered that the report had not given sufficient weight to the benefits dams have brought.
  2001    33      Airey          Tannur dam nears completion by Martin Airey.              Tannur (Jordan)                       Roller compacted concrete          A brief description of the construction, including the innovative use of the slope layer method of placing the
                                                                                                                                                                    concrete is given.
  2001    34      White          Review of newly published book 'Evacuation of                                                   Sedimentation
                                 sediments from reservoirs' by Rodney White.
  2001    36      Kennard        KENNARD M F (2001). Edward Sandeman and                                                         Catastrophic failures,             Edward Sandeman involvement with reservoirs is described briefly. His letter to The Times on 4 December 1925
                                 reservoir safety legislation. Dams & Reservoirs, vol                                            Legislation                        has long been recognised as leading directly to the Reservoirs (Safety Provisions) Act becoming law in 1930.
                                 11,no 1, May, p36.                                                                                                                 The letter, which is reproduced, is simply signed 'civil engineer', reflecting the public anonymity of professional
                                                                                                                                                                    men at that time.
  2001    37                     BDS annual report 2000.
  2001    37      Johnston       Section of 2000 Geoffrey Binnie Lecture accidentally
                                 omitted from December 2000 issue of Dams &
                                 Reservoirs.
  2001    41      Hughes         HUGHES A K, LOVENBURY H T and OWEN E                 Audenshaw                                  Instrumentation, Internal          The final section of the Manchester M60 Outer Ring Road cut through the Audenshaw No 3 reservoir,
                                 (2001). Audenshaw reservoir. Dams & Reservoirs, vol                                             erosion & filters, Pore pressure   necessitating partial reconstruction of the embankment dam and replacement of the inlet works. The new rolled
                                 11, no 1, May, pp 41-48.                                                                        (construction), Slope stability,   clay core embankment, which incorporates drainage layers into the upstream and downstream shoulders, had to
                                                                                                                                 Upstream slope protection          be joined to the two ends of the retained section of the original puddle clay core embankment. The reservoir
                                                                                                                                                                    contract was part of the motorway contract and this led to clay placement being controlled by the moisture
                                                                                                                                                                    condition value, a parameter commonly used on highway contracts but little used by dam engineers. Pitching
                                                                                                                                                                    formed the upstream slope protection on the old embankment, but it proved difficult to place this in a satisfactory
                                                                                                                                                                    way on the new embankment and solid precast concrete blocks tied in panels were eventually used.

  2001    49      Bridle         BRIDLE R, BROWN A, DANIELL W and TEDD P                   Aguamilpa (Mexico), Arminou                                              Prior to the ICOLD Congress, an international symposium on concrete faced rockfill dams was held. Barry
                                 (2001). ICOLD Annual Meeting and 20th Congress,           (Cyprus), Audenshaw, Folsom (USA),                                       Cooke emphasised the inherent safety of the CFRD design which he had developed. However, attention was
                                 Beijing. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 11, no 1, May, pp 49-     Gouhou (China), Itaipu (Brazil),                                         drawn to the failure of the 70 m high Gouhou concrete faced gravel dam, which breached in 1993 with serious
                                 56.                                                       Kannaviou (Cyprus), Kilmorack,                                           loss of life. The four Congress 'Questions' concerned, respectively, the use of risk analysis in dam safety,
                                                                                           Ladybower, Macarretane                                                   benefits and concerns about dams, monitoring of dams, and gated spillways and dam safety. British
                                                                                           (Mozambique), Mohale (Lesotho), Red                                      contributions included papers on Audenshaw, Ladybower and Winscar.
                                                                                           Rock (USA), Saguenay (Quebec),
                                                                                           Shuibuya (China), Winscar

  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 11, no 2, October 2001

 Date     Page    First author                    Contents/Reference                       Dams                                  Subjects                           Brief summary
  2001    2       Hughes         Notes and notices. DEFRA research programme.
  2001    3       Tedd           TEDD P, GARDINER K, JACKSON T and MOLYNEUX Clywedog, Farmoor, Frankley,                         Flood estimation/hydrology,        The subjects for discussion at the forum included developments in reservoir engineering, valve and pipework
                                 D (2001). Report on Supervising Engineers Forum       Keighley Moor, Ladybower, March           Outlet & intake works,             deterioration, and case histories. The case studies included descriptions of the installation of an MDPE liner in
                                 2001. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 11, no 2, October, pp 3- Haigh, Radcliffe, Silsden                 Sedimentation, Seepage &           the outlet pipe at Keighley Moor reservoir and an incident at Silsden embankment dam, where in March 1999 a
                                 7.                                                                                              leakage                            wet area was found towards the centre of the downstream slope and the water level was immediately lowered:
                                                                                                                                                                    the wet area began to dry as soon as the water level was lowered below top water level. Thermal sensing
                                                                                                                                                                    techniques for leakage detection were summarised.
  2001    7       Goodie         GOODIE B (2001). Deterioration in pipe work and                                                 Outlet & intake works              Pipework and valves located in and around dams are often old and operated in difficult environments.
                                 valves. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 11, no 2, October, pp 7-                                                                            Deterioration types, rates and causes are described. The earlier deterioration is detected, the greater is the
                                 12.                                                                                                                                possibility that renovation will be practicable rather than replacement being required. Methods of inspection are
                                                                                                                                                                    outlined. Although many equipment manufacturers are no longer in business, companies specialising in this
                                                                                                                                                                    type of work still exist and can provide assistance.
  2001    13      Charles        CHARLES J A (2001). Continuing Professional                                                     Guides & surveys                   The British reservoir safety regulatory system depends on the experience, skills and integrity of qualified civil
                                 Development and the Supervising Engineer. Dams &                                                                                   engineers. Consequently there has always been a requirement for panel engineers who are working within the
                                 Reservoirs, vol 11, no 2, October, pp 13-15.                                                                                       ambit of reservoir safety legislation to keep up-to-date and Continuing Professional Development (CPD) simply
                                                                                                                                                                    represents a more formal approach to this requirement. The activities and publications of the British Dam
                                                                                                                                                                    Society provide a principal source of reservoir safety related CPD.
  2001    15      Green          GREEN J C and ROBINSON G (2001). Farmoor                  Farmoor                               Drainage                           A significant proportion of the nine inch diameter porous concrete toe drainage system was found to be either
                                 reservoirs toe drain replacement. Dams & Reservoirs,                                                                               collapsed or severely cracked. Pipe bursting, a trench-less method of drain rehabilitation, was used to replace
                                 vol 11, no 2, October, pp 15-18.                                                                                                   2.5 km of embankment drainage surrounding the reservoirs. A driving rod is jacked through the existing pipe and
                                                                                                                                                                    a pulling head and bursting nose cone is then attached to the rod with a new HDPE pipe attached behind the
                                                                                                                                                                    cone. As the rod is pulled back through the pipe, the cone breaks up the old concrete pipe and the new HDPE
  2001    19      Dutton         DUTTON D (2001). British Waterways’ dams – the last Boddington, Combs, Hillend, March           Internal erosion/filters,          pipe replaces it.
                                                                                                                                                                    British Waterways is the undertaker for 88 large raised reservoirs which are retained by 104 dams of which all
                                 25 years. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 11, no 2, October, Haigh, Pebley, Tunnel End,                  Movement monitoring,               but one are earth embankments and 90% were built before the 1850s. During the last 25 years remedial works
                                 pp 19-27.                                           Winterburn                                  Overflow works, Seepage &          have been carried out at all but 13 of the reservoirs and 5 of these are awaiting repairs or improvements. Most of
                                                                                                                                 leakage, Slope stability           these works resulted from a perceived need rather than in some form of failure; the near-catastrophic failure of
                                                                                                                                                                    Combs dam and the emergency measures adopted in January 1976 are exceptional. Eight examples of
                                                                                                                                                                    remedial works are described.




                                                                                                                                                          42
Dams Reservoirs



  2001    28      MacDonald      MacDONALD D E and SCOTT C W (2001). FEH                                                         Flood estimation/hydrology     For a selection of reservoirs, the 10 000 year return period rainfall estimates obtained using the 1999 Flood
                                 versus FSR rainfall estimates: an explanation for the                                                                          Estimation Handbook (FEH) methodology are compared with the corresponding rainfall estimates obtained from
                                 discrepancies identified for very rare events. Dams &                                                                          the 1975 Flood Studies Report (FSR). A possible explanation of the observed differences is proposed. It is
                                 Reservoirs, vol 11, no 2, October, pp 28-31.                                                                                   concluded that the FEH estimates are too high and should not be used to compute design floods or to assess
                                                                                                                                                                the adequacy of the freeboard and spillway arrangements of reservoirs.
  2001    32      Hinks          Hinks J (2001). What to do if failure looks likely. Dams                                        Emergency plans, legislation   The question is raised as to whether all reservoir owners, supervising engineers and inspecting engineers are
                                 & Reservoirs, vol 11, no 2, October, pp 32-33.                                                                                 ready to deal with any emergency that may arise. Three emergency thresholds are defined: firstly where the
                                                                                                                                                                situation can definitely be controlled by lowering the water level and/or initiating remedial works; secondly where
                                                                                                                                                                it is not certain that the situation can be controlled and emergency drawdown and preparations for downstream
                                                                                                                                                                evacuation must be made; thirdly where the failure of the dam is probably unavoidable and evacuation of people
                                                                                                                                                                downstream must be ordered. If a reservoir owner does not recognise the seriousness of the situation, the panel
                                                                                                                                                                engineer may have to initiate action by asking the enforcement authority to invoke its emergency powers under
                                                                                                                                                                the Reservoirs Act.
  2001    33      Bridle         Report on 5th ICOLD European symposium 'Dams in            Viddal (Norway), Zakarias (Norway)
                                 the European context', Geiranger, Norway, June 2001
                                 by Rod Bridle and Andy Hughes
  2001    36      Hinks          The beavers strike back.
  2001    37                     Summary of Halcrow report on sedimentation in                                                   Sedimentation
                                 storage reservoirs.
  2001    38                     BDS strategy
  2001    46      Bridle         Past chairman's belated farewell.
  2001    47      Hughes         New chairman's address to BDS AGM.

Dams & Reservoirs, vol 12, no 1, February 2002

 Date     Page    First author                    Contents/Reference                        Dams                                 Subjects                       Brief summary
  2002    3       Penman         PENMAN A (2002). Professor Sir Alec Skempton and Bramianos (Greece), Carsington,                Drainage, Movement             Although the outstanding geotechnical research undertaken by Professor Alec Skempton was not primarily
                                 his connection with dams. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 12, Chew Stoke, Chingford (William             monitoring, Pore pressure      concerned with dams, he made some very important contributions to embankment dam engineering. Firstly, he
                                 February, no 1, pp 3-15.                             Girling), Daer, Glascarnoch,               (construction), Puddle clay,   greatly improved our understanding of the historical development of British embankment dams. Secondly,
                                                                                      Hanningfield, Hollowell, King George       Seepage & leakage, Slope       Skempton was actively engaged in the design of modern embankment dams, pioneering the use of drainage
                                                                                      V, Knockendon, Mangla (Pakistan),          stability                      layers to control construction pore pressures at Usk and recognising the significance of shear zones in the over-
                                                                                      Monar, Moruos (Greece), Muirhead,                                         consolidated clay foundation at Mangla. Thirdly, he had a leading role in the major investigations that followed
                                                                                      Queen Elizabeth II, Sasumua (Kenya),                                      the failure of two embankment dams during construction; Chingford in 1937 and Carsington in 1984.
                                                                                      Selset, Usk, Vajont (Italy)
  2002    15      Reservoirs     Guidance on appointments to panels set up under the                                             Legislation
                  Committee      Reservoirs Act 1975.
  2002    18                     BDS prize competition 2001.
  2002    19      Woolf          WOOLF D (2002). Numerical simulation of hydraulic      Langsett                                 Spillway hydraulics            This paper won the BDS prize competition in 2001. When the design flood flow at Langsett reservoir was
                                 structures. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 12, February, no 1,                                                                         increased following the publication of the Flood Estimation Handbook, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
                                 pp 19-22.                                                                                                                      model was used to investigate options for increasing the spillway capacity. The CFD model gave good
                                                                                                                                                                agreement with a 1/35 scale physical model and demonstrated that CFD can be used to undertake a cost-
                                                                                                                                                                effective sensitivity study of design features, such as the effect of a bridge on channel flow. Further papers on
                                                                                                                                                                the technique are published in the proceedings of the 12th BDS conference held in 2002 in Dublin.
  2002    23      Bridle         Report on ICOLD 69th annual meeting, Dresden,                                                   Environment/social/planning,   A symposium on benefits and concerns about dams was much taken up with the report of the World
                                 Germany, 9th to 15th September 2001 by Rod Bridle.                                              Hazard & risk management,      Commission on Dams. A workshop on modern techniques for dams covered financing, construction, operation
                                                                                                                                 Roller compacted concrete,     and risk assessment.
                                                                                                                                 Seepage & leakage, Seismic
                                                                                                                                 assessment
  2002    31      Gardiner       GARDINER K D (2002). The Longdendale valley            Arnfield, Bottoms, Rhodeswood,           Flood estimation/hydrology,    A BDS study tour of the Longdendale valley took place in July 2001. The major works carried out since the
                                 reservoirs. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 12, February, no 1, Torside, Valehouse, Woodhead             Overflow works                 construction of the dams have been associated with the ability of the overflow works to pass the design flood
                                 pp 31-32.                                                                                                                      safely.
  2002    33      Morris         New BDS website: www.british dams.org
  2002    34      Page           PAGE R (2002). The operational response to leakage Anglezarke                                   Reservoir operation, Seepage   On 26th November 1997, routine monitoring identified a seepage of water from the east mitre of the Heapy
                                 and repair at Anglezarke reservoir. Dams &                                                      & leakage                      embankment of Anglezarke reservoir. The following day it was decided to lower the reservoir water level to 3 m
                                 Reservoirs, vol 12, February, no 1, pp 34-36.                                                                                  below TWL. The leakage was thought to be associated with a disused draw-off pipe however following grouting,
                                                                                                                                                                leakage occurred when the reservoir was close to TWL. Further grouting adjacent to the abutment was required
                                                                                                                                                                to cure the leak.
  2002    37      Shepard        SHEPARD M A (2002). Ladybower reservoir draw-off           Ladybower                            Outlet & intake works          Implementation of the decision to replace 50 year old operating and guard valves without emptying the reservoir,
                                 valve replacement. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 12,                                                                                  required a methodology to be developed for isolating the valves from the reservoir. Successful completion of the
                                 February, no 1, pp 37-40.                                                                                                      project involved the use of a remote operated vehicle (ROV) to install stoppers underwater with no visibility.

  2002    42      Gardiner       Farm dams in western Kazakhstan by K D Gardiner.
  2002    43      Charles        CHARLES J A and TEDD P (2002). Reservoir safety:                                                                               The review lists some 50 publications relevant to reservoir safety which were published in the year from October
                                 review of publications 2000-2001. Dams & Reservoirs,                                                                           2000 to September 2001. The papers are reviewed under the following seven headings: embankment dams,
                                 vol 12, February, no 1, pp 43-48.                                                                                              concrete dams, hydrology, hydraulics, seismic risk, safety management and risk assessment, guidance and
                                                                                                                                                                legislation.
  2002    48      Wieland        Seismic vulnerability of dams.

  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 12, no 2, July 2002

 Date     Page    First author                    Contents/Reference                        Dams                                 Subjects                       Brief summary



                                                                                                                                                         43
Dams Reservoirs



  2002    3                      Notes and notices. ICOLD Bulletin 123 Seismic design
                                 and evaluation of structures appurtenant to dams.

  2002    3       Kite           KITE P (2002). The challenges for reservoir owners                                               Dam break studies, Databases,    This paper was presented to the British Dam Society meting in January 2002. The paper focuses on the
                                 and panel engineers in learning from the Autumn 2000                                             Emergency plans, Flood           Autumn 2000 floods that led to the breaching of a number of some flood defences. It is concluded that reservoir
                                 floods. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 12, July, no 2, pp 3-6.                                           estimation/hydrology, Hazard &   panel engineers should take a leading role in a number of flood related issues including flood warning and public
                                                                                                                                  risk management, Legislation     information, risk assessment and contingency planning, and investment needs.


  2002    7       Carter         CARTER I, CLAYDON J, WILSON G and SCUERO A Winscar                                               Asphaltic concrete,              This is a report of a presentation at the Institution of Civil Engineers. For more detailed information see a paper
                                 (2002). Improving the watertightness of Winscar                                                  Geomembranes, Internal           with the same title published in the proceedings of the 12th BDS conference held in 2002 in Dublin (pp 415-430).
                                 reservoir. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 12, July, no 2, pp 7-                                          erosion & filters, Seepage &
                                 8.                                                                                               leakage
  2002    9       Sims           SIMS C (2002). Bohernabreena reservoirs spillway        Upper & Lower Bohernabreena (Irish       Overflow works, Spillway         This paper was a runner-up in the 2001 BDS prize competition. The Bohernabreena reservoirs are at high risk
                                 improvements. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 12, July, no 2, Republic)                                   hydraulics                       during flooding and it is therefore essential to upgrade the spillways. However, it has to be accepted that for a
                                 pp 9-13.                                                                                                                          limited period during the construction works the risk temporarily will be increased. Design options to enable the
                                                                                                                                                                   dams to take the design flood are outlined and temporary works design to mitigate flood risk during construction
                                                                                                                                                                   are described.
  2002    14      Bridle         Book reviews by Rod Bridle                                                                                                         'Historical dams - foundation of the future rests on the achievements of the past', edited by H Fahlbusch. The
                                                                                                                                                                   sceptical environmentalist - measuring the real state of the world', by Bjorn Lomborg. Report of the World
                                                                                                                                                                   Commission on Dams 'Dams and development - a new framework for decision making'.


  2002    15      Cordell        CORDELL M C (2002). Design against thermal               Khlong Ma Dua (Thailand)                Concrete temperature, Roller     This paper was a runner-up in the 2001 BDS prize competition. Concrete dam design needs to overcome the
                                 cracking in an RCC dam. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 12,                                               compacted concrete               problem of internal heat generation due to heat of hydration of cement. Although cement content is much lower
                                 July, no 2, pp 15-21.                                                                                                             in roller compacted concrete (RCC), rapid rates of construction mean that thermal cracking is an important
                                                                                                                                                                   design consideration. Temperature and thermal stress finite element analysis was used in the design of the 92
                                                                                                                                                                   m high Khlong Ma Dua RCC dam.
  2002    22                     Henry Palmer award.
  2002    23      Ryan           RYAN C P (2002). Rehabilitation of Owen Falls dam.       Owen Falls (Uganda)                     Concrete deterioration,          This paper was an entrant in the 2001 BDS prize competition. The 30 m high mass concrete gravity dam was
                                 Dams & Reservoirs, vol 12, July, no 2, pp 23-27.                                                 Drainage, Grouting, Roller       completed in 1954. Alkali Aggregate Reaction (AAR) was identified in the 1990s. The remedial philosophy had
                                                                                                                                  compacted concrete               two major components: firstly, constructing a roller compacted concrete prop keyed into the foundation at the toe
                                                                                                                                                                   of the dam to improve stability by providing additional weight; secondly, forming a grout curtain and providing fan
                                                                                                                                                                   drains in the body of the dam to slow AAR by preventing saturation of the concrete and to improve stability by
                                                                                                                                                                   reducing uplift pressures in the dam and the foundation. Five galleries, each 12 m long, were excavated into the
                                                                                                                                                                   downstream of the dam to allow access for drilling.
  2002    28                     The World Bank position on the report of the World                                                                                The world Bank was one of the organisations instrumental in setting up the World Commission on Dam.
  2002    30      Hughes         BDS annual on Dams.
                                 Commission report 2001.

Dams & Reservoirs, vol 13, no 1, January 2003

 Date     Page    First author                   Contents/Reference                       Dams                                    Subjects                         Brief summary
  2003    3       Sims           SIMS G P (2003). Geoffrey Binnie Lecture 2002: The       Crotty (Australia), Ennepe (Germany), Databases,                         The full version of the lecture has been published in the discussion volume of the 12th BDS conference held in
                                 challenge for British dam engineers. Dams &              Kotri (Pakistan), Ladybower, La       Environment/social/planning,       Dublin 2002. The three themes of the wide ranging lecture are team working and communications, rehabilitation,
                                 Reservoirs, vol 13, no 1, January, pp 3-11.              Girotte (France), Lost Creek (USA),   Legislation                        and the future of BDS. The need to communicate with those opposed to dams was stressed, as was the need
                                                                                          Wilmot (Australia)                                                       for research and development in the area of rehabilitation. BDS should support a national or European dam
                                                                                                                                                                   database for dam incidents and a national or European archive of engineering data for dams.
  2003    13                     Report on 12th BDS conference 'Reservoirs in a           Bohernabreena (Irish Republic),                                          The report provides some technical details of Bohernabreena , Pollaphuca and Turlough dams which were
                                 changing world'.                                         Pollaphuca (Irish Republic), Turlough                                    visited.
                                                                                          Hill (Irish Republic)
          18      Taylor         Notification of undertakers regarding cessation of                                               Legislation
                                 appointment by P J Taylor, secretary to the Reservoirs
                                 Committee.
  2003    19      Prentice       PRENTICE J F (2003). Teesdale dams and reservoirs. Hury                                          Outlet & intake works,           Hury was the first dam to be built on the river Balder in the Teesdale group and the reservoir was in use by
                                 Dams & Reservoirs, vol 13, no 1, January, pp 19-24.                                              Reservoir drawdown,              1892. Other dams include the ill fated Balderhead, one of the early rolled clay core dams and Cow Green
                                                                                                                                  Sedimentation, Slope stability   completed in 1971. Only after one hundred years did the pipework at Hury become sufficiently suspect to
                                                                                                                                                                   consider replacement. The reservoir drawdown, contract work and reservoir refilling were not without incident
                                                                                                                                                                   but the work generally progressed well under the close supervision of the site staff. Piezometers were installed
  2003    24                     Obituary: Geoffrey Sims (1940-2002)                                                                                               to monitor stability during drawdown.
  2003    25                     Profile of Tony Morison, editor of Dams & Reservoirs
  2003    25                     The centenary of the Aswan dam
  2003    26      Daniell        ICOLD Bulletin 123: Seismic design and evaluation of
                                 structures appurtenant to dams Wendy Daniell.
  2003    27      Farmery        FARMERY I (2003). Washburn Valley reservoirs.            Fewston, Lindley Wood, Swinsty,         Geomembranes, Heightening,       The report of a site visit on 18th September 2002 describes remedial works currently being carried out at
                                 Dams & Reservoirs, vol 13, no 1, January, pp 27-28.      Thurcross                               Overflow works, Upstream         Swinsty and Lindley Wood embankment dams to increase their flood capacity following reclassification from
                                                                                                                                  slope protection                 Category B to A. The crest of Swinsty is being raised by 1.2 m and the crest at Lindley Wood by 3 m. A detail
                                                                                                                                                                   paper on the remedial works to the Washburn Valley Reservoirs is published in the proceedings of the 13th
                                                                                                                                                                   BDS conference held in 2004 pp 559-568.




                                                                                                                                                         44
Dams Reservoirs



  2003    29      Bridle         BRIDLE R (2003). Melton Mowbray flood storage                 Melton Mowbray              Internal erosion & filters, Outlet A site visit on 3rd July 2002 took place while the flood storage reservoir was under construction. The 8 m high
                                 reservoir. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 13, no 1, January,                                      & intake works, Slope stability embankment dam has a rolled clay core and a filter design has been adopted which should ensure that the dam
                                 pp 29-31.                                                                                                                    is self-healing. This is particularly important because the dam will be rarely submerged and will therefore dry out
                                                                                                                                                              and crack.

  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 13, no 2, June 2003

 Date     Page    First author                     Contents/Reference                          Dams                        Subjects                         Brief summary

  2003    3                      Notes and notices. Dams in the news: recent news
                                 items and articles in New Civil Engineer about
                                 defective dams.
  2003    4       Bridle         Letter to the Editor concerning emergency drawdowns.

  2003    5                      Obituary: Derek Knight (1931-2002).
  2003    6       Hewlett        Bateman Award 2002 to Ian Carter, Jim Claydon and
                                 Matthew Hill for paper 'Improving the watertightness of
                                 Winscar reservoir', published in the Dublin conference.

  2003    6       Hughes         Special award to Paul Tedd for his work as Technical
                                 Secretary of BDS.
  2003    7       Bridle         Report on ICOLD annual meeting, Iguacu, Brazil, 2002.

  2003    11      Roe            ROE M (2003). Potential liability of panel engineers                                      Legislation
                                 under the Reservoirs Act 1975. Dams & Reservoirs,
                                 vol 13, no 2, June, pp 11-12.
  2003    13                     Defra letter to Water Companies                                                                                            The letter follows an incident of severe internal erosion into a draw-off culvert of an old embankment dam. The
                                                                                                                                                            circumstances and implication prompted DEFRA to alert owners of dams with similar features, urging them to
                                                                                                                                                            review their internal procedures on surveillance and emergency drawdown.
  2003    15      Aighton        AIGHTON W (2003). Bold Venture reservoir failure                                          Catastrophic failures            The article is a resume from a report in the Blackburn Standard of the 30 August 1848. The embankment dam
                                 1848 (2003). Dams & Reservoirs, vol 13, no 2, June,                                                                        was overtopped during a heavy rainstorm and the released reservoir water caused 12 deaths in Darwen. The
                                 pp 15-16.                                                                                                                  verdict of the jury at the inquest was that ‘... all the deaths inquired into occurred by an accidental cause ...’
  2003    16      Daniell        Sponsorship for student engineers
  2003    17      Naisby         Report on BDS 6th Supervising Engineers Forum.
  2003    19      Hinks          HINKS J (2003). Small reservoirs in large catchments. Blithfield, Caban Coch, Claerwen,   Flood estimation/hydrology       The paper reviews an American approach to determining spillway capacities based on the extra damage that
                                 Dams & Reservoirs, vol 13, no 2, June, pp 19-22.      Craig Goch, Llyn Brianne, Pen-y-                                     could be done by the failure of a dam during a flood. In some cases of small reservoirs on large catchments, the
                                                                                       Garreg                                                               ICE Floods and Reservoir Safety can require a spillway 20 times larger than the American methodology.

  2003    23      Molyneux       MOLYNEUX D (2003). Using instrumentation to assess                                        Instrumentation                  This paper was presented at the Supervising Engineers Forum 2003. Between section 10 inspections it is the
                                 dam performance. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 13, no 2,                                                                          supervising engineer's responsibility to interpret instrumentation results and decide whether there is a threat to
                                 June, pp 23-26.                                                                                                            reservoir safety. Graphs of effect quantities plotted against causal quantities (eg seepage plotted against rainfall
                                                                                                                                                            and reservoir level) should assist the supervising engineer to identify changes in dam behaviour.

  2003    27      Fowler         FOWLER H (2003). Probable maximum precipitation                                           Flood estimation/hydrology       Report of meeting to discuss the estimation of extreme rainfall, and particularly the probable maximum
                                 and extreme rainfall estimation. Dams & Reservoirs,                                                                        precipitation, in relation to reservoir risk assessment. There was a general feeling that although FEH was an
                                 vol 13, no 2, June, pp 27-28.                                                                                              improvement on FSR, more fundamental research was needed on the physics of historical events.
  2003    29      Budd           BUDD J and BRUGGEMANN D A (2003). Review of                                                                                The review covers the year from October 2001 to September 2002 and lists 67 papers. The two most common
                                 reservoir safety publications 2001-2002. Dams &                                                                            subjects are embankment dams and safety management and risk assessment.
                                 Reservoirs, vol 13, no 2, June, pp 29-35.

Dams & Reservoirs, vol 13, no 3, October 2003

 Date     Page    First author                     Contents/Reference                          Dams                        Subjects                         Brief summary
  2003    2                      Notes and notices: Scottish and Southern Energy have
                                 submitted plans to build the first large hydropower dam
                                 for 40 years. It is envisaged that the rockfill dam will be
                                 a kilometre long and up to 35 m high.

  2003    3       Hinks          HINKS J (2003). How to get onto a panel and how to                                                                        The requirements for appointment and reappointment to the panels set up under the 1975 Reservoirs Act are
                                 stay there - a personal view. Dams & Reservoirs, vol                                                                      stringent because panel members could be in the position of making important decisions with implications for
                                 13, no 3, October, pp 3-4.                                                                                                human lives. The knowledge, experience and attributes for which the Reservoirs Committee is looking are
                                                                                                                                                           summarised. Over the last three years for all the panels just under 80% of new applicants were successful and
                                                                                                                                                           over 90% of reapplicants were successful.
  2003    5       Dyke           DYKE T and BRANIGAN C (2003). Ramsden Wood          Ramsden Wood                          Flood estimation/hydrology,     Construction works to improve the overflow system, drawoff arrangement and upstream dam face at Ramsden
                                 reservoir improvement works. Dams & Reservoirs, vol                                       Outlet & intake works, Overflow Wood reservoir were undertaken in 2002. Application of FEH methodology had severe implications for the
                                 13, no 3, October, pp 5-10.                                                               works, Slope stability,         predicted maximum spillway discharge and the scheme was drawn to a close in the knowledge that further work
                                                                                                                           Upstream slope protection       may be required if in the future the FEH methodology is validated. Scale models were constructed to determine
                                                                                                                                                           the efficiency of the existing overflow arrangement and revised arrangements. Open stone asphalt was used to
                                                                                                                                                           protect that part of the upstream face normally affected by wave action.




                                                                                                                                                   45
Dams Reservoirs



  2003    11        Millmore      A note on probable maximum precipitation and
                                  extreme rainfall precipitation has been issued on behalf
                                  of the committee of the British Dam Society. Attention
                                  is drawn to the interim guidelines provided by Defra in
                                  2000.
  2003    12        Hinks         HINKS J, LEWIN J and WARREN A (2003). Extreme Alloz (Spain), Blithfield, Brianne,                Dynamic behaviour & analysis,     The extreme external events which can affect reservoir safety include hurricanes and extreme meteorological
                                  events and reservoir safety. Dams & Reservoirs, vol      Caban Coch, Claerwen, Craig Goch,       Flood estimation/hydrology,       events, earthquakes, glacial lake outbursts, landslides, and obstruction of spillway discharge by debris.
                                  13, no 3, October, pp 12-19.                             Hebgen (USA), Jordan (Canada),          Hazard & risk management,         Earthquakes can prevent the operation of spillway gates and cause the failure of bottom outlets. Examples of the
                                                                                           Koyna (India), Krasnodar (Russia), La   Landslide dams, Outlet &          effects each of these extreme events on dam behaviour is given.
                                                                                           Joie (Canada), Lake Llyn (USA),         intake works, Seismic
                                                                                           Platanovryssi (Greece), Sarez           assessment, Slope stability,
                                                                                           (Tajikistan), Sefid Rud (Iran), Shih    Spillway gates & barriers
                                                                                           Kang (Taiwan), Tikves (Macedonia),
                                                                                           Vaiont (Italy), Yuvacik (Turkey)
  2003    20                      Report on ICOLD 21st Congress, Montreal, 2003.                                                                                     Reports covered Question 80: Financing hydraulic projects including dams and 82: Economic evaluation of hydraulic projects including dams.
  2003    23      Daniell         BDS essay competition for school students.
  2003    24      Simmons         The ITCOLD course on the Ridracoli dam and its           Ridracoli (Italy)
                                  environmental aspects by Richard Simmons.
  2003    26                      Those dammed beavers (laid to rest).

Dams & Reservoirs, vol 14, no 1, March 2004
 Date     Page     First author                   Contents/Reference                      Dams                                     Subjects                          Brief summary
  2004    3       Daniell         Dam engineering projects steal the ICE Henry Palmer                                                                                The Henry Palmer Award competition challenges young engineers to promote the civil engineering profession in
                                  awards by Wendy Daniell                                                                                                            creative and practical ways to audiences in schools, colleges and universities.
  2004    6       Millmore        Report on ICOLD annual meeting and 21st Congress,
  2004    9       Gardiner        GARDINER K D (2004). Reservoir supervision - how                                                 Hazard & risk management,         United Utilities has decided that it is generally appropriate that the period between inspections of an earth dam
                                  much is enough? Dams & Reservoirs, vol 14, no 1,                                                 Instrumentation/monitoring,       by headworks staff should not exceed 48 hours. Local circumstances could increase or decrease this maximum
                                  March, pp 9-11.                                                                                  Internal erosion/filters,         interval. Remote sensing has not been sufficiently developed to replace supervisory staff and may never do so.
                                                                                                                                   Overtopping, Seepage &            Action plans are considered under three headings: a) a documented plan and checklist for the surveillance and
                                                                                                                                   leakage, Slope stability          operation of the reservoir, b) a contingency plan for emergency reservoir drawdown and other works and c) an
                                                                                                                                                                     evacuation plan for person downstream.
  2004    12      Hughes          Report on 13th BDS conference and European Club of
                                  ICOLD, Canterbury, 2004.
  2004    13      Brown           BROWN A and GOSDEN J (2004). Outline strategy for                                                Culverts under embankments,       This interim report presents some preliminary findings of a research contract concerned with the early detection
                                  the management of internal erosion in embankment                                                 Emergency plans, Hazard &         of progressive internal erosion. Internal erosion processes are not well understood and, unsurprisingly, further
                                  dams. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 14, no 1, March, pp 13-                                             risk management, Internal         research is recommended. A risk based approach to managing this hazard may need to include three risk
                                  20.                                                                                              erosion/filters, Movement         control measures: upgrades to reduce vulnerability, appropriate monitoring regimes and emergency planning.
                                                                                                                                   monitoring, Pore pressure
                                                                                                                                   (seepage), Safety surveillance,
                                                                                                                                   Seepage & leakage,


  2004    21      Gosden          GOSDEN J and BROWN A (2004). An incident                                                         Hazard & risk management,         To ensure the continuation of the good safety record of British dams it is important to learn as much as is
                                  reporting and investigation system for UK dams. Dams                                             Incident/failure databases,       practicable from near miss incidents which might have become failures in different circumstances. This interim
                                  & Reservoirs, vol 14, no 1, March, pp 21-28.                                                     Legislation, Reservoir            report presents some preliminary findings of a research contract concerned with setting up an incident system
                                                                                                                                   drawdown                          for dams subject to the Reservoirs Act 1975. It is intended to begin with a voluntary system, but in the long term
                                                                                                                                                                     the system may need to be made mandatory. (Note: an incident reporting system has now been established by
                                                                                                                                                                     the Environment Agency.)
  2004    29      Davies          DAVIES P (2004). Staines South storage reservoir:       Staines South                            Outlet & intake works,            This paper won the 2003 BDS prize competition. Staines South is a category A reservoir which had a drawdown
                                  drawdown improvements. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 14,                                                Reservoir drawdown                rate of 0.45 m per day. The inspecting engineer recommended that, in the interests of safety, this should be
                                  no 1, March, pp 29-32.                                                                                                             increased to 0.7 m per day. The innovative solution for enhancing the emergency drawdown rate involved
                                                                                                                                                                     modifying an existing 2.4 m diameter multi flap non-return valve, bi-directional use of an existing 76 inch steel
                                                                                                                                                                     inlet main, constructing a 130 m long, 1.9 m diameter pipeline to connect the reservoir to an existing raw water
                                                                                                                                                                     tunnel, and installing a 1.2 m diameter gate valve on a strategic supply main.

  2004    33      Langman         LANGMAN E (2004). Making defensible decisions in                                                                                   This paper was a runner-up in the 2003 BDS prize competition. The management of dam systems is very
                                  the management of dam systems. Dams & Reservoirs,                                                                                  complex and it is only by linking asset related decisions to overall services to customers and other stakeholders
                                  vol 14, no 1, March, pp 33-37.                                                                                                     that optimisation can be achieved. A simplified model of a dam system has been developed which can provide a
                                                                                                                                                                     basis for rapid scenario testing to investigate how asset management decisions affect system performance and
                                                                                                                                                                     service delivery.
  2004    38      Hernandez       HERNANDEZ R M (2004). The Alumbrera mine tailings Alumbrera (Argentina)                          Rockfill, Seismic assessment,     This paper was a runner-up in the 2003 BDS prize competition. The Alumbrera mine requires the long-term
                                  dam. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 14, no 1, March, pp 38-                                              Slope stability, Waste            storage of one billion tonnes of tailings. The tailings are being stored behind an earth and rockfill zoned
                                  43.                                                                                              impoundment                       embankment dam. The embankment is being built in stages using a modified centre-line method of construction:
                                                                                                                                                                     it was 65 m high in 1999 and is planned to have a final height of 160 m. The dam is in a seismically active area
                                                                                                                                                                     and the design parameters for the maximum credible earthquake include a peak ground acceleration of 0.58g.




                                                                                                                                                            46
Dams Reservoirs



  2004    44      Thomas           THOMAS A (2004). Alwen dam construction. Dams &           Alwen                                     Concrete mix & cement,           The 30 m high Alwen dam was built between 1911 and 1918 and is constructed in mass concrete with stone
                                   Reservoirs, vol 14, no 1, March, pp 44-50.                                                          Movement monitoring,             displacers ("plums") and with concrete facing blocks upstream and downstream. The designers appreciated the
                                                                                                                                       Uplift/overturning in concrete   structural forces and stresses acting on the dam, such as uplift, temperature movement and arching, but lacked
                                                                                                                                       dams                             the analytical expertise to take them fully into account. Current analyses based on a gravity section show the
                                                                                                                                                                        factors of safety to be just adequate under extreme loadings and more than adequate under other loadings. The
                                                                                                                                                                        curvature of the dam is unlikely to significantly improve the stability. Numerous archive photographs have been
                                                                                                                                                                        used to illustrate the stages of construction.

Dams & Reservoirs, vol 14, no 2, September 2004

 Date     Page      First author                    Contents/Reference                       Dams                                      Subjects                         Brief summary
  2004    3       Bradley          BRADLEY D W (2004). River Irwell flood control            Littleton                                 Flood storage reservoirs,        This paper was a finalist in the 2003 BDS prize competition. The flood control scheme provides an increased
                                   scheme - design and construction of Littleton flood                                                 Hazard & risk management,        standard of flood alleviation for 3000 inner city properties in Salford by the construction of an off-line storage
                                   storage basin. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 14, no 2,                                                     Outlet & intake works            reservoir and channel improvement works. The embankment required to form the flood storage reservoir is 1.8
                                   September, pp 3-8.                                                                                                                   km long and up to 4 m high. A trial embankment was constructed in 1996 and phased construction of the
                                                                                                                                                                        storage reservoir commenced in 1997. The design of the inlet/outlet structure was designed with the aid of
                                                                                                                                                                        physical models.
  2004    9       Cavanagh         CAVANAGH S (2004). Brentingby dam, Melton            Brentingby                                     Flood storage reservoirs,        This paper was a finalist in the 2003 BDS prize competition. The flood water storage reservoir protects Melton
                                   Mowbray flood alleviation scheme. Dams & Reservoirs,                                                Internal erosion/filters         Mowbay from a 1 in a 100 year flood from the River Eye. The rolled clay core embankment dam constructed to
                                   vol 14, no 2, September, pp 9-12.                                                                                                    hold the flood water is 550 m long and up to 5.5 m high. Although it is probable that the dam will only impound
                                                                                                                                                                        water for two or three days each year, it has been designed with many of the features of a dam for an
                                                                                                                                                                        impounding reservoir, including filters and crack fillers. Floc size of the clay was determined to design the
  2004    13      Stott            Report on work experience on the Odelpuca dam             Odelouca (Portugal)                                                        appropriate filter.
                                   project in Portugal.
  2004    17      Hill             HILL M (2004). Performance monitoring at modern           Grimwith                                  Instrumentation/monitoring,      The paper was presented at the 2003 Supervising Engineers Forum. Instrumentation data should always be
                                   embankment dams. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 14, no 2,                                                   Movement monitoring, Pore        plotted so that trends can be identified and the supervising engineer should carry out a regular review of
                                   September, pp 17-20.                                                                                pressure (seepage), Seepage      instrumentation data from all instrumented dams. The most common forms of instrumentation installed at
                                                                                                                                       & leakage                        modern embankment dams are described. Some ways of interpreting trends and performance are suggested
                                                                                                                                                                        and illustrated with a summary of the recent performance of Grimwith dam. Normalising the data can facilitate
                                                                                                                                                                        comparisons with other similar dams.
  2004    21      Emberson         EMBERSON C J M and BRUGGEMANN D A (2004).                                                                                            The paper is the fifth annual review of publications and was prepared as part of the Defra reservoir safety
                                   Reservoirs safety review of publications 2002-2003.                                                                                  research programme. Some seventy publications of relevance to reservoir safety in Britain are listed together
                                   Dams & Reservoirs, vol 14, no 2, September, pp 21-                                                                                   with relevant research projects.
                                   28.
  2004    29      Brown            Report of European symposium on internal erosion,                                                                                    Early detection of internal erosion with fibre optics was described in a number of papers.
                                   April 2004.
  2004    31      Bridle           BRIDLE R (2004). Dams, infrastructure and the social      Three Gorges (China).                     Environment/social/planning      The paper is a summary of a presentation made in Birmingham to the Institution of Civil Engineers on 11th
                                   obligations of civil engineers. Dams & Reservoirs, vol                                                                               March 2004. Billions of people are currently without basic infrastructure. While sustainable infrastructure is
                                   14, no 2, September, pp 31-33.                                                                                                       required to meet social needs, it should also promote economic growth and environmental sustainability. The
                                                                                                                                                                        concept of sustainable development should not be used to deny the present generation the infrastructure that
                                                                                                                                                                        they need. It is affirmed that the Three Gorges project in China scores highly in meeting social needs and
                                                                                                                                                                        facilitating economic growth, while making only a limited impact on an already highly developed river basin.
  2004    35      Gardiner         GARDINER K, HUGHES A and BROWN A (2004).                Upper Rivington (Yarrow)                    Culverts under embankments,      Some important lessons were learned from the serious internal erosion incident at Upper Rivington which
                                   Lessons from an incident at Upper Rivington reservoir -                                             Emergency plans, Internal        occurred in January 2002. Since such incidents can develop very rapidly, there is a need for (a) regular and
                                   January 2002. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 14, no 2,                                                      erosion/filters, Reservoir       frequent surveillance so that a serious defect is detected while there is still time to take effective action, (b) an on-
                                   September, pp 35-37.                                                                                drawdown, Seepage & leakage      site emergency plan detailing actions to be taken in the event of serious progressive internal erosion being
                                                                                                                                                                        detected, (c) contractors on call to carry out works at very short notice, (d) a functioning bottom outlet to rapidly
                                                                                                                                                                        lower the reservoir.
  2004    38      Bridle           Letter to the Editor concerning an incident and
                                   reporting system for UK dams.
  2004    41      Bridle           Letter to the Editor concerning an outline strategy for
                                   the management of internal erosion in embankment
                                   dams.

Dams & Reservoirs, vol 15, no 1, February 2005

 Date     Page      First author                    Contents/Reference                       Dams                                      Subjects                         Brief summary
  2005    3                        Reports on British Dam Society 13th Biennial
                                   Conference, June 2004.
  2005    5       Coxon            COXON R E (2004). Geoffrey Binnie Lecture 2004:           Cabora Bassa (Mozambique),                Environment/social/planning,     The lecture ranges over a number of dam related subjects including changes in practice, adverse events, risk
                                   Matters related to adverse incidents associated with      Capanda (Angola), Carsington,             Hazard & risk management,        management, insurance and review panels. A number of these subjects come together in the account of the 200
                                   dams and the role of review panels. Dams &                Gadouras (Greece), Uavio                  Outlet & intake works, Slope     m high, concrete arch, Kolnbrein dam. Following commissioning in 1978 the dam suffered shear cracking and it
                                   Reservoirs, vol 15, no 1, February, pp 5-14.              (Colombia), Kainji (Nigeria), Kolnbrein   stability                        was decided to keep the reservoir some 50 m below top water level. Investigations showed that the thin section
                                                                                             (Austria), La Miel (Colombia), Nam                                         near the base at the centre of the valley was unable to carry the applied shear forces. Remedial work involved
                                                                                             Theun 2 (Laos), Portage Mountain                                           constructing a 70 m high supporting arch at a cost of eighty million US$. Insurance cover for the effectiveness of
                                                                                             (Canada), Sulby, Sykia (Greece),                                           the remedial works was available but the premium was not acceptable to the owner.
                                                                                             Tachien (Taiwan), Tarbela (Pakistan),
                                                                                             Teton (USA), Westwater, Winscar

  2005    15      Defra            Floods and reservoir safety: revised guidance for panel
                                   engineers.



                                                                                                                                                               47
Dams Reservoirs



  2005    16      Defra           Interim guide to quantitative risk assessment for UK
                                  reservoirs.
  2005    17      Prentice        Minimum discharge capacity of impounding reservoirs:
                                  Northumbrian Water's experience and resultant capital
                                  spend by J Prentice.
  2005    19      Tadikamalla     TADIKAMALLA A V and RAI N N (2005). One                                                                                  Simulation of a dam breach and the resulting flood using a mathematical model is a crucial element in
                                  dimensional dam break analysis using MIKE11 model                                                                        developing an emergency action plan. A dam break analysis has been carried out for Phulwaria dam in Bihar
                                  for Phulwaria dam, India. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 15,                                                                     using the one-dimensional dam break model MIKE11.
                                  no 1, February, pp 19-24.
  2005    25      Hinks           HINKS J, SAWYER J, BOWLES D and BROWN A                                                Hazard & risk management          The 2004 Interim guide to Quantitative risk assessment for UK dams marks a major change in evaluating dam
                                  (2005). Practical risk analysis. Dams & Reservoirs, vol                                                                  safety. The favoured tool for assessing tolerable risk is the ALARP (as low as reasonably practicable) approach.
                                  15, no 1, February, pp 25-32.                                                                                            Risk analyses in various parts of the world have used a range of methodologies. In Albania a risk index, which
                                                                                                                                                           was based on the probability of failure and the number of houses judged to be at risk in the event of failure, was
                                                                                                                                                           used to rank 65 irrigation dams in order for remediation. A more sophisticated approach was used in the
                                                                                                                                                           Caribbean for 24 dams since the dams were generally much larger and funds were available for dambreak
                                                                                                                                                           analyses. Portfolio Risk Assessment has been widely used in Australia as a decision support tool which can link
                                                                                                                                                           the technical and business dimensions of dam ownership.

  2005    32                      Obituary: David Egerton Evans (1929-2004).
  2005    33      Emberson        EMBERSON C J M and BRUGGEMANN D A (2004).                                                                                The paper is the sixth annual review of publications and was prepared as part of the Defra reservoir contract for
                                  Reservoirs safety review of publications 2003-2004.                                                                      "Effective communication of reservoir safety research information". Some ninety publications of relevance to
                                  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 15, no 1, February, pp 33-41.                                                                     reservoir safety in Britain are listed together with relevant research projects. As usual embankment dams
                                                                                                                                                           dominated the publications.
  2005    43      Millmore        Report on ICOLD 72nd annual meeting, Seoul, Korea,
                                  May 2004.
  2005    47      Davison         Concern over catchment run-off estimation.

Dams & Reservoirs, vol 15, no 2, July 2005

 Date     Page     First author                    Contents/Reference                       Dams                         Subjects                          Brief summary
  2005    4       Carter          Proposed changes to committee structure of British
                                  Dam Society by Ian Carter.
  2005    6       Charles         CHARLES J A (2005). Sir Robert Rawlinson (1810-98). Dale Dyke, Lliw                    Catastrophic failures, Internal   The provision of an adequate water supply and appropriate sanitation for the rapidly expanding towns and cities
                                  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 15, no 2, July, pp 6-10.                                        erosion/filters, Puddle clay      in the Victorian period was an undertaking of vital importance for the health of the country. Robert Rawlinson
                                                                                                                                                           had a principal role in the improvement of sanitary conditions. He was also involved in the design and
                                                                                                                                                           construction of embankment dams and was instructed by the Home Secretary to investigate the Dale Dyke
                                                                                                                                                           failure, the worst civil engineering disaster that has ever occurred in England.
  2005    11      Brown           BROWN A and GOSDEN J (2005). An example of                                             Hazard & risk management,         The interim guide to quantitative risk assessment for UK dams (Brown and Gosden 2004) is applied to a one
                                  application of the interim guide to QRA. Dams &                                        Seepage & leakage                 hundred year old, 5 m high, embankment dam with seepage and leakage problems.
                                  Reservoirs, vol 15, no 2, July, pp 11-13.
  2005    13      Preziosi        Report on four-day course held in Italy in December
                                  2004 on methods and procedures for an effective dam
                                  safety programme by Marie-Christine Preziosi.
  2005    14      Hughes          Report on ICOLD annual meeting, Tehran, May 2005
                                  by A K Hughes.
  2005    17      Brown           Report on workshop on internal erosion, Aussois,                                       Internal erosion/filters          The report covers types of internal erosion, filter criteria, laboratory testing and case histories.
                                  France, April 2005 by Alan Brown and Rodney Bridle.
  2005    19      Spasic-Gril     SPASIC-GRIL L (2005). Dam safety project in Georgia. Algeti, Sioni, Tbilisi, Zonkari   Flood estimation/hydrology,       The dam safety project included four irrigation dams designed and constructed between the 1950s and the
                                  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 15, no 2, July, pp 19-23.                                       Hazard & risk management,         1980s to the standards and practices of the former Soviet Union. For example, design floods were based on a
                                                                                                                         Sedimentation, Seepage &          1000 year return period. Due to changes in standards and lack of maintenance, the current condition of the
                                                                                                                         leakage, Seismic assessment       dams is unsatisfactory. Three of the dams are embankments over 80 m high and large populations live
                                                                                                                                                           downstream. Hydrological, hydraulic and seismic studies were carried out. Instrumentation plans and
                                                                                                                                                           emergency action plans were prepared and remedial works were prioritised.
  2005    23      Hughes          Report on BDS visit to Eccup reservoir, 18th May 2005 Eccup
                                  by A K Hughes.
  2005    25      Gardiner        Report on Supervising Engineers Forum, April 2005 by                                   Emergency plans, Legislation
                                  K D Gardiner.
  2005    30      Digby           DIGBY R J and SELBIE J P (2005). Rehabilitation of                                     Spillway gates & barriers         This paper was presented at the Supervising Engineers Forum in April 2005. Most of the recent disasters
                                  radial gates for the UK hydropower industry. Dams &                                                                      caused by the failure of radial gates in different parts of the world primarily have been due to lack of
                                  Reservoirs, vol 15, no 2, July, pp 30-34.                                                                                maintenance and lack of regular inspection. The rehabilitation of radial gates used in hydroelectric dams and
                                                                                                                                                           barrages is a specialist task.
  2005    34      Williams        Monitoring and maintenance of Clywedog dam by Neil        Clywedog                     Drainage,
                                  Williams and Alan Warren.                                                              Instrumentation/monitoring,
                                                                                                                         Movement monitoring

Dams & Reservoirs, vol 15, no 3, November 2005

 Date     Page     First author                    Contents/Reference                       Dams                         Subjects                          Brief summary




                                                                                                                                                    48
Dams Reservoirs



  2005    3       Lewin           LEWIN J and EPRIM Y (2005). Venice flood barriers.                                            Gates & barriers             Venice lies only a few 100 mms above sea level and in 2003 the Italian government decided to proceed with the
                                  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 15, no 3, November, pp 3-8.                                                                         Venice flood protection scheme. Flood barriers have been designed to protect the navigation passages from the
                                                                                                                                                             Adriatic into the Venice Lagoon. In the late 1980s a prototype buoyant barrier gate had been tested in the Lido
                                                                                                                                                             passage. In the 1990s hydraulic model studies were carried out. The current design is largely based on the
                                                                                                                                                             earlier work.
  2005    9       Shadravan       SHADRAVAN B (2005). The construction of Karkheh Karkheh (Iran)                                 Concrete mix & cement,      The 77 m deep, one metre thick, Karkheh dam cut-off has an area of 190 000 square metres and is thought to
                                  dam cut-off wall. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 15, no 3,                                             Diaphragm & slurry trench   be the largest plastic concrete cut-off wall in the world. The dam foundation geology consists of thick, weak to
                                  November, pp 9-15.                                                                             walls                       moderately strong, conglomerate layers interbedded with thick mudstone layers. The permeability of the
                                                                                                                                                             conglomerate is relatively high. The design and construction of the cut-off wall presented a major challenge, but
                                                                                                                                                             dam instrumentation has shown that the cut-off has behaved well after reservoir impounding. A comprehensive
                                                                                                                                                             description of the cut-off wall construction is given.
  2005    16      Shave           SHAVE K J (2005). What is 'in the interests of safety'?                                        Culverts under embankments, This paper was presented at the Supervising Engineers Forum in April 2005. The budget provisions of dam
                                  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 15, no 3, November, pp 16-20.                                           Legislation, Seepage &      owners continue to be squeezed and they are unlikely to respond to requests for routine maintenance or to
                                                                                                                                 leakage, Vegetation         recommendations in supervising and inspecting engineers' reports that do not come under the heading 'in the
                                                                                                                                                             interests of safety'. A number of instances relating to maintenance are explored and it is questioned whether
                                                                                                                                                             absence of maintenance can cause items to become matters requiring works 'in the interests of safety' and, if
                                                                                                                                                             so, at what point does this occur?
  2005    21      Gopal           GOPAL S P and HAIGH S K (2005). Performance of          Fategadh (India), Rudra Matha (India), Catastrophic failures,      On 26th January 2001 a 7.9 moment magnitude earthquake occurred in Gujarat with a death toll of more than
                                  earth dams during the Bhuj earthquake in January        Suvi (India), Tappar (India)           Earthquake damage, Seismic 20 000. Many earth dams suffered extensive damage, including crest settlement, liquefaction induced spreading,
                                  2001. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 15, no 3, November, pp                                            assessment                  longitudinal cracking and damage to ancillary structures such as intake towers. All the reservoirs were low at the
                                  21-28.                                                                                                                     time of the earthquake. Only Suvi dam, constructed with a masonry core with fill of compacted silty material
                                                                                                                                                             suffered catastrophic failure. High resolution satellite imagery was used to identify damage to some of the earth
                                                                                                                                                             dams.
  2005    29      Charles         CHARLES J A (2005). Use of incident reporting and       Baldwin Hills (USA), Banqiao (China), Catastrophic failures,       The potential benefits of incident reporting is explored within the current reservoir safety framework, with
                                  data collection in enhancing reservoir safety. Dams & Belci (Romania), Camara (Brazil),        Emergency plans,            reference to the advances in understanding of dam behaviour and safety made through a study of case histories
                                  Reservoirs, vol 15, no 3, November, pp 29-35.           Frias (Argentina), Gouhou (China),     Incident/failure databases, and reports of past failures and near misses. The performance of old dams, which has been documented in
                                                                                          Greenbooth, Horndoyne,                 Internal erosion/filters,   case histories, has led to advances in technical understanding, the development of investigation procedures and
                                                                                          Lambieletham, Lluest Wen, Machhu II Overtopping                    a better appreciation of the effectiveness of remedial works. Incident reports, whether of failures or near misses,
                                                                                          (India), Malpasset (France), Rivington                             have promoted reservoir safety and have been particularly helpful in identifying factors which are critical in
                                                                                          Upper, Shakidor (Pakistan), Teton                                  preventing a near miss progressing to failure. The wide dissemination of learning from case histories, and in
                                                                                          (USA), Vaiont (Italy), Vega de Tera                                particular reports of serious incidents, has the capacity to improve understanding of the performance of our
                                                                                          (Spain), Warmwithens, Zeizoun                                      dams under new conditions imposed on them and to predict their future performance.
                                                                                          (Syria),

Dams & Reservoirs, vol 16, no 1, January 2006

 Date     Page     First author                   Contents/Reference                     Dams                                   Subjects                        Brief summary
  2006    2                       In memoriam: Jon Balley
  2006    3       Hinks           Obituary: John Beaver (1939-2005)
  2006    4       Hewlett         Report on the 2005 BDS prize competition.
  2006    5       Kelly           KELLY R (2006). Woodchester Park lakes: combining Woodchester Park ponds: Brick Kiln,         Flood estimation/hydrology,     This paper won the 2005 BDS prize competition. To achieve modern safety standards and comply with the
                                  historical dams with modern reservoir safety standards. Kennel, Middle, Old, Parkmill         Overtopping, Upstream slope     Reservoirs Act 1975, remediation works were required at a cascade of five eighteenth century reservoirs.
                                  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 16, no 1, January, pp 5-9.                                             protection                      Innovative approaches were developed with regard to landscape, heritage, archaeology, environment and
                                                                                                                                                                available finance. The preferred approach to providing adequate spillway capacity was to raise dam crest levels
                                                                                                                                                                and form auxiliary spillways by lowering sections of the dam crests and providing reinforced grass surfaces
                                                                                                                                                                below existing dam crest level at these sections.
  2006    10      King            KING S (2006). Capital maintenance of 19th century     Bennan                                 Upstream slope protection       This paper reached the final stage of the 2005 BDS prize competition. The approach of Scottish Water to
                                  reservoirs in the 21st century. Dams & Reservoirs, vol                                                                        general maintenance works and some more major works at their reservoirs is described. Substantial works were
                                  16, no 1, January, pp 10-13.                                                                                                  required to repair the steep upper section of hand-placed pitching on the upstream face of the 7 m high Bennan
                                                                                                                                                                embankment dam. The slope was flattened and protected with rip rap.
  2006    14      Armour          ARMOUR D (2006). Hardwick Hall dam: history,         Hardwick Hall                            Environment/social/planning,    This paper reached the final stage of the 2005 BDS prize competition. When in recent years the Hardwick Hall
                                  hydrology and the Reservoirs Act. Dams & Reservoirs,                                          Overtopping, Upstream slope     estate in County Durham fell into disrepair, the dam was breached and the ornamental lake reverted to
                                  vol 16, no 1, January, pp 14-17.                                                              protection                      farmland. The dam is now being restored on its original alignment with original features recreated.
  2006    18      Dempster        Report of visit to Dalwhinnie dam, 7th September 2005 Dalwhinnie
                                  by Kenny Dempster.
  2006    19      Hughes          What do we get from ICOLD?
  2006    21      Shaw            SHAW A (2006). Section 11 records: How well are they                                          Legislation, Movement         Section 11 of the Reservoirs Act 1975 requires the undertaker to keep records of water levels, leakages,
                                  kept? How often are they used? Is it time to review the                                       monitoring, Seepage & leakage settlement and other 'prescribed matters' and it can be questioned how well this works in practice. The paper,
                                  basic requirements? Dams & Reservoirs, vol 16, no 1,                                                                        which is based on a presentation to the Supervising Engineers Forum in April 2005, presents information
                                  January, pp 21-25.                                                                                                          provided by ten supervising engineers for 78 reservoirs.
  2006    26      Emberson        EMBERSON C J M and BRUGGEMANN D A (2006).                                                                                     The paper is the seventh annual review of publications and was prepared as part of the ongoing Defra reservoir
                                  Review of publications 2004-2005. Dams & Reservoirs,                                                                          safety research programme. It covers the period from October 2004 to September 2005. Over 100 publications
                                  vol 16, no 1, January, pp 26-35.                                                                                              of relevance to reservoir safety in Britain are listed together with 14 relevant research projects. As usual the two
                                                                                                                                                                dominant subjects were embankment dams and safety management and risk assessment, and over half the
                                                                                                                                                                publications dealt with these two subjects.
  2006    35      Spasic-Gril     Report on BDS Ridracoli competition.

Dams & Reservoirs, vol 16, no 2, July 2006

 Date     Page     First author                   Contents/Reference                     Dams                                   Subjects                        Brief summary




                                                                                                                                                        49
Dams Reservoirs



  2006    3       Rowland         ROWLAND A (2006). Reservoir improvement works in Bohernabreena Lower (Irish                Drainage, Flood                Flood studies identified that the spillways at the Bohernabreena reservoirs were inadequate for the probable
                                  Ireland: an update. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 16, no 2, Republic), Bohernabreena Upper        estimation/hydrology, Overflow maximum flood (PMF) and new spillways have been constructed on the same alignment, but with wider and
                                  July, pp 3-6.                                        (Irish Republic), Kilsellagh (Irish   works                          deeper channels. Bridges which acted as throttles on the original spillways were removed. Overflow capacity
                                                                                       Republic)                                                            was also insufficient at Kilsellagh reservoir and at this dam an additional spillway was constructed. 3 m long
                                                                                                                                                            steel sheet piles were installed in the crest and a new wave wall was built.
  2006    6       Schofield       SCHOFIELD R (2006). Discovering the origins of the                                         Legislation                    The reluctance of a succession of governments, the major water undertakers and the professional institutions to
                                  Reservoirs (Safety Provisions ) Act 1930. Dams &                                                                          accept the independent inspection of reservoirs and strict liability introduced through Rylands v Fletcher ,
                                  Reservoirs, vol 16, no 2, July, pp 6-11.                                                                                  allowed sixty-five years to pass before the Reservoirs (Safety Provisions) Act 1930 came into being.
  2006    11      Brown           The Water Framework Directive and its impacts on the                                       Legislation
                                  development and operation of reservoirs in Scotland by
                                  Alan Brown.
  2006    13      Hinks           Report of a study tour of three dams in Morocco.       Owed Rommel (Morocco), Side      Roller compacted concrete
                                                                                         Mohammed Ben Abdullah (Morocco),
                                                                                         Wigan (Morocco)
  2006    15      Hope            HOPE I (2006). Working together for the safety of our                                   Legislation                        As a result of changes in the Water Act 2003, in October 2004 the Environment Agency (EA) became
                                  reservoirs. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 16, no 2, July, pp                                                                      responsible for enforcing the Reservoirs Act 1975 in England and Wales. The very substantial progress made
                                  15-18.                                                                                                                     by the EA during the previous eighteen months is reviewed. Between 1st October 2004 and 1st May 2006 the
                                                                                                                                                             number of reservoirs with no supervising engineer has been reduced from 379 to 12 and the number of
                                                                                                                                                             reservoirs with no recorded owner has been reduced from 207 to 0.
  2006    19      Hieatt          Report on a one-day BDS seminar on dams and                                                Environment/social/planning
                                  sustainable development, held on 21st February 2006
                                  at the Institution of Civil Engineers by Michael Hieatt.
  2006    24      Gosden          Report on a half-day BDS meeting on emergency
                                  planning for UK reservoirs, held on 11th July 2006.

  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 16, no 3, December 2006
 Date     Page     First author                    Contents/Reference                        Dams                            Subjects                        Brief summary
  2006    2       Hope            Recording near-miss incidents.
  2006    3       Binnie          BINNIE C J A (2006). Geoffrey Binnie Lecture 2006:                                         Environment/social/planning     Dams and the reservoirs which they impound have provided great benefits to society from early times and
                                  Responding to society's need. Dams & Reservoirs, vol                                                                       without them the industrial revolution, on which our wealth has been based, would have been much delayed and
                                  16, no 3, December, pp 3-13.                                                                                               the population of our towns and cities would have been seriously restricted. New dams will continue to be
                                                                                                                                                             needed, particularly to cope with groundwater pollution and greater climatic variability.
  2006    14                      Report on BDS Durham conference
  2006    20      Reineke         REINEKE G (2006). An innovative and swift method for                                       Safety surveillance             A camera mounted on a remotely controlled model helicopter can aid the photographic inspection of areas of
                                  inspection of difficult-to-reach areas of dams. Dams &                                                                     dams and ancillary structures above the water line which are difficult to reach. The services of appropriately
                                  Reservoirs, vol 16, no 3, December, pp20-24.                                                                               trained and skilled operatives are essential for safety and success.

  2006    25      Findlay         FINDLAY J and BRIDLE R (2006). Reservoirs Act                                              Legislation                     Two retiring chairmen of the interview sub-committees of the ICE Reservoirs Committee give advice to
                                  appointment and reappointment: some advice from                                                                            applicants for appointment and reappointment to panels of 'qualified civil engineers' constituted under the
                                  former interviewers. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 16, no 3,                                                                      Reservoirs Act 1975. Panel engineers have onerous responsibilities with regard to public safety and the need to
                                  December, pp 25-27.                                                                                                        be well prepared for the interview is stressed. Applications should contain all relevant information with adequate
                                                                                                                                                             detail. It is emphasised that long service on a panel does not confer some special status!
  2006    28      Brown           Report on two-day meeting of ICOLD European                                                Internal erosion/filters
                                  Working Group on internal erosion, held in Stockholm
                                  on 11th and 12th September 2006 by Alan Brown and
  2006    31      Brown           Rodney A (2006). Zonal techniques for detecting
                                  BROWNBridle.                                         W A C Bennett (Canada), Hallby        Geophysical investigation,      The Dam Safety Interest Group project on 'Investigation of geophysical methods' commenced after the
                                  seepage and internal erosion in embankment dams.     (Sweden)                              Internal erosion/filters        discovery of sinkholes in the W A C Bennett dam in British Columbia in 1996. The research has aimed to identify
                                  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 16, no 3, December, pp 31-34.                                                                       and develop techniques that can locate and quantify a concentrated leak, thus providing an early warning of
                                                                                                                                                             progressive internal erosion. The methods that have been examined include temperature measurement, self-
                                                                                                                                                             potential and resistivity. Temperature monitoring is the only technique that could be available for continuous
                                                                                                                                                             monitoring with alarm levels.

Dams & Reservoirs, vol 17, no 1, April 2007

 Date     Page     First author                    Contents/Reference                        Dams                            Subjects                        Brief summary
  2007    3                       A tribute to George Corsie (1938-2007)
  2007    5       Hope            HOPE I (2007). Reservoir safety in England and Wales                                       Legislation                     This paper is based on a presentation to the 2006 ANCOLD conference and provides a comprehensive
                                  - a time of change. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 17, no 1,                                                                       description of the role of the Environment Agency (EA) as regulator. The Water Act 2003 transferred the role of
                                  April, pp 5-15.                                                                                                            enforcement authority for the Reservoirs Act 1975 in England and Wales from local authorities to the EA. When
                                                                                                                                                             the EA took on this role on 1st October 2004 there was a substantial backlog of non-compliance. In addition to
                                                                                                                                                             enforcement actions taken to remedy this situation, further changes are planned with the introduction of
                                                                                                                                                             reservoir flood plans, post-incident reporting and a review of current regulations.




                                                                                                                                                        50
Dams Reservoirs



  2007    16      Winchcomb       WINCHCOMB M (2007), The Great Barford flood          Great Barford                              Flood storage reservoirs         The village of Great Barford has been susceptible to both flooding and traffic congestion. The construction of a
                                  attenuation scheme. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 17, no 1,                                                                             bypass presented an opportunity to also achieve a flood relief scheme. Two watercourses flow through the
                                  April, pp 16-18.                                                                                                                 village and an embankment has been constructed on each of them. The 6 m high western embankment has
                                                                                                                                                                   been formed from fill from the bypass cuttings, but at the 5 m high eastern embankment a cut-and-fill exercise
                                                                                                                                                                   was needed to obtain suitable clay for the core. The flood attenuation storage areas are designed to be dry
                                                                                                                                                                   under normal conditions. Flow through each embankment is controlled by an orifice plate fixed to the front face
                                                                                                                                                                   of a 600 mm diameter culvert: the circular opening in each plate has been set to allow the optimum flow
                                                                                                                                                                   downstream during the 1 in 100 year event.
  2007    19      Brown           BROWN A and PETERS A (2007). Update on the use                                                  Hazard & risk management,        The interim guide was published in 2004 with the intention of finalising it in 2008 following extensive trial use of
                                  of the Interim guide to quantitative risk assessment.                                           Incident/failure databases       its methodology. Although refinements to the guide have been identified and are described, it is concluded that
                                  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 17, no 1, April, pp 19-24.                                                                                the guide provides the best methodology currently available. Further refinement should be possible as more
                                                                                                                                                                   reliable statistics on incidents are obtained from the UK incident database and as understanding of the internal
                                                                                                                                                                   erosion process improves.
  2007    25      Hinks           Report on 22nd ICOLD Congress held at Barcelona in Aswan High (Egypt), Aviemore (New                                             The Questions at the Congress were: Question 84, Technical solutions to reduce time and cost in dam design
                                  June 2006.                                         Zealand), Badoosh (Iraq), Bakhtiari                                           and construction, Question 85, Management of the downstream impacts of dam operation, Question 86, Safety
                                                                                     (Iran), El Cajon (Mexico), El Guapo                                           of earth and rockfill dams, Question 87, Flood and drought evaluation and management.
                                                                                     (Venezuela), Itaipu (Brazil),
                                                                                     Karahnjukar (Iceland), Koyna (India),
                                                                                     Mangla (Pakistan), Merowe (Sudan),
                                                                                     Mosul (Iraq), Nathpa (India),
                                                                                     Peribonka (Canada), Ralco (Chile),
                                                                                     Riba-Roja (Spain), Sardar Sarovar
                                                                                     (India), Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdallah
                                                                                     (Morocco), Spitallamm (Switzerland),
                                                                                     Three Gorges (China), Tehri (India),
                                                                                     Tuirial (India), Wloclawek (Poland).

  2007    30      Hughes          Report on annual meeting and study tour at 22nd         Abellan (Spain), Arenoso (Spain),
                                  ICOLD Congress held at Barcelona in June 2006.          Concepcion (Spain), La Brena (Spain),
                                                                                          Limonero (Spain), Rules (Spain)

  2007    32      Mills           Report on 22nd ICOLD Congress by winner of BDS
                                  student competition Jacob Mills.
  2007    33      Eyob            EYOB D (2007). Tekeze dam in Ethiopia. Dams &           Tekeze (Ethiopia)                                                        The 188 m high double curvature concrete arch dam was 45% complete in January 2007 at the time of the
                                  Reservoirs, vol 17, no 1, April, pp 33-37.                                                                                       author's BDS sponsored visit. On completion in 2009, Tekeze will be the second highest dam in Africa and will
                                                                                                                                                                   contribute nearly half Ethiopia's total power production.
  2007    38      Ketkar          KETKAR D J (2008). Crack detection, analysis and        Bhandardara (India)                     Drainage, Earthquake damage, After the 1969 rainy season a water jet erupted at the toe of the 80 m high masonry gravity dam and emergency
                                  rehabilitation of an old masonry dam. Dams &                                                    Grouting                     remedial works were required to ensure the stability of the dam. Initial grouting indicated the presence of major
                                  Reservoirs, vol 17, no 1, April, pp 38-44.                                                                                   inclined cracks in the masonry. Phase 1 remedial work included drilling 76 mm diameter pressure relief holes
                                                                                                                                                               from the downstream face at 10 degrees above horizontal at three levels, the holes extending to within 6 m of
                                                                                                                                                               the upstream face. A cement grout curtain and prestressed cable anchors were installed from the dam crest. In
                                                                                                                                                               the subsequent phase 2 works, buttress supports were constructed on the downstream face of the dam, mainly
                                                                                                                                                               to withstand earthquake forces.

Dams & Reservoirs, vol 17, no 2, July 2007

 Date     Page     First author                   Contents/Reference                      Dams                                    Subjects                         Brief summary
  2007    2                       Stoney Middleton and Ulley incidents.                   Ulley
  2007    3                       New European overtopping manual published.
  2007    4                       Report on visit to Rotton Park reservoir                Rotton Park
  2007    5       Hope            HOPE I (2007). Development of flood plans for large                                             Emergency plans, Guides &        Reservoir flood plans prepared for the use of the emergency planning community through Local Resilience
                                  raised reservoirs in England and Wales. Dams &                                                  surveys                          Forums should ensure that those involved in managing and communicating flood risk are better informed of
                                  Reservoirs, vol 17, no 2, July, pp 5-10.                                                                                         potential inundation areas. While there will always be a minor risk from extreme floods and dam failure,
                                                                                                                                                                   emergency action plans can further improve the safety of those people most at risk from these hazards. Defra is
                                                                                                                                                                   currently funding the preparation of an engineering guide to emergency planning for UK reservoirs.
  2007    11      Lemperiere      LEMPERIERE F and LAFITTE R (2007). The role of                                                  Environment/social/planning      This paper, which was presented at the 2006 ICOLD Barcelona conference, summarises the main points of the
                                  dams in the 21st century to achieve a sustainable                                                                                general report of the ICOLD Committee on Governance of dam project. It is affirmed that the overall benefits of
                                  development target. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 17, no 2,                                                                             dams during the 21st century will be much greater than during the period from 1950 and that technical,
                                  July, pp 11-18.                                                                                                                  economic and environmental problems should not prevent the implementation of these extremely beneficial
                                                                                                                                                                   structures. Much of the water resources development potential is in countries which urgently need safe water
                                                                                                                                                                   and an electricity supply. To obtain public support it is necessary to disseminate fair and balanced information on
                                                                                                                                                                   the benefits of dams and the management of remaining drawbacks.

  2007    19                      Report on Supervising Engineers Forum, April 2007.                                              Internal erosion/filters,
                                                                                                                                  Legislation, Reservoir
                                                                                                                                  drawdown




                                                                                                                                                              51
Dams Reservoirs



  2007    24      Gardiner        GARDINER K (2007). Leaks in embankment dams and                                                Emergency plans, Internal   This paper was presented at the Supervising Engineers Forum in April 2007. The most likely cause of failure of
                                  what to do about them - some suggested actions for                                             erosion/filters, Reservoir  an embankment dam in the UK is internal erosion associated with leakage through the dam or its foundation. It
                                  supervising engineers (and owners). Dams &                                                     drawdown, Seepage & leakage can be questioned, firstly, at what stage a supervising engineer should become sufficiently concerned about a
                                  Reservoirs, vol 17, no 2, July, pp 24-26.                                                                                  leak to take action and, secondly, what action should be taken. The importance of having an emergency plan is
                                                                                                                                                             stressed. The appearance of a new unexplained dirty leak with a steady flow is likely to warrant commencing a
                                                                                                                                                             precautionary reservoir drawdown and the supervising engineer is advised to consult an inspecting engineer. A
                                                                                                                                                             dirty leak with an increasing flow rate should warrant an emergency drawdown and bringing an inspecting
                                                                                                                                                             engineer to the site.
  2007    27      Enston          ENSTON P (2007). A 21st century solution for seized                                            Outlet & intake works       Seized valves can result in large expenditure when there is no practicable alternative to replacement. The H-
                                  valves. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 17, no 2, July, pp 27-                                                                      Grip system provides a non-invasive solution which applies controlled torque pulses that gradually break the
                                  29.                                                                                                                        bonding or scale deposits and free the valve.
  2007    30      Brown           Report on meeting of European Working Group on           W A C Bennett (Canada), Castlewood Internal erosion/filters
                                  Internal Erosion at Aix-le-Bains in April 2007 by Alan   (USA), Glashatte (Germany), QA-10
                                  Brown and Rodney Bridle.                                 James Bay (Canada)


Dams & Reservoirs, vol 18, no 1, April 2008

 Date     Page     First author                    Contents/Reference                      Dams                                  Subjects                       Brief summary
  2008    1                       Launch of the Flooding Bill consultation: the future of
                                  flood risk management in Scotland.
  2008    2                       Report on ICOLD 75th annual meeting, St Petersburg,
                                  June 2007.
  2008    3       Ackers          Obituary: George Richard Hallowes (1939-2007).
  2008    5       Mason           MASON P J and HINKS J L (2008). Security of             Ulley                                  Overflow works, Spillway       The stepped masonry spillway at Ulley ran along the downstream left mitre of the embankment. Although this
                                  stepped masonry spillways: lessons from Ulley dam.                                             hydraulics                     spillway had been supplemented by a larger concrete spillway in 1943, it was so arranged that the older stepped
                                  Dams & Reservoirs, vol 18, no 1, April, pp 5-8.                                                                               masonry spillway always operated preferentially. The proximity of the masonry spillway to the embankment
                                                                                                                                                                meant that when the spillway failed during a flood on 25th June 2007 serious erosion of the embankment
                                                                                                                                                                occurred. The hydrodynamics of this type of spillway is reviewed. The importance of maintenance of masonry
                                                                                                                                                                spillways especially those that run close to the dam is discussed.
  2008    9       Farnell         FARNELL P (2008). Modifying a Victorian spillway to                                            Flood estimation/hydrology,    This paper was awarded first prize in the 2007 BDS prize competition. When the (unidentified) lower reservoir in
                                  comply with current design standards. Dams &                                                   Overflow works, Spillway       a cascade built in the mid to late nineteenth century was reclassified to flood category A, it was necessary to
                                  Reservoirs, vol 18, no 1, April, pp 9-15.                                                      hydraulics                     modify the spillway to pass the probable maximum flood. Following physical model testing carried out at a scale
                                                                                                                                                                of 1:20, the overflow arrangements were upgraded by wall raising, reinforcement of the embankment and guide
                                                                                                                                                                vanes installed in the upper section of the spillway.
  2008    17      Walker          WALKER J P (2008). The discontinuance of Boltby        Boltby                                  Discontinuance/abandonment     This paper was awarded second prize in the 2007 BDS prize competition. In June 2005 a flood with a return
                                  reservoir, North Yorkshire, UK. Dams & Reservoirs, vol                                                                        period in excess of 1 in 10 000 years caused significant damage to the masonry spillway. The reservoir had not
                                  18, no 1, April, pp 17-21.                                                                                                    been used for supply since 2003 and it was decided to discontinue the reservoir under section 13 of the
                                                                                                                                                                Reservoirs Act 1975. A notch 70 m wide at the crest was excavated through the embankment and a new low-
                                                                                                                                                                level overflow channel was constructed at the bottom of the notch so that the remaining dam impounds less than
                                                                                                                                                                25 000 cubic metres of water. Care has been taken to maintain the amenity value of the reservoir.
  2008    23      Donovan         DONOVAN K (2008). Discontinuance of Warren dam,          Warren                                Discontinuance/abandonment     This paper was awarded third prize in the 2007 BDS prize competition. Discontinuance of a reservoir is not an
                                  Hampshire, UK. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 18, no 1,                                                                               easy option. The proposed discontinuance of a relatively small 6 m high dam, with a long history of vandalism,
                                  April, pp 23-26.                                                                                                              produced many problems, including social, health and safety, flood risk and environmental issues.
  2008    27      Preziosi        PREZIOSI M-C (2008). Probabilistic assessment of                                               Hazard & risk management,      A procedure is presented for the probabilistic analysis of slope stability for a generic small homogeneous
                                  small earthfill dams. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 18, no 1,                                         Slope stability                embankment dam. A parametric analysis is performed, using a simplified soil model, to evaluate notional
                                  April, pp 27-30.                                                                                                              reliabilities against slope failure. It is affirmed that the results from reliability analysis are a useful tool for decision
                                                                                                                                                                making regarding remedial or maintenance work.
  2008    31      Rooke           ROOKE D (2008). A modern risk-based approach to                                                Hazard & risk management,      The Environment Agency's inaugural report 'Improving safety, protecting lives - the biennial report on reservoir
                                  reservoir regulation. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 18, no 1,                                         Legislation                    safety', which covers the period from 1st April 2005 to 31st March 2007, shows how overall compliance with the
                                  April, pp 31-33.                                                                                                              Reservoirs Act 1975 has improved since the EA became the enforcement authority. The EA considers that
                                                                                                                                                                legislative changes in the following areas are necessary to build on the success of the current legislation: better
                                                                                                                                                                risk-based definition of a reservoir within the Act; funded powers to act at a reservoir with no owner; mandatory
                                                                                                                                                                post-incident reporting; more flexible enforcement powers; better quality assurance of inspection reports; better
                                                                                                                                                                enforcement powers for reservoir flood plans; better regulation of disused mine and quarry tips.

  2008    35      Falkingham      Report on 14th German dam symposium and 7th        Sylvenstein
                                  ICOLD European Club dam symposium, September
                                  2007.
  2008    39      Hinks           Report on workshop and symposium in St Petersburg, Covao do Ferro (Portugal), Folsom                                          One of the papers describes the failure of the upper reservoir at the Taum Sauk pumped storage scheme in the
                                  June 2007 by J L Hinks                             (USA), Gouhou (China), Higashi-fuji                                        USA as a result of overfilling. This has relevance for not-impounding reservoirs in the UK where spillways are
                                                                                     (Japan), Kozyak (Macedonia),                                               not provided.
                                                                                     Paradise [formerly Burnett] (Australia),
                                                                                     Samanalawewa (Sri Lanka), Sardar
                                                                                     Sarovar (India), Sefid Rud (Iran),
                                                                                     Taum Sauk (USA), Yingde'er (China),
                                                                                     Zarrineh Rud (Iran)


Dams & Reservoirs, vol 18, no 2, July 2008



                                                                                                                                                         52
Dams Reservoirs



 Date     Page     First author                    Contents/Reference                       Dams                                  Subjects                         Brief summary
  2008    47                      EA responds to Pitt review.
  2008    48                      Maich dam overtopped
  2008    49                      Clunie dam ground engineering awards 2008
  2008    50                      Proposed changes to reservoir legislation - report from
                                  panel engineers consultative group.
  2008    51                      The future of flood risk management in Scotland.
  2008    51                      Defra and EA reservoir safety R&D strategy.
  2008    51                      ICOLD Committee on global climate change and dams,
                                  reservoirs and the associated water resources.

  2008    54      Potts           Obituary: Peter Rolfe Vaughan (1935-2008).
  2008    56                      Obituary: Arthur D M Penman (1922-2008).
  2008    58      Wagner          Report on roller compacted concrete seminar on the        Kinta (Malaysia), New Victoria        Roller compacted concrete
                                  Queensland Gold Coast by Chris Wagner.                    (Australia), Paradise (Australia)
  2008    59      Pepper          Report on flood detention reservoirs seminar, April                                             Flood storage reservoirs
                                  2008 by Andrew Pepper.
  2008    61      Wieland         WIELAND M (2008). Effect on dams of 12 May 2008           Ertan (China), Shuibuya (China),      Concrete face rockfill,          The earthquake of 12th May 2008 had a magnitude of 7.9 and caused very severe ground shaking in the
                                  Sichuan earthquake - a preliminary assessment. Dams       Three Gorges (China), Zipingpu        Earthquake damage                epicentral region. Some 400 dams, mostly small embankment dams, have been affected by the earthquake and
                                  & Reservoirs, vol 18, no 2, July, pp 61-62.               (China)                                                                need to be inspected. It is anticipated that some landslide dams will have been formed.

  2008    63      Cambridge       CAMBRIDGE M (2008). Implications of pyritic rockfill      Cerro do Lobo (Portugal)              Geochemistry, Slope stability,   The inclusion of pyritic materials can have a detrimental influence on the geotechnical and geochemical
                                  on performance of embankment dams. Dams &                                                       Waste impoundment                performance of rockfills and, consequently, serious implications for the construction of tailings-confining and
                                  Reservoirs, vol 18, no 2, July, pp 63-69.                                                                                        water-retaining structures. The oxidation of pyrite and other sulphide materials causes physical changes in the
                                                                                                                                                                   character of the rock and in the quality of any seepages. Acidic seepages can cause damage to unprotected
                                                                                                                                                                   structures. A recent embankment rehabilitation project in Portugal illustrates the associated problems. The
                                                                                                                                                                   methods available to correct the effects of oxidation within an embankment and to improve stability and
                                                                                                                                                                   environmental performance are reviewed.
  2008    71      Brown           BROWN A (2008). Flood detention reservoirs:                                                     Flood storage reservoirs,        There are several respects in which the geotechnical performance of embankment dams retaining flood
                                  geotechnical aspects of design and construction. Dams                                           Guides & surveys, Internal       detention reservoirs (FDR) differ from dams retaining reservoirs which are full of water for most of the time.
                                  & Reservoirs, vol 18, no 2, July, pp 71-77.                                                     erosion/filters                  Since the FDR dams are normally dry, no phreatic surface is established through the body of the dam, although
                                                                                                                                                                   the foundations and lower abutments will be saturated below the normal groundwater level. Guidance is given
                                                                                                                                                                   on issues which need to be addressed by careful design including drying out of the core fill and the interface
                                                                                                                                                                   between the embankment fill and structures.
  2008    79      Harding         HARDING N (2008). Maintenance of flood storage                                                  Environment/social/planning,     Flood storage reservoirs are generally empty for most of the time and therefore present special problems for the
                                  reservoirs. Dams & Reservoirs, vol 18, no 2, July, pp                                           Flood storage reservoirs,        effective ongoing maintenance that is essential to ensure reservoir safety on the comparatively rare occasions
                                  79-83.                                                                                          Outlet & intake works,           when the facilities are required to fulfil their function. The principal elements of these reservoirs, which are
                                                                                                                                  Reservoir drawdown               usually formed by relatively low embankments, are described, including outlet controls and valves, trash and
                                                                                                                                                                   security screens, drawdown facilities, silt and gravel traps, and site security and public safety. Access should be
                                                                                                                                                                   provided which is safe and practical for both vehicles and pedestrians during normal 'dry' conditions as well as
                                                                                                                                                                   during 'wet' operating conditions.
  2008    85      Muller          MULLER U (2008). Flood protection with dams and           Gottleuba (Germany), Klingenberg      Flood estimation/hydrology,      The extreme flood event in August 2002 exposed dams in Saxony to an extraordinary load situation; at some
                                  flood control reservoirs - before and after the extreme   (Germany)                             Flood storage reservoirs         dams the 10 000 year design flood was exceeded. With the exception of the Klingenberg dam, only relatively
                                  flood event of August 2002, Saxony. Dams &                                                                                       minor damage was suffered by the dams. At Klingenberg there was damage to the spillway and an upstream
                                  Reservoirs, vol 18, no 2, July, pp 85-91.                                                                                        slope failure. In addition to repairing damage and making structural improvements to existing dams, sites have
                                                                                                                                                                   been identified for flood retention reservoirs and feasibilty studies have been carried out.

Dams & Reservoirs, vol 18, no 3, November 2008

 Date     Page     First author                    Contents/Reference                       Dams                                  Subjects                         Brief summary
  2008    95      Airey           Report on 15th BDS conference, Warwick, September
                                  2008.
  2008    97      Brown           BROWN D H (2008). Rotton Park reservoir. Dams &   Rotton Park                                   Environment/social/planning,    There was a technical visit to Rotton Park reservoir as part of a pre-conference tour prior to the 2008 BDS
                                  Reservoirs, vol 18, no 3, November, pp 97-104.                                                  Outlet & intake works, Overflow conference at Warwick. The paper gives an informative history of the dam and its ancillary works which were
                                                                                                                                  works, Puddle clay              built in the 1820s to supply the Birmingham canal. The embankment dam has a puddle clay core. The two 0.45
                                                                                                                                                                  m diameter cast iron outlet pipes, which have valves at both upstream and downstream ends, were laid in
                                                                                                                                                                  trenches in the natural ground and buried under the embankment fill.
  2008    97      Brown           BROWN D H (2008). Earlswood reservoirs. Dams &            Earlswood (Engine pool, Terry's pool, Environment/social/planning,    There was a technical visit to the Earlswood reservoirs as part of a pre-conference tour prior to the 2008 BDS
                                  Reservoirs, vol 18, no 3, November, pp 105-110.           Windmill pool)                        Outlet & intake works, Overflow conference at Warwick. The paper gives an informative history of the Earlswood reservoirs, which were built to
                                                                                                                                  works                           supply the Stratford-upon-Avon canal. The embankment dams were built in the early 1820s and are without any
                                                                                                                                                                  clearly defined core.
  2008    111     Kirby           Report on BDS technical visit to Rutland Water,           Rutland Water
                                  September 2008 by Andy Kirby.
  2008    113     Dempster        Report on BDS technical visit to Carsington reservoir,    Carsington (2)
                                  September 2008 by Kennie Dempster.




                                                                                                                                                            53
Dams Reservoirs



  2008    115     Hamilton-King   HAMILTON-KING L J, HOPE I M and WARREN A L          Taum Sauk (USA), Ulley                  Catastrophic failures,          Post-incident reporting can improve reservoir safety by shaing lessons learned with the reservoir industry and
                                  (2008). Post-incident reporting: learning from                                              Incident/failure databases,     informing research and development. This paper, which was first published in the proceedings of the 15th
                                  experience to promote reservoir safety. Dams &                                              Legislation, Overflow works     conference of the British Dam Society, 2008, pp 271-284, describes the new system of post-incident reporting
                                  Reservoirs, vol 18, no 3, November, pp 115-120.                                                                             and highlights findings from post-incident investigations. The limitations of voluntary post-incident reporting have
                                                                                                                                                              led the Environment Agency to advocate the adoption of a mandatory system. Reference is made to the failure
                                                                                                                                                              of Taum Sauk dam which had no spillway and failed due to overfilling.
  2008    121     Carlyle         W J CARLYLE (2008). Geoffrey Binnie Lecture 2008:   Adheim (Iraq), Bakun (Malaysia),        Asphaltic concrete, Concrete    The 2008 Geoffrey Binnie lecture was given by Bill Carlyle and he began the lecture with an outline of the
                                  The Binnie heritage in dam engineering. Dams &      Barra Grande (Brazil), Betotan          face rockfill, Hazard & risk    achievements of Geoffrey Binnie, who was the third generation to lead the firm started by his grandfather, Sir
                                  Reservoirs, vol 18, no 3, November, pp 121-134.     (Malaysia), Bokaa (Botswana),           management,                     Alexander Binnie, in 1901. Under his leadership, Binnie and Partners were responsible for the huge Mangla
                                                                                      Brianne, Campos Novos (Brazil),         Instrumentation/monitoring,     project in Pakistan in the early 1960s. Carlyle's own career with Binnies commenced in 1951 at the Usk dam and
                                                                                      Daer, Fofany, Dokan (Iraq), Gorge       Pore pressure (construction),   he was later responsible for the constuction of the 91 m high Brianne dam which was completed in 1972. When
                                                                                      (Hong Kong), Gunong Pulai               Roller compacted concrete,      Carlyle became a partner in 1972 he established the firm in Saudi Arabia, Greece, Turkey and Jordan, as well
                                                                                      (Singapore), High Island (Hong Kong),   Slope stability                 as returning to Iraq. On retirement from Binnies in 1994 he has continued as a consultant in private practice,
                                                                                      Kalabagh (Pakistan), Kalatuwawa (Sri                                    working on many dam safety review panels.
                                                                                      Lanka), Mangla (Pakistan), Marchlyn,
                                                                                      Mosul (Iraq), Najran (Saudi Arabia),
                                                                                      Pegu Plover Cove (Hong Kong), Shek
                                                                                      Pik (Hong Kong), Usk, Yomas
                                                                                      (Myanmar), Silent Valley, Sunei
                                                                                      Selangor (Malaysia), Symvoulos
                                                                                      (Cyprus), Tarbela (Pakistan), Wadi
                                                                                      Dayjah (Muscat)




                                                                                                                                                     54
Proceedings of the BNCOLD Conference, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1975.



Conference papers of the British Dam Society
1975 Inspection, operation and improvement of existing dams. Proceedings of BNCOLD Symposium, University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne
 Date     First author                        Reference                            Dams                                     Subjects                        Brief summary
 1975     Ellis          ELLIS L E (1975). Reservoirs Act 1975. Inspection,                                                 Legislation                     The Reservoirs Act 1975 distinguishes between administrative and professional engineering aspects of reservoir
                         Operation and Improvement of Existing Dams.                                                                                        safety. Building on the earlier Reservoirs (Safety Provisions) Act 1930, the 1975 Act introduces three new
                         Proceedings of BNCOLD Symposium, University of                                                                                     features: firstly, a system of enforcement by local authorities, secondly, continual surveillance of large raised
                         Newcastle-upon Tyne, paper 1.1.                                                                                                    reservoirs by a qualified civil engineer, and, thirdly, procedures for removing a reservoir from the ambit of the Act
                                                                                                                                                            or securing its safe abandonment. The new duties of qualified civil engineers, undertakers and enforcement
                                                                                                                                                            authorities are described. Failure to comply with the Act is now a criminal offence. (See discussion by S F White,
                                                                                                                                                            Director of Water Engineering, Department of the Environment, pp D1/1-3; L E Ellis, p D1/7-8)

 1975     Simpson        SIMPSON H W (1975). Points of law relating to                                                      Legislation                     Having reviewed the common law position and statute law with respect to reservoirs, the issue of third party
                         reservoirs. Inspection, Operation and Improvement of                                                                               liability is examined. In the 1865 Rylands and Fletcher case, liability was upheld in respect of leakage from a
                         Existing Dams. Proceedings of BNCOLD Symposium,                                                                                    reservoir into underground mine workings of whose existence the defendant was justifiably ignorant. The fact
                         University of Newcastle-upon Tyne, paper 1.2.                                                                                      that a reservoir was built under statutory authority does not exonerate the undertakers from any legal action for
                                                                                                                                                            claims in respect of an escape of water from a reservoir. The criminal liability of undertakers and their
                                                                                                                                                            employees is set out much more fully in the 1975 Act than it was in the 1930 Act.
 1975     Johnson        JOHNSON F G (1975). Inspection of the reservoirs of                                                Instrumentation, Safety        The North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Board has 76 reservoirs which come within the ambit of the Reservoirs
                         the North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Board. Inspection,                                            surveillance, Spillway gates & (Safety Provisions) Act 1930. Concrete gravity and buttress dams predominate and there are a few embankment
                         Operation and Improvement of Existing Dams.                                                        barriers                       dams. Up to 1971 the three main safety procedures were visual inspections, leakage measurements and dam
                         Proceedings of BNCOLD Symposium, University of                                                                                    instrumentation. In developing a new policy for inspection and instrumentation the following factors were taken
                         Newcastle-upon-Tyne, paper 1.3.                                                                                                   into account: the type, height, age and safety factor of the dam, foundation conditions, economic value of the
                                                                                                                                                           reservoir and risk to population downstream. Six types of inspection are now carried out: (a) statutory
                                                                                                                                                           inspections by panel engineers at intervals not exceeding ten years, (b) overseeing inspections by experienced
                                                                                                                                                           engineers in the Board's Civil Division at intervals of two to five years, (c) maintenance inspections by members
                                                                                                                                                           of the Civil Division, (d) inspections at three to twelve month intervals by mechanical and electrical engineers, (e)
                                                                                                                                                           weekly inspections by watermen, and (f) inspection and testing of gates and valves at not more than yearly
 1975     Moffat         MOFFAT A I B (1975). Effective operation of reservoir Coedty, Dale Dyke, Eigiau, Lluest            Catastrophic failures,         intervals.
                                                                                                                                                           In presenting the historical background to reservoir safety legislation, particular emphasis is given to notable
                         legislation. Inspection, Operation and Improvement of Wen, Skelmorlie, Warmwithens                 Legislation                     failures. Problems in maintaining high levels of reservoir safety stem not only from the existence of a large stock
                         Existing Dams. Proceedings of BNCOLD Symposium,                                                                                    of dams in an industrialised and densely populated small country, but also from the large number of old
                         University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, paper 1.4. (See                                                                                 embankments dams within that stock. While it is considered that the Reservoirs Act 1975 represents a step
                         also discussion, pp D1/8-9 and 14-15.)                                                                                             forward on previous legislation, two significant ways to strengthen the Act are proposed: (a) the establishment of
                                                                                                                                                            a central registry containing all available essential records of dams subject to the legislation, (b) the
                                                                                                                                                            establishment of a central government agency to act as the enforcement authority rather than 66 local
                                                                                                                                                            authorities.
 1975     Morris         MORRIS J W (1975). Federal legislation and activities                                              Legislation, Safety             Following a number of dam failures and near-failures, in 1972 the United States of America introduced
                         for dam safety in the United States. Inspection,                                                   surveillance                    legislation authorising the US Army Corps of Engineers to compile an inventory of dams, to undertake a national
                         Operation and Improvement of Existing Dams.                                                                                        programme of dam inspections, and to prepare recommendations for the implementation of a national dam
                         Proceedings of BNCOLD Symposium, University of                                                                                     safety programme. All dams 25 feet (7.6 m) or more in height or impounding reservoirs with a storage capacity
                         Newcastle-upon-Tyne, paper 1.5.                                                                                                    of 50 acre feet (61700 cubic metres) or more were within the ambit of the legislation. The inventory contains data
                                                                                                                                                            on 49000 dams. It was recommended that a national dam safety programme should be implemented to protect
                                                                                                                                                            the health, safety and welfare of citizens, and that this should be followed by the inspection over a reasonable
                                                                                                                                                            and practicable time period of all existing dams which have a significant hazard potential.

 1975     Kilkenny       KILKENNY W M (1975). Overseas practice on dam                                                      Legislation, Safety             Legislation and inspection procedures for dam safety in the United States of America, the Republic of South
                         safety laws and inspection procedures. Inspection,                                                 surveillance                    Africa, France and Sweden are reviewed and compared with Great Britain. It is concluded that, while concerns
                         Operation and Improvement of Existing Dams.                                                                                        over the hazards posed by ageing dams are being reflected by increased legislative activity in some countries,
                         Proceedings of BNCOLD Symposium, University of                                                                                     few countries are conducting dam safety programmes with the intensity of effort required for public safety.
                         Newcastle-upon-Tyne, paper 1.6.
  1975    Cooley         COOLEY P (1975). Operation of the Metropolitan            Datchet, King George's, King George      Reservoir operation, Safety     Thames Water has some forty storage reservoirs in the Thames and Lea valleys. The reservoirs are under the
                         reservoirs of the Thames Water Authority. Inspection,     VI, Lockwood, Queen Elizabeth II,        surveillance                    control of two senior resident engineers, with a reservoir foreman under each. The larger units have a reservoir
                         Operation and Improvement of Existing Dams.               Queen Mary, Queen Mother, Staines                                        attendant, while the smaller ones are grouped. Daily inspections of every reservoir embankment are carried out
                         Proceedings of BNCOLD Symposium, University of            North, Staines South, William Girling,                                   by the reservoir attendants and include identification of damp patches, cracks and movement. Any anomaly
                         Newcastle-upon-Tyne, paper 2.1.                           Wraysbury                                                                which is detected is immediately reported. The reservoir foreman makes a weekly inspection and twice a year
                                                                                                                                                            the resident engineer makes an inspection. All this is in addition to statutory inspections and record keeping.




                                                                                                                                       55
Proceedings of the BNCOLD Conference, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1975.


  Date    First author                        Reference                   Dams                                       Subjects                         Brief summary
  1975    Wilby          WILBY C B and MOHSEN M N (1975). Instrumentation Boothwood                                  Instrumentation                  The 61 m high mass concrete gravity Boothwood dam was completed in 1971. Instrumentation was installed
                         of Boothwood dam. Inspection, Operation and                                                                                  during construction to measure stress and temperature during construction and reservoir impounding. Twelve
                         Improvement of Existing Dams. Proceedings of                                                                                 vibrating wire strain gauges were installed in one of the monoliths. The deformation of the dam was measured by
                         BNCOLD Symposium, University of Newcastle-upon-                                                                              triangulation. Two reasons are advanced for the necessity of instrumenting dams: firstly, to provide advance
                         Tyne, paper 2.2.                                                                                                             warning of the development of a hazardous situation in order to facilitate timely remedial action, and, secondly,
                                                                                                                                                      to determine how actual behaviour departs from existing theories in order to improve the future design of dams.

  1975    Johnson        JOHNSON F G and COOKE W (1975). Operation of                                                Reservoir operation              The North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Board had 76 reservoirs that came within the ambit of the 1930 Reservoirs
                         the reservoirs of the North of Scotland Hydro-Electric                                                                       (Safety Provisions) Act. There are two major operating conditions: firstly, normal operation to meet the electrical
                         Board. Inspection, Operation and Improvement of                                                                              supply requirements, and, secondly, flood conditions where local conditions govern the requirements for each
                         Existing Dams. Proceedings of BNCOLD Symposium,                                                                              reservoir. The operational regime is governed by the need to maximise electricity generation during periods
                         University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, paper 2.3.                                                                                when the marginal cost of thermal generation is high while minimising spill losses in wet weather and avoiding
                                                                                                                                                      storage failure in dry weather. Specific flood problems have been identified and operating and flood
                                                                                                                                                      management procedures are being refined.
 1975     Bolton         BOLTON K, MILLIGAN C and SANKEY K A (1975).                                                 Reservoir operation              The Manchester water resource system has developed from the mid-nineteenth century works in Longdendale,
                         The operation of the water resource system of                                                                                followed by works in the Lake District at Thirlmere, Haweswater and, latterly at Ullswater, to create the present
                         Manchester. Inspection, Operation and Improvement of                                                                         fully integrated system of reservoirs, pumping stations and aqueducts. The operating policy during drought
                         Existing Dams. Proceedings of BNCOLD Symposium,                                                                              conditions is described. The first stage of the Lancashire Conjunctive Use Scheme, which is currently under
                         University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, paper 2.4.                                                                                construction, involves the abstraction of water from the River Lune.

 1975     Curtis         CURTIS G R (1975). Instrumentation of the dams of        Lednock, Loch Dubh, Monar, Sloy    Instrumentation                Standardised instrumentation, including invar steel wire pendulums, inverted pendulums, strain gauges, and
                         the North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Board and                                                                             surveying techniques, has been adopted by the North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Board for its large dams, most
                         interpretation of results. Inspection, Operation and                                                                       of which are of concrete construction. Some results are presented for four concrete dams: Lednock and Sloy
                         Improvement of Existing Dams. Proceedings of                                                                               buttress dams, Monar arch dam and Loch Dubh gravity dam. A deflection measuring system is regarded as an
                         BNCOLD Symposium, University of Newcastle-upon-                                                                            early warning system, but five years is the minimum period required to establish the normal pattern of
                         Tyne, paper 2.5.                                                                                                           deflections.
 1975     Johnston       JOHNSTON T A (1975). Instrumentation and operation       Bradan                             Instrumentation, Movement      Bradan reservoir is impounded by two mass concrete gravity dams, Bradan and Lure. Construction began in mid-
                         of Bradan reservoir. Inspection, Operation and                                              monitoring, Uplift/overturning 1970 and the reservoir was full in January 1974. The behaviour of Bradan dam has been monitored during
                         Improvement of Existing Dams. Proceedings of                                                in concrete dams               impounding and subsequently. The expenditure on gauges, surveying pillars and target stations was six
                         BNCOLD Symposium, University of Newcastle-upon-                                                                            thousand pounds, 0.4% of the 1.5 million pounds contract. Uplift pressures were higher than anticipated under
                         Tyne, paper 2.6.                                                                                                           one section of the dam and more pressure relief holes were drilled.
 1975     Kitching       KITCHING B W (1975). Movement instrumentation at         Lower Glendevon, Upper Glendevon   Movement monitoring, Outlet An accuracy of better than 0.5 mm is claimed for measurements of horizontal and vertical movement using a
                         the Upper Glendevon dam and improving the outlet                                            & intake works                 laser alignment method at the 46 m high Upper Glendevon mass concrete gravity dam . The system was found
                         arrangement at the Lower Glendevon dam of the Fife                                                                         to be simpler, quicker and more accurate than alternative methods. At the 31m high Lower Glendevon
                         Regional Authority, Scotland. Inspection, Operation                                                                        embankment dam alterations have been made to enable the full capacity of the outlet works to be used more
                         and Improvement of Existing Dams. Proceedings of                                                                           safely. The measures which have been implemented at the two dams followed recommendations from statutory
                         BNCOLD Symposium, University of Newcastle-upon-                                                                            inspections.
                         Tyne, paper 2.7.
 1975     Parkman        PARKMAN H C (1975). Monitoring reservoir operation       Llysyfran                          Instrumentation, Movement        Operational monitoring of the 32 m high Llysyfran mass concrete gravity dam has included measurement of
                         for inspections. Inspection, Operation and                                                  monitoring, Safety               seepage, uplift pressure, crest movement and concrete strain. Seepage has been monitored in twelve V-notch
                         Improvement of Existing Dams. Proceedings of                                                surveillance,                    weirs. In order to identify the general location of a flow path it is important that surface water run-off is isolated
                         BNCOLD Symposium, University of Newcastle-upon-                                             Uplift/overturning in concrete   and that the percolation beneath the dam is separated from that through the concrete. Uplift pressures across
                         Tyne, paper 2.8.                                                                            dams                             the base of the dam were monitored by installing piezometers beneath three monoliths. Surveying methods have
                                                                                                                                                      been used to measure horizontal and vertical deflection of the dam crest and vibrating wire strain gauges have
                                                                                                                                                      been installed in four of the monoliths.
 1975     Rofe           ROFE B H (1975). Use of existing instrumentation in                                         Instrumentation, Safety          Over the previous two decades many major embankment dams have had instrumentation installed during
                         embankment dams. Inspection, Operation and                                                  surveillance                     construction. The question arises as to what use should be made of the instrumentation after embankment
                         Improvement of Existing Dams. Proceedings of                                                                                 construction has been completed and the reservoir has been filled. Several possible courses of action are
                         BNCOLD Symposium, University of Newcastle-upon-                                                                              considered. Disconnecting all instruments and terminating readings is not recommended. A compromise course
                         Tyne, paper 2.9.                                                                                                             of action is to disconnect some instruments and continue to read a representative group. A warning marker limit
                                                                                                                                                      system can be introduced for piezometer readings. The additional cost of continuing to read all instruments may
                                                                                                                                                      not be very great and a comprehensive record of monitoring can be of great value in regular design checks.

 1975     Moffat         MOFFAT A I B (1975). Pore pressure and internal uplift Bradan, Loch Dubh                    Uplift/overturning in concrete Internal uplift should be clearly differentiated from the more commonly discussed foundation uplift. Internal uplift
                         in massive concrete dams. Inspection, Operation and                                         dams                           can be defined as the force system acting upon any horizontal plane within a massive dam which is attributable
                         Improvement of Existing Dams. Proceedings of                                                                               to the pressure of seepage water contained in joints, fissures, or pores in the parent material. Pore pressure
                         BNCOLD Symposium, University of Newcastle-upon-                                                                            monitoring has been carried out in two concrete gravity dams, Loch Dubh and Bradan. Current understanding of
                         Tyne, paper 3.1.                                                                                                           internal uplift is limited by a lack of reliable quantitative pore pressure data and it is hoped that the monitoring at
                                                                                                                                                    Bradan will in the long term provide relevant data.




                                                                                                                                56
Proceedings of the BNCOLD Conference, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1975.


 Date     First author                        Reference                          Dams                                 Subjects                       Brief summary
 1975     Sherwood       SHERWOOD D E, MARRIOTT M and SMITH J                    Grand Vaux, Val-de-la-Mare           Concrete deterioration,        The dynamic Young's Modulus of concrete can be derived from measurements of compression wave velocity.
                         (1975).Non-destructive testing of concrete dams by                                           Geophysical investigation      The Val-de-la-Mare dam in Jersey was deteriorating due to alkali-aggregate reactivity and this geophysical
                         sonic speed measurement. Inspection, Operation and                                                                          method was used to identify areas of concrete which had deteriorated due to alkali aggregate reaction and to
                         Improvement of Existing Dams. Proceedings of                                                                                monitor any further deterioration of the structure. A blow from a one kilogram hammer on the downstream face
                         BNCOLD Symposium, University of Newcastle-upon-                                                                             of the dam was used as the source and a geophone was located on the upstream face above the water level.
                         Tyne, paper 3.2.                                                                                                            Measurements at Val-de-la-Mare were repeated after eight months, but there was little evidence that the
                                                                                                                                                     concrete had suffered significant deterioration between the two surveys. The remedial measures adopted at the
                                                                                                                                                     dam are described by Coombes et al in paper 3.3. Testing was also carried out at the 9 m high Grand Vaux
                                                                                                                                                     dam. Wave velocities in the concrete were of the order of 4000 m/s.

 1975     Coombes        COOMBES L H, COLE R G and CLARKE R M (1975). Val-de-la-Mare                                  Concrete deterioration,        In January 1971 small upstream movements of the order of 10 mm were noticed at certain sections of the
                         Remedial measures to Val-de-la-Mare dam, Jersey,                                             Geophysical investigation,     handrail of the crest walkway bridge at the Val-de-la-Mare dam. The dam was completed in 1962 and has a
                         Channel Islands, following alkali-aggregate reactivity.                                      Grouting, Uplift in concrete   maximum height of 23 m above the valley floor. An investigation programme included the measurements of
                         Inspection, Operation and Improvement of Existing                                            dams                           compression wave velocity described by Sherwood et al in paper 3.2. It was concluded that the deterioration of
                         Dams. Proceedings of BNCOLD Symposium,                                                                                      the concrete was due to alkali-aggregate reactivity. The evidence indicated that deterioration would not progress
                         University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, paper 3.3.                                                                               to the point where the concrete could not withstand the applied compressive loads, but that expansive cracking
                                                                                                                                                     could lead to increased internal uplift pressures and result in instability. Remedial works included the provision of
                                                                                                                                                     drainage into the gallery, grouting and the installation of anchors in the section of the dam most adversely
                                                                                                                                                     affected. Instrumentation has been installed to monitor the loads on the anchors and movements at this section.

 1975     Fitzgerald     FITZGERALD R D (1975). Altnaheglish dam, County         Altnaheglish (N. Ireland)            Grouting, Seepage &            The 34 m high mass concrete gravity Altnaheglish dam was completed in 1934. Spalling of the downstream face
                         Londonderry, Northern Ireland. Inspection, Operation                                         leakage, Uplift in concrete    of the dam was first noted in 1952 and increased progressively. An investigation found no chemical deterioration
                         and Improvement of Existing Dams. Proceedings of                                             dams                           but it was concluded that the downstream face was never dry due to seepage through the body of the dam.
                         BNCOLD Symposium, University of Newcastle-upon-                                                                             Coloured dyes injected through holes drilled in the dam showed that there were many leakage paths. Stability
                         Tyne, paper 3.4.                                                                                                            calculations indicated an unsatisfactory state under major flood conditions and the top water level was
                                                                                                                                                     immediately lowered by 3 m. Grouting was carried out and piezometers were installed to measure uplift before
                                                                                                                                                     and after grouting.
 1975     Knill          KNILL J L (1975). Seismic velocity investigations of    Altnaheglish, Blackwater, Glen       Geophysical investigations     Compression wave velocity measurements in concrete dams using seismic hammer equipment provide a rapid
                         concrete dams in Great Britain. Inspection, Operation   Finglas, Laggan, Monar, Stithians,                                  and inexpensive way of examining the in situ mass properties of concrete. Measurements at seven dams
                         and Improvement of Existing Dams. Proceedings of        Wet Sleddale                                                        demonstrate the anisotropic influence of construction joints and variations in concrete quality on the wave
                         BNCOLD Symposium, University of Newcastle-upon-                                                                             velocity. The vertical velocity was typically only 60 - 75% of the horizontal velocity.
                         Tyne, paper 3.5.
 1975     Allen          ALLEN A C (1975). Leakage and stability of the Upper    Glendevon Upper                      Grouting, Seepage &            The Upper Glendevon concrete gravity dams was completed in 1955 and is 45 m high. On reservoir impounding
                         Glendevon dam of the Fife Regional Authority,                                                leakage, Uplift in concrete    leakage was 25 l/s and was widespread through the dam and the rock foundation. Unusually high uplift
                         Scotland. Inspection, Operation and Improvement of                                           dams                           pressures were recorded. In 1960 an upstream grout curtain was formed and appeared to have been very
                         Existing Dams. Proceedings of BNCOLD Symposium,                                                                             successful in reducing leakage. However by 1968 leakage was again substantial and approaching 10 l/s with
                         University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, paper 3.6.                                                                               indications of high uplift pressures. The factor of safety is unknown and, under a contract let in July 1975,
                                                                                                                                                     pressure relief holes are being drilled to improve stability.
 1975     Bass           BASS K T (1975). Selection of design flood - the                                             Flood estimation/hydrology     Prior to the publication of the Flood Studies Report (FSR), British dam engineers typically calculated a design
                         engineer's dilemma. Inspection, Operation and                                                                               flood for a particular reservoir by adjusting the ICE Normal Maximum Flood to take account of site specific
                         Improvement of Existing Dams. Proceedings of                                                                                factors. The publication of FSR changed the situation dramatically. The report makes it possible to estimate
                         BNCOLD Symposium, University of Newcastle-upon-                                                                             floods with a return period of 100 000 years and also the probable maximum flood (PMF) based on the probable
                         Tyne, paper 4.1.                                                                                                            maximum precipitation (PMP). When a new reservoir is being designed it may be possible to accommodate the
                                                                                                                                                     much larger design floods derived from the new methodology without any great difficulty, but when the safety of
                                                                                                                                                     an existing reservoir, which has functioned satisfactorily for the last hundred years, is being assessed there is a
                                                                                                                                                     severe problem in deciding what additional overflow facilities should be provided. The problem facing the
                                                                                                                                                     Engineer has changed from a purely technical one of assessing the maximum flood to a sociological one of
                                                                                                                                                     selecting the appropriate degree of protection for the public and property downstream of the dam.

 1975     Jarvis         JARVIS R M (1975). Flood assessment for hydro-          Aigas, Beannachran, Benevean,        Flood estimation/ hydrology,   Most of the North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Board's schemes were based on the Institution of Civil Engineers'
                         electric projects. Inspection, Operation and            Kilmorack, Monar, Mullardoch         Spillway gates & barriers      1933 Interim Report on Floods in Relation to Reservoir Practice. The practice of the Board with respect to floods
                         Improvement of Existing Dams. Proceedings of                                                                                prior to the publication of the Flood Studies Report is described and the 1000 year flood has been generally
                         BNCOLD Symposium, University of Newcastle-upon-                                                                             adopted (see also paper 2.3 by Johnson and Cooke). Beauly hydro-electric scheme illustrates how operating
                         Tyne, paper 4.2.                                                                                                            procedures cope with specific problems. The Flood Studies Report is regarded as a major step forward




                                                                                                                                 57
Proceedings of the BNCOLD Conference, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1975.


 Date     First author                         Reference                           Dams                                 Subjects                       Brief summary
 1975     Griffiths      GRIFFITHS F N and BERRY D W (1975). Spillways -                                                Flood estimation/ hydrology    There are extensive and reliable rainfall records in Britain, but records of river flows and floods are much more
                         design philosophy. Inspection, Operation and                                                                                  limited. The 1975 Flood Studies Report provides a procedure for using rainfall data to estimate the maximum
                         Improvement of Existing Dams. Proceedings of                                                                                  flood and the return periods of smaller floods in particular catchment areas. However, the responsibility for
                         BNCOLD Symposium, University of Newcastle-upon-                                                                               determining whether the spillway of a dam should be capable of passing the estimated maximum flood or only
                         Tyne, paper 4.3.                                                                                                              some smaller flood remains with the Engineer. The authors advocate that wherever it is foreseeable that dam
                                                                                                                                                       failure would cause loss of life, spillways for embankment dams should be designed to pass maximum floods.
                                                                                                                                                       Where loss of life cannot be foreseen, the spillway should be designed in accordance with the economic
                                                                                                                                                       principles described in the paper using a procedure illustrated in an appendix to the paper.

 1975     Reynolds       REYNOLDS G (1975). Extreme rainfall estimation for                                             Flood estimation/ hydrology    While the 1975 Flood Studies Report (FSR) has provided a basis for analysing problems of rainfall and runoff
                         flood studies in the Scottish Highlands. Inspection,                                                                          extremes, it has also highlighted some areas of uncertainty and some aspects are inappropriate for Scottish
                         Operation and Improvement of Existing Dams.                                                                                   conditions. For example, the quick response runoff obtained from the FSR formula underestimates storm runoff
                         Proceedings of BNCOLD Symposium, University of                                                                                experienced in the Scottish Highlands, also areal reduction factors need to be modified before being applied to
                         Newcastle-upon-Tyne, paper 4.4.                                                                                               the Highlands. The FSR recommendations for dealing with snow melt are also inappropriate for the Highlands.

 1975     West           WEST M J H (1975). Experiences in using the NERC                                               Flood estimation/ hydrology,   Worked examples are provided to demonstrate how flood calculations can be systematised using the studies of
                         Flood Studies Report of 1975 for reservoir inspections.                                                                       storm rainfall and runoff in the 1975 NERC Flood Studies Report (FSR). It is concluded that the FSR provides
                         Inspection, Operation and Improvement of Existing                                                                             the basis for improved flood estimates, particularly on ungauged catchments, but the need to undertake a field
                         Dams. Proceedings of BNCOLD Symposium,                                                                                        visit and to analyse relevant records is stressed. Field inspections of catchwaters nearly always reveal features
                         University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, paper 4.5.                                                                                 different from those which would have been assumed from a study of maps and drawings.

 1975     Johnson        JOHNSON P and NOVAK P (1975). Some hydrological                                                Flood estimation/ hydrology,   The hydraulics of three types of flood spillway are described; the overfall spillway, the shaft spillway and the
                         and hydraulic considerations in spillway design and                                            Spillway gates & barriers,     gated spillway. The value of the coefficient of discharge for an overfall spillway in the equation relating discharge
                         operation. Inspection, Operation and Improvement of                                            Spillway hydraulics            to head is discussed. For a shaft spillway the limit at which it becomes submerged and ceases to operate as a
                         Existing Dams. Proceedings of BNCOLD Symposium,                                                                               free overfall is critical. The hydraulics of gated spillways require an extra variable to describe the gate opening.
                         University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, paper 4.6.                                                                                 Gated spillways have a major advantage where reservoirs are used in flood control.

 1975     Farquharson FARQUHARSON F A K, LOWING M J and                    Derwent, Howden, Ladybower                   Flood estimation/ hydrology    The 1975 Flood Studies Report (FSR) of the Institute of Hydrology (IoH) presents a technique of flood
                      SUTCLIFFE J V (1975). Some aspects of design flood                                                                               hydrograph synthesis for spillway design. The return period of the design flood may be specified as, say, 100
                      estimation. Inspection, Operation and Improvement of                                                                             000 years or as an estimated, near zero probability, maximum. The techniques for computing the estimated
                      Existing Dams. Proceedings of BNCOLD Symposium,                                                                                  maximum flood (EMF) are illustrated by experience gained by IoH in studies of the Ladybower reservoir in the
                      University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, paper 4.7.                                                                                    Upper Derwent valley subsequent to the publication of FSR.

 1975     Kennard        KENNARD M F (1975). Eighteenth century dams in            Aldenham, Ashburnham, Blenheim       Safety surveillance            In the second half of the eighteenth century many lakes were created in English country estates to improve the
                         England. Inspection, Operation and Improvement of         Lake, Castle Howard Great Lake,                                     landscape. Some of these lakes were formed by constructing small embankment dams typically 6 to 8 m high
                         Existing Dams. Proceedings of BNCOLD Symposium,           Danson Park, Harewood, Nostell                                      and many of these come within the ambit of reservoir safety legislation. In some cases the dams have required
                         University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, paper 5.1.             Priory, Sherborne, Staunton Harold                                  remedial works and information is presented on eight representative examples. Generally the embankments do
                                                                                                                                                       not contain puddle clay cores and there was no zoning of materials. At the end of the eighteenth century larger
                                                                                                                                                       dams were built to impound reservoirs to supply water to the canals. It is concluded that while problems of
                                                                                                                                                       erosion, leakage, settlement and local slipping do occur at these eighteenth century dams, they can be
                                                                                                                                                       overcome and structures which have enhanced the landscape for centuries can continue to fulfil their original or
                                                                                                                                                       present function.
 1975     Clarke         CLARKE C L and Le MASURIER M (1975). Inspection                                                Safety surveillance            Following an appointment under reservoir safety legislation, the inspecting engineer should collect all available
                         of old embankment dams. Inspection, Operation and                                                                             information for the reservoir, which for an old reservoir may be quite limited. A historical summary is then
                         Improvement of Existing Dams. Proceedings of                                                                                  prepared including dates, incidents and sources of information and this should be attached to the inspection
                         BNCOLD Symposium, University of Newcastle-upon-                                                                               report so that it is available for future inspections. Geology and hydrology should be considered at this early
                         Tyne, paper 5.2.                                                                                                              stage. The inspection includes an examination of the catchment area above the reservoir and any downstream
                                                                                                                                                       development. Current practice with regard to maintenance and surveillance of the dam can be assessed from a
                                                                                                                                                       discussion with the owner's representative. Detailed inspection of the embankment and ancillary works is usually
                                                                                                                                                       undertaken when the reservoir is full. The most common problems are seepage through embankments and
                                                                                                                                                       leakage around pipes, culverts and structures passing through the embankment, settlement of the embankment,
                                                                                                                                                       especially in mining areas, damage to the embankment caused by waves, animals and the public, and potential
                                                                                                                                                       damage by tree roots or trees liable to be blown over.




                                                                                                                                  58
Proceedings of the BNCOLD Conference, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1975.


 Date     First author                       Reference                          Dams                             Subjects                       Brief summary
 1975     Money          MONEY M S (1975). The investigation of old             Stocks, Withens Clough           Instrumentation, Safety        A full diagnosis of the condition of an old embankment dam cannot be obtained by external examination alone.
                         embankment dams in glaciated valleys. Inspection,                                       surveillance                   Some knowledge is required of the internal structure of the dam, of the nature and geotechnical properties of fill
                         Operation and Improvement of Existing Dams.                                                                            and foundation, and of the pattern of seepage within, beneath and around the dam. In the past internal
                         Proceedings of BNCOLD Symposium, University of                                                                         investigations have only been undertaken when a dam showed signs of distress, but recent experiences suggest
                         Newcastle-upon-Tyne, paper 5.3.                                                                                        that investigations should be undertaken as a routine measure to obtain the geotechnical data necessary for
                                                                                                                                                proper care and maintenance. Appropriate techniques and procedures for the investigation and instrumentation
                                                                                                                                                of the puddle clay core and upstream and downstream shoulders are described.

 1975     Poskitt        POSKITT F F (1975). Assessment of selected dams in                                      Safety surveillance            Although the 1930 Reservoirs (Safety Provisions) Act does not apply to Northern Ireland, the construction of new
                         Northern Ireland. Inspection, Operation and                                                                            reservoirs has been supervised by panel engineers and panel engineers have been employed to make
                         Improvement of Existing Dams. Proceedings of                                                                           recommendations regarding the modification and repairs of older dams. Internal examination of an embankment
                         BNCOLD Symposium, University of Newcastle-upon-                                                                        dam is an essential part of a comprehensive investigation, but is time consuming. Rapid preliminary
                         Tyne, paper 5.4.                                                                                                       assessments of 48 dams were made on the basis of external inspections and the following classification was
                                                                                                                                                adopted. Class A dams were those which needed no obvious attention or repairs. Class B dams were those
                                                                                                                                                which showed no signs of rapid deterioration, but where repair or replacement of defective items was required,
                                                                                                                                                or where overflows catered for more than 50% but less than 100% of the estimated maximum flood. Class C
                                                                                                                                                dams were those which showed signs of rapid structural deterioration requiring early remedial action, or which
                                                                                                                                                had outlet pipes either passing beneath the embankment or had only downstream control, or where the reservoir
                                                                                                                                                could not be emptied rapidly or where the spillway catered for less than 50% of the estimated maximum flood.
 1975     Arah           ARAH R M (1975). Investigations, problems and          Withens Clough                   Diaphragm & slurry trench      The Withens Clough embankment dam was built at the end of the nineteenth century. By the late 1950s the dam
                         remedial works at Withens Clough. Inspection,                                           walls                          was showing signs of seepage and settlement and with the control valve on the outlet pipe at the downstream
                         Operation and Improvement of Existing Dams.                                                                            toe there was cause for concern. Subsurface investigations provided evidence of erosion within the puddle clay
                         Proceedings of BNCOLD Symposium, University of                                                                         core and standpipe piezometers, which were installed in boreholes drilled through the fill in the downstream
                         Newcastle-upon-Tyne, paper 5.5.                                                                                        shoulder, showed that the phreatic surface in the downstream shoulder needed to be lowered. Remedial works
                                                                                                                                                included the construction of a new draw-off system and the installation of a plastic concrete diaphragm wall to
                                                                                                                                                form a new watertight element within the old puddle clay core. It is concluded that while embankment dams may
                                                                                                                                                seem to have a unique permanence, this is fallacious and panel engineers have a responsibility to make owners
                                                                                                                                                aware that regular investigations and remedial works are not aberrations but rather are normal and essential
                                                                                                                                                procedures.
 1975     Knight         KNIGHT D J (1975). Problems and remedies at Cowlyd Cowlyd                               Overtopping, Slope stability   The 14 m high Cowlyd embankment dam, which has a concrete core wall, was completed in 1921. On New
                         Dam, North Wales. Inspection, Operation and                                                                            Year's Eve 1924 a storm led to overtopping of the dam and a v-shaped area of the downstream shoulder was
                         Improvement of Existing Dams. Proceedings of                                                                           scoured out down to foundation level, exposing the concrete core wall. A disaster was narrowly averted and the
                         BNCOLD Symposium, University of Newcastle-upon-                                                                        following morning the eroded area was backfilled. By 1960 the embankment showed excessive distortion of the
                         Tyne, paper 5.6.                                                                                                       shoulders and a geotechnical investigation was carried out. Remedial works executed in 1963-64 included the
                                                                                                                                                addition of a rockfill berm at the upstream toe, new concrete slabs on the upstream face, and flattening of the
                                                                                                                                                downstream slope. Subsequent monitoring of pore pressures led to further remedial measures in 1974 when
                                                                                                                                                additional rockfill was placed. It is concluded that the past is the key to the present and that internal physical
                                                                                                                                                investigation of fill, foundation and seepage was essential to the proper diagnosis and treatment of the
                                                                                                                                                unsatisfactory behaviour of the old dam.

 1975     Little         LITTLE A L (1975). Maintenance and remedial works Balderhead, Clydach, Cwmtillery,      Grouting, Mining subsidence,   Examples are presented of four classes of remedial works: grouting; new cut-offs; new earthworks, including
                         at some embankment dams. Inspection, Operation and Lluest Wen, Ruislip Lido, Thorpe     Seepage & leakage,             slope flattening and additional berms; alterations to drainage. Cwmtillery dam was damaged by mining
                         Improvement of Existing Dams. Proceedings of       Malsor, Withens Clough               Drainage, Diaphragm & slurry   subsidence and repaired by clay/cement grouting. Plastic concrete diaphragm walls have been installed at
                         BNCOLD Symposium, University of Newcastle-upon-                                         trench walls                   Balderhead, Lluest Wen and Withens Clough. A detailed description is given of remedial earthworks required at
                         Tyne, paper 5.7.                                                                                                       the badly constructed dam for a waste impoundment in the west of England. At Clydach dam, drainage trenches
                                                                                                                                                were installed at the downstream toe.
 1975     Lidstone       LIDSTONE S G D and CRAIG A J (1975). Remedial          Rake Brook, Roddlesworth Lower   Outlet & intake works          Rake Brook and Lower Roddlesworth reservoirs form part of the Rivington scheme for the supply of water to
                         works to the Lower Roddlesworth and Rake Brook                                                                         Liverpool which was developed between 1850 and 1875. Following internal investigations new valve shafts were
                         reservoirs of the Liverpool Water Supply Unit, North                                                                   installed at both reservoirs. The shafts were designed to be constructed of 5 m diameter bolted precast concrete
                         West Water Authority. Inspection, Operation and                                                                        rings. Practical difficulties encountered in sinking the shafts are described. Key elements in the successful
                         Improvement of Existing Dams. Proceedings of                                                                           completion of the work included the controlled draining of the reservoirs, the attendant problems connected with
                         BNCOLD Symposium, University of Newcastle-upon-                                                                        the presence of silt in the bottom of the reservoirs, and the need to minimise inflows.
                         Tyne, paper 5.8.
 1975     Osborn         OSBORN H D (1975). Buckieburn reservoir                Buckieburn                       Overtopping, Rockfill, Slope   In November 1970, a substantial slip occurred on the downstream slope of the Buckieburn embankment dam
                         Stirlingshire: failure of downstream slope of                                           stability, Wind & waves        during a period of heavy rain and high winds. The shallow slip appeared to have been triggered by surface water
                         embankment dam and subsequent remedial works.                                                                          flowing down the slope together with water from wave action overtopping the parapet wall on the crest of the
                         Inspection, Operation and Improvement of Existing                                                                      dam. The reservoir level was immediately lowered. A substantial rockfill wall was constructed at the downstream
                         Dams. Proceedings of BNCOLD Symposium,                                                                                 toe of the embankment and the slope was flattened with sand and gravel fill. (See discussion by D M Hamilton
                         University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, paper 5.9.                                                                          on Auchendores and Blithfield, p D4/17, and on West Corrie, p D5/10; by A J Leach on Blithfield, p D5/8; by P
                                                                                                                                                Cooley, p D5/15.)



                                                                                                                           59
Proceedings of the BNCOLD Conference, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1975.


  Date    First author                     Reference               Dams   Subjects        Brief summary




                                                                                     60
Proceedings of the BNCOLD Conference, Keele, 1982.



Conference papers of the British Dam Society
1982 Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference, Keele
 Date     First author                        Reference                    Dams                                 Subjects                              Brief summary
 1982     Bass           BASS K T (1982). Spillways and flood estimation.  Beacons, Cantref, Fernilee, Llwyn On Flood estimation/ hydrology,          The 1933 interim report of the Committee on floods in relation to reservoir practice introduced the normal
                         Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference, Keele, pp 5-12.                                      Guides & surveys, Overflow            maximum flood (NMF) and recommended a 'catastrophic' flood of twice the NMF. The 1952 Lynmouth flood cast
                                                                                                                works                                 doubt on the factor of two and in 1959 the sub-committee on rainfall and run-off suggested that for small
                                                                                                                                                      catchments a catastrophic flood could exceed four times the NMF. The 1975 Flood Studies Report and the 1978
                                                                                                                                                      Floods and reservoir safety: an engineering guide have been produced following careful investigations by
                                                                                                                                                      experts and it should be recognised that in practice there is now much less scope for professional judgement in
                                                                                                                                                      our risk averse society. Examples are given of four reservoirs where spillway channels have a capacity smaller
                                                                                                                                                      than the maximum free discharge of the overflow weir. It is regretted that the current standards preclude any
                                                                                                                                                      solution except provision to deal with the estimated maximum flood. Under present circumstances there appears
                                                                                                                                                      to be a risk of incurring heavy expenditure which the future may show to have been unnecessary.

 1982     Shuttler       SHUTTLER R M (1982). Some aspects of modelling                                               Upstream slope protection,      Embankment dams require protection against wind-generated wave attack and this is often provided by a layer
                         slope protection. Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference,                                          Wind & waves                    of graded quarry stone, known as riprap, placed on the upstream slope of the dam. The design of riprap slope
                         Keele, pp 13-26.                                                                                                             protection is based on empirical criteria derived from small scale model tests. The validity of such model tests
                                                                                                                                                      has been questioned because the correct Reynolds Number is not replicated in the tests. Recent work by
                                                                                                                                                      Hydraulics Research comparing model prediction with full scale observations on an embankment in the Wash
                                                                                                                                                      estuary has shown that the Reynolds Number effect is insignificant and there is no evidence that models do not
                                                                                                                                                      give adequate design information. However, the model tests have shown that slope protection damage varies
                                                                                                                                                      considerably under nearly identical conditions. The probability of damage is inherently included in properly
                                                                                                                                                      conducted model tests and can be identified.
 1982     Ray            RAY W J F and BULMER T (1982). Remedial works to Banbury, Lockwood                           Diaphragm & slurry trench       Leakages in the form of wet patches on the outer slopes and boggy areas at the toes of the encircling
                         puddle clay cores. Proceedings of BNCOLD                                                     walls, Grouting, Puddle clay,   embankments of the reservoirs have been observed at several Thames Water reservoirs in the Lee valley.
                         Conference, Keele, pp 27-44.                                                                 Seepage & leakage, Safety       Water levels in the reservoirs were lowered during the Second World War and this caused drying out and some
                                                                                                                      surveillance                    cracking in the upper regions of the central puddle clay cores of the embankments. However, there were some
                                                                                                                                                      indications that leakage could also be occurring at the interface of the clay core and the underlying London Clay.
                                                                                                                                                      Trials of different remedial methods for dealing with leakage through puddle clay cores have been undertaken at
                                                                                                                                                      two reservoirs in north London, Banbury and Lockwood. Methods included sheet piling, in situ remoulding, and
                                                                                                                                                      the formation of a thin grout screen. All the methods improved the clay core, at least in the short term, but sheet
                                                                                                                                                      piling encountered many practical problems and would not be used again.

 1982     Clements       CLEMENTS D J and DURNEY A C (1982).                      Tarbela (Pakistan)                  Instrumentation                 The automatic monitoring of instruments designed to measure soil conditions and movements is a rapidly
                         Instrumentation developments. Proceedings of                                                                                 developing subject. This is illustrated by the automatic recording of inclinometer readings on magnetic tape
                         BNCOLD Conference, Keele, pp 45-55.                                                                                          which obviates the need for the time-consuming chore of writing down the readings. A double-fluid settlement
                                                                                                                                                      profile measuring system devised for Tarbela dam is described. The manually operated system was
                                                                                                                                                      subsequently further developed with the production of an automatic settlement plotter.
 1982     Mackey         MACKEY P G (1982). Operation and maintenance of          Blackshawmoor Lower,                Instrumentation, Outlet &       The system of operational surveillance adopted by Severn Trent Water for its 76 large reservoirs which come
                         reservoirs in the Severn-Trent Water Authority region:   Blackshawmoor Upper, Deep Hayes*,   intake works, Overflow works,   within the ambit of reservoir safety legislation is described. Four recent case histories illustrate investigations
                         a perspective. Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference,         New Pool (Church Stretton)*,        Puddle clay, Seepage &          techniques. At Deep Hayes, piezometric data indicated leakage at a high level within the puddle clay core and,
                         Keele, pp 57-72.                                         Snitterfield*                       leakage, Safety surveillance,   because of this, the embankment was lowered. See also discussion on Deep Hayes by Arah, discussion
                                                                                                                      Slope stability                 volume, pp 14-15. There has been leakage at New Pool, Church Stretton, since construction in 1900; as the
                                                                                                                                                      reservoir was being filled in November 1977, with the reservoir still 2.5 m below top water level, the leakage
                                                                                                                                                      suddenly increased from 0.2 l/s to 1.3 l/s and the reservoir was drawn down. There was evidence of significant
                                                                                                                                                      crest settlement.
 1982     Johnson        JOHNSON F G and CURTIS G R (1982). Surveillance                                              Flood estimation/hydrology,     The North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Board's reservoirs are managed by Chartered Civil Engineers assisted by
                         of an authority's reservoirs. Proceedings of BNCOLD                                          Instrumentation, Safety         local operational staff. There are 84 dams at 76 reservoirs which come within the ambit of reservoir safety
                         Conference, Keele, pp 73-87.                                                                 surveillance, Seepage &         legislation. Concrete gravity and buttress dams predominate and most were built between 1945 and 1970.
                                                                                                                      leakage                         Systematic surveillance began about 1960 and a dam surveillance policy was formulated in the early 1970s
                                                                                                                                                      comprising statutory, supervisory and operational field inspections, leakage measurements, and movement
                                                                                                                                                      monitoring by instruments installed in the dam and by surveying techniques. Experience has shown that the
                                                                                                                                                      most effective way of detecting deterioration and ensuring reservoir safety is by adopting a well balanced
                                                                                                                                                      combination of visual inspections, leakage measurements and movement monitoring, coupled with flood studies
                                                                                                                                                      and stability analyses. Improvements in dam safety cannot be achieved without appreciable costs.




                                                                                                                                 61
Proceedings of the BNCOLD Conference, Keele, 1982.


 1982     Kennard      KENNARD M F (1982). Dam Practice - good and bad.      Drainage, Instrumentation,   Recent examples are given of good and bad practice in remedial works, drainage, slope stability and
                       Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference, Keele, pp 89-       Safety surveillance, Slope   instrumentation for embankment dams. When reassessment of spillway capacity during design flood conditions
                       102.                                                  stability, Upstream slope    leads to the construction of a wave wall, the stability of the upper part of the embankment has not always been
                                                                             protection                   considered and local slipping has occurred. The removal of trees and bushes can cause an increase in pore
                                                                                                          pressure in the fill and a reduced factor of safety against slope instability. Drains can introduce water into the
                                                                                                          embankment fill and trigger instability. Bad practice in instrumentation is quite common and it is preferable for
                                                                                                          the consulting engineer to take full responsibility for instrumentation. There are significant advantages in
                                                                                                          specifying a compacted clay fill by means of its undrained shear strength rather than in terms of optimum water
                                                                                                          content and maximum dry density.
 1982     Moffat       MOFFAT A I B (1982). Dam deterioration - a British    Guides & surveys, Hazard &   Information on the in-service behaviour of a large number of British dams has been compiled as part of a
                       perspective. Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference,        risk management              research project and data is presented for 200 dams which are considered to be a representative sample of the
                       Keele, pp 103-115. (This paper was not bound in the                                2000 plus reservoirs within the ambit of reservoir safety legislation. It is concluded that there is some evidence
                       original volume.)                                                                  that the incidence of serious problems is rising, probably due to the high average age of British dams. The study
                                                                                                          indicates a current frequency of four to five major incidents per 1000 dam years. More rigorous supervision and
                                                                                                          greater expenditure are required to keep the risk associated with reservoirs within acceptable limits.




                                                                                       62
Proceedings of the BNCOLD Conference, Cardiff, 1984.



Conference papers of the British Dam Society
1984 Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference, Cardiff,
 Date     First author                          Reference                           Dams                                    Subjects                       Brief summary
 1984     Cochrane       COCHRANE N J (1984). The 1984 BNCOLD Lecture:                                                      Hazard & risk management       Only a brief two -page summary is given of this first BNCOLD Lecture (in 1990 the BNCOLD Lecture was
                         Insidious threats to dams and reservoirs. Proceedings                                                                             renamed the Geoffrey Binnie Lecture). Most embankment dams were constructed before 1950 in days when few
                         of BNCOLD Conference, Cardiff, pp (i)-(ii).                                                                                       experienced engineers had received formal geological training or had given sufficient attention to the new
                                                                                                                                                           science of soil mechanics. The Building Research Station subsequently did much to disseminate geotechnical
                                                                                                                                                           knowledge. The unique combination of hazards in South Wales, with an average annual rainfall of 2.6 m per
                                                                                                                                                           year, instability of geologically over-steepened valley sides and large areas of mineral workings, posed many
                                                                                                                                                           problems and significant risks for dam safety. In such an environment, the safe disposal of floods may be the
                                                                                                                                                           least of the problems for a dam engineer.
 1984      Archer        ARCHER D R (1984). The estimation of seasonable                                                    Flood estimation/ hydrology,   The estimation of probable maximum flood (PMF) as set out in the 1978 Institution of Civil Engineers'
                         probable maximum flood. Proceedings of BNCOLD                                                      Guides & surveys               engineering guide on Floods and Reservoir Safety incorporates a method of deriving maximum precipitation
                         Conference, Cardiff, pp 1-20.                                                                                                     separately for winter and summer seasons. Consideration is given in the paper to the seasonality of other factors
                                                                                                                                                           which affect the PMF: antecedent wetness, percentage runoff, snowmelt rate, initial snow cover and initial
                                                                                                                                                           reservoir condition. The frequency of occurrence of climatic and catchment components of PMF estimates, as
                                                                                                                                                           derived by present methods, varies considerably between catchments and seasons leading to flood estimates
                                                                                                                                                           which vary in their relative severity. The specification of component probabilities should permit a more consistent
                                                                                                                                                           approach and allow data to be applied more objectively. Suggestions are given for the use of data on antecedent
                                                                                                                                                           soil moisture conditions and percentage runoff. An analysis of events in north-east England has indicated that to
                                                                                                                                                           preserve the intended severity of the snowmelt contribution to winter events, the recommended peak rate should
                                                                                                                                                           be increased from 1.75 to 5 mm/hour.

 1984      Heaton-       HEATON-ARMSTRONG C W P (1984). Floods and                  Barrow no 1, Barrow no 2, Barrow no Flood estimation/hydrology,        Of the fourteen Bristol Waterworks reservoirs which come within the ambit of reservoir safety legislation, eight
           Armstrong     spillways on the Mendip supply reservoirs of the Bristol   3, Barrow Compensation, Blagdon,    Overtopping, Overflow works        are impounding reservoirs with some dating back to the middle of the nineteenth century. Severe thunderstorms
                         Waterworks Company. Proceedings of BNCOLD                  Cheddar, Chew Magna, Chew Valley,                                      occurred on 10th July 1968 and the intensity of the precipitation caused devastating floods throughout the
                         Conference, Cardiff, pp 21-35.                             Litton Lower, Litton Upper                                             region. The grass covered embankment at Chew Magna reservoir was overtopped to a depth of 90 mm causing
                                                                                                                                                           extensive erosion. Hydrological studies were undertaken and it was found that seven of the reservoirs did not
                                                                                                                                                           meet the new criteria of the Flood Studies Report and the ICE engineering guide to Floods and Reservoir Safety.
                                                                                                                                                           Improvement works either have been undertaken or are planned.
 1984      Little        LITTLE D I (1984). Some examples of improvement            Daer, Daff, Dunoon no 2, Greenside,     Flood estimation/hydrology,    Publication of the NERC Flood Studies Report and the ICE engineering guide to Floods and Reservoir Safety
                         works at earth embankment dams (following                  Kype, Munnoch                           Guides & surveys, Overflow     has meant that major alterations to the overflows and spillways are required at many of the 142 Strathclyde
                         publication of the FSR and Engineering Guide).                                                     works                          Regional Council reservoirs which come within the ambit of reservoir safety legislation. Most of the reservoirs
                         Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference, Cardiff, pp 37-                                                                                 are impounded by embankment dams and, overall, 43 reservoirs, representing 47% of those inspected, have
                         50.                                                                                                                               required major upgrading works. The solutions adopted to bring reservoirs up to the new standards are
                                                                                                                                                           illustrated by six examples. The upgrading works included the provision of auxiliary overflows and spillway
                                                                                                                                                           channels, lowering overflow cill levels, improving spillway channel hydraulics and the provision of wave walls,
                                                                                                                                                           and one embankment dam was demolished. Since 1979 Strathclyde Regional Council has spent five million
                                                                                                                                                           pounds on upgrading reservoirs.
 1984      Charles       CHARLES J A (1984). Embankment dams and                                                            Guides & surveys, Hazard &Reservoir safety in Great Britain is largely concerned with the safety of old embankment dams, that is dams
                         reservoir safety in Britain: floods, slides and internal                                           risk management, Internal which were designed and built without much understanding of soil mechanics and without modern heavy
                         erosion. Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference, Cardiff,                                                                          earthmoving and compaction plant. The major hazards to old embankment dams, and hence reservoir safety,
                                                                                                                            erosion, Overtopping, Slope
                         pp 51-68.                                                                                          stability                 are surface erosion of the embankment due to overtopping during major floods, internal erosion in the
                                                                                                                                                      embankment fill or its foundation, and slope instability due to slips and slides in the embankment and its
                                                                                                                                                      foundation. Internal erosion is the least well understood of these three types of hazard and in many cases it may
                                                                                                                                                      pose the most serious threat. An improved understanding of the processes involved and the efficacy of different
                                                                                                                                                      remedial measures is required.
 1984      Kennard       KENNARD M F and MACKEY P G (1984).                         Blithfield, Blackbrook (2), Glendevon   Concrete deterioration,   The stability of concrete and masonry gravity dams is not usually a problem, but recent inspections have
                         Maintenance of safety of concrete dams. Proceedings        Upper, Llandegfedd, Tittesworth         Earthquake damage, Safety highlighted several important aspects. The safety of concrete dams requires attention to concrete deterioration,
                         of BNCOLD Conference, Cardiff, pp 69-82.                                                           surveillance              cracks, seepage and drainage, and in service performance should be evaluated by appropriate long term
                                                                                                                                                      monitoring and surveillance. Alkali aggregate reaction has affected a number of British dams. The effect of an
                                                                                                                                                      earthquake on the 29 m high Blackbrook dam is described and it is suggested that if the line of the tremor had
                                                                                                                                                      been displaced by 90 degrees the result would have been catastrophic. Where the provision for uplift in the
                                                                                                                                                      original design was not adequate, stability must be reassessed and methods of improving stability are listed.




                                                                                                                                      63
Proceedings of the BNCOLD Conference, Cardiff, 1984.


 Date     First author                          Reference                    Dams                                    Subjects                     Brief summary
 1984     Curtis         CURTIS G R and MILNE J S (1984). Concrete dams:     Allt na Lairige, Awe barrage, Ericht,   Concrete deterioration,      The North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Board has 49 concrete dams listed in the World Register of Dams; gravity
                         long term deterioration and remedial works.         Errochty, Glascarnoch, Glashan,         Drainage, Spillway gates &   and buttress types predominate. During the last five years, remedial works have been undertaken on 35 of these
                         Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference, Cardiff, pp 83-   Loichel                                 barriers                     structures costing the best part of one million pounds, equivalent to five thousand pounds per dam per year.
                         91.                                                                                                                      About half the costs have been incurred in gate refurbishment. Concrete and joint repairs and remedial work on
                                                                                                                                                  pressure relief systems are the other two main types of expenditure. Most of the pressure relief systems were
                                                                                                                                                  not readily accessible for maintenance. It is concluded that the high costs associated with labour intensive
                                                                                                                                                  maintenance works could be reduced on future dams by improving design details with regard to facilities for
                                                                                                                                                  maintenance.




                                                                                                                               64
Proceedings of the BNCOLD Conference, Edinburgh, 1986.



Conference papers of the British Dam Society
1986 Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference, Edinburgh,
 Date     First author                         Reference                              Dams                                     Subjects                         Brief summary
 1986     Johnson        JOHNSON F G (1986). The 1986 BNCOLD Lecture:                 Allt-na-Lairige, Cluanie, Glascarnoch,   Concrete deterioration,          An era of intensive dam construction associated with hydro-electric development occurred in the Highlands of
                         Experience with the concrete dams of the North of            Loch Dubh, Loyane, Muck Burn,            Drainage, Flood                  Scotland between 1945 and 1970. The 84 dams comprise 53 gravity, 9 buttress, 3 arch, 1 prestressed concrete,
                         Scotland Hydro-Electric Board. Reservoirs 1986.              Mullardoch, Sloy, Quoich                 estimation/hydrology,            6 earthfill, 6 rockfill and 6 combined fill and gravity dams. The 56 m high Sloy buttress dam is the highest dam
                         Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference, Edinburgh, pp 1-                                                    Instrumentation, Safety          and the Quoich rockfill dam impounds the largest reservoir which has a capacity of 374 million cubic metres. In
                         16.                                                                                                   surveillance, Spillway gates &   the 1960s, following the Vaiont and Malpasset disasters, leading consulting engineers were commissioned to
                                                                                                                               barriers                         undertake comprehensive inspections of all the reservoirs. The current dam surveillance policy has three
                                                                                                                                                                components: field inspections, leakage measurements and monitoring by instruments. The performance of the
                                                                                                                                                                concrete dams has been good; deterioration over the last 50 years has been very small and not significant with
                                                                                                                                                                respect to structural stability, safety, maintenance costs and the serviceable life of the dams. There has been no
                                                                                                                                                                appreciable silting up of the reservoirs.

 1986     Agnew          AGNEW S G (1986). Reservoirs 1986. Reservoirs Act                                                     Legislation                      Although the Reservoirs Act 1975 has been on the statute book for many years, it only came into operation in
                         1975 - experience so far. Proceedings of BNCOLD                                                                                        stages during the period from 1983 to 1987. The Act builds on the 1930 legislation with the following additions.
                         Conference, Edinburgh, pp 17-31.                                                                                                       (a) Local authorities have a duty to enforce the Act. (b) Reservoir undertakers are required to appoint a
                                                                                                                                                                supervising engineer to keep a reservoir under supervision at all times. (c) Non-compliance with the safety
                                                                                                                                                                provisions of the Act is a criminal offence. (d) Appointment of engineers to panels are for five year terms. (e) A
                                                                                                                                                                procedure is specified for abandonment or discontinuance of a reservoir. Four panels of qualified civil engineers
                                                                                                                                                                have been constituted: All reservoirs (AR panel), Non-impounding reservoirs (NIR panel), Service reservoirs (SR
                                                                                                                                                                panel), and Supervising engineers (Sup panel). At the time of writing, 378 applications had been received and
                                                                                                                                                                281 civil engineers appointed to the new Supervising engineers panel. Enforcement authorities began the task
                                                                                                                                                                of compiling registers on 1st April 1985.
 1986     Gimson         GIMSON N H (1986). Reservoirs 1986. Documentation                                                     Legislation                      The Reservoirs Act 1975 specifies documentation which enforcement authorities and undertakers are required
                         for reservoirs and procedures. Proceedings of                                                                                          to maintain. Undertakers are obliged to give the enforcement authority basic information about their reservoirs,
                         BNCOLD Conference, Edinburgh, pp 33-44.                                                                                                but any failure on their part does not relieve the enforcement authority of the responsibility of including in the
                                                                                                                                                                register all large raised reservoirs in the authority's area. Copies of all certificates submitted to undertakers are
                                                                                                                                                                to be sent to the enforcement authority (section 20) and this is the case for virtually all other submissions to the
                                                                                                                                                                undertakers from qualified engineers. Undertakers are required to inform the enforcement authority of the
                                                                                                                                                                appointment of a qualified engineer for whatever purpose.

 1986     Sharp          SHARP R G (1986). Reservoirs 1986. Operational               Clywedog                                 Reservoir operation,             Water resources reservoirs are increasingly linked with other sources as part of an integrated system. Integrated
                         management - opportunities and constraints.                                                           Reservoir drawdown               use means that other objectives have to be met in addition to the primary role of water resource enhancement,
                         Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference, Edinburgh, pp                                                                                        which increases the complexity of operation and management. Achieving the potential benefits of technical
                         45-58.                                                                                                                                 efficiency, economies of operation and environmental enhancement requires sophisticated flexible operation.
                                                                                                                                                                There are major implications for the planning and design of new schemes and for the modification and
                                                                                                                                                                adaptation of existing reservoirs. Technical issues may arise such as the effect of higher rates of reservoir
                                                                                                                                                                drawdown, associated with river regulation and conjunctive use, on the stability of old embankment dams.

 1986     Penman         PENMAN A D M (1986). Misconceptions in the design Boothwood, Deer Creek (USA),                        Drainage, Instrumentation,       All dams must contain two basic features: a waterproof element and a structure that will support it safely,
                         of dams. Proceedings of BNCOLD/IWES Conference Derwent (Durham), Khao Laem                            Pore pressure (construction),    although in the past homogeneous sections of both earthfill and masonry have been expected to perform both
                         on Reservoirs. Edinburgh, pp 59-75.               (Thailand), Kielder; Ringedals                      Rockfill, Roller compacted       functions. Developments in geotechnical engineering have provided the dam designer with reliable methods of
                                                                           (Norway), Salvajina (Colombia),                     concrete, Slope stability        calculating slope stability, but one of the most dangerous design misconceptions is that the factor of safety
                                                                           Sasamua (Kenya), Shing Mun (Hong                                                     against the failure of an embankment dam can be calculated by a computer analysis of slope stability. Piping
                                                                           Kong)                                                                                and internal erosion can present a serious threat to the safety of an embankment dam and there is no known
                                                                                                                                                                method of calculating a factor of safety against this type of failure. Instrumentation is required to monitor dam
                                                                                                                                                                performance and check that design conceptions are realistic.
 1986     Lewin          LEWIN J and WHITING J R (1986). Gates and valves             Dartmouth (), Glen Canyon (USA),         Outlet & intake works            Low level outlets are an essential feature of a dam which are required to control reservoir impounding, to lower
                         in reservoir low level outlets - learning from experience.   Keechelus (USA), Mrica (Indonesia),                                       the reservoir level in an emergency, and permit abstraction when the water level is below the spillway crest. Low
                         Reservoirs 1986. Proceedings of BNCOLD                       San Roque (Phillipines), Tarbela                                          level outlets are controlled by gates or valves. Problems are classified and illustrated by prototype events and
                         Conference, Edinburgh, pp 77-98.                             (Pakistan), Victoria ()                                                   model studies. Flow induced vibrations at high head gates can be severe.




                                                                                                                                         65
Proceedings of the BNCOLD Conference, Edinburgh, 1986.


 Date     First author                        Reference                          Dams                                   Subjects                      Brief summary
 1986     McCleish       McCLEISH W P (1986). Inspections under Reservoirs                                              Guides & surveys, Legislation Requirements of the Reservoirs act 1975 relating to inspections, qualification of civil engineers, enforcement of
                         Act 1975. Reservoirs 1986. Proceedings of BNCOLD                                                                             recommendations in the interest of safety and continual surveillance are reviewed. Although safety is not defined
                         Conference, Edinburgh, pp 99-114.                                                                                            in the Act, in dealing with emergency powers (Section 16 [1]) it states that 'Where it appears ... that the reservoir
                                                                                                                                                      is unsafe and that immediate action is needed to protect persons or property against an escape of water ...'.; the
                                                                                                                                                      implication is that safety refers not only to the protection of human life but also property generally. The individual
                                                                                                                                                      responsibility of a 'qualified civil engineer' engaged in the inspection of a reservoir is emphasised. Reliance is
                                                                                                                                                      placed on the ability, experience and judgement of this engineer and while he cannot be a master in all the
                                                                                                                                                      relevant fields of knowledge, he must take responsibility for evaluating all necessary matters and recommending
                                                                                                                                                      measures to be taken in the interests of safety.

 1986     Ruffle         RUFFLE R J (1986). Reservoirs 1986. The role and                                               Legislation                     The role of the supervising engineer has been introduced by the Reservoirs Act 1975 and his identity, training
                         training of supervising engineers. Proceedings of                                                                              and duties, including his relationship with the undertaker, are described. Supervising engineers must be qualified
                         BNCOLD Conference, Edinburgh, pp 115-121.                                                                                      civil engineers who have been appointed to one of the four panels by the Secretary of State after consultation
                                                                                                                                                        with the Institution of Civil Engineers Reservoirs Committee. A basic understanding of the design and functioning
                                                                                                                                                        of various types of dam is required with sufficient experience and expertise to notice when something unusual
                                                                                                                                                        has occurred at a reservoir before it presents a major hazard. The supervising engineer has a statutory duty to
                                                                                                                                                        keep the undertaker informed of any behaviour that might affect reservoir safety. Where he considers that it is
                                                                                                                                                        called for, he must recommend to the undertaker that the reservoir is inspected by an inspecting engineer and
                                                                                                                                                        the undertaker must act on the recommendation.

 1986     Charles        CHARLES J A (1986). The significance of problems        Aldenham, Auchengaich, Barrow no 1,    Internal erosion/filters,       Substantial civil engineering works are being carried out at many of the ageing population of British embankment
                         and remedial works at British earth dams. Proceedings   Barrow no 3, Barrow Compensation,      Overflow works, Puddle clay,    dams, involving major expense and public safety. These remedial and improvement works include not only
                         of BNCOLD/IWES Conference on Reservoirs 1986,           Blaenant Ddu*, Boddington, Brent,      Seepage & leakage, Slope        works to increase overflow capacity resulting from the reassessment of flood safety standards, but also remedial
                         Edinburgh, pp 123-141.                                  Brushes, Burnhope, Calf Hey, Carno     stability                       works associated with draw-off arrangements, embankment slope stability and internal erosion. The causes of
                                                                                 Upper, Challacombe, Combs,                                             crest settlement and the significance of rates of settlement and leakage are discussed. Problems of slope
                                                                                 Cwmwernderi, Dowdeswell, Earlsburn                                     stability and internal erosion are examined and case histories are described. (See in discussion volume: J R
                                                                                 no 2, Elsecar, Elslack, Greenfield,                                    Claydon on Deanhead (Huddersfield), Eldwick, March Ghyll and Ramsden (Holmfirth), pp 69-71; P Gray on Daer
                                                                                 Hollingworth*, Hollingworth Lake,                                      and Glengavel, pp 72-73.)
                                                                                 Lambieletham*, Llugwy, Llyn Brianne,
                                                                                 Logan, Megget, Mixenden, Redmires
                                                                                 Upper, Selset, Stanford, Toddbrook,
                                                                                 Torduff, Tringford, Warley Moor,
                                                                                 Worsbrough, Yeoman Hey




                                                                                                                                   66
Proceedings of the BNCOLD Conference, Manchester, 1988



Conference papers of the British Dam Society
1988 Reservoir Renovation. Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference, Manchester
 Date     First author                       Reference                     Dams                             Subjects                  Brief summary
 1988     Coats          COATS D J (1988). The 1988 BNCOLD Lecture. The Carsington, Knockendon, Muirhead,   Guides & surveys, Slope   Dam engineers have particular difficulties in the current climate of commercialism as they experience increasing
                         concerns of a dam engineer. Proceedings of BNCOLD William Girling.                 stability                 responsibility, liability and lack of appreciation. The professional engineer has an obligation to keep up-to-date
                         Conference, Manchester.                                                                                      and the ICE Proceedings and the reports and bulletins emerging from the work of the ICOLD Technical
                                                                                                                                      Committees are of considerable value. The Reservoirs Act places responsibility on individual engineers who
                                                                                                                                      should be free to act as they see fit and should not be constrained by inappropriate codes of practice. Dam
                                                                                                                                      engineers should be both ingenious and ingenuous, that is they should demonstrate intelligence in invention and
                                                                                                                                      construction while conducting themselves in an honourable, straight-forward and open manner.

 1988     Kennard        KENNARD M F (1988). A brief history of 21 years of                                                           In March 1988, the British Section of the International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) celebrated twenty-
                         BNCOLD: 1967-1988. Proceedings of BNCOLD                                                                     one years of existence in a form where individual and corporate members elected the British National Committee
                         Conference, Manchester.                                                                                      on Large Dams (BNCOLD). Prior to 1967, the British National Committee comprised representatives of the
                                                                                                                                      Institution of Civil Engineers, the Institution of Water Engineers and other interested bodies, and the British
                                                                                                                                      Section of ICOLD was identical with the National Committee. Information is presented on the early chairmen,
                                                                                                                                      vice-chairmen and committee members, and conferences.
 1988     Penman         PENMAN A D M (1988). BNCOLD – 21 years of                                                                    A better understanding of dam behaviour can be derived from detailed field observations, the development of
                         science-based advances in dam building. Proceedings                                                          numerical models which can replicate the observed behaviour, improved material testing and better hydrological
                         of BNCOLD Conference, Manchester.                                                                            and geological knowledge. New features introduced in British embankment dams built since the 1960s have
                                                                                                                                      included rolled clay cores and drainage layers, upstream asphaltic membranes and central asphaltic cores. The
                                                                                                                                      significance of progressive failure and the presence of pre-existing slip surfaces in heavily over-consolidated
                                                                                                                                      clay foundations has been better appreciated. Field instrumentation has become an integral part of
                                                                                                                                      embankment dam construction.
 1988     Humphreys      HUMPHREYS J D (1988). Pre-visit talk on Winscar       Winscar                      Asphaltic membrane        A crack was discovered in the asphaltic concrete membrane of the 54 m high rockfill dam. The area through
                         dam. Reservoir Renovation. Proceedings of BNCOLD                                                             which reservoir water was passing was only the size of a matchbox, but under 50 m head of water this caused
                         Conference, Manchester.                                                                                      leakage of worrying proportions. Identifying the location of the leak was very difficult. Reference is made to the
                                                                                                                                      paper by Routh in the 16th ICOLD Congress held at San Francisco in 1988 (Congress Transactions, vol 2, pp
                                                                                                                                      655-677).
 1988     Maconochie W S MACONOCHIE W S (1988). The enforcement                                             Legislation               The first reports of the enforcement authorities to the Secretary of State have shown the initial effect of the
                     authority and the Reservoirs Act 1975. Proceedings of                                                            Reservoirs Act in Scotland. About 730 large raised reservoirs have been identified compared with 590 known
                     BNCOLD Conference, Manchester, paper 1.2.                                                                        before implementation of the 1975 Act. Matters of interest that have arisen include the definition of a large raised
                                                                                                                                      reservoir, the qualifications of engineers, inspections and subsequent safety recommendations, the relationship
                                                                                                                                      between inspecting and supervising engineers, the directions given by a construction or inspecting engineer,
                                                                                                                                      discontinuance and abandonment, powers of entry, and large raised reservoirs without a final certificate under
                                                                                                                                      the 1930 Act.
 1988     Wight          WIGHT P (1988). Gwynedd County Council and the        Llyn Cwm-y-Foel              Seepage & leakage,        The implementation of the 1975 Reservoirs Act involved local authorities, some of which had no previous
                         Reservoirs Act 1975. Proceedings of BNCOLD                                         Legislation, Safety       experience of large raised reservoirs, being given enforcement duties. For one such enforcement authority,
                         Conference, Manchester, paper 1.3.                                                 surveillance              Gwynedd County Council, the early work comprised not just the creation of a register, but also dealing with a
                                                                                                                                      serious incident when a walker reported to the police that Llyn Cwm-y-Foel was leaking. Unable to trace the
                                                                                                                                      undertaker, the enforcement authority arranged for a panel engineer to inspect the dam on the following day.
                                                                                                                                      Discontinuance was recommended. This experience prompted the enforcement authority to establish
                                                                                                                                      emergency procedures and supervising engineers were asked to provide an emergency 24 hour contact.

 1988     Morris         MORRIS A G (1988). Enforcement of the Reservoirs                                   Legislation               Investigations were carried out to establish the scale of the County Council’s involvement and an organisation
                         Act 1975 - experience in Lancashire. Reservoir                                                               was created within the County Surveyor’s Department to deal with the duties imposed by the Act. Of the 118
                         renovation. Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference,                                                                reservoirs registered in the area, a large number belonged to the North West Water Authority. During the first
                         Manchester, paper 1.3.                                                                                       two years of the Act being fully operational, technical, legal and financial problems have been encountered.
                                                                                                                                      Most of the problems have arisen with a small number of reservoirs of no commercial value which belong to
                                                                                                                                      private individuals, clubs and property companies. Complications have arisen with cross-boundary reservoirs
                                                                                                                                      and the definition of a large raised reservoir.
 1988     Dunn           DUNN N H and ACKERS J C (1988). Discontinuance: Greenfold*, Horsforth*, Ilton*     Discontinuance/           The cost of repairs required to restore a dam to an acceptable standard of safety may make discontinuance the
                         the alternative to renovation. Reservoir Renovation.                               abandonment               preferred option. The reservoir may be entirely removed or a small lake may be retained which is outside the
                         Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference, Manchester,                                                                ambit of the Reservoirs Act. The process of dam breaching has to be accomplished in a safe manner, bearing in
                         paper 1.4.                                                                                                   mind that the risk of extreme floods will continue throughout the operation. There may be environmental factors
                                                                                                                                      to take into consideration.




                                                                                                                      67
Proceedings of the BNCOLD Conference, Manchester, 1988


 Date     First author                        Reference                        Dams                                 Subjects                        Brief summary
 1988     Earp           EARP D N W (1988). Reservoir supervision 1986-88.                                          Legislation                     Experience in the newly created role of supervising engineer has highlighted the difficulties often encountered in
                         Reservoir Renovation. Proceedings of BNCOLD                                                                                dealing with small private owners and the different approaches to their duties under the Reservoirs Act adopted
                         Conference, Manchester, paper 2.1.                                                                                         by various enforcement authorities. Guidance is given on time spent on supervision including frequency of visits
                                                                                                                                                    and on what action to take when a potentially hazardous situation starts to develop.

 1988     Ku             KU Chi-chung Damien (1988). Routine monitoring work                                        Instrumentation, Legislation,   The maintenance of reservoir safety broadly follows practice in the United Kingdom with panel engineers
                         on reservoir safety in Hong Kong. Proceedings of                                           Safety surveillance             carrying out inspections at five year intervals. The technical staff of the Reservoir Safety Section of the Water
                         BNCOLD Conference, Manchester, paper 2.2.                                                                                  Supplies Department provide support for the Inspecting Engineer during his visit to Hong Kong and implement
                                                                                                                                                    follow-up actions to meet his recommendations, including monitoring requirements. The newer dams had
                                                                                                                                                    monitoring installed during construction and in the older dams, where there was a general lack of monitoring
                                                                                                                                                    equipment, piezometers and observation wells have now been installed. The monitoring programme
                                                                                                                                                    encompasses 28 impounding reservoirs which have a total of 47 dams, 21 of these are embankment dams, 24
                                                                                                                                                    are concrete dams and 2 are of composite construction.
 1988     Miller         MILLER J L and GIENTKE F J (1988). Technical                                               Reservoir operation             Over the previous 85 years the United States Bureau of Reclamation has built 715 dams. A number of technical
                         oversight of the operation and maintenance of                                                                              oversight programmes have been implemented to ensure that ageing structures and facilities are kept in good
                         reclamation water projects for the 21st century.                                                                           order. These programmes are described in general terms with little technical data.
                         Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference, Manchester,
                         paper 2.3.
 1988     Shave          SHAVE K J (1988). The supervision of new reservoirs: Bewl Bridge, Hall Place, Lamorbey     Overflow works, Overtopping, Four recently completed reservoirs in Kent come within the ambit of the Reservoirs Act; Bewl Water, which has
                         a comparison between flood alleviation and water     Park                                  Reservoir operation, Safety  an embankment dam 32 m high, is for water supply and the other three reservoirs are for flood alleviation and
                         supply. Reservoir Renovation. Proceedings of                                               surveillance                 have embankment dams only a few metres high. The three flood alleviation embankments have been designed
                         BNCOLD Conference, Manchester, paper 2.4.                                                                               to withstand overtopping. Bewl Water has a bellmouth overflow, whereas Lamorbey Park has a fixed orifice
                                                                                                                                                 Armco culvert and Hall Place has a siphon. At the Tonbridge river Medway scheme there are three electrically-
                                                                                                                                                 driven radial gates to control flood events up to the 100-year return period without the embankment being
                                                                                                                                                 overtopped. It is important to establish a good working relationship between the Supervising Engineer and the
                                                                                                                                                 undertaker's operational staff.
 1988     Hughes         Hughes A K (1988). The Supervising Engineer and the                                        Catastrophic failures,          A survey of enforcement authorities has shown that the compiling of registers has been largely completed. There
                         Reservoirs Act 1975. Reservoir Renovation.                                                 Legislation                     have been some difficulties in identifying the owners of some small reservoirs and some disagreements about
                         Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference, Manchester,                                                                              reservoir capacity. The Health and Safety Executive has taken an interest in dams not subject to the Reservoirs
                         paper 2.5.                                                                                                                 Act.
 1988     Gregory        GREGORY C G and HAY J (1988). Renewing and          Dale Dyke (2), Midhope                 Outler & intake works           At two 100 old reservoirs, Midhope and Dale Dyke, the draw-off and scour valves, together with their operating
                         updating draw-off works. Reservoir Renovation.                                                                             mechanisms, have been refurbished and converted to electrical operation. In both cases the remedial works
                         Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference, Manchester,                                                                              followed inspections carried out under the Reservoirs (Safety Provisions) Act 1930: following an inspection in
                         paper 3.1.                                                                                                                 January 1975 of the 31 m high embankment dam at Midhope, the Inspecting Engineer had recommended that
                                                                                                                                                    all valves be serviced as soon as possible and following an inspection of the 22 m high Dale Dyke embankment
                                                                                                                                                    the Inspecting Engineer had recommended that both valves controlling the discharge of water from the reservoir
                                                                                                                                                    be made fully serviceable.
 1988     Gallacher      GALLACHER D (1988). Remedial and improvement          Drumbowie, Gladhouse, Loch Cote      Outlet & intake works           Draw-off facilities at old embankment dams generally require refurbishment, but access is often difficult. There
                         works to reservoir draw-off works. Reservoir                                                                               was substantial leakage into the valve towers through substantial cracks and open joints at Loch Cote and
                         Renovation. Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference,                                                                              Drumbowie. At Loch Cote, a 20 mm thick coating of mastic asphalt was applied to the outside of the tower which
                         Manchester, paper 3.2.                                                                                                     was then encased in a 230 mm thick reinforced concrete jacket. At Drumbowie the valve tower was converted to
                                                                                                                                                    the dry well type and all pipework and internal steelwork was replaced. The upper part of the tower was
                                                                                                                                                    demolished, a 2.5 m diameter steel tube was lowered into the remaining part of the tower, and the upper part of
                                                                                                                                                    the tube was surrounded by concrete 0.5 m thick. At Gladhouse reservoir additional draw-off capacity was
                                                                                                                                                    required and a new tower was constructed.

 1988     Kingham        KINGHAM T J and JACK W L (1988). Refurbishment        Caban Coch                           Outlet & intake works           The 85-year old Foel tower, located in Caban Coch reservoir, is the intake to the Elan aqueduct. A 1985
                         of the Foel tower intake to the Elan aqueduct.                                                                             condition assessment of the masonry structure and its hydraulic equipment showed that, despite a long record of
                         Reservoir Renovation. Proceedings of BNCOLD                                                                                reliable service, the hydraulic equipment was in a poor condition. A major programme of works, which included
                         Conference, Manchester, paper 3.3.                                                                                         replacement of the main control valves, was required to be undertaken without disrupting the normal supply to
                                                                                                                                                    the Elan aqueduct.
 1988     Gray           GRAY P (1988). Problems with valves at reservoirs in Daer, Burncrooks, Glengavel, Kelly,   Outlet & intake works, Slope    Problems with draw-off and scour valves have been associated with the age of the reservoir, lack of
                         Strathclyde region. Reservoir Renovation. Proceedings Kilmannan                            stability                       maintenance and lack of operation. Following a period of heavy rain when working on the outlet works at Kelly
                         of BNCOLD Conference, Manchester, paper 3.4.                                                                               reservoir, a slip occurred in the downstream slope around the valve chamber, requiring emergency stabilisation
                                                                                                                                                    work. Existing outlet works were reinstated at Kilmannan reservoir. Serious difficulties were encountered with
                                                                                                                                                    new valves at Daer and Glengavel reservoirs. At Burncrooks reservoir it is impractical for the Inspecting
                                                                                                                                                    Engineer to witness the opening and closing of all the valves in the tower since this takes more than a day.




                                                                                                                               68
Proceedings of the BNCOLD Conference, Manchester, 1988


 Date     First author                        Reference                         Dams                             Subjects                         Brief summary
 1988     Johnson        JOHNSON P F and JACKSON E A (1988). Himley Hall Himley Hall Great Pool                  Environment, social, planning,   The lake was created some two hundred years ago as part of the landscaping of the grounds of Himley Hall by
                         Great Pool overflow and stabilisation works. Reservoir                                  Flood estimation, Overflow       Capability Brown. The embankment dam has a maximum height of 6 m and is about 400 m long; it has an
                         Renovation. Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference,                                           works, Slope stability           upstream puddle clay lining. The overflow capacity was found to be insufficient for the probable maximum flood
                         Manchester, paper 4.1.                                                                                                   and downstream slope stability was deemed inadequate. In addition to the technical difficulties, there were
                                                                                                                                                  serious planning and financial problems associated with the ornamental lake, which is a classified 'listed
                                                                                                                                                  building' within a conservation area. Environmental considerations were the main factors which prevented the
                                                                                                                                                  adoption of the cheapest option of abandoning the lake. Remedial works, which included an auxiliary emergency
                                                                                                                                                  spillway discharging across a trunk road, were completed in 1987. (See discussion by J B Bowcock, A C
                                                                                                                                                  Morrison, P Johnson, C D Routh, C De Souza and M F Kennard, pp D4/2-8.)

 1988     Ormerod        ORMEROD D (1988). Modifications to reservoir        Elsecar, Walverton                  Mining subsidence, Overflow Inspections of fifteen reservoirs have identified inadequate overflow capacities. At a reservoir in Yorkshire, which
                         overflow systems. Reservoir Renovation. Proceedings                                     works                       had suffered mining subsidence, for many years low level draw-off culverts had been used to maintain a low
                         of BNCOLD Conference, Manchester, paper 4.2.                                                                        reservoir water level. This practice had led to a neighbour building a chicken run in the overflow channel!
                                                                                                                                             Remedial works included the construction of a new central overflow with a wide channel on the downstream face
                                                                                                                                             of the embankment and a new outlet pipe and valves. At a reservoir in Lancashire, where additional overflow
                                                                                                                                             capacity could have been provided in a number of ways, model testing was undertaken. It was decided to
                                                                                                                                             construct an additional weir over the centre of the dam embankment. (See discussion by J K Hopkins, p D4/1).

 1988     Kennard        KENNARD M F and BASS K T (1988). Improvements           Beacons, Cantref, Dowdeswell,   Overflow works, Overtopping The overflow capacity at existing overflow weirs and spillway channels has found to be inadequate for the
                         for overflow works at some British dams. Reservoir      Ladybower, Llwyn On                                         probable maximum flood at several embankment dams. The options include new or enlarged overflow works,
                         Renovation. Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference,                                                                       increased storage by raising the dam, flap gates, fuse plugs and siphons. At Dowdeswell, where the spillway
                         Manchester, paper 4.3.                                                                                              channel was inadequate, a new reinforced concrete and stilling basin was constructed. At Ladybower provision
                                                                                                                                             was made to store excess flood water above crest level by building a 2.5 m high 'wave wall' across the dam.
                                                                                                                                             Remedial works at Beacons have comprised the lowering of the invert at the critical section of the spillway
                                                                                                                                             channel and raising the crest to provide the wave allowance. Hydraulic model testing of Cantref and Llwyn-On
                                                                                                                                             led to schemes utilising syphons. At Cantref the proposals were subsequently modified to include limited
                                                                                                                                             overtopping of the centre of the embankment during major floods with the slope protected by reinforced grass.
                                                                                                                                             (See paper 4.4 by Bramley and Hewlett.)
 1988     Bramley        BRAMLEY M E and HEWLETT H W M (1988).                   Jackhouse                       Overflow works                   Prototype field trials on the upstream slope of the 10 m high disused Jackhouse embankment dam have been
                         Reinforced grass spillways and embankment                                                                                used to evaluate and compare the hydraulic and geotechnical performance of nine reinforced grass systems
                         protection. Reservoir Renovation. Proceedings of                                                                         together with a plain grass control channel. Performance is critically dependent on the contact between the
                         BNCOLD Conference, Manchester, paper 4.4.                                                                                reinforcement and the subsoil as well as on the maintenance of good grass cover. Failure is usually associated
                                                                                                                                                  with a localised weak point and the toe and crest details are particularly important. Guidelines have been
                                                                                                                                                  prepared for the design, construction and management of reinforced grass waterways.

 1988     Ackers         ACKERS J C and HUGHES A K (1988).Tipping gates          Greenfield, Yeoman Hey          Spillway gates & barriers        Auxiliary spillways have been constructed at two reservoirs to accommodate floods with return periods greater
                         for auxiliary spillway control. Reservoir Renovation.                                                                    than 10,000 years. Flows to the spillways are controlled by tipping gates, which are formed by concrete slabs
                         Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference, Manchester,                                                                            inclined at 65 degrees to the horizontal and designed to overturn when the water level behind the gate reaches a
                         paper 4.5.                                                                                                               specified height. Field tests were carried out to verify the tipping levels and theoretical studies were carried out
                                                                                                                                                  to determine the relationship between wave magnitude and reduction in tipping level. The system has the
                                                                                                                                                  advantage of being automatic and reliable, and not dependent on any electrical components. (See discussion by
                                                                                                                                                  W McLeish on tipping gates at Fontburn, p D4/6.)
 1988     Tedd           TEDD P, CLAYDON J R and CHARLES J A (1988).            Gorpley, Ramsden (Holmfirth)     Internal erosion & filters,      The presence of wet areas on the downstream slope of Gorpley dam and signs of significant settlement at
                         Detection and investigation of problems at Gorpley and                                  Movement monitoring, Puddle      Ramsden dam prompted investigations into the possibility of internal erosion of the puddle clay cores of these
                         Ramsden dams. Reservoir Renovation. Proceedings of                                      clay, Pore pressure              two dams. Measurements of horizontal earth pressure and pore water pressure in the clay cores provided no
                         BNCOLD Conference, Manchester, paper 5.1.                                               (seepage), Total stress          evidence of hydraulic fracture. The filter properties of the fills immediately downstream of the cores indicated
                                                                                                                                                  that they would halt any incipient internal erosion. The wet areas at Gorpley are related to rainfall; correlation of
                                                                                                                                                  flow measurements from wet areas with rainfall and reservoir level was the most conclusive method of
                                                                                                                                                  determining the source of the water. The continuing crest settlement at Ramsden, which averages 8 mm per
                                                                                                                                                  year, is related to fluctuations in reservoir level.




                                                                                                                           69
Proceedings of the BNCOLD Conference, Manchester, 1988


 Date     First author                        Reference                        Dams                                   Subjects                Brief summary
 1988     Kennard        KENNARD J (1988). Matters concerning drainage of                                             Drainage, Geotextiles,  In many cases drainage is the simplest and most economical method of dealing with seepage problems and
                         existing dams. Reservoir Renovation. Proceedings of                                                                  associated matters such as internal erosion and slope instability. Geotextiles can be used for separation and
                                                                                                                      Heightening, Internal erosion
                         BNCOLD Conference, Manchester, paper 5.2.                                                    & filters, Pore pressurefiltration within embankment dams. Four examples of improvement works are described. The crest of an 8 m
                                                                                                                                              high embankment needed to be raised by 2.25 m to provide adequate freeboard; extra fill was placed on the
                                                                                                                      (seepage), Slope stability
                                                                                                                                              downstream slope, but the ground beyond the existing downstream toe was wet and marshy and a base
                                                                                                                                              drainage blanket was formed using a geotextile. Downstream slope stability at an old canal dam was improved
                                                                                                                                              by the installation of deep counterfort drains. Trench drains were installed in the downstream shoulder of an old
                                                                                                                                              earth dam in a tropical area to improve stability during heavy rainfall. Concerns about leakage and high pore
                                                                                                                                              pressures at two Pennine reservoirs were addressed by drainage relief holes drilled from the downstream edge
                                                                                                                                              of the embankment crest.
 1988     Schulze        SCHULZE B and BRAUNS J (1988). Inspection and                                            Drainage                    Drainage systems in embankment dams may incorporate gravel layers and pipes to increase the discharge
                         behaviour of drainage installations in slopes of                                                                     capacity. The pipes used in such drainage systems can be damaged due to mechanical, hydraulic, biological
                         embankments. Reservoir Renovation. Proceedings of                                                                    and chemical factors. Field investigations with a television probe have shown ageing symptoms due to these
                         BNCOLD Conference, Manchester, paper 5.3.                                                                            influences.
 1988     Gallacher      GALLACHER D (1988). Investigation and remedial      Coulter, March Ghyll, Oakdale Lower Discontinuance &             There was concern that three embankment dams with puddle clay cores might have suffered significant
                         works to three embankment dams. Reservoir                                                abandonment, Grouting,      deterioration. Extensive investigations at Coulter revealed weak zones in the core with evidence of internal
                         Renovation. Proceedings of 5th BNCOLD Conference,                                        Internal erosion & filters, erosion. During remedial treatment, grout penetrated from the core into the embankment shoulders thus
                         Manchester, paper 6.1.                                                                   Movement monitoring, Puddle increasing the effective width of the impermeable element. Leakage has been significantly reduced. Although at
                                                                                                                  clay, Seepage & leakage     the location of maximum settlement at March Ghyll very soft zones were found in the core, there was no
                                                                                                                                              evidence of internal erosion and further monitoring of long term settlement is recommended. In November 1986
                                                                                                                                              a major sinkhole appeared in the central area of the embankment crest at Lower Oakdale. The reservoir was
                                                                                                                                              immediately drawn down and investigations have shown very soft clay in the core with undrained shear strength
                                                                                                                                              smaller than 7 kPa. A new cut-off is required, but abandonment could be a preferable option. (See discussion by
                                                                                                                                              D E Evans, pp D6/4-4, on repair of a leaking puddle clay core at Boddington by excavating, reworking and
                                                                                                                                              recompacting the top 1.5 m of puddle clay.)
 1988     Schmidt        SCHMIDT M (1988). Reconstruction of old mining      Prinzen (Germany), Schwarzenbacher Outlet & intake works,        Between 1530 and 1810 many embankment dams, up to 16 m high, were built in the Harz mountains. Two
                         dams in the Harz mountain area, FRG. Reservoir      (Germany), Upper Flambacher          Seepage & leakage           features of particular note are the impermeable zones within the embankments which are formed of grass sods
                         Renovation. Proceedings of 5th BNCOLD Conference, (Germany)                                                          and the wooden outlet facilities. A small number of dams have suffered increasing leakage and major repairs
                         Manchester, paper 6.2.                                                                                               have been required. At Schwarzenbacher the weak areas were near the surface and the grass sods were sealed
                                                                                                                                              with natural clay. At Prinzen, a trench was dug along the crest and filled with "earth concrete". At Upper
                                                                                                                                              Flambacher the spillway crest was lowered. Television cameras are used to investigate the condition of the
                                                                                                                                              wooden pipes.
 1988     Carlyle        CARLYLE W J (1988). Wave damage to upstream         Backwater, Derwent, Dovestone,       Guides & surveys, Upstream Methods of wave prediction for reservoirs are reviewed, but it is concluded that the success of upstream slope
                         slope protection of reservoirs in the UK. Reservoir Errwood, Foremark, Kielder, Jumbles, slope protection            protection is more dependent on good design than on the precise determination of the appropriate wave climate.
                         Renovation. Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference,       Selset, Turret                                                   On nearly half of 48 embankment dams built in the period 1963-1983, rip rap was used to provide upstream
                         Manchester, paper 6.3.                                                                                               slope protection and a quarter of the dams had concrete slabs. The remainder used blockwork, asphalt or stone
                                                                                                                                              pitching. At the 38 m high Foremark embankment dam, damage to the rip rap occurred during a storm in 1979.
                                                                                                                                              Following damage at Kielder during storm winds in the winter of 1983-84, the blockwork was reconstructed into
                                                                                                                                              larger panels set in insitu concrete. There has been damage to masonry blocks set on gravel at Selset. (See
                                                                                                                                              discussion by (a) K Shave, ppD6/1-2, who as supervising engineer on Bewl Bridge was called out to examine
                                                                                                                                              serious damage to the upstream slope protection following the hurricane in October 1987; (b) D Gallacher,
                                                                                                                                              ppD6/2-4&10, who was present when a wave of 2.13 m hit the tower at Megget when the rip rap was damaged
                                                                                                                                              during the storms of January 1984; (c) G A Milne, pD6/4, on Loch Turret; (d) P Horswill, ppD6/7-8, on
                                                                                                                                              Hanningfield.)
 1988     Moffat         MOFFAT A I B (1988). Embankment dams and                                                 Dam break studies, Hazard & Reservoirs present a potential hazard to lives and property downstream of the dam. The hazard level is a
                         concepts of reservoir hazard analysis. Reservoir                                         risk management, Safety     function of, firstly, the probability of catastrophic breaching and, secondly, the consequential human and
                         Renovation. Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference,                                            surveillance                economic losses. Hazard evaluation is an established procedure in the nuclear power and chemical process
                         Manchester, paper 6.4.                                                                                               industries and the application of the same basic principles to reservoir safety has much to commend it.
                                                                                                                                              Quantitative hazard evaluation would assist in determining priorities for resource allocation in safety surveillance
                                                                                                                                              and remedial works. Probabilistic risk assessment may be appropriate for exceptionally high risk dams which
                                                                                                                                              have been identified by some simpler screening technique such as reservoir hazard rating. It is proposed that a
                                                                                                                                              reservoir hazard rating suitable for British dams can be based on Sarkaria's dam hazard potential index. (G S
                                                                                                                                              Sarkaria ' Safety appraisal of old dams: an updated perspective. Proceedings of Conference on Inspection,
                                                                                                                                              maintenance and rehabilitation of old dams, ASCE, 1973.)

 1988     Mackey         MACKEY P G and MORISON A C (1988).                    Clywedog                               Concrete deterioration          During rainfall or spilling, leakage occurred through the expansion joint seals on the downstream face of the 72
                         Replacement of expansion joint seals at Clywedog                                                                             m high mass concrete, gravity buttress Clywedog dam. The original polysulphide sealant had deteriorated and it
                         dam. Reservoir Renovation. Proceedings of BNCOLD                                                                             was necessary to replace the sealant in the expansion joints on the crest and the downstream face of the dam.
                         Conference, Manchester, paper 7.1.                                                                                           Access to the downstream face required the provision of a purpose-built platform. Although there were some
                                                                                                                                                      minor defects, the worst areas were satisfactorily repaired.




                                                                                                                                70
Proceedings of the BNCOLD Conference, Manchester, 1988


 Date     First author                         Reference                       Dams                                     Subjects                       Brief summary
 1988     Mazzalai       MAZZALAI P and ODORIZZ! S (1988). Renovation          Coredo (Italy), Tres (Italy)             Concrete deterioration,        The safety of some old Italian dams is being re-evaluated in the light of new guidelines and regulations. Case
                         and repair of Tres and Credo reservoirs and dams in                                            Grouting, Outlet & intake      histories are presented of two reservoirs where upgrading is required to remedy on-going deterioration. The
                         province of Trento. Reservoir Renovation. Proceedings                                          works, Seepage & leakage       Coredo reservoir is impounded by two embankment dams built in the 1950s. It is planned to rebuild the 8 m high
                         of BNCOLD Conference, Manchester, paper 7.2.                                                                                  main dam as a rockfill embankment with an upstream concrete membrane linked to a concrete cut-off wall at the
                                                                                                                                                       upstream toe. There have been leakage problems at Tres reservoir which is impounded by two masonry gravity
                                                                                                                                                       dams built in 1929. Grouting is being carried out and a new bottom outlet has been designed.

 1988     Binnie         BINNIE C J A and ASKEW T E A (1988). Remedial           Brayton Barff no 1, Brayton Barff no 2 Service reservoirs             Since construction in the early 1960s there has been severe leakage at Brayton Barff service reservoir. Repairs
                         works to Brayton Barff service reservoirs                                                                                     to joints inside the reservoir carried out a few years later were not entirely successful and in recent years there
                         compartments 1 and 2. Reservoir renovation.                                                                                   has been substantial leakage. It became clear that attention was required to the expansion joints in the
                         Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference, Manchester,                                                                                 reservoir's lightly reinforced concrete floor slab. It was believed that leakage from the reservoirs had formed
                         paper 7.3.                                                                                                                    beneath the reservoir floor slab and ground probing radar was used to determine the extent of the voiding. This
                                                                                                                                                       was confirmed by boring holes through the concrete slab. The vast majority of the voids were on the line of the
                                                                                                                                                       expansion joints. The voids were filled with grout and the joints were reconstructed and resealed. On refilling the
                                                                                                                                                       reservoir, some of the refilled joints failed and further repairs were required.

 1988     Millmore       MILLMORE J P and HESLOP R T (1988). Mill Hill           Mill Hill*                             Mining subsidence, Service     The two service reservoirs suffered severe cracking and leakage associated with mining subsidence which
                         reservoirs: the loss and partial recovery of storage                                           reservoirs, Seepage &          occurred in 1938 and large cavities formed under one of the reservoirs. The reservoirs were structurally repaired
                         capacity. Reservoir Renovation. Proceedings of                                                 leakage                        and made watertight by the provision of a rubber lining, but after 25 years the lining had deteriorated. When
                         BNCOLD Conference, Manchester, paper 7.4.                                                                                     repair work was about to begin a sudden subsidence occurred in one corner and part of the structure collapsed.
                                                                                                                                                       Fifteen million gallons of water was lost in six hours. A void had caused the floor to collapse and the large flow of
                                                                                                                                                       water enlarged the void. It was concluded that mining subsidence had not only cracked the reservoirs but had
                                                                                                                                                       also widened fissures in the underlying Magnesium Limestone bedrock. Leakage from the damaged reservoirs
                                                                                                                                                       had accelerated the migration of drift deposits into the fissures thereby forming voids under the floor slabs. A
                                                                                                                                                       part of the damaged structures was repaired and new service reservoirs were constructed on an adjacent site,
                                                                                                                                                       with provision to accommodate large ground movements and instrumentation to monitor foundation behaviour.

 1988     Terziani       TERZIANI A, BIANCHINI A, VIELMO I, SCUERO A                                                    Concrete deterioration,        Deterioration of the upstream face of concrete and masonry dams can be due to a variety of factors depending
                         and D'ANCONA B (1988). Rehabilitation of upstream                                              Geomembranes                   on the natutre of the facing. In older Italian dams hand-finished cement rendering and squared stone pitching
                         facings on masonry and concrete dams. Reservoir                                                                               with mortar joints were two commonly used facings. After 1945 well compacted concrete faces came into
                         renovation. Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference,                                                                                 general use. Rehabilitation methods have included new concrete facings anchored to the dam body, coating with
                         Manchester, paper 8.1.                                                                                                        a synthetic resin, covering with reinforced gunite, steel sheets or a geomembrane.

 1988     Sembenelli     SEMBENELLI P and CUNIBERTI J (1988).                                                           Geomembranes, Seepage &        A waterproofing system suitable for rehabilitating deteriorating dams has been developed which consists of three
                         Rehabilitation of dams with engineered surface                                                 leakage                        components: a geocomposite formed of a pvc geomembrane attached to a geotextile support, an adhesive, and
                         multilayer pvc membranes. Reservoir renovation.                                                                               a primer for consolidation of the structural surface. The system has been used on an embankment dam in
                         Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference, Manchester,                                                                                 northwest Nigeria which is formed of silty sand and has an asphaltic concrete facing. Piping occurred during first
                         paper 8.2.                                                                                                                    filling and a geomembrane was placed on the asphaltic concrete in the remedial works. The system has also
                                                                                                                                                       been used at a multiple thin-arch dam in Italy where there were leakage problems.

 1988     Kriekemans     KRIEKEMANS B (1988). The use of polyurethane                                                   Grouting                       Polyurethane grouts have several applications in the control of seepage through or under dams, which include
                         grouts and grout tubes. Reservoir renovation.                                                                                 injection into hairline cracks and expansion joints in concrete and masonry structures, and injection into the
                         Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference, Manchester,                                                                                 ground to strengthen the foundation soil or to form an impermeable curtain.
                         paper 8.3.
 1988     Dunstan        DUNSTAN M R H (1988). The growing acceptance of                                                Roller compacted concrete      In-situ properties similar to those found in conventional concrete dams can be achieved for roller compacted
                         RCC for dam construction. Reservoir renovation.                                                                               concrete and it has become widely accepted for use in dam construction. It also has application in the
                         Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference, Manchester,                                                                                 rehabilitation of existing dams, including repairing damaged concrete structures and protecting embankment
                         paper 8.4.                                                                                                                    dams against overtopping.
 1988     Tuxford        TUXFORD C (1988). Use of flexible revetments in         Furzton, Stanford                      Overtopping, Vegetation        A flexible armoured revetment system has been used at Stanford reservoir to preserve the embankment from
                         dams and reservoirs. Reservoir Renovation.                                                                                    breaching during overtopping under conditions associated with the probable maximum flood, but accepting that
                         Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference, Manchester,                                                                                 some damage would occur. The chosen system has intermeshing individual blocks, positive interpanel
                         paper 8.5.                                                                                                                    connections and a two-way cable system for anchoring. The system was placed directly on the existing grassed
                                                                                                                                                       embankment. At Furzton a similar system was installed with the panels placed on a woven geotextile.

 1988     Millmore       MILLMORE J P and CHARLES J A (1988). A survey of                                               Guides & surveys, Legislation Statistical data is presented of embankment dams subject to reservoir safety legislation. The majority were built
                         UK embankment dams. Reservoir Renovation.                                                                                    before 1900 and most of them are under 15 m in height. Unprotected pipes laid through the embankment are
                         Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference, Manchester,                                                                                common and in many cases there is only downstream valve control.
                         Technical Note 1.




                                                                                                                                   71
Proceedings of the BNCOLD Conference, Manchester, 1988


 Date     First author                         Reference                        Dams         Subjects                 Brief summary
 1988     Ellis          ELLIS J (1988). A numerical model for chute spillway                Spillway hydraulics      Software for a numerical model which simulates flow on chute spillways has been enhanced so that practitioners
                         flows. Reservoir renovation. Proceedings of BNCOLD                                           can carry out a wider range of hydraulic calculations without having to revert to a physical model. The numerical
                         Conference, Manchester, Technical Note 2.                                                    model calculates magnitude and direction of velocity and depth of flow at a network of grid points within the
                                                                                                                      spillway channel. Both supercritical and subcritical flow can be modelled, together with the hydraulic jump
                                                                                                                      transition.
 1988     Hopkins        HOPKINS J K and WICKHAM D B (1988). Repairs to         Haweswater   Concrete deterioration   The 28 m high concrete buttress dam was completed in 1942 in an area of high rainfall. Surface spalling of the
                         downstream face of Haweswater dam. Reservoir                                                 downstream face was first noticed in 1971 and the process accelerated in 1975. The continuing deterioration is
                         Renovation. Proceedings of BNCOLD Conference,                                                probably due to freezing and thawing of saturated concrete and the spalling penetrates to a depth of 100 mm.
                         Manchester, technical note 3.                                                                Rainwater passing through construction joints on the downstream face provides much of the moisture in the
                                                                                                                      body of the dam. Serious spalling occurred when security doors were installed within the dam structure and
                                                                                                                      restricted the flow of air, producing an atmosphere with a high humidity; concrete surfaces within the dam
                                                                                                                      remained constantly saturated. In 1982 and 1985 trials of a number of repair systems were undertaken and the
                                                                                                                      combination of cementitious mortars coated with a silane and acrylic has proved most suitable. Repair work is
                                                                                                                      programmed for the summers of 1988 and 1989.




                                                                                                       72
Proceedings of 6th BDS Conference. Nottingham, 1990.



Conference papers of the British Dam Society
1990 The Embankment dam. Proceedings of 6th British Dam Society Conference, Nottingham
   Date      First author                          Reference                            Dams                               Subjects                        Brief summary
   1990      Back           BACK P A (1990). The 1990 Geoffrey Binnie Lecture: The      Dokan (Iraq), Kariba (Zimbabwe),   Concrete deterioration,         Ten criteria or features are advanced which are desirable for the ultimate dam: durable materials of construction,
                            Ultimate dam. The Embankment Dam. Proceedings of 6th        Maentwrog, Mangla (Pakistan),      Earthquake damage,              flood routing independent of power and operator, ability to survive overtopping, redundancy in structural
                            British Dam Society Conference, Nottingham, September       Victoria (Sri Lanka)               Environment/social/planning,    behaviour, ability to accommodate deformations, resistant to internal erosion, capable of withstanding seismic
                            1990, pp 1-5. Thomas Telford, London, 1991.                                                    Internal erosion/filters,       shock, resistant to destruction by acts of sabotage, reservoir can be drawn down to at least half height and
                                                                                                                           Overtopping, Reservoir          preferably emptied in a few weeks, and, finally, that in the long term the project will be a good thing for mankind.
                                                                                                                           drawdown

   1990      Chin           CHIN B G, DAVISON D M, KLOHN E K, BENSON R P                Forty Mile Coulee East (Canada)    Instrumentation, Movement       The 28 m high earthfill embankment is founded on up to 60 m of soft, highly plastic clay and large foundation
                            and CAMPBELL J W (1990). Design and performance of                                             monitoring, Pore pressure       movements occurred during construction. The pore pressures measured during construction were significantly
                            the forty mile Coulee East dam on a soft clay foundation.                                      (construction), Slope stability higher than predictions despite having the benefit of a monitored 12 m high test fill embankment. Design
                            The Embankment Dam. Proceedings of 6th British Dam                                                                             changes to enlarge the toe berms were made part way through construction. The case history illustrates the
                            Society Conference, Nottingham, September 1990, pp 7-                                                                          value of the observational approach to the design and construction of large embankments on soft clay. Finite
                            13. Thomas Telford, London, 1991.                                                                                              element analyses which replicated field behaviour demonstrated that undrained yielding of the foundation clay
                                                                                                                                                           results in much larger increases in horizontal stress than predicted by a linear elastic model. Neglect of this
                                                                                                                                                           behaviour leads to unconservative estimates of pore pressure.

   1990      Dafeng         DAFENG F (1990). The application of new techniques in Lubuge (China), Tianshengqiao            Internal erosion/filters, Rockfill Lubuge and Tianshengqiao are high embankment dams located in south-west China. The 104 m high Lubuge
                            the design of two high dams in South West China. The   (China)                                                                    rockfill dam was built in the 1980s. The central core, which is formed of a residual soil of weathered sandstone
                            Embankment Dam. Proceedings of 6th British Dam                                                                                    and shale, was compacted in 0.25 m thick layers and the rockfill in 1.0 m thick layers. A test was carried out to
                            Society Conference, Nottingham, September 1990, pp 15-                                                                            investigate the effectiveness of the filters in protecting the core against internal erosion. The design of the 178 m
                            20. Thomas Telford, London, 1991.                                                                                                 high Tianshengqiao concrete faced rockfill dam has been approved and it is anticipated that construction will
                                                                                                                                                              shortly commence. The reservoir will have a storage capacity of ten billion cubic metres.

   1990      Wilson         WILSON A C and EVANS J D (1990). The use of low       Roadford                                 Asphaltic concrete,            The design and construction of the 41 m high Roadford embankment dam, which was built in 1988 in south-west
                            grade rockfill at Roadford dam. The Embankment Dam.                                            Geochemistry, Rockfill         England, is described. The embankment is constructed of low grade rockfill and an asphaltic concrete
                            Proceedings of 6th British Dam Society Conference,                                                                            membrane on the upstream face provides the impermeable element. The rockfill contains sandstone, siltstone
                            Nottingham, September 1990, pp 21-27. Thomas Telford,                                                                         and mudstone. It was recognised that minerals in the rock, particularly the mudstone, may cause the rockfill in
                            London, 1991.                                                                                                                 the dam to degrade and this was taken into account in the embankment design. There was also concern that
                                                                                                                                                          placing comparatively dry mudstone within the embankment fill could result in collapse settlement when the rock
                                                                                                                                                          was weakened by wetting. The susceptibility to collapse compression was investigated by laboratory tests in a 1
                                                                                                                                                          m diameter oedometer at the Building Research Establishment. (See discussion by P Tedd on installation of
                                                                                                                                                          BRE electro-level system, pp 47-49.)
   1990      Carlyle        CARLYLE W J (1990). A perspective of the art of the     Muar Upper (Malaysia), Plover Cove     Grouting, Instrumentation,     Some twenty embankment dams, formed of residual soil on weathered rock foundations, have been built during
                            embankment dam in South West Asia. The Embankment (Hong Kong), Seletar (Singapore),            Movement monitoring, Pore the last decade in Malaysia and Hong Kong by Binnie and Partners and their associated firms. Construction has
                            Dam. Proceedings of 6th British Dam Society Conference, Shing Mun Lower (Hong Kong),           pressure (construction), Slope involved placing residual soils in humid tropical conditions at water contents well above optimum. Design has
                            Nottingham, September 1990, pp 29-39. Thomas Telford,                                          stability, Upstream slope      developed over the decade on the basis of the observation of the behaviour of well instrumented dams. The
                            London, 1991.                                                                                  protection                     more clayey residual soil is used to form a wide central core with the more sandy clay placed in the embankment
                                                                                                                                                          shoulders. The shoulders are commonly provided with drainage blankets to increase the rate of dissipation of
                                                                                                                                                          construction pore pressures. Information is presented on foundation grouting.

   1990      Burton         BURTON I W and FERGUSON P A S (1990).                 Mrica (Indonesia)                        Instrumentation, Rockfill       The 110 m high Mrica main dam is situated in central Java. It has rockfill shoulders with a core of residual
                            Instrumentation of the Mrica dam. The Embankment Dam.                                                                          halloysitic clay which slopes slightly upstream. Instrumentation was installed during construction to check the
                            Proceedings of 6th British Dam Society Conference,                                                                             validity of the design parameters, to monitor embankment behaviour during the critical first filling of the reservoir
                            Nottingham, September 1990, pp 41-46. Thomas Telford,                                                                          and to monitor the long term performance of the dam. Pneumatic piezometers experienced a high failure rate
                            London, 1991.                                                                                                                  whereas hydraulic piezometers have proved robust and reliable. Difficulties were also experienced with the
                                                                                                                                                           inclinometers. (See discussion by A Campbell, a site laboratory manager, on the reasons for the high level of
                                                                                                                                                           malfunction of some types of instrumentation, p51.)

   1990      Penman         PENMAN A D M and CHARLES J A (1990). The safety of                                             Dam break studies, Guides &     Tailings arise from many mining, quarrying and industrial processes. The need for tailings dams and lagoons
                            tailings dams and lagoons in Britain. The Embankment                                           surveys, Hazard & risk          has grown with the increased output of tailings and restrictions on discharge into rivers. There are now a large
                            Dam. Proceedings of 6th British Dam Society Conference,                                        management, Legislation,        number of tailings lagoons in Britain and, although they pose similar hazards to those from dams which impound
                            Nottingham, September 1990, pp 53-58. Thomas Telford,                                          Slope stability, Waste          water, they are not subject to reservoir safety legislation. They have been a number of incidents in Britain
                            London, 1991.                                                                                  impoundment                     affecting safety, while overseas there have been failures involving major loss of life and destruction of property.
                                                                                                                                                           The hazard posed by a sudden release of tailings is examined in the context of the safety of British tailings
                                                                                                                                                           dams.




                                                                                                                                   73
Proceedings of 6th BDS Conference. Nottingham, 1990.


   Date      First author                          Reference                             Dams                                 Subjects                           Brief summary
   1990      Abadjiev       ABADJIEV C B and KARADIMOV A A (1990). Tailings              Elatzite [tailings dam] (Bulgaria)   Slope stability, Waste             The Elatzite tailings dam, which is located 70 km east of Sofia in Bulgaria, has a maximum design height of 145
                            dams of the copper mining plant Elatzite after eight years                                        impoundment                        m. Construction commenced in 1981 and it was 95 m high in June 1989. The dam is being built of
                            of operation. The Embankment Dam. Proceedings of 6th                                                                                 hydrocycloned sand using the downstream construction method. The 30 m high downstream toe dam is formed
                            British Dam Society Conference, Nottingham, September                                                                                of granite rockfill whose permeable character facilitates the drainage of the sand fill. The upstream secondary
                            1990, pp 59-62. Thomas Telford, London, 1991.                                                                                        dams, which are 5 to 6 m high, are designed to be built of cycloned sand, but in the initial stages of construction
                                                                                                                                                                 the sand fraction was not sufficient to support the slime and rockfill had to be used for the first secondary dam.
                                                                                                                                                                 The slurry is discharged from the plant with a density of 1.2 tonnes per cubic metre.

   1990      Griffin        GRIFFIN A R, PENG C K and GUDGEON D L (1990).          Chukai [tailings dam] (Malaysia)           Movement monitoring, Pore A new titanium dioxide plant is to be opened in Terengganu state on the east coast of Malaysia. The major
                            Waste retention embankments on soft clay. The                                                     pressure (construction), Slope waste product from the manufacture of titanium dioxide is a gypsum and iron hydroxide slurry, which is
                            Embankment Dam. Proceedings of 6th British Dam                                                    stability, Waste impoundment dewatered by hydraulic presses. The solid gypsum is to be deposited within a landfill area retained by
                            Society Conference, Nottingham, September 1990, pp 63-                                                                           impermeable embankments and the wastewater in lagoons. The embankments are to be built of highly
                            69. Thomas Telford, London, 1991.                                                                                                weathered granite and the preliminary design was based on parameters derived from insitu and laboratory tests.
                                                                                                                                                             The factor of safety was highly dependent on the values of shear strength assumed for the underlying marine
                                                                                                                                                             clays and a monitored trial embankment made it possible to re-evaluate the design with considerable savings on
                                                                                                                                                             fill material.

   1990      Watermeyer WATERMEYER P and THOMPSON N A (1990). Tailings Los Leones [tailings dam] (Chile)                      Waste impoundment                  The retaining embankment for a tailings depository is a unique structure in that it is often built from the same
                        deposition predictive computer modelling. The                                                                                            material that it is designed to impound. Finely processed mine waste is mixed into a slurry and hydraulically
                        Embankment Dam. Proceedings of 6th British Dam                                                                                           transported to the storage site where it is discharged from locations around the perimeter of the depository.
                        Society Conference, Nottingham, September 1990, pp 71-                                                                                   Accurate prediction of infilling makes it possible to assess the required rate of construction of the retaining
                        76. Thomas Telford, London, 1991.                                                                                                        embankment. The use of the tailings deposition model TADAM at the Sohar copper project in Oman and at the
                                                                                                                                                                 Andina copper mine in Chile is described. The computer model is based on over 50 years worldwide experience
                                                                                                                                                                 of tailings dams.

   1990      Cambridge      CAMBRIDGE M and COULTON R H (1990). Geotechnical Clemows Valley [tailings dam], Cerro             Waste impoundment                  The safe, efficient and environmentally acceptable deposition of mine tailings relies on appropriate engineering
                            aspects of the construction of tailings dams - two   da Lobo [tailings dam] (Portugal)                                               not only of the retaining embankment but also the deposition process. Well publicised failures of tailings dams,
                            European studies. The Embankment Dam. Proceedings of                                                                                 together with environmental concerns, have encouraged the use of specialist engineers in the design process.
                            6th British Dam Society Conference, Nottingham,                                                                                      The mechanism of tailings deposition need to be understood with the help of carefully simulated laboratory
                            September 1990, pp 77-83. Thomas Telford, London,                                                                                    testing and, where feasible, field trials. Field performance should be continuously reviewed during the life of the
                            1991.                                                                                                                                disposal facility. Case studies of the Wheal Jane tin mine in Cornwall and the Neves Corvo copper mine in
                                                                                                                                                                 Portugal demonstrate the need for a multi-disciplinary approach and technology appropriate for the disposal
                                                                                                                                                                 environment. Field tests at the latter site indicated that subaerial deposition led to densities greater than those
                                                                                                                                                                 achieved with subaqueous deposition and hence would permit the storage of additional tailings.


   1990      Forbes         FORBES P J, CALE S A and CLELLAND L F (1990).           Bafokeng [tailings dam] (South Africa),   Flood estimation/hydrology,        For economic reasons a tailings dam is often constructed progressively, just maintaining an appropriate
                            Spillway systems for tailings dams. The Embankment      Wheal Jane [tailings dam]                 Outlet & intake works,             freeboard with respect to the deposited waste and supernatant water. Such a dam requires a spillway, often
                            Dam. Proceedings of 6th British Dam Society Conference,                                           Overflow works, Spillway           termed a decant, with a crest level at the current reservoir level and this will have to be progressively raised. A
                            Nottingham, September 1990, pp 85-91. Thomas Telford,                                             hydraulics, Waste                  small decant structure will usually be adequate to remove surplus liquor discharged into the impoundment with
                            London, 1991.                                                                                     impoundment                        the tailings, but where natural runoff from a large catchment area has to be dealt with a much larger structure
                                                                                                                                                                 may be required. A decanting system for the former function may be supplemented by an auxiliary spillway for
                                                                                                                                                                 severe flood conditions. The systems which are described include towers, chutes, stoplogs and pumps.

   1990      Routh          ROUTH C D, STREET A and GRIGG C F J (1990). Clay Environment/social/planning, Waste               Waste impoundment                  Economic, engineering and physical constraints are encountered in the disposal of china clay tailings. The
                            mining waste disposal problems - central and peripheral. impoundments                                                                structure retaining the fine residue is commonly termed a tailings dam, although frequently it is sufficient if it acts
                            The Embankment Dam. Proceedings of 6th British Dam                                                                                   as a filter rather than as a dam. The basic features, strengths and weaknesses of, respectively, the upstream,
                            Society Conference, Nottingham, September 1990, pp 93-                                                                               centreline and downstream methods of tailings dam construction are described. From a geotechnical standpoint
                            97. Thomas Telford, London, 1991.                                                                                                    the formation of beaches near the perimeter bunds is desirable as it encourages consolidation by desiccation
                                                                                                                                                                 and a low phreatic surface, but unfortunately it also results in dusting in dry windy weather and environmental
                                                                                                                                                                 considerations of this type are imposing increasing constraints on disposal schemes.


   1990      Haws           HAWS E T, MARTIN P L and ORANGE-BROMEHEAD R Gale Common (tailings dam]                            Geomembranes, Outlet &             Large quantities of pulverised fuel ash (pfa) are produced by modern thermal power stations and the disposal of
                            A N (1990). Gale Common ash disposal scheme -                                                     intake works, Pore pressure        pfa from Eggborough and Ferrybridge C 2000 MW power stations has necessitated the design of 51 m high
                            concept, design and construction. The Embankment Dam.                                             (construction), Slope stability,   embankments to retain ash lagoons at Gale Common. The embankments are built of conditioned pfa and shale
                            Proceedings of 6th British Dam Society Conference,                                                Waste impoundment                  in the form of coarse discard from a nearby colliery. The pfa is pumped from the two power stations to the site
                            Nottingham, September 1990, pp 99-104. Thomas                                                                                        through 0.53 m diameter pipelines. About half the pfa is dewatered and placed in the embankments at close to
                            Telford, London, 1991.                                                                                                               optimum moisture content while the remainder is disposed of in the lagoons. The geotechnical design of the
                                                                                                                                                                 embankments is largely controlled by a low strength layer of laminated silty clay in the foundation; a design value
                                                                                                                                                                 of only 11 degrees was assumed for the residual angle of shearing resistance of this clay layer.




                                                                                                                                      74
Proceedings of 6th BDS Conference. Nottingham, 1990.


   Date      First author                          Reference                        Dams                                    Subjects                     Brief summary
   1990      Dennis         DENNIS J A, HILLIER D J and MOGGRIDGE H T (1990). Gale Common [tailings dam]                    Environment/social/planning, The expected life of the Gale Common project is 50 years and it is being developed in three stages, with work
                            Gale Common ash disposal scheme -planning,                                                      Waste impoundment            on the second stage recently commencing. Waste materials in the form of pulverised fuel ash from two power
                            environment, operation and restoration. The Embankment                                                                       stations and coarse shale discard from a colliery are being used to form circumferential embankments within
                            Dam. Proceedings of 6th British Dam Society Conference,                                                                      which pulverised fuel ash is placed as a slurry. Although it was not necessary to register the lagoons under the
                            Nottingham, September 1990, pp 105-111. Thomas                                                                               Reservoirs Act 1975, National Power, as a responsible owner, treats them as though they are so registered. The
                            Telford, London, 1991.                                                                                                       50 m high lagoon will form a prominent feature in a generally flat area and great attention has been given to the
                                                                                                                                                         finished profile and final landscape treatment.

   1990      Bowles         BOWLES D S, ANDERSON L R, GLOVER T F, TARBOX Cutler (USA), Grace (USA), Oneida                  Hazard & risk management       Four dams on the Bear River in Utah and Idaho were found not to meet current standards for the probable
                            G S, WAITE R B and YIN AU-YEUNG P E (1990).             (USA), Soda Point (USA)                                                maximum flood (PMF) and maximum credible earthquake (MCE). The estimated cost of remedial upgrades was
                            Evaluation of dam safety at a series of hydropower dams                                                                        of the order of 20 million dollars, yet the highest recorded floods were less than 10% of the new PMF. A
                            including risk assessment. The Embankment Dam.                                                                                 comprehensive risk-based safety evaluation of the dams was carried out to form a basis for proposals to the
                            Proceedings of 6th British Dam Society Conference,                                                                             regulatory authority. The study gave a better understanding of the potential for dam failure, but showed that dam
                            Nottingham, September 1990, pp 119-125. Thomas                                                                                 failure probabilities were low, as was the probability of loss of life. With the insights provided by the study,
                            Telford, London, 1991.                                                                                                         remedial cost are about half of what had been anticipated.

   1990      Knight         KNIGHT D J, JACKSON E A, HALCRO-JOHNSTON J               Coedty, Gaborone (Botswana), Hinze Catastrophic failures,             In 1925 the 11 m high Coedty embankment dam was overtopped and breached following the failure upstream
                            and MAKINSON C (1990). Safety considerations with        (Australia), Kantalai Tank (Sri Lanka) Concrete deterioration,        of the Eigiau concrete dam. Sixteen lives were lost in Dolgarrog village. The dam was rebuilt, but repairs have
                            existing embankment dams and in their raising. The                                              Hazard & risk management,      been required to reduce the seepage through the embankment. A ground investigation and safety assessment
                            Embankment Dam. Proceedings of 6th British Dam                                                  Heightening, Outlet & intake   in 1988 showed that the concrete core wall was in a poor condition. Remedial works included placing stabilizing
                            Society Conference, Nottingham, September 1990, pp                                              works, Slope stability         fill with a drainage layer on the downstream slope. In Sri Lanka there are many ancient large reservoirs, known
                            127-133. Thomas Telford, London, 1991.                                                                                         as 'tanks', which are impounded by low earth embankments. The failure of Kantalai Tank bund in April 1986 with
                                                                                                                                                           the loss of 127 lives led to the development of a system of hazard rating to provide a basis for adopting flood
                                                                                                                                                           criteria and targeting maintenance resources on high hazard structures. The height of Gaborone embankment
                                                                                                                                                           dam was increased to permit a rise of 8 m in the reservoir supply level. The first stage of a two-stage raising of
                                                                                                                                                           Hinze rockfill dam by 30 m was completed in 1989.

   1990      Chalmers       CHALMERS R W (1990). Woodhead reservoir - remedial Woodhead                                     Flood estimation/hydrology,  Following an inspection in 1986 under the Reservoirs Act 1975, it was recommended that all the reservoirs in
                            works. The Embankment Dam. Proceedings of 6th British                                           Heightening, Overflow works, the Longdendale valley should be modified to withstand a probable maximum flood (PMF) condition. The
                            Dam Society Conference, Nottingham, September 1990,                                             Seepage & leakage            approach adopted was to carry out remedial works at Woodhead, the highest reservoir, to alter its overflow
                            pp 135-140. Thomas Telford, London, 1991.                                                                                    arrangements to hold a probable maximum flood inflow while restricting the outflow to the four lower reservoirs.
                                                                                                                                                         Only minor works were then needed at the lower reservoirs. The outflow at Woodhead was restricted by
                                                                                                                                                         constructing a throttle 4.5 m wide and 3.5 m high and the inflowing flood water was retained in the reservoir by
                                                                                                                                                         raising the embankment by 7 m. The old dam had a very wide crest on which the raised embankment could be
                                                                                                                                                         constructed. However, this wide crest had been formed because the original puddle clay core of the old dam had
                                                                                                                                                         proved ineffective and a second embankment had been built immediately downstream with a new puddle clay
                                                                                                                                                         core. The design of the raised embankment was made much more difficult by this history since it was founded
                                                                                                                                                         on an old dam with two puddle clay cores and it was the downstream puddle clay core which was effective.
   1990      Trieste        TRIESTE D J (1990). The Bureau of Reclamation's new                                             Hazard & risk management       The US Bureau of Reclamation has published guidelines to promote consistency in classifying the downstream
                            downstream hazard classification guidelines. The                                                                               hazard posed by a dam in terms of the potential loss of life and property damage resulting from floodwaters
                            Embankment Dam. Proceedings of 6th British Dam                                                                                 released by failure of the impounding structure. Downstream hazard classification is used to determine which
                            Society Conference, Nottingham, September 1990, pp                                                                             dams should undergo a full safety evaluation. In the classification system, a low hazard corresponds to no lives
                            141-144. Thomas Telford, London, 1991.                                                                                         in jeopardy and minimal economic loss, a significant hazard is a situation where one to six lives are in jeopardy
                                                                                                                                                           and there will be appreciable economic loss in a rural area, and a high hazard is where there are more than six
                                                                                                                                                           lives in jeopardy and excessive economic loss in an urban area. Lives-in-jeopardy are defined as all individuals
                                                                                                                                                           within the inundated area who, if they took no action to evacuate, would be in a dangerous situation. A simplified
                                                                                                                                                           dam-break model is recommended for estimating flood depths and velocities in those situations where
                                                                                                                                                           engineering judgement will clearly be inadequate.
             Rofe           ROFE B H, WICKHAM D B and HOPKINS J K (1990).            Mitchell's House                       Drainage, Monitoring           Surface movement monitoring of the puddle clay core embankment dams of the two nineteenth century
                            Mitchell's House reservoirs - investigations, monitoring                                        movement, Pore pressure        Mitchell's House reservoirs commenced in 1981. Over a period of 30 months 20 - 30 mm settlement was
                            and remedial works. The Embankment Dam. Proceedings                                             (seepage), Slope stability     measured and, following a statutory inspection in 1983, an intrusive site investigation was undertaken. A number
                            of 6th British Dam Society Conference, Nottingham,                                                                             of features gave cause for concern: downstream slope stability was marginal, damp patches were common on
                            September 1990, pp 145-149. Thomas Telford, London,                                                                            the downstream slopes and, with high reservoir levels, water issued onto the road crossing the downstream
                            1991.                                                                                                                          shoulder of the No 1 embankment. Remedial measures include the construction of berms on the downstream
                                                                                                                                                           slopes of both embankments and the provision of vertical drainage immediately downstream of the crest by
                                                                                                                                                           drilling holes inclined at 7.5 degrees from the vertical at 3 m centres and installing a 75 mm slotted tube
                                                                                                                                                           surrounded with gravel.




                                                                                                                                   75
Proceedings of 6th BDS Conference. Nottingham, 1990.


   Date      First author                           Reference                          Dams                              Subjects                      Brief summary
   1990      Ellis          ELLIS J B, HALL M and HOCKIN D L (1990). The design                                          Environment/social/planning   Flood detention reservoirs are a common flow control feature in urban catchments. Most of these flood storage
                            and operation of flood storage dams for recreational uses.                                                                 facilities have been formed by the excavation of a basin and the construction of an earth embankment retaining
                            The Embankment Dam. Proceedings of 6th British Dam                                                                         structure. Successful development of recreational and amenity activities necessitates extending the scope of the
                            Society Conference, Nottingham, September 1990, pp                                                                         hydrological and hydraulic criteria usually applied in their engineering design. Water quality and ecology within
                            155-158. Thomas Telford, London, 1991.                                                                                     the pond can be improved by appropriate management of landscaping, the status of the surrounding land and
                                                                                                                                                       the configuration of inlet and outlet structures.

   1990      Hopkins        HOPKINS J K, WICKHAM D B and STIRLING D M                 Dean Clough, Spade Mill no 1, Spade Movement monitoring          The upstream and downstream slopes of two old embankment dams in Lancashire have been monitored using
                            (1990). The use of close-range photogrammetry for         Mill no 2                                                        photogrammetry. The anticipated precision was +/- 5 mm on the pitching at Spade Mill and +/- 20 mm on the
                            reservoir embankment monitoring. The Embankment                                                                            grassed embankment at Dean Clough. In addition to monitoring embankments with known movements, the
                            Dam. Proceedings of 6th British Dam Society Conference,                                                                    technique can be utilised to produce photographic reference data against which suspected movement in the
                            Nottingham, September 1990, pp 159-164. Thomas                                                                             future can be readily quantified.
                            Telford, London, 1991.
   1990      Powledge       POWLEDGE G R, RHONE T J and CLOPPER P E                   A R Bowman (USA), Jackhouse,       Slope stability, Upstream     It is frequently found that the spillway capacity of old embankment dams is inadequate to prevent overtopping
                            (1990). Accommodating rare floods over embankments        Spring Creek (USA)                 slope protection              during the probable maximum flood. Several innovative alternatives to costly conventional modifications have
                            and steep reinforced channels. The Embankment Dam.                                                                         been identified and research and case history data from the United States and the United Kingdom now provide
                            Proceedings of 6th British Dam Society Conference,                                                                         engineers with an adequate basis for the design of slope protection during the overflow of low embankment
                            Nottingham, September 1990, pp 165-170. Thomas                                                                             dams. Prototype experience and/or large scale testing of many erosion protection systems have identified three
                            Telford, London, 1991.                                                                                                     systems which perform reliably under steeply sloped high velocity flow conditions: (a) traditional cast-in-place
                                                                                                                                                       reinforced concrete, (b) roller compacted concrete or soil cement, (c) selected articulated concrete block
                                                                                                                                                       revetment systems. In many situations articulated concrete block revetments are the most cost effective method
                                                                                                                                                       of protecting those steep slopes subject to high velocity flows which otherwise would be subject to damaging
                                                                                                                                                       and potentially catastrophic erosion.
   1990      Tedd           TEDD P, CHARLES J A and CLAYDON J R (1990).               Ramsden (Holmfirth)                Movement monitoring,          Since construction in 1883, there has been more than 1 m of settlement at Ramsden dam, an embankment dam
                            Deformation of Ramsden dam during reservoir drawdown                                         Reservoir drawdown            with a central puddle clay core. Since 1977 precise surveying of the level and horizontal alignment of stations on
                            and refilling. Proceedings of the 6th British Dam Society                                                                  the crest of the dam close to the wave wall has shown that the continuing and varying rate of settlement and
                            Conference, Nottingham, pp 171-176. Thomas Telford,                                                                        downstream movement is related to fluctuations in reservoir level. Emptying of the reservoir caused a
                            London.                                                                                                                    particularly large crest settlement of about 60 mm, little of which was recovered on refilling the reservoir.

   1990      Robertshaw     ROBERTSHAW A C and DYKE T N (1990). The routine           Widdop                             Movement monitoring,          The Western Division of Yorkshire Water is responsible for the structural monitoring of over 70 embankment
                            monitoring of embankment dam behaviour. The                                                  Reservoir drawdown, Safety    dams. Three facets of embankment behaviour are routinely monitored: deformation, pore water pressure and
                            Embankment Dam. Proceedings of 6th British Dam                                               surveillance                  leakage/drainage flow. Crest settlement is monitored at 66 embankments, pore water pressure at 18
                            Society Conference, Nottingham, September 1990, pp                                                                         embankments, and flows at 39 embankments. In calm overcast conditions, using an automatic level with parallel
                            177-183. Thomas Telford, London, 1991.                                                                                     plate micrometer and an aluminium staff, the expected closing error is 1 mm for a dam with a crest length of 100
                                                                                                                                                       m. With a crest length of 600 m, the expected closing error increases to 3.5 mm. The crest settlement of
                                                                                                                                                       Widdop dam is presented and the major effect of reservoir emptying in causing greatly increased settlement is
                                                                                                                                                       emphasised.
   1990      MacDonald      MACDONALD A and REID J M (1990). Embankment dam Burnhope, Carsington (2), Colliford,         Geochemistry                  Geochemical degradation can significantly affect the geotechnical properties of embankment fill materials and
                            behaviour: the contribution of geo-chemistry. The  Roadford                                                                the quality of drainage water. Mudstones, weathered igneous and metamorphic rocks, and rocks with a high
                            Embankment Dam. Proceedings of 6th British Dam                                                                             proportion of secondary minerals are the most susceptible. Geochemical degradation is likely to cause
                            Society Conference, Nottingham, September 1990, pp                                                                         accelerated mechanical breakdown of the fill, leading to a decrease in grain size, permeability and shear
                            185-191. Thomas Telford, London, 1991.                                                                                     strength. It is likely to be most intense during dam construction when the material is broken up and exposed to
                                                                                                                                                       an oxidising and leaching environment. Once the embankment is completed and the reservoir impounded, the
                                                                                                                                                       rate of reaction will decrease. Where fill is below the water table the supply of oxygen will be greatly reduced,
                                                                                                                                                       above the water table, reactions may be limited by the reduced rate of percolation of surface water once the
                                                                                                                                                       surface of the dam is sealed by topsoil. Geochemistry of the fill material should be considered in embankment
                                                                                                                                                       dam design and design parameters should allow for geochemical degradation. Laboratory testing and field
                                                                                                                                                       behaviour at several embankment dams are described.
   1990      Coxon          COXON K E, EMBERTON J E and PAGETT R M (1990).                                               Environment/social/planning   Whilst fully recognising the importance of reservoirs for the supply of water for domestic and industrial use, the
                            Reservoirs - a legacy of opportunity. The Embankment                                                                       environmental implications of their construction and management should not be ignored. There are substantial
                            Dam. Proceedings of 6th British Dam Society Conference,                                                                    environmental impacts during construction, but these are short term and the long term effects associated with
                            Nottingham, September 1990, pp 193-197. Thomas                                                                             the removal of large tracts of land from their previous use are also of considerable concern. Ecological impacts
                            Telford, London, 1991.                                                                                                     can be diverse and may include disruption of fish migration and severance of habitats for terrestrial flora and
                                                                                                                                                       fauna. However, the potential for secondary usage, including fishing, sailing and nature reserves, can
                                                                                                                                                       significantly enhance the value of reservoirs in addition to the primary purpose of water supply.




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Proceedings of 6th BDS Conference. Nottingham, 1990.


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Proceedings of 6th BDS Conference. Nottingham, 1990.


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Proceedings of 6th BDS Conference. Nottingham, 1990.


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                                                                          79
Proceedings of 6th BDS Conference. Nottingham, 1990.


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Proceedings of 6th BDS Conference. Nottingham, 1990.


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                                                                          81
Proceedings of 7th BDS Conference. Stirling, 1992.



Conference papers of the British Dam Society
1992 Water Resources and Reservoir Engineering. Proceedings of 7th British Dam Society Conference, Stirling
   Date       First author                           Reference                         Dams                               Subjects                       Brief summary
   1992       Adeloye        ADELOYE A J (1992). The reliability of single, historic                                      Flood estimation/hydrology     The capacity-yield analysis of a direct supply reservoir is often carried out empirically, using a record of observed
                             estimates of reservoir capacity. Water Resources and                                                                        streamflow data. The main problem with this approach is that it does not explicitly provide an estimate of the
                             Reservoir Engineering (eds N M Parr, J A Charles and S                                                                      reliability of the reservoir system. Using Monte Carlo simulation techniques, an attempt is made to quantify the
                             Walker). Proceedings of 7th British Dam Society                                                                             reliability of single historic estimates of reservoir capacity.
                             Conference, Stirling, pp 1-9. Thomas Telford, London,
                             1992.

   1992       Bunch          BUNCH A H (1992). Optimal operation of local reservoir                                       Environment/social/planning, Simulation programs with graphical output regimes have been developed to facilitate the management of
                             sources. Water Resources and Reservoir Engineering                                           Flood estimation/hydrology,  reservoir systems. This makes it possible spread the risk of a failure of water supply across the North West
                             (eds N M Parr, J A Charles and S Walker). Proceedings of                                     Reservoir operation          Water area, reducing the likelihood of individual source failures. The whole system can be rapidly analysed,
                             7th British Dam Society Conference, Stirling, pp 11-17.                                                                   permitting a dynamic approach to reservoir yields as a drought event unfolds.
                             Thomas Telford, London, 1992.
   1992       Cole           COLE J A and GORDON A L (1992). Control rules for        Backwater, Lintrathen               Flood estimation/hydrology,    The Tayside region obtains its water supply from two upland reservoirs, Lintrathen and Backwater, which are
                             Tayside's linked system of reservoirs supplying two                                          Reservoir operation            connected by pipeline. With the objective of ensuring a high reliability of water supply, the complex storage and
                             demand zones. Water Resources and Reservoir                                                                                 supply system has been simulated in a computer model which has proved useful for reservoir management.
                             Engineering (eds N M Parr, J A Charles and S Walker).                                                                       Control rules have been developed and experience of using them has been gained in the severe drought
                             Proceedings of 7th British Dam Society Conference,                                                                          conditions during the autumns of 1989 and 1990.
                             Stirling, pp 19-32. Thomas Telford, London, 1992.
   1992       Gallimore      GALLIMORE S A and MOSEDALE J C (1992). The south Beacons, Cantref, Cray, Llandegfedd, Environment/social/planning, The South East Wales Conjunctive Resources Consultative Group was established to optimise the combined
                             east Wales conjunctive resource scheme. Water           Llwynon, Neuadd Upper, Pontsticill, Reservoir operation    use of the water resources serving a population of more than one million people concentrated in the
                             Resources and Reservoir Engineering (eds N M Parr, J A Talybont, Usk                                               conurbations of Cardiff and Newport and the industrial valleys in south east Wales. The group comprised water
                             Charles and S Walker). Proceedings of 7th British Dam                                                              resources, water treatment and fishery staff from the National Rivers Authority (NRA) and Welsh Water (WW).
                             Society Conference, Stirling, pp 33-40. Thomas Telford,                                                            Following the drought in 1976, WW made substantial investment to increase the available resources and the
                             London, 1992.                                                                                                      flexibility of their use. Since the droughts of 1989 and 1990 the emphasis has been on refining the operation of
                                                                                                                                                the existing resources to maximise their use rather than on major engineering works. The collaboration of staff
                                                                                                                                                from the NRA and WW within the Consultative Group has led to improved supply security and operational
                                                                                                                                                flexibility together with benefits to the river flows for migratory fish.
   1992       Hall           HALL J K and MACDONALD D E (1992). Comparison of                                             Flood estimation/hydrology,    A computerised reservoir simulation model has been used to help plan and design a pumped storage reservoir
                             the yields of variants of the Broad Oak Water scheme.                                        Reservoir operation            near Canterbury. Simulation modelling has proved a useful technique in screening a large number of possible
                             Water Resources and Reservoir Engineering (eds N M                                                                          scheme options, giving a good insight into the operation of a water resources system and in identifying the key
                             Parr, J A Charles and S Walker). Proceedings of 7th                                                                         parameters that affect the operation and output of the system. Following the initial screening, selected schemes
                             British Dam Society Conference, Stirling, pp 41-51.                                                                         can be examined in more detail using alternative drought flow sequences to test the robustness of the original
                             Thomas Telford, London, 1992.                                                                                               outline designs.
   1992       Hill           HILL A I (1992). An investigation into the maintenance of Balderhead, Blackton, Cow Green,   Environment/social/planning, The Tees reservoir system is the main water source for the urban areas and industries of Cleveland. A computer
                             high summer water levels at recreationally important      Grassholme, Hury, Selset           Reservoir operation          model was developed to simulate the operation of the reservoir system under a range of alternative policies
                             reservoirs using a simulation model of the Tees reservoir                                                                 designed to maintain high summer water levels at reservoirs where recreational use is important. It was found
                             system. Water Resources and Reservoir Engineering (eds                                                                    that operation could be successfully modified, with no loss of reliability and at little extra cost, to enhance
                             N M Parr, J A Charles and S Walker). Proceedings of 7th                                                                   recreation at the two key reservoirs, Balderhead and Selset. (See discussion in supplementary issue of Dams
                             British Dam Society Conference, Stirling, pp 53-64.                                                                       and Reservoirs, October 1992, pp 12-16.)
                             Thomas Telford, London, 1992.
   1992       Jack           JACK W L and LAMBERT A O (1992). Operational yields. Ystradfellte                            Environment/social/planning, For most UK reservoirs yield was evaluated by analysing actual or synthetic drought sequences. The resource
                             Water Resources and Reservoir Engineering (eds N M                                           Reservoir operation          was assumed to be depleted by a uniform demand and emptied on the day that a drought of specified severity
                             Parr, J A Charles and S Walker). Proceedings of 7th                                                                       (eg 1 in 50 years) ended. Operational experience in major droughts since 1974 highlighted deficiencies in the
                             British Dam Society Conference, Stirling, pp 65-72.                                                                       traditional approach and, following the 1984 drought, Welsh Water decided to base its calculations on
                             Thomas Telford, London, 1992.                                                                                             'operational yield' taking into account of the real-world situation in severe droughts including hosepipe bans and
                                                                                                                                                       drought orders. The use of such operational yields has significant implications for water resources management.
                                                                                                                                                       The operational manager must be not only aware of the operational yield of a particular source, but also must
                                                                                                                                                       understand the assumptions on which the yield calculations were based. Operational personnel must be
                                                                                                                                                       provided with user-friendly control rules to indicate when certain specified actions are necessary. (See
                                                                                                                                                       discussion in supplementary issue of Dams and Reservoirs, October 1992, pp 2-9.)




                                                                                                                                 82
Proceedings of 7th BDS Conference. Stirling, 1992.


   Date       First author                           Reference                           Dams                                  Subjects                      Brief summary
   1992       Johnson        JOHNSON R C (1992). The Balquhidder research                                                                                    The annual water uses of the two Balquhidder catchments, the moorland Monachyle catchment and the forested
                             catchments: development of the results for application to                                                                       Kirkton catchment, are presented for 1984-1991 and relationships linking the water use to a range of weather
                             water resources. Water Resources and Reservoir                                                                                  parameters are derived. The main weather related controls on catchment water use are annual and winter
                             Engineering (eds N M Parr, J A Charles and S Walker).                                                                           precipitation, annual rain days and winter wind speeds. This does not explain the reason for the water use but
                             Proceedings of 7th British Dam Society Conference,                                                                              indicates some realistic connections. Further development of these relationships should provide valuable tools
                             Stirling, pp 73-79. Thomas Telford, London, 1992.                                                                               for water resources management in the uplands. This empirical method of estimating water use in ungauged
                                                                                                                                                             catchments provides a useful contrast to a physically based process model.

   1992       La Touche      LA TOUCHE M C D and SIVAPRAKASAM P (1992). The              Cholavaram (India), Poondi (India),   Reservoir operation           Madras obtains its water supply from the Korttalaiyar river and from groundwater. Water is stored in
                             water resources of Madras. Water Resources and              Redhills (India)                                                    Cholavaram, Poondi and Redhills reservoirs; these are, in effect, large tanks formed by long, low embankments.
                             Reservoir Engineering (eds N M Parr, J A Charles and S                                                                          In recent years there have been severe water shortages and currently a project is being implemented to bring
                             Walker). Proceedings of 7th British Dam Society                                                                                 water via a canal from the Krishna river 450 km to the north. The capacity of Poondi and Redhills reservoirs is
                             Conference, Stirling, pp 81-91. Thomas Telford, London,                                                                         being increased by raising the embankments in order to accommodate water from the Krishna river. Two new
                             1992.                                                                                                                           reservoirs may be built at Ramancheri and Thirukandalam. A combined surface and groundwater simulation
                                                                                                                                                             model has breen developed to study the conjunctive use of the city's reservoirs and wells.




   1992       Robinson       ROBINSON P E (1992). Estimation of river flow            Bamendjin (Cameroon), Mape               Reservoir operation           In Southern Cameroon electricity is generated at two hydro-electric stations, Songloulou and Edea. Water
                             requirements to meet electricity demands in the          (Cameroon), Mbakaou (Cameroon),                                        storage is limited at the former and negligible at the latter station. River flows are regulated by releases which
                             Cameroon. Water Resources and Reservoir Engineering Songloulou (Cameroon)                                                       take up to seven days to travel from the upstream reservoirs. A computer program has been used to optimise
                             (eds N M Parr, J A Charles and S Walker). Proceedings of                                                                        the operation of the system to meet the electricity demands and to obtain maximum value from limited storage
                             7th British Dam Society Conference, Stirling, pp 93-100.                                                                        and conserve water in the upstream reservoirs. (See companion paper by Wyatt et al)
                             Thomas Telford, London, 1992.


   1992       Sahu           SAHU H (1992). Evaluation impacts on environment of         Narmada Sagar (India)                 Environment/social/planning   A 92 m high dam will impound a reservoir with a capacity of twelve billion cubic metres. Beneficial and adverse
                             Narmada Sagar project, India. Water Resources and                                                                               environmental impacts are summarised and a method for environmental impact evaluation is presented.
                             Reservoir Engineering (eds N M Parr, J A Charles and S
                             Walker). Proceedings of 7th British Dam Society
                             Conference, Stirling, pp 101-105. Thomas Telford,
                             London, 1992.

   1992       Smithers       SMITHERS H (1992). Reassessment of reservoir yields in Stocks, Thirlmere, Vyrnwy                  Reservoir operation           North West Water supplies 2400 Megalitres per day of potable water to seven million customers. Local sources
                             North-West England in the light of possible climate                                                                             consisting of 150 reservoirs mainly in the Pennine uplands account for 27% of available supplies. NWW practice
                             change. Water Resources and Reservoir Engineering                                                                               has been to determine a yield with a specified return period. Control rules are then developed to make best use
                             (eds N M Parr, J A Charles and S Walker). Proceedings of                                                                        of the water which is not required to protect the yield, which might otherwise spill and be lost to the system. The
                             7th British Dam Society Conference, Stirling, pp 107-115.                                                                       need to alter methods to account for climate change has been considered, but found to be premature; recent
                             Thomas Telford, London, 1992.                                                                                                   drought events are well within the range of the historic record.




   1992       Wyatt          WYATT T, HINDLEY E V and MUIR T C (1992).                 Bamendjin (Cameroon), Mape              Reservoir operation           In Cameroon electricity is generated primarily at two hydro-electric stations, Songloulou and Edea, on the
                             Computer software for optimizing the releases from        (Cameroon), Mbakaou (Cameroon)                                        Sanaga river. River flows are regulated by releases which take up to seven days to travel from the three
                             multiple reservoirs operated for flow regulation. Water                                                                         upstream reservoirs. A computer program package has been developed to improve the efficiency of multi-
                             Resources and Reservoir Engineering (eds N M Parr, J A                                                                          reservoir river regulation systems. (See companion paper by Robinson)
                             Charles and S Walker). Proceedings of 7th British Dam
                             Society Conference, Stirling, pp 117-124. Thomas Telford,
                             London, 1992.


   1992       Annandale      ANNANDALE G W (1992). Modelling the uncertainty of                                                Environment/social/planning, Flood control dams are usually operated in a way that causes the reservoir basin to be empty between flood
                             sediment deposition upstream of flood control dams.                                               Reservoir operation,         events. Sediment deposited during flood events is then exposed and gives rise to various environmental
                             Water Resources and Reservoir Engineering (eds N M                                                Sedimentation                concerns. A modelling procedure has been developed by means of which the probability of sediment depth can
                             Parr, J A Charles and S Walker). Proceedings of 7th                                                                            be calculated as a function of space and time. The likelihood of vegetation being established can be assessed
                             British Dam Society Conference, Stirling, pp 125-129.                                                                          from the expected annual increase in depth of deposited sediment. Vegetation will significantly reduce the
                             Thomas Telford, London, 1992.                                                                                                  environmental impact.




                                                                                                                                      83
Proceedings of 7th BDS Conference. Stirling, 1992.


   Date       First author                            Reference                         Dams                                 Subjects                       Brief summary
   1992       Attewill       ATTEWILL L J S, GOSDEN J D, BRUGGEMANN D A and Thika (Kenya)                                    Grouting                       The foundation cut-off for the was constructed using jet grouting. The 60 m high Thika earthfill embankment
                             EUINTON G C (1992). The construction of a cut-off in a                                                                         dam embankment is founded on residual soil and, since highly weathered tropical rock cannot be treated by
                             volcanic residual soil using jet grouting. Water Resources                                                                     conventional injection grouting, the following three options were considered for the foundation cut-off: bulk
                             and Reservoir Engineering (eds N M Parr, J A Charles                                                                           excavation, diaphragm wall and jet grouting. Diaphragm walling was rejected because of the steepness of the
                             and S Walker). Proceedings of 7th British Dam Society                                                                          abutments and the presence of rock layers within the foundation that would be difficult to penetrate. Jet grouting
                             Conference, Stirling, pp 131-140. Thomas Telford,                                                                              was adopted in preference to bulk excavation on the grounds of cost. A 19 m deep trial panel was constructed
                             London, 1992.                                                                                                                  which confirmed the practicability of the technique and enabled the main parameters for the grout curtain to be
                                                                                                                                                            selected.

   1992       Czerny         CZERNY H (1992). Two embankment dams on alluvial          Durlassboden (Germany), Eberlaste     Asphaltic concrete,            Durlassboden is an 83 m high embankment dam with a central core of earthfill to which 1 to 2% bentonite was
                             foundation: Durlassboden and Eberlaste. Water             Stillup (Germany)                     Diaphragm & slurry trench      added to increase plasticity. The dam was built in 1965-1966. A grout curtain was installed in the alluvial
                             Resources and Reservoir Engineering (eds N M Parr, J A                                          walls, Drainage, Movement      foundation. The reservoir hydraulic head is reduced by about 70% across the grout curtain and the seepage
                             Charles and S Walker). Proceedings of 7th British Dam                                           monitoring, Seepage and        emerging in the pressure relief wells is 25 to 28 l/s. The foundation settled by 0.95 m during embankment
                             Society Conference, Stirling, pp 141-146. Thomas Telford,                                       leakage                        construction and by another 0.2 m subsequently. Eberlaste Stillup is a 28 m high earthfill dam with a 0.5 m thick
                             London, 1992.                                                                                                                  asphaltic concrete core and a slurry trench cut-off wall in the foundation. The dam was built in 1966-1968.
                                                                                                                                                            During embankment construction the foundation settled 2.2 m with a further 0.2m since the end of construction.
                                                                                                                                                            With the reservoir full, the seepage has been as high as 150 l/s.

   1992       Eswaraiah      ESWARAIAH H V, UPADHYAYA V S and RAMESH C R Kodasalli (India)                                   Geochemistry                   The 46 m high Kodasalli dam is a concrete dam with a short embankment section built across the Kali valley.
                             (1992). Reservoir competency study made in respect of                                                                          The presence of limestone within the reservoir area caused some concern with regard not only to possible loss
                             limestone formations found upstream of Kodasalli dam,                                                                          of reservoir water but also the formation of sinkholes in the reservoir area. However, large-scale geological
                             India. Water Resources and Reservoir Engineering (eds N                                                                        mapping of the area traversed by limestone bands indicated that limestone was present in the form of lenticular
                             M Parr, J A Charles and S Walker). Proceedings of 7th                                                                          bodies without any linear continuity to extend from the Kali valley to the Bedthi valley. Furthermore, the
                             British Dam Society Conference, Stirling, pp 147-155.                                                                          limestone is of the Dolomitic type with low solubility.
                             Thomas Telford, London, 1992.
   1992       Evans          EVANS J D and WILSON A C (1992). The                       Roadford                             Asphaltic concrete,            The 41 m high Roadford dam is constructed of low grade sandstone and mudstone rockfill and an asphaltic
                             instrumentation, monitoring and performance of Roadford                                         Instrumentation, Movement      concrete membrane on its upstream face provides the watertight element. Extensive instrumentation was
                             dam during construction and first filling. Water Resources                                      monitoring, Rockfill           installed at three cross-sections during embankment construction, comprising piezometers, vertical and
                             and Reservoir Engineering (eds N M Parr, J A Charles                                                                           horizontal extensometers, inclinometers and earth pressure cells. This instrumentation, together with survey
                             and S Walker). Proceedings of 7th British Dam Society                                                                          stations and facilities to measure drainage water flows, allow the dam's behaviour to be monitored. The
                             Conference, Stirling, pp 157-165. Thomas Telford,                                                                              electrolevels installed by BRE to measure the deflection of the upstream membrane during reservoir filling have
                             London, 1992.                                                                                                                  been particularly successful. Since reservoir impounding crest settlement has continued at a reasonably
                                                                                                                                                            constant rate, not showing that steady reduction in settlement rate normally observed at rockfill dams. (See
                                                                                                                                                            discussion in supplementary issue of Dams and Reservoirs, October 1992, pp 23-25.)

   1992       Freer          FREER R (1992). Recent examples of reinforced grass       Cantref, Carr Bottom, Lliedi Lower,   Guides & surveys, Overflow     Experimental work, including full scale field trials, carried out by the Construction Industry Research and
                             spillways on embankment dams based on CIRIA report        Marsworth, Pont-y-Cerbyd, Scalford    works, Overtopping             Information Association between 1984 and 1987 resulted in the publication of CIRIA Report 116, Design of
                             116. Water Resources and Reservoir Engineering (eds N Brook, Stoneydelph, Tringford                                            reinforced grass waterways. Since then many waterway channels have been built using the recommended
                             M Parr, J A Charles and S Walker). Proceedings of 7th                                                                          design procedures in circumstances where previously a concrete spillway would have been considered.
                             British Dam Society Conference, Stirling, pp 167-174.
                             Thomas Telford, London, 1992.
   1992       Hawes          HAWES S M (1992). Reservoir construction development                                            Outlet & intake works,         Agriculture is the largest industry in the country, but has little site input from engineers. Advice is obtained from
                             for irrigation in the United Kingsdom 1960-1992. Water                                          Overflow works                 trade sources which are from independent. Water has a vital role in British food production and cost effective
                             Resources and Reservoir Engineering (eds N M Parr, J A                                                                         engineering advice is essential for the construction of irrigation reservoirs. Practical rather than academic
                             Charles and S Walker). Proceedings of 7th British Dam                                                                          specifications are required which enable local contractors to carry out the work economically. Appropriate
                             Society Conference, Stirling, pp 175-182. Thomas Telford,                                                                      reservoir construction techniques are described.
                             London, 1992.
   1992       King           HEWLETT H W M and BAKER R (1992). The use of                                                    Overflow works, Overtopping, Stepped block spillways have been developed in Russia on the basis of model studies and prototype trials.
                             stepped blocks for dam spillways. Water Resources and                                           Spillway hydraulics          Typical applications in the United Kingdom would experience much smaller overtopping heads and discharges
                             Reservoir Engineering (eds N M Parr, J A Charles and S                                                                       than those experienced in Russia. A CIRIA study which included hydraulic model testing has confirmed that
                             Walker). Proceedings of 7th British Dam Society                                                                              stepped blocks can provide a cost-effective form of spillway construction or protection for embankments subject
                             Conference, Stirling, pp 183-190. Thomas Telford,                                                                            to overtopping, particularly for increasing the spillway capacity at existing dams. Although the stepped blocks are
                             London.                                                                                                                      themselves stable, the design of a spillway requires careful attention to detailing at the edges of the stepped
                                                                                                                                                          blocks, in the underlayer and the subsoil.

   1992       Law            LAW F M (1992). A review of spillway flood design                                               Flood estimation/ hydrology    European spillway flood standards have been reviewed. It is concluded that the United Kingdom guidelines are
                             standards in European countries, including freeboard                                                                           "over-safe", but reducing standards requires greater certainty about flood estimation. It would be beneficial to
                             margins and prior reservoir level. Water Resources and                                                                         draw upon overseas experience of ice sheets, log jams and similar rare events.
                             Reservoir Engineering (eds N M Parr, J A Charles and S
                             Walker). Proceedings of 7th British Dam Society




                                                                                                                                    84
Proceedings of 7th BDS Conference. Stirling, 1992.


   Date       First author                            Reference                        Dams                                  Subjects                        Brief summary
   1992       Mason          MASON P J, BURGESS S A and BURT T N (1992). The                                                 Flood estimation/ hydrology,    The barrage will stretch across the mouth of Cardiff Bay and impound the rivers Taff and Ely. It is designed to
                             flood control works for the Cardiff Bay Barrage. Water                                          Reservoir operation, Spillway   protect the bay from the effects of the very high 12 m tidal range in the Bristol Channel and create a stable
                             Resources and Reservoir Engineering (eds N M Parr, J A                                          gates & barriers                freshwater impoundment which will improve the amenity value of the bay and the lower reaches of the Taff and
                             Charles and S Walker). Proceedings of 7th British Dam                                                                           Ely by stimulating land development and water recreation. The hydraulic structures required to discharge river
                             Society Conference, Stirling, pp 203-210. Thomas Telford,                                                                       floods and the associated gate/reservoir operating rules must accomplish this against fluctuating tide levels in
                             London.                                                                                                                         the Bristol Channel and in a manner that does not increase the risk of flooding through cardiff. Mathematical
                                                                                                                                                             studies indicate that flood levels through Cardiff will be lowered and that the barrage will also provide an
                                                                                                                                                             effective protection against high sea levels.

   1992      Meadowcroft MEADOWCROFT I C, BETTESS R and REEVE C E                        Bhakra (India)                      Sedimentation                   Sedimentation has a major impact on the useful life and economic viability of many reservoirs. Numerical
                         (1992). Numerical modelling of reservoir sedimentation.                                                                             modelling provides more detailed predictions of the rate and pattern of sedimentation under different operational
                         Water Resources and Reservoir Engineering (eds N M                                                                                  scenarios than do traditional empirical methods. A numerical model has been applied to a large reservoir in
                         Parr, J A Charles and S Walker). Proceedings of 7th                                                                                 northern India which was calibrated by simulating the period from 1966 to 1988. The model has predicted that
                         British Dam Society Conference, Stirling, pp 211-218.                                                                               the reservoir will lose 25% of its live storage capacity in 70 years, whereas the corresponding time indicated
                         Thomas Telford, London.                                                                                                             from previous studies was 160 years. Sedimentation was relatively insensitive to changes in full reservoir level
                                                                                                                                                             and reduction in sediment input was found to be the most effective way of extending the life of the reservoir.


   1992       Reed           REED D W (1992). Triggers to severe floods: extreme         Ashford, Bilberry, Blaenycwm,       Flood estimation/ hydrology     The estimation of floods for reservoir spillway design generally requires more than a statistical analysis of flood
                             rainfall and antecedent wetness. Water Resources and        Buckieburn, Castell Nos, Chew                                       peak data since the length of records is usually too short. It is therefore necessary to adopt the rainfall-runoff
                             Reservoir Engineering (eds N M Parr, J A Charles and S      Magna, Coedty, Deep Hayes,                                          approach in which a catchment model is used to transform an extreme rainfall event into an extreme flood. A
                             Walker). Proceedings of 7th British Dam Society             Durleigh, Eigiau, Lluest Wen,                                       method has been developed to explore the combination of rainfall and antecedent wetness that best explains
                             Conference, Stirling, pp 219-228. Thomas Telford,           Lurgashall, New Mills, Nanpantan,                                   the seasonal pattern of flooding at particular catchments. The concept of a trigger model has been introduced
                             London.                                                     Skelmorlie, Stobshiel, Thorters                                     and preliminary results indicate that antecedent wetness is more important in relatively permeable and low
                                                                                                                                                             rainfall catchments where significant soil moisture deficits are commonplace.


   1992       Reed           REED D W and ANDERSON C W (1992). A statistical                                                 Flood estimation/ hydrology     Flood standards for major reservoirs in the United Kingdom generally require an estimation of the probable
                             perspective on reservoir flood standards. Water                                                                                 maximum flood (PMF). Where a dam breach poses less of a threat to life there are two alternative sets of
                             Resources and Reservoir Engineering (eds N M Parr, J A                                                                          design standards based either on a specified proportion of the PMF (eg 0.5 PMF) or in terms of a return period,
                             Charles and S Walker). Proceedings of 7th British Dam                                                                           the so called T-year flood (eg 10000-year flood). Four approaches to reservoir flood estimation can be
                             Society Conference, Stirling, pp 229-239. Thomas Telford,                                                                       distinguished: statistical analysis of flood peaks; envelope of historic maximum floods; PMF derived from rainfall-
                             London.                                                                                                                         runoff; T-year flood derived from rainfall-runoff. Only relatively short periods of gauged flood data are usually
                                                                                                                                                             available and the statistics of extreme rainfall events are much better defined. The Flood Studies Report (FSR)
                                                                                                                                                             uses a relatively simple rainfall-runoff model that lacks an explicit representation of snow melt. The value of
                                                                                                                                                             multivariate extreme value analysis techniques in selecting design inputs for reservoir flood safety appraisal is
                                                                                                                                                             being explored.
   1992       Reeve          REEVE C E (1992). Trapping efficiency of reservoirs.        Gozho (Zimbabwe), Manjirenji        Sedimentation                   The rate at which sediment accumulates has a major impact on the useful life of a reservoir and is significant
                             Water Resources and Reservoir Engineering (eds N M          (Zimbabwe), Maynard (Zimbabwe),                                     when assessing the economics of a proposed reservoir. A numerical reservoir sedimentation model has been
                             Parr, J A Charles and S Walker). Proceedings of 7th         Siya (Zimbabwe)                                                     used to investigate the factors which determine the instantaneous trapping efficiency of reservoirs with different
                             British Dam Society Conference, Stirling, pp 241-251.                                                                           geometries and characteristics. Procedures have been developed for estimating the instantaneous trapping
                             Thomas Telford, London.                                                                                                         efficiency of a reservoir either using the numerical model or without the model when a backwater calculation has
                                                                                                                                                             been carried out to estimate the variation of shear velocity along the reservoir. When the procedures are applied
                                                                                                                                                             to real reservoirs estimates of trapping efficiency are given which are within the confidence limits of Brune
                                                                                                                                                             curves.


   1992       Rofe           ROFE B H, HOSKINS C G and FLETCHER M F (1992).                                                  Environment/social/planning, Changing agricultural practices and the demand for landscaping and amenity lakes will lead to an increasing
                             Small embankment-type reservoirs for water supply and                                           Guides & surveys             number of small reservoirs being formed by constructing embankment dams. Although most of these reservoirs
                             amenity use. Water Resources and Reservoir Engineering                                                                       are likely to be too small to come within the ambit of the Reservoirs Act, many aspects of design will be similar
                             (eds N M Parr, J A Charles and S Walker). Proceedings of                                                                     to those of reservoirs within the Act. However, environmental constraints may be significantly different. Current
                             7th British Dam Society Conference, Stirling, pp 253-257.                                                                    guidance for such reservoirs is outdated and small reservoirs are continuing to be built without the necessary
                             Thomas Telford, London.                                                                                                      consents and licences. CIRIA has commissioned the preparation of a new guide.




                                                                                                                                    85
Proceedings of 7th BDS Conference. Stirling, 1992.


   Date       First author                           Reference                         Dams                                      Subjects                          Brief summary
   1992       Smith          SMITH J E and SIMM J D (1992). Rock for dam face                                                    Upstream slope protection,        The recently published manual on the use of rock in coastal and shoreline engineering is primarily intended for
                             protection and the CIRIA/CUR manual on rock in coastal                                              Wind& waves                       engineers concerned with marine works but it includes much of value to the dam engineer. The small section of
                             engineering. Water Resources and Reservoir Engineering                                                                                the manual which deals specifically with embankment dams is provided to form a point of reference for dam
                             (eds N M Parr, J A Charles and S Walker). Proceedings of                                                                              engineers. The manual provides information on the following subjects: derivation of wave heights; wave/rock
                             7th British Dam Society Conference, Stirling, pp 259-270.                                                                             slope interaction; rock selection, specification, testing and control; design tools for selection of rock protection.
                             Thomas Telford, London.                                                                                                               The limited amount of wind and wave data available for reservoirs points to the need for regular wind data
                                                                                                                                                                   collection at dam sites and also for further research on the influence of valve towers and other structures on
                                                                                                                                                                   waves at the dam face.

   1992       Taylor         TAYLOR E H, WAGNER C M and MELDRUM J H (1992). Mengkuang (Malaysia)                                 Cut-off trenches,                 The 31 m high semi-homogeneous embankment dam is founded on weak alluvial clays and was built of residual
                             Design, construction and performance of the Mengkuang                                               Instrumentation, Movement         soils in 1982-1984. A 7 m deep cut-off trench through the alluvium across the flood plain enabled the core zone
                             dam. Water Resources and Reservoir Engineering (eds N                                               monitoring, Outlet and intake     to be keyed into the underlying decomposed granite and a grout curtain beneath this layer where the thickness
                             M Parr, J A Charles and S Walker). Proceedings of 7th                                               works, Pore pressure              of the decomposed granite soils was relatively thin. A drop inlet spillway was incorporated into a 29 m high
                             British Dam Society Conference, Stirling, pp 271-286.                                               (construction), Slope stability   intake tower and a 6.6 m high articulated draw-off culvert carries both the spillway and draw-off flows in separate
                             Thomas Telford, London.                                                                                                               1.4 m diameter pipes. An inspection seven years after commissioning found no cracks in the embankment crest
                                                                                                                                                                   and the draw-off culvert completely dry. Seepage through the embankment and its foundation has varied
                                                                                                                                                                   between 8 and 10 l/s and is mainly from three pressure relief wells on the right abutment near the culvert. The
                                                                                                                                                                   culvert has settled up to 0.4 m, mainly during the construction period; the pipe joints have shown a maximum
                                                                                                                                                                   opening of 49 mm, the maximum permissible opening being 50 mm.

   1992       Beak           BEAK D C (1992). Implementation of the Reservoirs Act        Mullardoch, Monar, Quoich, Pitlochry   Concrete deterioration,           Scottish Hydro-Electric, the successor to the North of Scotland Hydro Electric Board, has changed its reservoir
                             1975 and monitoring of dams. Water Resources and                                                    Instrumentation, Movement         surveillance and instrumentation policy from a manual recording and monitoring system to one which relies
                             Reservoir Engineering (eds N M Parr, J A Charles and S                                              monitoring, Safety                heavily on automated equipment and computer programmes. This has made it possible to undertake more
                             Walker). Proceedings of the 7th British Dam Society                                                 surveillance                      intensive surveillance than was previously possible without increasing manpower resources. Establishing a
                             Conference, Stirling, pp 287-299. Thomas Telford,                                                                                     computer database for the reservoirs has facilitated the production of a reservoir record for each reservoir which
                             London.                                                                                                                               includes all the data required under the 1975 Reservoirs Act together with additional information that the
                                                                                                                                                                   Company needs. Case studies are presented for Mullardoch, Monar, Quoich and Pitlochry dams.

   1992       Binnie         BINNIE C J A, SWEENEY D J and REED M W (1992).               Bartley                                Instrumentation, Pore             During embankment construction three slips occurred in the upstream slope of the 20 m high Bartley dam which
                             Response of a clay embankment to rapid drawdown.                                                    pressure (seepage),               has a central, vertical, lightly reinforced concrete core wall. In 1988 a large number of piezometers were installed
                             Water Resources and Reservoir Engineering (eds N M                                                  Reservoir drawdown                in the upstream shoulder which is composed of stone fill overlying clay fill. In 1988 and 1989 the reservoir was
                             Parr, J A Charles and S Walker). Proceedings of the 7th                                                                               rapidly drawn down by 2 m over 4 or 5 days under controlled conditions. The piezometric response was much
                             British Dam Society Conference, Stirling, pp 301-310.                                                                                 greater in the outer overlying stone fill than in the inner underlying clay fill. B bar (the ratio of the change in pore
                             Thomas Telford, London.                                                                                                               water pressure to the change in total vertical stress) in the stone fill was 0.9 and only 0.2 to 0.4 in the clay fill. In
                                                                                                                                                                   rapid drawdown stability analyses it is usually assumed that the fill is saturated and B bar is close to unity. The
                                                                                                                                                                   low B bar values mean that the actual factor of safety during rapid drawdown could be significantly less than that
                                                                                                                                                                   calculated using conventional assumptions. (See discussion in supplementary issue of Dams and Reservoirs,
                                                                                                                                                                   October 1992, pp 54-65.)
   1992       Charles        CHARLES J A, TEDD P and WATTS K S (1992). The role                                                  Instrumentation, Movement         Little is known about the internal composition of many of the old embankment dams in the United Kingdom
                             of instrumentation and monitoring in safety procedures for                                          monitoring                        which pose a potential hazard to communities downstream. To a large extent dam safety is dependent on
                             embankment dams. Water Resources and Reservoir                                                                                        diligent maintenance and effective surveillance. While the installation and monitoring of appropriate
                             Engineering (eds N M Parr, J A Charles and S Walker).                                                                                 instrumentation can be a most valuable addition to visual surveillance, it is well to keep in mind its limitations.
                             Proceedings of 7th British Dam Society Conference,                                                                                    Instrumentation may malfunction and give no measurements, or worse, give erroneous readings. The presence
                             Stirling, pp 311-320. Thomas Telford, London.                                                                                         of an instrument may affect soil behaviour and, in an extreme case, installation of instrumentation could
                                                                                                                                                                   seriously damage an existing dam. Instrumentation is not a substitute for an understanding of the likely
                                                                                                                                                                   mechanisms of fill and foundation behaviour, but rather some knowledge of embankment behaviour is a
                                                                                                                                                                   prerequisite for successful instrumentation.


   1992       Eadie          EADIE H S, COATS D J and LEYLAND M (1992).                Tiga (Nigeria)                            Flood estimation/hydrology,       The safety of the Tiga embankment dam in northern Nigeria has been a cause for concern since its construction
                             Investigation, monitoring and remedial works at Tiga dam,                                           Outlet & intake works,            in 1978. The embankment fill is very variable and in places poorly compacted. Investigations have been
                             Nigeria. Water Resources and Reservoir Engineering (eds                                             Overflow works, Slope             undertaken to assess the safety of the embankment and some short term remedial works have been carried
                             N M Parr, J A Charles and S Walker). Proceedings of 7th                                             stability                         out. Recommendations which have been made for longer term remedial works include the following: the
                             British Dam Society Conference, Stirling, pp 321-328.                                                                                 freeboard and spillway capacity are seriously deficient and the temporary spillway should be made permanent; a
                             Thomas Telford, London.                                                                                                               wave wall and further toe drainage are needed; upstream valves should be fitted to the auxiliary outlet pipes.
                                                                                                                                                                   (See discussion in supplementary issue of Dams and Reservoirs, October 1992, pp 66-67.)




                                                                                                                                         86
Proceedings of 7th BDS Conference. Stirling, 1992.


   Date       First author                           Reference                         Dams                                      Subjects                          Brief summary
   1992       Hoskins        HOSKINS C G and RICE P R (1992). Vegetation and           Aldenham                                  Pore pressure (seepage),          Little attention has been given to the consequences and benefits of vegetation on embankment dams. Many
                             embankment dams. Water Resources and Reservoir                                                      Slope stability, Vegetation       engineers actively discourage the presence on slopes of all vegetation except grass cover, but this may be
                             Engineering (eds N M Parr, J A Charles and S Walker).                                                                                 misguided since trees at certain locations may improve the safe functioning of a dam. The major influences of
                             Proceedings of 7th British Dam Society Conference,                                                                                    vegetation on embankment dams are hydrological and mechanical reflecting their functions of water extraction
                             Stirling, pp 329-338. Thomas Telford, London.                                                                                         and anchorage. Removal of trees and undergrowth from the marginally stable downstream slope of Aldenham
                                                                                                                                                                   dam has led to instability since the vegetation roots had reduced pore pressures and reinforced the superficial
                                                                                                                                                                   layers of the slope. (See discussion in supplementary issue of Dams and Reservoirs, October 1992, pp 74-76.)

   1992       Johnston       JOHNSTON C K and SANDILANDS N M (1992). Resume Cluanie, Ericht, Gorton (Creige                      Outlet & intake works,        Maintenance works at Scottish Hydro-Electric's dams and reservoirs can be categorised as follows: concrete
                             of maintenance contracts on hydroelectric reservoirs.   Duibhe), Mullardoch                         Sedimentation, Spillway gates repairs; pitching and rip rap reinstatement; reservoir siltation and debris; hydraulic equipment refurbishment;
                             Water Resources and Reservoir Engineering (eds N M                                                  and barriers                  stability improvement works. A number of projects are described. At the 14 m high Ericht dam sediment which
                             Parr, J A Charles and S Walker). Proceedings of the 7th                                                                           had accumulated behind the scour gate was removed by dredging and following this a new scour gate was
                             British Dam Society Conference, Stirling, pp 339-351.                                                                             installed. At the Mullardoch concrete gravity dam a build up of debris, mainly trees, was cleared by divers from
                             Thomas Telford, London.                                                                                                           around the needle valve whose operation was being impaired. At the 35 m high Cluanie gravity dam gaining
                                                                                                                                                               access for the refurbishment of the needle valve necessitated dewatering the scour culvert using a bulkhead
                                                                                                                                                               gate. The 5 m high Gorton masonry gravity dam had an inadequate factor of safety against overturning and a
                                                                                                                                                               stressed anchor system was installed.
   1992       Lovenbury      LOVENBURY H T and READER R A (1992). Performance Backwater, Bewl Bridge, Blithfield,            Upstream slope protection,            During the last thirty years there have been a number of incidents of storm damage to the upstream slope
                             of blockwork and slabbing slope protection subject to     Grafham Water, Hanningfield, Kielder, Wind & waves                          protection of British dams. The traditional protection of upstream slopes was by stone or rough dressed masonry
                             wave action. Water Resources and Reservoir Engineering King George's, Selset, Turret                                                  pitching. Since 1945, precast concrete blocks and cast in-situ concrete slabbing, as well as rip rap, have
                             (eds N M Parr, J A Charles and S Walker). Proceedings of                                                                              frequently been adopted for economic reasons. A survey of the performance of pitching, blockwork and slabbing
                             the 7th British Dam Society Conference, Stirling, pp 353-                                                                             as wave protection to embankment dams has shown that the mechanism of failure of the these three types of
                             360. Thomas Telford, London.                                                                                                          protection is essentially the same. Localised loosening of an individual 'block' by wave impact leads to loss of
                                                                                                                                                                   frictional interlock and the 'block' is lifted out by uplift pressure acting on its base during wave downrush.
                                                                                                                                                                   Alternatively slope movement leads to joint widening with the consequent loss of the finer fraction of the bedding
                                                                                                                                                                   material. Hydraulics Research is preparing a guidance document for the design, maintenance and repair of
                                                                                                                                                                   pitching, blockwork and slabbing protection.
   1992       Morris         MORRIS D (1992). Surveillance and monitoring methods                                                Safety surveillance               Many of the 500 large dams in Italy are located near to and lying above large centres of population and between
                             for Italian dams. Water Resources and Reservoir                                                                                       them these dams store more than 8800 million cubic metres of water. Such a situation requires that dam safety
                             Engineering (eds N M Parr, J A Charles and S Walker).                                                                                 regulations are rigorously applied. Responsibility is mainly centred on the Dam Service which comprises a
                             Proceedings of the 7th British Dam Society Conference,                                                                                nucleus of experienced specialist engineers. With improvements in instrument and computer technology,
                             Stirling, pp 361-372. Thomas Telford, London.                                                                                         automated monitoring systems have been developed which can continuously measure the status of a structure
                                                                                                                                                                   and report any anomalies as they occur. A periodic detailed check of the structure is performed at intervals by
                                                                                                                                                                   independent experts to verify the actual safety condition of the dam.

   1992       Reid           REID J M (1992). Site investigation of existing dams.     Buckieburn, Glendevon Upper               Concrete deterioration,           When investigating an existing dam information has to be obtained without adversely affecting the integrity of the
                             Water Resources and Reservoir Engineering (eds N M                                                  Instrumentation, Leakage,         structure: desk studies, the use of existing instrumentation and maximising information from exploratory
                             Parr, J A Charles and S Walker). Proceedings of the 7th                                             Pore pressure (seepage),          boreholes have much importance. This is illustrated by two case histories. The 45 m high Upper Glendevon
                             British Dam Society Conference, Stirling, pp 373-382.                                               Rockfill, Uplift/overturning in   mass concrete gravity dam suffered leakage problems and there was concern about its stability under
                             Thomas Telford, London.                                                                             concrete dams, Seismic            earthquake loading. Two remedial options were considered: a rockfill embankment on its downstream side or
                                                                                                                                 assessment                        rock anchors through the dam into bedrock. The concrete was found to be in poor condition and the rockfill
                                                                                                                                                                   option was adopted. In November 1970 a slide occurred on the downstream shoulder of the 23 m high
                                                                                                                                                                   Buckieburn embankment dam and remedial works included a rockfill toe and a berm of sand and gravel fill. In
                                                                                                                                                                   1990, concerns about possible seepage through the embankment and leakage into the discharge tunnel below
                                                                                                                                                                   the dam led to a step by step investigation with the results of each step being assessed and used to determine
                                                                                                                                                                   the next stage.
   1992       Sims           SIMS G P (1992). Dam ageing. Water Resources and          Cogliandrino (Italy), Picote (Portugal)   Concrete deterioration,           The ICOLD Committee on the Ageing of Dams is preparing a bulletin to assist those designing, constructing and
                             Reservoir Engineering (eds N M Parr, J A Charles and S                                              Guides & surveys, Seepage &       operating dams to produce and care for structures that will defy the effects of ageing better than their
                             Walker). Proceedings of the 7th British Dam Society                                                 leakage, Spillway gates &         predecessors did. Two examples are used to illustrate the lessons that can be learned from different ageing
                             Conference, Stirling, pp 383-393. Thomas Telford,                                                   barriers, Uplift in concrete      scenarios. When a large leak appeared in the 44 m high Cogliandrino cement-lime concrete gravity dam it was
                             London.                                                                                             dams                              too expensive to grout the entire dam body and so a reinforced concrete upstream face was anchored to the
                                                                                                                                                                   dam and substantial drainage was incorporated to reduce uplift. The bulletin will highlight the significance of the
                                                                                                                                                                   porosity of concrete in allowing chemical reactions to occur quickly. During a flood in 1966 the spillway gate at
                                                                                                                                                                   the 100 m high Picote arch dam was badly damaged. It is recommended that, where possible, spillway gates
                                                                                                                                                                   should be designed to fail in the open position.




                                                                                                                                         87
Proceedings of 7th BDS Conference. Stirling, 1992.


   Date       First author                           Reference                         Dams                  Subjects                        Brief summary
   1992       Stirling       STIRLING D M and BENWELL G L (1992). Development          Thomson (Australia)   Movement monitoring             A computerised database has been developed which can produce three-dimensional graphics of dam
                             of a three-dimensional computer system for dam                                                                  surveillance data. The 166 m high Thomson embankment was selected for a pilot study since the dam has
                             surveillance data management. Water Resources and                                                               extensive instrumentation, including some 150 surface movement points and 35 settlement cells in the body of
                             Reservoir Engineering (eds N M Parr, J A Charles and S                                                          the embankment. Composite displays of a variety of dam instrumentation data allows new methods of
                             Walker). Proceedings of the 7th British Dam Society                                                             interpretation to be developed which can give a better understanding of internal mechanisms.
                             Conference, Stirling, pp 395-402. Thomas Telford,
                             London.

   1992       Tedd           TEDD P, HOLTON I R and CHARLES J A (1992). The                                  Guides & surveys                A computerised database containing information on dams which come within the ambit of the Reservoirs Act
                             BRE dams database. Water Resources and Reservoir                                                                1975 is being developed at the Building Research Establishment. The database provides a means of storage
                             Engineering (eds N M Parr, J A Charles and S Walker).                                                           and retrieval of basic information on British dams. The amount of information available on the dams varies
                             Proceedings of 7th British Dam Society Conference                                                               considerably from only the dam name and owner to full details including information on construction, problems,
                             Stirling, pp 403-410. Thomas Telford, London.                                                                   investigations and remedial works and a comprehensive list of references. Preliminary analyses of the data are
                                                                                                                                             presented including age, height, type, problems and remedial works.

   1992       Wright         WRIGHT C E, COATS D J and CHARLES J A (1992).                                   Dam break studies,              The Department of the Environment is responsible for reservoir safety legislation in Great Britain and sponsors a
                             The reservoir safety research programme of the                                  Databases, Flood                research programme to promote adequate, consistent and cost-effective reservoir safety standards and, in
                             Department of the Environment. Water Resources and                              estimation/hydrology, Guides    particular, to provide panel engineers with an appropriate background for carrying out their duties under the
                             Reservoir Engineering (eds N M Parr, J A Charles and S                          & surveys, Hazard & risk        Reservoirs Act 1975. An outline description is given of the various projects in hydrology, hydraulics, structures
                             Walker). Proceedings of 7th British Dam Society                                 management, Internal            and risk carried out between 1983 and 1991 as part of the research programme. An assessment of the research
                             Conference, Stirling, pp 411-424. Thomas Telford,                               erosion/filters, Movement       programme is being undertaken by Dr David Coats and following publication of the assessment the future
                             London.                                                                         monitoring, Seepage &           direction of the programme will be re-examined. (See discussion in supplementary issue of Dams and
                                                                                                             leakage, Spillway hydraulics,   Reservoirs, October 1992, pp 39-48.)
                                                                                                             Uplift in concrete dams,
                                                                                                             Upstream slope protection,
                                                                                                             Winds & waves

   1992       Pircher        PIRCHER W (1992). 1992 Geoffrey Binnie Lecture. 36000                           Environment/social/planning, There is an increasing problem in gaining acceptance for dam projects. Large dams are attracting negative
                             large dams, and still more needed. Dams and Reservoirs,                                                      comments: their economic value is denied, their safety is questioned and their social and environmental effects
                             vol 2, no 3, October 1992, pp 5-16.                                                                          are painted in the blackest terms. In contrast an objective view of dams and reservoirs in service around the
                                                                                                                                          world offers a basically positive picture with regard to irrigation, hydropower, flood control and water supply.
                                                                                                                                          Furthermore the massive increase in world population requires many more new reservoirs.




                                                                                                                    88
Proceedings of 8th BDS Conference. Exeter, 1994.



Conference papers of the British Dam Society
1994 Reservoir Safety and the Environment. Proceedings of 8th British Dam Society Conference, Exeter
   Date      First author                          Reference                         Dams                                      Subjects                         Brief summary
   1994      Evans          EVANS J D and WILSON A C (1994). The asphalt             Colliford, Roadford                       Asphaltic concrete,              Asphalt membranes have been successfully used to waterproof two embankment dams in south-west England.
                            membranes at Colliford and Roadford reservoirs.                                                    Movement monitoring,             Colliford is 30 m high and constructed of sand waste from a china clay pit: Roadford is 40 m high and built of low
                            Reservoir Safety and the Environment. Proceedings of 8th                                           Seepage & leakage                grade rockfill. Drainage flows and settlement monitoring are described. In the ten years that have elapsed since
                            British Dam Society Conference, Exeter, pp 1-11. Thomas                                                                             Colliford was completed and the four years since Roadford was completed nothing has occurred at either dam to
                            Telford, London.                                                                                                                    indicate that the asphalt membranes will not achieve the long life expected from this type of construction. (See
                                                                                                                                                                discussion in supplementary issue of Dams and Reservoirs, 1995, pp 43-54.)

   1994       Ferguson      FERGUSON P A S and McFADYEAN D A (1994).                    Killamarsh*, Woodall*                  Discontinuance/                  Neither Killamarsh reservoir nor Woodall reservoir is now required to serve its original function of supplying
                            Discontinuance/abandonment of Killamarsh and Woodall                                               abandonment,                     water to the Chesterfield canal. Woodall was severely damaged by mining subsidence in the 1980s and
                            reservoirs under the Reservoirs Act 1975. Reservoir                                                Environment/social/planning,     subsequently has been kept empty. The removal of the reservoirs from the ambit of the Reservoirs Act 1975
                            Safety and the Environment. Proceedings of 8th British                                             Mining subsidence, Overflow      was achieved at Killamarsh by lowering the top water level by 1 m to reduce its capacity to below 25 000 cubic
                            Dam Society Conference, Exeter, pp 12-22. Thomas                                                   works                            metres and at Woodall by providing a low level overflow to prevent storage of water in times of flood.
                            Telford, London.                                                                                                                    Environmental improvements were made where these were cost effective. Certificates of discontinuance have
                                                                                                                                                                been issued for the two reservoirs.


   1994       Fry           FRY J-J, BRUN P and ROYET P (1994). Internal erosion        Bernier-Cordon (France), Lavaud-      Catastrophic failures, Internal   Some of the homogeneous embankment dams constructed in France during the first half of the twentieth
                            problems in some old embankment dams in France.             Gelade (France), Matemale (France), erosion/filters, Seepage &          century have suffered internal erosion and seepage problems. Two types of fill and foundation construction have
                            Reservoir Safety and the Environment. Proceedings of 8th    Nepes (France), St Julien des Landes leakage                            been found to be particularly susceptible to internal erosion: firstly, weathered granite sand fill on fissured granite
                            British Dam Society Conference, Exeter, pp 23-34.           (France), St Pardoux (France), Sapins                                   foundations, and, secondly, silt fill on gravel foundations. Repairs generally consist in making the upstream face
                            Thomas Telford, London.                                     (France), Vallagregue (France)                                          of the dam watertight. Although problems have been quite common, there has only been one failure: the 8 m
                                                                                                                                                                high St Julien des Landes failed by piping along the culvert when the reservoir level had been raised only 3 m
                                                                                                                                                                during first filling.

   1994       Kalaugher     KALAUGHER P G and GRAINGER P (1994).                                                               Movement monitoring              A photographic monitoring system provides the means of recording observations from successive visits to a
                            Photographic monitoring in the safety assessment of                                                                                 dam. An optical system has been devised to permit an immediate comparison between a 35 mm colour
                            dams and reservoirs. Reservoir Safety and the                                                                                       transparency taken earlier and the directly viewed scene. The scene is viewed through the camera optics by one
                            Environment. Proceedings of 8th British Dam Society                                                                                 eye while the previously taken colour transparency is viewed by the other eye and the two images are
                            Conference, Exeter, pp 35-41. Thomas Telford, London.                                                                               stereoscopically fused. Differences in detail are immediately apparent. Where significant movements are
                                                                                                                                                                detected photography is repeated during the visit. Back at the office this photography can be compared to the
                                                                                                                                                                original and the changes measured by photogrammetry. The system has application for monitoring dams and
                                                                                                                                                                reservoir margins.
   1994       Penman        PENMAN A D M (1994). Examples of problems involving         Carsington, Matahina (New Zealand), Earthquake damage, Internal         Three case histories are described. The 85 m high Matahina dam has a slightly sloping rolled clay core
                            clay cores affecting dam safety. Reservoir Safety and the   Yonki (Papua New Guinea)            erosion/filters, Movement           supported by rockfill shoulders. With the reservoir 5 m below top water level on first filling in 1967, the flow from
                            Environment. Proceedings of 8th British Dam Society                                             monitoring, Pore pressure           the main drains suddenly increased to 570 l/s and became discoloured. A large sinkhole was found at the right
                            Conference, Exeter, pp 42-51. Thomas Telford, London.                                           (construction), Seepage &           abutment. Twenty years later the dam was shaken by a magnitude 6.6 earthquake. At the 35 m high Carsington
                                                                                                                            leakage                             dam a major slip occurred in the upstream shoulder on 4 June 1984 as the embankment neared completion.
                                                                                                                                                                The construction of the 55 m high Yonki dam was temporarily halted with the embankment 4 m below final crest
                                                                                                                                                                level due to fears of incipient slope instability. Critical pore pressures rapidly dissipated and it was possible to
                                                                                                                                                                safely complete the embankment. (See discussion on Yonki dam in supplementary issue of Dams and
                                                                                                                                                                Reservoirs, 1995, pp 58-60.)




                                                                                                                                       89
Proceedings of 8th BDS Conference. Exeter, 1994.


   Date      First author                          Reference                            Dams                                     Subjects                         Brief summary
   1994      Tedd           TEDD P, CHARLES J A and HOLTON I R (1994).                  Balderhead, Banbury, Barkin House*,      Databases, Diaphragm &           Most embankment dams in Britain have a central clay core and the long term durability and performance of
                            Remedial works to clay cores of UK embankment dams.         Barrow no 1, Blenheim Lake,              slurry trench walls, Drainage,   these internal cores is of major concern for reservoir safety. When deterioration occurs, it may be difficult and
                            Reservoir Safety and the Environment. Proceedings of 8th    Burbage, Castle Howard Great Lake,       Grouting,                        expensive to repair: furthermore, sudden deterioration could imperil the safety of the dam. Remedial works to
                            British Dam Society Conference, Exeter, pp 52-64.           Church Wilne, Clubbiedean, Cod                                            central clay cores are reviewed and classified using data from the BRE Dams database and their effectiveness
                            Thomas Telford, London.                                     Beck, Coulter, Cowm, Cwmtillery, Daill                                    and durability are examined. Remedial techniques for defective clay cores include replacement with clay,
                                                                                        Loch West, Doe Park, Doffcocker                                           installation of diaphragm walls, sheet piling and grouting. Particular emphasis is given to the use of self-
                                                                                        Lodge, Drayton, Dubbs, Earlswood                                          hardening slurry trench walls. Quality control is likely to be an increasingly important consideration for all
                                                                                        Common, Earnsdale, East Warwick,                                          remedial methods.
                                                                                        Greenbooth, Grizedale, High Newton,
                                                                                        Island Barn, King George's, Little
                                                                                        Denny, Lliw Lower (1), Lluest Wen,
                                                                                        Loch an Add East, Loch an Add, Loch
                                                                                        na Bric West, Lockwood, Neuadd
                                                                                        Lower, Pebley, Pentwyn, Randieford,
                                                                                        Rhodeswood, Rivington Lower,
                                                                                        Roddlesworth Upper, Saddington,
                                                                                        Shon Sheffrey, Slade Lower, Torduff,
                                                                                        Walshaw Dean Lower, Walshaw Dean
                                                                                        Middle, West Warwick, Wideford,
                                                                                        Wilstone no 3, Withens Clough,
                                                                                        Woodburn
   1994       Elder         ELDER A J (1994). Environmental assessment of            Ardingly, Blashford Lake, Testwood          Environment/social/planning      Environmental assessment forms a significant part of the design process and should demonstrate the benefits of
                            reservoir schemes. Reservoir Safety and the Environment. Lakes                                                                        a well designed reservoir scheme. Assessment work on three schemes in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s is
                            Proceedings of 8th British Dam Society Conference,                                                                                    described and for the most recent, the Testwood Lakes feasibility study, the formal environmental assessment is
                            Exeter, pp 65-73. Thomas Telford, London.                                                                                             outlined to demonstrate Environment Agency procedures in practice.
   1994       Elder         ELDER A J, FLETCHER M and RICE P R (1994).                Monkswood                                  Environment/social/planning, The 15 m high Monkswood dam was completed in 1896 and has had a long history of problems: the design
                            Environmental implications of constructing a concrete                                                Slope stability              slopes were flattened during construction and, since completion, there have been hillside slips and the
                            reservoir within a 100 year old dam. Reservoir Safety and                                                                         downstream slope has suffered seepage and subsidence. The reservoir is situated within an 'Area of
                            the Environment. Proceedings of 8th British Dam Society                                                                           outstanding natural beauty' and adjacent to a 'Site of special scientific interest'. Construction of a 2 Ml capacity
                            Conference, Exeter, pp 74-79. (Discussion in                                                                                      concrete service reservoir partially buried within the downstream berm of this old embankment dam presented a
                            supplementary issue of Dams and Reservoirs, pp 66-67.)                                                                            challenging project with the need to satisfy both geotechnical and environmental constraints. Construction of the
                                                                                                                                                              concrete tank was completed in November 1992.

   1994       Findlay       FINDLAY J W (1994). Reservoir development in semi-arid Mangla (Pakistan), Tarbela (Pakistan), Environment/social/planning, There are many conflicting priorities in the development of reservoirs in semi-arid countries. Environmental
                            countries - a human ecology perspective. Reservoir Safety Warsak (Pakistan)                   Sedimentation                impact may not be particularly significant when faced with extreme human need. The provision of a reliable
                            and the Environment. Proceedings of 8th British Dam                                                                        source of stored water to support irrigated agriculture in an area where the population barely survives on
                            Society Conference, Exeter, pp 80-90. Thomas Telford,                                                                      subsistence farming is worthy of greater consideration than the visual intrusion of a dam or the loss of a small
                            London.                                                                                                                    area through flooding. However, sedimentation, potential leakage and variable catchment runoff make many
                                                                                                                                                       initially promising sites unrealistic. There are no simple solutions to the problems of semi-arid agricultural areas
                                                                                                                                                       in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan and a study has shown the need to bring together engineers,
                                                                                                                                                       agronomists and sociologists at the initial stages of a reservoir project. The answer may lie in low cost detention
                                                                                                                                                       structures and developing ways of tapping water held in sediments behind such structures. (See discussion in
                                                                                                                                                       supplementary issue of Dams and Reservoirs, 1995, pp 67-69.)
   1994       Golosov       GOLOSOV V N and VINOGRADOVA N N (1994). Some                Cheboksary (Russia), Gorki (Russia),     Environment/social/planning, During the period 1937 to 1981, major dams were constructed on the Volga river forming a cascade of large
                            sedimentation and water quality problems of the Volga       Ivan'kovo (Russia), Kuibyshev            Sedimentation                reservoirs with a combined volume of 150 cubic kilometres and a total area of twenty thousand square
                            River reservoirs. Reservoir Safety and the Environment.     (Russia), Rybinsk (Russia), Saratov                                   kilometres. Erosion rates and pollution problems are examined. Sedimentation in the Volga rivers is not very
                            Proceedings of 8th British Dam Society Conference,          (Russia), Uglich (Russia), Volgograd                                  great due to relatively low erosion rates as well as high levels of redeposition within river basins. Pollutants are
                            Exeter, pp 91-99. Thomas Telford, London.                   (Russia)                                                              principally associated with the growth of the use of fertilizers and the fallout inputs of Chernobyl-derived Caesium-
                                                                                                                                                              137.

   1994       Hendry        HENDRY M (1994). Environmental assessment -                                                          Environment/social/planning      Both the legal foundation on which an environmental assessment is based and also the planning context within
                            legislation and planning requirements within the European                                                                             which decisions are made are described. Environmental assessment should form an integral part of the design
                            framework. Reservoir Safety and the Environment.                                                                                      process and should identify the main issues with which the planning authority will be concerned.
                            Proceedings of 8th British Dam Society Conference,
                            Exeter, pp 100-108. Thomas Telford, London.




                                                                                                                                        90
Proceedings of 8th BDS Conference. Exeter, 1994.


   Date      First author                            Reference                           Dams                                  Subjects                        Brief summary
   1994      Rofe           ROFE B, HOSKINS C G and RICE P (1994). Maximising                                                  Environment/social/planning     Although small reservoirs are rarely created for the sole benefit of wildlife interest, such reservoirs represent a
                            the ecological benefit of a new small reservoir. Reservoir                                                                         potentially significant addition of wetland habitat in Britain and locally they can be a haven for wildlife in an
                            Safety and the Environment. Proceedings of 8th British                                                                             otherwise agricultural or environmentally barren area. The ecological benefit of a small reservoir can be
                            Dam Society Conference, Exeter, pp 109-118. Thomas                                                                                 maximised by consideration of appropriate features at the feasibility stage when the design can be modified at
                            Telford, London.                                                                                                                   minimal cost. A critical factor is whether or not the water level will be varied rapidly and substantially.

   1994       Sambrook      SAMBROOK H and GILKES P (1994). Roadford                Roadford                                   Environment/social/planning, Roadford reservoir regulates flows to the River Wolf and is the centrepiece of a complex water resource
                            Reservoir - enhanced flows, fisheries and hydroelectric                                            Reservoir operation          development which secures the supply of water to Plymouth, north Devon and south-west Devon. Environmental
                            power generation. Reservoir Safety and the Environment.                                                                         principles are being applied to reservoir operation and flow requirements to support fish have been used as the
                            Proceedings of 8th British Dam Society Conference,                                                                              basis for all augmentation releases to the River Wolf. Rules have been developed to promote an
                            Exeter, pp 119-133. Thomas Telford, London.                                                                                     environmentally acceptable strategy for hydroelectric power generation. In time, an optimal balance will be
                                                                                                                                                            obtained between resources and fisheries production. (See discussion in supplementary issue of Dams and
                                                                                                                                                            Reservoirs, 1995, pp 63-66.)

   1994       Stacey        STACEY E (1994). Roadford Lake - leisure development. Roadford                                     Environment/social/planning     Facilities and activities for visitors have been introduced gradually at Roadford reservoir so that proper
                            Reservoir Safety and the Environment. Proceedings of 8th                                                                           consideration could be given to landscape and wildlife. The reservoir is now a haven for wildlife and a regional
                            British Dam Society Conference, Exeter, pp 134-142.                                                                                tourist attraction. (See discussion in supplementary issue of Dams and Reservoirs, 1995, pp 63-66.)
                            Thomas Telford, London.

   1994       Yener         YENER A G and YENER H S (1994). Reservoir,                                                         Environment/social/planning     Environmental reservoir engineering seeks to maximise the value of reservoirs while minimizing the problems
                            environment and private sector. Reservoir Safety and the                                                                           associated with them. Environmental problems are diverse and can include relocation of people, water-related
                            Environment. Proceedings of 8th British Dam Society                                                                                diseases, reservoir induced seismicity, and flora and fauna destruction. In the Turkish south-eastern Anatolian
                            Conference, Exeter, pp 143-148. Thomas Telford,                                                                                    project 22 major reservoirs, which will be filled by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, will be used for hydropower
                            London.                                                                                                                            and irrigation purposes. Currently one third of the project is complete. Turkey does not yet have adequate
                                                                                                                                                               experience to fully address all areas of the increasingly important interdisciplinary art and science of
                                                                                                                                                               environmental reservoir engineering. Collaboration between the public sector, local engineering firms and
                                                                                                                                                               international consulting engineers can provide enormous benefits for all parties.
   1994       Gallacher     GALLACHER D, MORRIS D, MANN R J and CHAN K L Tai Tam Tuk (Hong Kong)                               Drainage, Dynamic behaviour     The 49 m high Tai Tam Tuk masonry faced mass concrete gravity dam was constructed in 1917 and in 1974 the
                            (1994). Concrete dams, stability and the role of internal                                          & analysis, Pore pressure       stability of the structure under extreme loads was questioned. Piezometers have been installed in the dam and
                            drainage: Tai Tam Tuk - a case study. Reservoir Safety                                             (seepage), Uplift in concrete   its foundation and in 1993 a trial drainage scheme was implemented. Pore pressures were reduced to some
                            and the Environment. Proceedings of 8th British Dam                                                dams                            25% of pre-drainage values. Static and pseudo dynamic analyses have demonstrated that very significant
                            Society Conference, Exeter, pp 149-160. Thomas Telford,                                                                            improvements in stability can be achieved by drainage.
                            London.

   1994       Horswill      HORSWILL P, SNOWDEN H N and WEEKS R C (1994). Val de la Mare (Jersey)                              Concrete deterioration,         The 30 m high Val de la Mare mass concrete gravity dam was completed in 1962. The dam was constructed in
                            Val de la Mare dam, Jersey: instrumentation, monitoring                                            Geophysical investigation,      twenty-six 6.7 m wide blocks in lifts 1.2 m high. In January 1971 it was noticed that hand-rails on the bridge were
                            and stability analysis of an ASR damaged dam. Reservoir                                            Instrumentation, Pore           no longer aligned and that there were damp patches on the downstream face of the dam. Damage was
                            Safety and the Environment. Proceedings of 8th British                                             pressure (seepage), Uplift in   diagnosed as being caused by alkali-silica reactivity. Internal uplift pressures measured in the most damaged
                            Dam Society Conference, Exeter, pp 161-172. Thomas                                                 concrete dams                   block were sufficiently high to warrant the installation of drainage and post-stressing tendons to restore the
                            Telford, London.                                                                                                                   factor of safety against instability.

   1994       Phillips      PHILLIPS P and SHANNON F (1994). Recent                      Wimbleball                            Concrete deterioration,     The concrete surface of the 60 m high Wimbleball mass concrete buttress dam has suffered from spalling since
                            investigations at Wimbleball dam, Somerset. Reservoir                                              Drainage, Grouting, Seepage its construction in 1974-77. In 1989 a visual assessment indicated that nearly all the visible parts of the dam
                            Safety and the Environment. Proceedings of 8th British                                             & leakage                   were affected, but there was almost no spalling below the normal water level on the upstream face. Spalling with
                            Dam Society Conference, Exeter, pp 173-182. Thomas                                                                             rust stains was caused by pyrites reaction and spalling without rust stains was due to frost or moisture
                            Telford, London.                                                                                                               expansion of a very weak aggregate. It has been concluded that spalling of the mass concrete has no structural
                                                                                                                                                           importance and may decrease with time. Concrete surfaces have been protected to reduce the possibility of
                                                                                                                                                           reinforcement corrosion. (See discussion in supplementary issue of Dams and Reservoirs, 1995, pp 78-82.)


   1994       Reader        READER R A, OWENS C L and KENNARD M F (1994).                Abbeystead, Clywedog, Cruachan,        Concrete deterioration,        A well designed concrete or masonry dam with adequate specifications, construction control and subsequent
                            Introduction to the CIRIA engineering guide to concrete      Errochty, Furens (France), Giorra,     Drainage, Guides & surveys,    surveillance, inspection and maintenance should continue as a safe structure. However, deterioration of the
                            and masonry dam structures in the UK. Reservoir Safety       Haweswater, Macchu II (India),         Instrumentation                concrete and internal drainage can lead to reduced factors of safety because some of the original design
                            and the Environment. Proceedings of 8th British Dam          Malpasset (France), Shira, Sloy, Teton                                assumptions are no longer applicable. Consequently a gravity dam that is safe on first filling of the reservoir may
                            Society Conference, Exeter, pp 183-191.                      (USA), Vaiont (Italy), Vyrnwy,                                        not remain in an adequately safe condition. The Guide gives comprehensive advice on matters related to the
                                                                                         Wimbleball                                                            safety of concrete and masonry dams and associated dam structures. The importance of observation and
                                                                                                                                                               regular surveillance by perceptive engineers is emphasised. (See discussion in supplementary issue of Dams
                                                                                                                                                               and Reservoirs, pp 82-84.)




                                                                                                                                      91
Proceedings of 8th BDS Conference. Exeter, 1994.


   Date      First author                            Reference                       Dams               Subjects                       Brief summary
   1994      Sandilands     SANDILANDS N M, CAMERON A T and BRYCE W M                Pitlochry          Environment/social/planning,   The 20 m high Pitlochry dam was completed in 1951 and design checks in 1990 indicated that the stability of the
                            (1994). Pitlochry dam - the use of post-tensioned ground                    Hazard & risk management,      concrete gravity structure was not satisfactory for extreme loading conditions. A decision was taken to install
                            anchors to increase stability. Reservoir Safety and the                     Uplift in concrete dams        post-tensioned ground anchors. Seismic loadings were assessed in accordance with 'An engineering guide to
                            Environment. Proceedings of 8th British Dam Society                                                        seismic risk to dams in the United Kingdom'. Piezometers were installed in boreholes adjacent to the north tower
                            Conference, Exeter, pp 192-199. Thomas Telford,                                                            and it was possible to estimate uplift pressures more reliably at this location. Anchor installation commenced in
                            London. (Discussion in supplementary issue of Dams and                                                     October 1993. (See discussion in supplementary issue of Dams and Reservoirs, 1995, pp 73-77.)
                            Reservoirs p73 and pp 76-77.)
   1994       Anderson      ANDERSON CW, DWYER I J, NADARAJAH S, REED D               Black Esk         Flood estimation/ hydrology,   Joint probability studies are exploring the use of multivariate extreme value analyses to review design inputs for
                            W and TAWN J A (1994). Maximum reservoir water                              Wind & waves                   reservoir flood safety appraisal. The methodology involves the use of composite mathematical models of a
                            levels. Reservoir Safety and the Environment.                                                              catchment-reservoir system. Submodels describe precipitation form, snow melt, catchment runoff, reservoir
                            Proceedings of 8th British Dam Society Conference,                                                         routing, wave generation and wave run-up. The sensitivity of the T-year maximum water level at an impounding
                            Exeter, pp 200-213. Thomas Telford, London.                                                                reservoir is explored with respect to reservoir size, operating policy and reservoir orientation. Estimation of the
                                                                                                                                       degree of dependence between the environmental extremes is relevant in assessing T-year maximum reservoir
                                                                                                                                       water levels, particularly for dams exposed to wave attack.

   1994       Baker         BAKER R and GARDINER K (1994). The construction and Brushes Clough*         Overflow works, Spillway       Brushes Clough embankment dam was completed in 1860. When in 1988 the inspecting engineer's report
                            performance of a wedge block spillway at Brushes Clough                     hydraulics                     recommended substantial remedial works and an increase in overflow capacity, it was decided to remove the
                            reservoir. Reservoir Safety and the Environment.                                                           reservoir from the ambit of the Reservoirs Act by lowering the crest level by 9 m and so reducing the reservoir
                            Proceedings of 8th British Dam Society Conference,                                                         capacity to below 25 Ml. A new overflow was constructed across the new crest and down the 1 in 3 downstream
                            Exeter, pp 214-223. Thomas Telford.                                                                        face of the embankment using wedge shaped precast concrete blocks. Wedge blocks use the hydrodynamics of
                                                                                                                                       the flow to enhance their stability and provided a 30% cost saving compared with the original design based on
                                                                                                                                       articulating reinforced concrete units each provided with a large shear key into the soft foundation to prevent
                                                                                                                                       sliding.
   1994       Claydon       CLAYDON J R, WALKER R A and BULMER A J (1994).                              Dam break studies,             Emergency plans should be in place in order to minimise the risk of casualties in the event of a dam failure.
                            Contingency planning for dam failure. Reservoir Safety                      Emergency plans, Hazard &      Recognising the need for contingency plans, Yorkshire Water is undertaking a programme of work which should
                            and the Environment. Proceedings of 8th British Dam                         risk management                be completed in 1996 and which includes preparation of inundation maps for 105 reservoirs, preparation of a
                            Society Conference, Exeter, pp 224-235. Thomas Telford,                                                    general contingency plan for a dam failure and preparation of a specific contingency plan for each dam. It has
                            London.                                                                                                    been concluded that, if contingency plans are needed, effort spent on hazard ranking may not be worthwhile.
                                                                                                                                       While a method exists to prepare inundation maps for dam failure with adequate accuracy and reasonable cost,
                                                                                                                                       the integration of such maps into emergency procedures needs great care, taking into account many human and
                                                                                                                                       organisational factors.

   1994       Daniell       DANIELL W E and TAYLOR C A (1994). The seismic             Wimbleball       Dynamic behaviour &            The failure of an intake tower during an earthquake could cause the disruption of an important public utility and,
                            behaviour and design of reservoir intake towers. Reservoir                  analysis, Outlet & intake      at worst, the catastrophic failure of a dam. Thus it is desirable that intake towers are designed for earthquakes
                            Safety and the Environment. Proceedings of 8th British                      works                          by using rational analytical methods based on a sound understanding of their behaviour. The seismic response
                            Dam Society Conference, Exeter, pp 236-246. Thomas                                                         of an intake tower will be either linear-elastic or non-linear and this response may be influenced by the dynamic
                            Telford, London.                                                                                           interaction of the tower with the surrounding reservoir, the foundation soil and any adjoining structures. Current
                                                                                                                                       methods for the analysis and design of such towers are discussed and examples are given to illustrate aspects
                                                                                                                                       of tower behaviour.

   1994       Hay           HAY J (1994). Implementing safety recommendations on                        Legislation                    Putting safety into practice under the Reservoirs Act 1975 has not been straightforward in some areas and
                            UK dams - a supervising engineer's view. Reservoir                                                         undertakers, enforcement authorities, inspecting engineers, and supervising engineers have interpreted their
                            Safety and the Environment. Proceedings of 8th British                                                     duties and responsibilities in different ways. Some have been more active than others in seeking to ensure that
                            Dam Society Conference, Exeter, pp 247-259. Thomas                                                         an inspecting engineer's recommendations in the interests of safety are implemented. The undertaker is
                            Telford, London.                                                                                           required to carry such measures into effect as soon as practicable under the supervision of a qualified civil
                                                                                                                                       engineer, but in some instances implementation has been unduly delayed. The enforcement authority can
                                                                                                                                       require the undertaker to carry the recommendation into effect within a specified time, but may choose not to do
                                                                                                                                       so. Should the supervising engineer give advice to the enforcement authority and actively seek to ensure that
                                                                                                                                       safety recommendations are carried out, bearing in mind that the Act only defines his relationship with the
                                                                                                                                       undertaker?
   1994       Hughes        HUGHES A K and HOSKINS C G (1994). A practical           South Fork (USA)   Overtopping, Vegetation        Overtopping has often been cited as the primary cause of the failure of embankment dams. The behaviour of
                            appraisal of the overtopping of embankment dams.                                                           embankment dams under overtopping conditions depends on many factors and their complex interaction, but in
                            Reservoir Safety and the Environment. Proceedings of 8th                                                   many cases dams have been able to withstand flows without significant damage. Furthermore, it appears that
                            British Dam Society Conference, Extern, pp 260-270.                                                        instances of overtopping may be more frequent than envisaged with some dams overtopping annually. The
                            Thomas Telford, London.                                                                                    presence of a good development of vegetation with an extensive root structure will help to minimise erosion
                                                                                                                                       damage and maintain the integrity of a dam. Simple works to improve the response to overtopping are described
                                                                                                                                       and practical guidance is given on relevant hydrological, hydraulic, geotechnical and biological matters.




                                                                                                               92
Proceedings of 8th BDS Conference. Exeter, 1994.


   Date      First author                          Reference                            Dams                                   Subjects                    Brief summary
   1994      Robertson      ROBERTSON C I, GRANSHAOB F and HINKS J L                    Foz Coa (Portugal)                     Seismic assessment          Earthquakes can pose a significant risk to the integrity of dams throughout the world. In areas of low seismicity
                            (1994). Analysis methodologies for rigorous and                                                                                the risk is much smaller but the potential hazard is still sufficiently large that it should be considered and a
                            approximate seismic assessment of dams. Reservoir                                                                              guidance document to assist in the seismic assessment of dams in the United Kingdom has been published
                            Safety and the Environment. Proceedings of 8th British                                                                         (Charles et al, 1991). However, there is little awareness of the merits of alternative analytical routes and the
                            Dam Society Conference, Exeter, pp 271-281. Thomas                                                                             degree of rigour required, and, furthermore, the assessment methodology is subject to debate. The technical
                            Telford, London.                                                                                                               background for seismic analyses of dams is discussed and related to the practical example of a 3-D analysis of
                                                                                                                                                           a concrete arch-gravity dam. The effect of different modelling approaches is determined from follow-up studies
                                                                                                                                                           in two dimensions. Conclusions are drawn to assist practising engineers in determining appropriate
                                                                                                                                                           methodologies for the seismic assessment of dams. The effects of impounded water and foundation flexibility
                                                                                                                                                           should be incorporated in the modelling approach.
   1994       Tarrant       TARRANT F R, HOPKINS L A and BARTLETT J M                                                          Dam break studies, Hazard & Aware of their potential liabilities as dam owners, water companies have carried out dam break analyses to
                            (1994). Inundation mapping for dam failure - lessons from                                          risk management             provide inundation and damage maps forming the basis on which the emergency services produce contingency
                            UK experience. Reservoir Safety and the Environment.                                                                           plans. The potential dam failure flood waves from over 35 studies and advice to five of the major water
                            Proceedings of 8th British Dam Society Conference,                                                                             companies have been statistically analysed to establish relationships between reservoir parameters, types of
                            Exeter, pp 282-291. Thomas Telford, London. (Discussion                                                                        failure, flood wave characteristics and extent of potential inundation and flood damage. The resulting
                            in supplementary volume of Dams and Reservoirs, pp 92-                                                                         relationships give broad guidelines for other dam owners considering the potential hazards posed by their dams.
                            93.)                                                                                                                           The results presented in this paper are based on dam failure simulations using the computer program
                                                                                                                                                           DAMBRK.UK rather than real events and there is limited information on which to validate the results of the
                                                                                                                                                           program, although a few real events for which there is some information have shown a good correlation. (See
                                                                                                                                                           discussion in supplementary issue of Dams and Reservoirs, 1995, pp 92-94.)
   1994       Taylor        TAYLOR C A, DANIELL W E, MIR R A, SIMIC M S and         Claerwen                                   Seismic assessment,         Engineers have become increasingly aware of the potentially damaging impact of a moderate magnitude
                            HINKS J L (1994). The seismic behaviour of gravity dams                                            Earthquake damage           earthquake occurring in a populous area of generally low seismicity. Methods for assessing the potential seismic
                            in areas of low seismicity. Reservoir Safety and the                                                                           behaviour of typical British gravity dams are reviewed. The results of research in progress, including physical
                            Environment. Proceedings of 8th British Dam Society                                                                            scale modelling and numerical analysis, are used to illustrate the basic mechanics of the dynamic behaviour of
                            Conference, Exeter, pp 292-305. Thomas Telford,                                                                                gravity dams. Reference is made to a study of the 56m high Claerwen gravity dam in Wales, but the overall
                            London. (Discussion in supplementary issue of Dams and                                                                         conclusions are applicable to most gravity dams. It is concluded that the maximum credible earthquake in the
                            Reservoirs, pp 87-90.)                                                                                                         United Kingdom (Richter magnitude 6.0) might cause some cracking near the base of a concrete dam, but is
                                                                                                                                                           unlikely to cause catastrophic collapse.

   1994       Thompson      THOMPSON G and CLARK P B (1994). Rapid hazard                                                      Hazard & risk management        The initial objective of a research study into the prioritisation of reservoirs according to their hazard potential was
                            ranking for large dams. Reservoir Safety and the                                                                                   to develop a quick and simple means to rank reservoirs to determine the order in which to carry out detailed
                            Environment. Proceedings of 8th British Dam Society                                                                                hazard mapping. However, the procedure has a wider application. Several methods were considered for ranking
                            Conference, Exeter, pp 306-315. Thomas Telford,                                                                                    a population of dams/reservoirs according to the relative hazard that they pose. The hazard is a function of such
                            London.                                                                                                                            factors as reservoir volume, dam height, distance to and value of population centre, and drop in elevation from
                                                                                                                                                               reservoir to population centre. It should be noted that hazard potential is quite different from the ri