Imperial College - SPE Papers - reservoirengineeringorguk.xls

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					  Nov-09
NOTES:

           The papers listed here have been obtained by search SPE and IPTC papers post 2005 on the SPE's OnePetro
           The papers relating to reservoir engineering have been catergorised for inclusion on the   reservoirengineering.org.uk website
           The affiiations searched were;

                                                                    Total No Papers     Reservoir Engineering Related
                      BP                                                   551                      175
                      Shell                                                575                      279
                      Chevron                                              482                      238
                      ConocoPhillips                                       191                       68
                      Marathon                                             55                        37
                      Total                                                255                      129
                      Schlumberger                                        1130                      563
                      Imperial College, London                             95                        53
                      Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh                    235                      175
                      (Anywhere in Article)
                                                      Total               3569                          1717



                      Total number of papers published post 2005 =             10,000

                                                                   35% of papers published categorised
                          Paper
Organisation       Source No.              Chapter
Imperial College    SPE     99261            EOR/IOR
Imperial College    SPE     99678            EOR/IOR
Imperial College    SPE    101826        Flow Assurance
Imperial College    SPE     95749        Flow Assurance
Imperial College    SPE     88559        Fluid Description

Imperial College    SPE    87445        Formation Damage

Imperial College    IPTC   12710            Heavy Oil

Imperial College    SPE    96184              HP/HT

Imperial College    SPE     93557   Low Permeability Reservoirs
Imperial College    SPE    100333      Reservoir Description
Imperial College    SPE     94186      Reservoir Description

Imperial College    SPE    100229      Reservoir Description
Imperial College    SPE     95428      Reservoir Description

Imperial College    SPE    100250      Reservoir Description

Imperial College    SPE    95594       Reservoir Description

Imperial College    IPTC    12365     Reservoir Management
Imperial College     SPE    96610     Reservoir Management
Imperial College     SPE   102135      Reservoir Modelling

Imperial College    SPE    100946       Reservoir Modelling
Imperial College    SPE     90276       Reservoir Modelling

Imperial College    SPE     90277       Reservoir Modelling
Imperial College    SPE     93144       Reservoir Modelling
Imperial College    SPE    101113       Reservoir Modelling

Imperial College    SPE     93341       Reservoir Modelling
Imperial College    SPE    100293       Reservoir Modelling
Imperial College    SPE     66365       Reservoir Modelling

Imperial College     SPE    98108       Reservoir Modelling
Imperial College     SPE   100233       Reservoir Modelling
Imperial College    IPTC    12292       Reservoir Modelling

Imperial College    SPE    101033       Reservoir Modelling

Imperial College    SPE    96448      Reservoir Performance

Imperial College    SPE    100400     Reservoir Performance

Imperial College    SPE    92887      Reservoir Performance
Imperial College   SPE   99727     Reservoir Performance
Imperial College   SPE   99721     Reservoir Performance

Imperial College   SPE   97848          Surveillence

Imperial College   SPE   89035    Unconventional Reservoirs
Imperial College   SPE   90255    Unconventional Reservoirs

Imperial College   SPE   96722        Well Deliverability

Imperial College   SPE    95843       Well Deliverability
Imperial College   SPE   100944       Well Deliverability
Imperial College   SPE    92715       Well Deliverability

Imperial College   SPE   89895        Well Deliverability
Imperial College   SPE   84500        Well Deliverability

Imperial College   SPE    90273       Well Deliverability
Imperial College   SPE   100371       Well Deliverability
Imperial College   SPE    82249       Well Deliverability
Imperial College   SPE   100993        Well Testing
Imperial College   SPE    89904        Well Testing
Imperial College   SPE    89905        Well Testing

Imperial College   SPE    94018         Well Testing
Imperial College   SPE   100136         Well Testing

Imperial College   SPE   102079         Well Testing
             Section                                   Subject
        Evaluation Approach
       Pulsed Water Injection
     Modelling - Integrated Asset                     Case Study
         Pipeline Modelling                             3 Phase
      Reservoir Fluid Detection                     Wavelet Transform

            Scale Control

Mechanism - Diffusion and Dispersion                 VAPEX Process

         Wettability Alteration                      Gas Condensate

        Reservoir Description                    Fracture Characterisation
         Facies Connectivity                        Percolation Theory
        Fracture Connectivity                       Percolation Theory

        Fracture Connectivity                       Percolation Theory
          Net Pay Cutoffs                              Application

        Static Reservoir Model

           WAG Rel Perms                           Pore Scale Modelling

          Attic Oil Recovery                        Slim SMART Wells
              Case Study                                Schiehallion
             Assisted HM                         Neighbourhood Algorithm

           Assisted HM                                Valhall Field
       Compositional Modelling                     Numerical Technique

      Descrete Fracture Model            Discontinuous Galerkin and Mixed Methods
     Dual Permeability Simulation                   Transfer Functions
     Dual Permeability Simulation                With Adsorption Behaviour

              Gridding                     Unstructured Hybrid-Element Meshes
              Gridding                                   Upscaling
             Mechanism                           Diffusion and Convection

    Naturally Fractured Reservoirs                     Waterflood
         Petroelastic Model                            Upscaling
    Pore-Scale Network Modelling                      Waterflooding

       Shared Earth Modelling                        Champion Feld

             Mechanism                            Rel. Perm. Hysteresis

Mechanism - Free Fall Gravity Drainage                 Experimental

      Mechanism - Miscible Gas                Homogeneous/Heterogeneous
 Mechanism - Nonequilibrium      Miscible Dispacements
Mechanism - Viscous Fingering        WAG Process

    Steamflood Monitoring               Tiltmeters

          Coalbed                  Production Controls
    Porosity Permeability               Sorption

            ESP                   Performance Analysis

   Intelligent WAG Injector         Statoil Veslefrikk
       Sand Production             Accurate Pediction
       Sand Production             Effect of water-Cut

      Sand production              Flowing conditions
      Sand production               Horizontal wells

      Sand Production                   Prediction
     Scale Management
        Skin Factor                  Assessment
    Lean gas Condensate                Analysis
            PTA                     Gas Condensate
            PTA                     Gas Condensate

            PTA                    Gas Condensate
     State of the Nation          Analysis Approaches

     State of the Nation        Evolution of Deconvolution
                                              Title
Novel Approach To Predict Potentiality of Enhanced Oil Recovery
Dynamics of Two-Phase Immiscible Pulsed Flow
Integrated Flow-Assurance Modeling of the BP Angola Block 18 Western Area Development
Unified Modeling of Gas/Oil/Water-Pipe Flow—Basic Approaches and Preliminary Validation
Identifying Reservoir Fluids by Wavelet Transform of Well Logs
The Comparison of Nonaqueous and Aqueous Scale-Inhibitor Treatments: Experimental and
Modeling Studies
An Experimental Investigation into the Influence of Diffusion and Dispersion on Heavy Oil Recovery
by VAPEX
Wettability Alteration to Intermediate Gas-Wetting in Gas-Condensate Reservoirs at High
Temperatures
The Fracture Characterization and Fracture Modeling of a Tight Carbonate Reservoir—The
Najmah-Sargelu of West Kuwait
Facies Connectivity Modelling: Analysis and Field Study
Fast Estimation of Connectivity in Fractured Reservoirs Using Percolation Theory

Connectivity Prediction in Fractured Reservoirs With Variable Fracture Size: Analysis and Validation
The Application of Cutoffs in Integrated Reservoir Studies
Integration of Well Test Deconvolution Analysis and Detailed Reservoir Modelling in 3D Seismic
Data Interpretation: A Case Study
Pore-Scale Modeling of Three-Phase WAG Injection: Prediction of Relative Permeabilities and
Trapping for Different Displacement Cycles
New Technology Applications For Improved Attic Oil Recovery: The World's First Slim Smart
Completions
Reservoir Management in a Deepwater Subsea Field--The Schiehallion Experience
Hydrocarbon Production Forecast and Uncertainty Quantification: A Field Application
History Matching of the Valhall Field Using a Global Optimization Method and Uncertainty
Assessment
Compositional Modeling by the Combined Discontinuous Galerkin and Mixed Methods
Compositional Modeling of Discrete-Fractured Media Without Transfer Functions by the
Discontinuous Galerkin and Mixed Methods
Multirate-Transfer Dual-Porosity Modeling of Gravity Drainage and Imbibition
A Multicomponent Dual-Porosity Model for Gas Reservoir Flow With Adsorption Behaviour
Finite Element—Node-Centered Finite-Volume Two-Phase-Flow Experiments With Fractured Rock
Represented by Unstructured Hybrid-Element Meshes
Validity of Steady-State Upscaling Techniques
Two-Phase Multicomponent Diffusion and Convection for Reservoir Initialization
Control-Volume Model for Simulation of Water Injection in Fractured Media: Incorporating Matrix
Heterogeneity and Reservoir Wettability Effects
From Logs Scale to Reservoir Scale: Upscaling of the Petroelastic Model
Pore-Scale Modeling of Rate Effects in Waterflooding
Depositional Modelling of Champion Field, Brunei: Assessing the Impact of Reservoir Architecture
on Secondary Recovery

A New Model of Trapping and Relative Permeability Hysteresis for All Wettability Characteristics
Experimental Investigation and Network Modeling Simulation of Free Fall Gravity Drainage in Single-
Matrix and Fractured-Blocks Models
Experimental and Numerical Studies of Gas/Oil Multicontact Miscible Displacements in
Homogeneous and Crossbedded Porous Media
Gas/Oil Nonequilibrium in Multicontact Miscible Displacements Within Homogeneous Porous Media
Impact of Viscous Fingering on the Prediction of Optimum WAG Ratio
Mapping Reservoir Volume Changes During Cyclic Steam Stimulation Using Tiltmeter-Based
Surface-Deformation Measurements
Controls of Coal Fabric on Coalbed Gas Production and Compositional Shift in Both Field
Production and Canister Desorption Tests
Secondary Porosity and Permeability of Coal vs. Gas Composition and Pressure
Survival Analysis: The Statistically Rigorous Method for Analyzing Electrical Submersible Pump
System Performance
Improved Reservoir Management With Intelligent Multizone Water-Alternating-Gas (WAG) Injectors
and Downhole Optical Flow Monitoring
Practical Approach to Achieve Accuracy in Sanding Prediction
Effect of Water Cut on Sand Production—An Experimental Study
Controls of Coal Fabric on Coalbed Gas Production and Compositional Shift in Both Field
Production and Canister Desorption Tests
Comprehensive Transient Modeling of Sand Production in Horizontal Wellbores
Sand-Production Prediction: A New Set of Criteria for Modeling Based on Large-Scale Transient
Experiments and Numerical Investigation
Development and Implementation of a Scale-Management Strategy for Oseberg S�r
Assessment of Total Skin Factor in Perforated Wells
Well Test Analysis in Lean Gas Condensate Reservoirs: Theory and Practice
Condensate-Bank Characterization From Well-Test Data and Fluid PVT Properties
Well Test Analysis of Horizontal Wells in Gas/Condensate Reservoirs
Estimating Productivity-Controlling Parameters in Gas/Condensate Wells From Transient Pressure
Data
New Approaches in Well Testing

From Straight Lines to Deconvolution: The Evolution of the State of the Art in Well Test Analysis
                                Author                                       Abstract
H. Jian, China U. of Petroleum, and H. Wenfen, Imperial College           Abstract The potentiality prediction of enhanced o
D.A. Ivanov, SPE, and M. Araujo, SPE, Imperial College                    Abstract Cyclic waterflooding has received recent
                                                                          Summary As
M.J. Watson, N.J. Hawkes, and P.F. Pickering, FEESA, and J. Elliott and L.W. Studd, BP oilfield developments become more
Hong-Quan Zhang, SPE, and Cem Sarica, SPE, U. of Tulsa                    Summary A unified model is proposed for the pred
                                                                          Summary The China Natl. Petroleum Corp. (CNPC
Wen-Zheng Yue, SPE, and Guo Tao, SPE, China U. of Petroleum, and Zhen-Wu Liu, SPE, wavelet-transform (WT) method ha

                                                                      Summary This paper U.
H. Guan, SPE, Champion Technologies, and K.S. Sorbie, SPE and E.J. Mackay, SPE, Heriot-Wattdescribes results from a ser

                                                                         Abstract This paper investigates the role SPE, Im
Abdullah Alkindi, SPE, Imperial College London; Yahya Al-Wahaibi, SPE, Sultan Qaboos University; Ann Muggeridge,of convec

                                                                       Summary Research Inst.
Mashhad Fahes, Imperial College; and Abbas Firoozabadi, SPE, Reservoir EngineeringWettability of two types of sandstone co

                                                                           Summary This Divry, Toreador Energy; and Hana
Olivier Fonta, Geopetrol S.A.; Hamad Al-Ajmi, Naveen K. Verma, Saad Matar, KOC; Vincentpaper presents an innovative and p
P.R. Nurafza, SPE, P.R. King, SPE, and M. Masihi, SPE, Imperial College Abstract A statistical approach is proposed and v
                                                                            Nurafza, Investigating College
M. Masihi, SPE, Sharif University of Technology; and P.R. King, SPE, and P.Summary SPE, Imperial the impact of geological un

M. Masihi, SPE, P.R. King, SPE, and P. Nurafza, SPE, Imperial College       Abstract Uncertainty in geometrical properties of
Paul F. Worthington, SPE, Gaffney, Cline & Associates                       Summary Methodologies have been developed fo

                                                                          Abstract This paper demonstrates how a combin
C. Amudo, J. Turner, J. Frewin, and T.C. Kgogo, PetroSA, and A.C. Gringarten, Imperial College London

                                                                           Abstract We
V.S. Suicmez, Imperial College; M. Piri, U. of Wyoming; and M.J. Blunt, Imperial College use a three-dimensional mixed-wet r

                                                                           Abstract Smart completions passive inflow contro
Stig Lyngra, SPE, Abdulkareem M. Al-Sofi, SPE, Uthman F. Al-Otaibi, SPE, Mohammed J. Alshakhs, SPE, and Ahmad A. Al-A
                                                                           Summary The Schiehallion field has experienced
Alastair Govan, SPE, Tim Primmer, Cameron Douglas, SPE, Neil Moodie, Merv Davies, and Ferry Nieuwland, SPE, BP
                                                                           Abstract Realistic Christie, models are U.
M. Rotondi, G. Nicotra, A. Godi, and F.M. Contento, Eni E&P; M.J. Blunt, Imperial C.; and M.A. reservoir Heriot-Watt essential f

                                                                           Teigland, Total E&P Norge
B.R. Al-Shamma, SPE, Imperial Collegem, London/Total E&P Norge, and R.Abstract This paper provides a study of a history m
H. Hoteit and A. Firoozabadi, Reservoir Engineering Research Inst. (RERI) Summary In this work we present a numerical pro

H. Hoteit and A. Firoozabadi, Reservoir Engineering Research Inst. (RERI) Summary In a recent work we introduced a nume
                                                                          Summary We develop a physically
Ginevra Di Donato, SPE, Huiyun Lu, SPE, Zohreh Tavassoli, SPE, and Martin J. Blunt, SPE, Imperial College motivated appr
M. Lu, SPE, and L.D. Connell, SPE, CSIRO Petroleum                        Abstract This study presents a modified dual-poro

                                                                      Summary Fractured-reservoir relative permeability
                                                                                  Phase
Stephan K. Matth�i, SPE, Andrey Mezentsev, and Mandefro Belayneh, Imperial College       Flow Experiments With Fra
S. Jonoud, SPE, and M.D. Jackson, SPE, Imperial College London        Abstract Steady-state upscaling techniques are a
                                                                      Summary We present formulation and numerical s
Hadi Nasrabadi, Imperial College London, and Kassem Ghorayeb and Abbas Firoozabadi, Reservoir Engineering Research Ins

                                                                          Summary
J.E.P. Monteagudo and A. Firoozabadi, SPE, Reservoir Engineering Research Institute The control-volume discrete-fracture (C
C. Menezes, SPE, Total E&P U.K. plc, and O. Gosselin, SPE, Total S.A.     Abstract Any quantitative workflow designed to c
                                                                          A
Nasiru A. Idowu, SPE, and Martin J. Blunt, SPE, Imperial College London, UKbstract We first present a new method to genera

                                                                          Abstract Champion is a Petroleum bbl Bhd.
D.F. Hadley, E. Arochukwu, SPE, K. Nishi, SPE, M. Sarginson, H. Salleh, and M. Omar, Brunei Shell multi-billionSdn.STOIIP oil

                                                                       Summary Massachusetts Institute of Technology;
Elizabeth J. Spiteri, SPE, Chevron Energy Technology Company; Ruben Juanes, SPE, The complex physics of multiphase flow

                                                                          Abstract Free Fall Gravity Tehran; and B. importan
Alireza Mollaei, U. of Calgary and Petroleum U. of Technology, IOR Research Inst.; M. Haghighi, U. of Drainage as an Maini, U

                                                                       Summary We investigate oil recovery
Y.M. Al-Wahaibi, SPE, Sultan Qaboos U., and A.H. Muggeridge, SPE, and C.A. Grattoni, SPE, Imperial College from multico
                                                                           Abstract Compositional simulation
Y.M. Al-Wahaibi, SPE, Sultan Qaboos U., and A.H. Muggeridge, SPE, and C.A. Grattoni, SPE, Imperial College is usually use
                                                                           A
R. Juanes, SPE, U. of Texas at Austin, and M.J. Blunt, SPE, Imperial College bstract In miscible flooding injection of solvent i

                                                                        Summary Surface-deformation measurements an
Jing Du, SPE, Pinnacle Technologies; Simon J. Brissenden and Peter R. McGillivray, Shell Canada Energy; Stephen Bourneha

Xiaojun Cui and R. Marc Bustin, U. of British Columbia                  Summary The production rates of coalbed gas we
                                                                        Summary We have
Matthew J. Mavor, SPE, Tesseract Corp., and William D. Gunter, SPE, Alberta Research Councilbeen investigating the seques

                                                                         Summary A rigorous statistical methodology using
W.J. Bailey, SPE, Schlumberger-Doll Research; I.S. Weir, U. West of England; B. Cou�t, SPE, Schlumberger-Doll Research

                                                                         Summary A four-zone intelligent water-alternating
                                                                         This paper was also presented SPE, Agoco
K. Qiu, J.R. Marsden, J. Alexander, and A. Retnanto, Schlumberger, and O.A. Abdelkarim and M. Shatwan, as SPE�100948
                                                                         Summary It is commonly acknowledged in the pet
Bailin Wu, SPE, and Chee P. Tan (Now with Schlumberger Oilfield Support Sdn Bhd.), SPE, CSIRO Petroleum, and Ning Lu, C

Xiaojun Cui and R. Marc Bustin, U. of British Columbia                    Summary The production rates of coalbed gas we
                                                                          Summary Installing sand control in long horizonta
Alireza Nouri, SPE, Dalhousie University; Hans Vaziri, SPE, BP-America Inc.; and Hadi Belhaj, SPE, and M. Rafiqul Islam, SPE

                                                                            Summary This paper introduces a
Alireza Nouri, Dalhousie U.; Hans Vaziri, BP plc America Inc.; and Hadi Belhaj and Rafiqul Islam, Dalhousie U. predictive tool t
                                                                            Summary Oseberg S�r field operated by Hydro
Niall Fleming, SPE, Kari Ramstad, SPE, Synn�ve H. Eriksen, SPE, Erlend Moldrheim, SPE, and Thomas Rudberg Johansen
Turhan Yildiz, SPE, Colorado School of Mines                                Summary In this study the available methods and
                                                                            Abstract Gas London
A.C. Gringarten, M. Bozorgzadeh, S. Daungkaew, and A. Hashemi, SPE, Imperial College,condensate reservoirs exhibit a com
                                                                            London
Manijeh Bozorgzadeh, SPE, and Alain C. Gringarten, SPE, Imperial College Summary Published well-test analyses in gas/con
                                                                            Summary Gas/condensate reservoirs usually exhi
A. Hashemi , SPE, Imperial College London; L.M. Nicolas , SPE, Gaz de France; and A.C. Gringarten , SPE, Imperial College L

Manijeh Bozorgzadeh, SPE, and Alain C. Gringarten, SPE, Imperial College Summary The ability to predict well deliverability is
                                                                              and O.V. Bradulina, Inst. of the Russian Academy
S.N. Zakirov, I.M. Indrupskiy, E.S. Zakirov, SPE, D.P. Anikeev, A.I. Tarasov,Abstract Modern methodology of well testing is th

A.C. Gringarten, Imperial C.                                                 Abstract Well test analysis has been used for man
 ality prediction of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is the basis of EOR potentiality analysis as well as the robust guarantee of the reliability of a
 rflooding has received recent attention since many studies and field tests have shown that it may lead to additional oil recovery at virtually z
developments become more challenging and economically challenging flow assurance has become crucial to the feasibility of projects. Con
model is proposed for the prediction of flow behavior during production and transportation of gas oil and water through wellbores and pipelin
et-transform (WT) method has been applied to logs to extract reservoir-fluid information. In addition to the time (depth)/frequency analysis ge

r describes results from a series of comparative corefloods and static compatibility tests examining the differences in laboratory-test procedu

nvestigates the role of convective dispersion on oil recovery by VAPEX using an analogue fluid system of ethanol and glycerol in well-charac

 of two types of sandstone cores Berea (permeability on the order of 600 md) and a reservoir rock (permeability on the order of 10 md) is a

r presents an innovative and promising multidisciplinary approach that includes geology (borehole images cores and wireline logs); geophy
  approach is proposed and validated against a realistic field dataset to model connectivity of low to intermediate net-to-gross reservoirs. An
ng the impact of geological uncertainty (i.e. spatial distribution of fractures) on reservoir performance may aid management decisions. The c

y in geometrical properties of fractures affects all aspects of flow in fractured reservoirs. The connectivity of fractures embedded in low perm
 gies have been developed for applying net reservoir and thence net pay cutoffs in cases of primary and waterflood depletion. The cutoffs are

 demonstrates how a combination of seismic data interpretation advanced well test deconvolution analysis and detailed reservoir modeling

hree-dimensional mixed-wet random network model representing Berea sandstone to compute displacement paths and relative permeabiliti

pletions passive inflow control devices (ICD) and maximum reservoir contact wells (MRC) are some of the more recent technology advancem
hallion field has experienced many reservoir management challenges since first production in 1998. Dynamic data such as formation pressu
servoir models are essential for efficient field management and accurate forecasting of hydrocarbon production. Such models based on the

provides a study of a history match on a complex reservoir model using a global optimization method. This is done by applying Evolutionary A
k we present a numerical procedure that combines the mixed finite-element (MFE) and the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods. This num

t work we introduced a numerical approach that combines the mixed-finite-element (MFE) and the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for
op a physically motivated approach to modeling displacement processes in fractured reservoirs. To find matrix/fracture transfer functions in a
presents a modified dual-porosity model for multi-species gas flow with adsorption behaviour which is formulated from an exact formal soluti

              Element Meshes
 te upscaling techniques are attractive because they are quick and simple to implement; unlike dynamic methods there is no need for fine g
nt formulation and numerical solution of two-phase multicomponent diffusion and natural convection in porous media. Thermal diffusion pres

ol-volume discrete-fracture (CVDF) model is extended to incorporate heterogeneity in rock and in rock-fluid properties. A novel algorithm is p
 ative workflow designed to constrain reservoir models to 3D/4D seismic data must rely on petro-elastic modelling (or PEM) which relates
 sent a new method to generate stochastic random networks representing the pore space of different rocks with given input pore and throat s

s a multi-billion bbl STOIIP oilfield offshore Brunei. It is a mature field with over 250 producing wells. Oil production commenced in 1972 and

 ex physics of multiphase flow in porous media are usually modeled at the field scale using Darcy-type formulations. The key descriptors of s

avity Drainage as an important recovery mechanism was investigated and analyzed experimentally and by numerical (network model) simula

 gate oil recovery from multicontact miscible (MCM) gas injection into homogeneous and crossbedded porous media using a combination of
onal simulation is usually used to predict the performance of multi-contact miscible (MCM) recovery schemes. One key assumption in most
 flooding injection of solvent is often combined with water in an attempt to reduce the mobility contrast between injected and displaced fluids

eformation measurements have been used for years in oil fields to monitor production waterflooding waste injection steam flooding and cy

 ction rates of coalbed gas wells commonly vary significantly even in the same field with similar reservoir permeability and gas content. The c
been investigating the sequestration of atmospheric pollutants by injection into coal seams while at the same time enhancing hydrocarbon pr

 statistical methodology using survival analysis (SA) was developed and applied to electrical submersible pump (ESP) system performance d

e intelligent water-alternating-gas (WAG) injector was installed at the Statoil Veslefrikk Field in the North Sea in May 2004. The completion in
presented as SPE�100948 at the 2006 SPE International Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition in China held in Beijing 5-7 December 200
only acknowledged in the petroleum industry that water cut increases sand-production risk and a number of possible mechanisms have bee

ction rates of coalbed gas wells commonly vary significantly even in the same field with similar reservoir permeability and gas content. The c
sand control in long horizontal wells is difficult and particularly challenging in offshore fields. It is therefore imperative to make decisions with

r introduces a predictive tool that forecasts the drawdown associated with the onset of sanding as well as it predicts the sanding rate in real t
S�r field operated by Hydro Oil & Energy is situated 130 km west of the Norwegian coast on the eastern flank of the Viking Graben structu
dy the available methods and software to predict the well productivity and total skin factor in fully perforated vertical wells have been reviewe
nsate reservoirs exhibit a complex behavior when wells are produced below the dew point due to the existence of a two-fluid system reservo
 well-test analyses in gas/condensate reservoirs in which the pressure has dropped below the dewpoint are usually based on a two- or three-
ensate reservoirs usually exhibit complex flow behaviors owing to the buildup of condensate banks around the wells when the bottomhole pre

 to predict well deliverability is a key issue for the development of gas/condensate reservoirs. We show in this paper that well deliverability de
ethodology of well testing is the result of efforts of many scientists for more than 50 years. It is mainly based on the theory of single-phase flo

 alysis has been used for many years to assess well condition and obtain reservoir parameters. Early interpretation methods (using straight-li
 obust guarantee of the reliability of analysis results. In the light of statistical learning theory establishing an EOR predictive model substanti
                                                                                            OnePetro
 o additional oil recovery at virtually zero additional cost. Even though the process is in principle very similar to conventional waterflooding th
ucial to the feasibility of projects. Consequently flow-assurance issues such as hydrates or wax deposition must now be considered early in c
d water through wellbores and pipelines.�In gas/oil/water three-phase-pipe flow the phase distributions and hydrodynamics are described
he time (depth)/frequency analysis generally performed by the wavelet method we also have performed energy spectral analysis for time/fre

differences in laboratory-test procedure scale-inhibitor (SI) returns and modeling approaches for nonaqueous and aqueous SI treatments.ï¿

 f ethanol and glycerol in well-characterized glass bead packs. Laboratory studies of VAPEX in porous media result in significantly high produ

 meability on the order of 10 md) is altered from liquid-wetting to intermediate gas-wetting at a high temperature of 140C. Previous work on w

es cores and wireline logs); geophysics (seismic facies analysis) and reservoir engineering data (production data PLT and well test) that w
rmediate net-to-gross reservoirs. An object based technique is used to model the spatial distribution of aligned isotropic and anisotropic bod
ay aid management decisions. The conventional approach to address this is to build a number of possible reservoir models upscale them a

y of fractures embedded in low permeable zones can control fluid movement and influence field performance. This can be analyzed using
 waterflood depletion. The cutoffs are dynamically-conditioned to be reservoir-specific (i.e. they are tied back to a reference permeability par

 ysis and detailed reservoir modeling helped address the concern of reservoir compartmentalization in the E-M field located offshore South

ement paths and relative permeabilities for water alternating gas (WAG) flooding. First we reproduce cycles of water and gas injection obse

 he more recent technology advancements employed to enhance recovery and extend the life of mature oil fields in Saudi Arabia. This paper
namic data such as formation pressures pressure-transient analysis interference testing tracer analysis and 4D seismic need to be interpre
duction. Such models based on the physical description of the reservoir need to be calibrated or conditioned to historical production data. T

his is done by applying Evolutionary Algorithms to the problem of history matching. The results of the history match are then used to carry ou
us Galerkin (DG) methods. This numerical scheme is used to solve the highly nonlinear coupled equations that describe the flow processes

ontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for compositional modeling in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media. In this work we extend ou
matrix/fracture transfer functions in a dual-porosity model we use analytical expressions for the average recovery as a function of time for ga
 rmulated from an exact formal solution of a linear multi-component gas diffusion process within a porous matrix block. Therefore the couplin


 methods there is no need for fine grid simulation and the upscaled properties are not case dependant. They are based on the assumption
orous media. Thermal diffusion pressure diffusion and molecular diffusion are included in the diffusion expression from thermodynamics of

uid properties. A novel algorithm is proposed to model strong water-wetting with zero capillary pressure in the fractures. The extended metho
c modelling (or PEM) which relates fluid and rock properties to elastic ones. Various scales must be accounted for: laboratory cores and w
cks with given input pore and throat size distributions and connectivity – these distributions can be obtained from an analysis of pore-space

production commenced in 1972 and production to date is less than 20% of the oil initially in place.� The feasibility of increasing recovery

ormulations. The key descriptors of such models are the relative permeabilities to each of the flowing phases. It is well known that whenever

by numerical (network model) simulation for both single matrix and fractured blocks models. The results of free fall gravity drainage of these

orous media using a combination of well-characterized laboratory experiments and detailed compositional flow simulation.� All simulator
 emes. One key assumption in most such simulations is that of instantaneous compositional equilibrium is achieved between phases in eac
between injected and displaced fluids and control the degree of fingering. Using traditional fractional flow theory Stalkup estimated the opti

aste injection steam flooding and cyclic steam stimulation (CSS). They have been proved to be a very effective way to monitor field operatio

r permeability and gas content. The compositional variation in produced gas is also not everywhere predictable although in most fields produ
ame time enhancing hydrocarbon productivity by displacement of methane with pollutants. Our effort is one of several field-based research e

                                                                            OnePetro
e pump (ESP) system performance data. The approach extracts unbiased information from performance data and permits lifetime modeling

h Sea in May 2004. The completion includes one on/off and three variable downhole chokes for controlling injection rate into each of the four
na held in Beijing 5-7 December 2006. Abstract Sand production is a major concern for many operators. It can impact production cause er
 er of possible mechanisms have been proposed. This paper presents the results of a series of laboratory perforation-collapse tests aimed at

r permeability and gas content. The compositional variation in produced gas is also not everywhere predictable although in most fields produ
re imperative to make decisions with regard to the most optimum completion type objectively and based on reliable assessment of the sand

s it predicts the sanding rate in real time. Experimental data on hollow cylinder samples (HCS) are used to support the validity of the numeric
ern flank of the Viking Graben structure. It comprises a sequence of fault-bounded structural units of varying geological complexity. Within th
 ted vertical wells have been reviewed. The methods have been compared against the experimental data obtained on an electrolytic apparatu
 stence of a two-fluid system reservoir gas and liquid condensate. Different mobility zones develop around the wellbore corresponding respe
are usually based on a two- or three-region radial composite well-test interpretation model to represent condensate dropout around the wellb
nd the wells when the bottomhole pressure drops below the dewpoint pressure. The formation of this liquid saturation can lead to a severe lo

 n this paper that well deliverability depends mainly on the gas relative permeabilities at both the endpoint and the near-wellbore saturations
ased on the theory of single-phase flow. Few publications consider two-phase flow. However they were also generally reduced to single-pha

erpretation methods (using straight-lines or log-log pressure plots) were limited to the estimation of well performance. With the introduction o
milar to conventional waterflooding there are interesting new effects taking place under the pulsed conditions that need to be properly quant
on must now be considered early in concept selection. Modern numerical methods coupled with the latest software engineering techniques
 s and hydrodynamics are described on the basis of two criteria: gas/liquid flow pattern and oil/water mixing status.�The three-phase flow
 energy spectral analysis for time/frequency-domain signals by the WT method. We have further developed a new method to identify reservo

 ueous and aqueous SI treatments.� Two types of nonaqueous systems one ethylene glycol (EG) -based and two oil-soluble products eac

media result in significantly high production rates than predicted either by analytic models derived from Hele-Shaw experiments or numerical s

perature of 140C. Previous work on wettability alteration to intermediate gas-wetting has been limited to 90C. In this work chemicals previou

uction data PLT and well test) that were combined to identify the main types of fractures to predict their occurrence in the reservoir and to
 aligned isotropic and anisotropic bodies. The connectivity of the model is estimated using percolation theory. First account is made to evalu
ble reservoir models upscale them and then run flow simulations. The problem with this approach is that it is computationally very expensive

 mance. This can be analyzed using percolation theory. This approach is used the hypothesis that the permeability can be split into either pe
 back to a reference permeability parameter in a way that is driven by the reservoir data themselves). They also honor scale where feasible

he E-M field located offshore South Africa and thus significantly improve the history match. The reservoir is heavily faulted and many of the

 cles of water and gas injection observed in previously published experimental studies. We predict the measured oil water and gas relative

 oil fields in Saudi Arabia. This paper illustrates a progression of technology in the most mature field operated by Saudi Aramco. In this field
s and 4D seismic need to be interpreted with great care—Schiehallion has examples in which the data have been invaluable and others in w
ioned to historical production data. The process of incorporating dynamic data in the generation of reservoir models known as history match

 tory match are then used to carry out an uncertainty assessment on variables of interest. The main parameters used in the history match inc
 ns that describe the flow processes in homogeneous and heterogeneous media with mass transfer between the phases. The MFE method i

 us media. In this work we extend our numerical approach to 2D fractured media. We use the discrete-fracture model (crossflow equilibrium)
e recovery as a function of time for gas gravity drainage and countercurrent imbibition. For capillary-controlled displacement the recovery ten
 s matrix block. Therefore the coupling effects of mutual-diffusion are included in the representation. This new respresentation in its first ord


 . They are based on the assumption that either capillary forces (capillary equilibrium limit CL) or viscous forces (viscous limit VL) dominate
  expression from thermodynamics of irreversible processes. The formulation and the numerical solution are used to perform initialization in a

 n the fractures. The extended method is used to simulate: (1) oil production in a layered faulted reservoir (2) laboratory displacement tests i
accounted for: laboratory cores and well logs geological and seismic grids fluid flow simulator models. The petro-elastic model is generally
ained from an analysis of pore-space images.� The stochastic networks can be arbitrarily large and hence are not limited by the size of the

The feasibility of increasing recovery through a major waterflooding programme is currently under evaluation. Potential incremental oil recove

 ases. It is well known that whenever the fluid saturations undergo a cyclic process relative permeabilities display hysteresis effects. In this

  of free fall gravity drainage of these two models were compared to each other to determine whether or not the network of fractures intensify

 nal flow simulation.� All simulator input data including most EOS parameters were determined experimentally or from the literature produ
is achieved between phases in each grid block. This is despite the fact that most grid blocks are tens of metres long and at least a metre t
w theory Stalkup estimated the optimum water-solvent ratio (or WAG ratio) when viscous fingering effects are ignored by imposing that th

effective way to monitor field operations and save money for operators wishing to avoid unwanted surface breeches casing failures and exc

 ictable although in most fields produced gas becomes progressively enriched in CO2 through the production life of a reservoir such as part
one of several field-based research efforts into CO2 storage in coal seams that are currently operating in Canada (Mavor et al. 2004) China



ng injection rate into each of the four zones. The completion also includes three downhole optical flowmeters and three optical pressure and
 s. It can impact production cause erosion in downhole and surface facilities require additional separation and disposal and lead to significa
 y perforation-collapse tests aimed at demonstrating and quantifying the water-cut effect on perforation failure and sand production. The labo

 ictable although in most fields produced gas becomes progressively enriched in CO2 through the production life of a reservoir such as part
d on reliable assessment of the sanding potential and its severity over the life of the well for the intended production target. This paper introd

 to support the validity of the numerical model.� Experiments on hollow-cylinder synthetic-sandstone specimens were conducted involvin
rying geological complexity. Within these units the reservoir intervals are of moderate to poor quality and can exhibit strong contrasts in perm
a obtained on an electrolytic apparatus and their accuracy has been investigated. It has been observed that the 3D semianalytical model SP
 nd the wellbore corresponding respectively to the original gas in place (away from the well) the condensate drop-out and capillarity number
condensate dropout around the wellbore and initial gas in place away from the well. Gas/condensate-specific results from well-test analysis a
uid saturation can lead to a severe loss of well productivity and therefore lower gas recovery. Several studies have examined various ways

nt and the near-wellbore saturations as well as on the reservoir permeability. We then demonstrate how these parameters and the base capi
 also generally reduced to single-phase inverse problems. During the last several years authors have been developing an alternative trend

performance. With the introduction of pressure derivative analysis in 1983 and the development of complex interpretation models that are ab
ditions that need to be properly quantified for a realistic field deployment of the cyclic injection process.� Two-phase immiscible pulsed fl
est software engineering techniques now allow the rigorous calculation of multiphase thermal hydraulic behavior in an integrated asset mode
 ing status.�The three-phase flow is treated as gas/liquid two-phase flow if the two liquids are fully mixed or as a three-layer stratified flow
 ped a new method to identify reservoir fluid by setting up a correlation between the energy spectra and reservoir fluid. We have processed 4

sed and two oil-soluble products each containing penta-phosphonate SIs were investigated. Detailed compatibility and injectivity tests were

ele-Shaw experiments or numerical simulations. Previous workers have obtained an improved match between experiment and simulation by

 90C. In this work chemicals previously used at 90C for wettability alteration are found to be ineffective at 140C. New chemicals are used wh

 r occurrence in the reservoir and to determine the hydraulic properties of the different fractures sets. The Najmah-Sargelu of west Kuwait is
heory. First account is made to evaluate the effect of the aspect ratio of the facies. The outcome is two universal curves for the connectivity
at it is computationally very expensive. In this study we use another approach based on the permeability contrasts that control the flow called

permeability can be split into either permeable or impermeable and assumes that the connectivity of permeability contrasts controls the flow
 ey also honor scale where feasible and are conformable with any pertinent rock-typing. For primary depletion the Leverett equivalent circu

oir is heavily faulted and many of the faults have no throw across them suggesting possible communication throughout the reservoir. Severa

measured oil water and gas relative permeabilities accurately. We discuss the hysteresis trends in the water and gas relative permeabilities

erated by Saudi Aramco. In this field one of the challenges is to maximize production from the inadequately swept attic oil zone resulting from
 have been invaluable and others in which the data are ambiguous or misleading. It is essential to integrate several data types to obtain relia
 voir models known as history matching is traditionally done by hand and is a very tedious time-consuming procedure that in addition retur

ameters used in the history match included: horizontal permeabilities porosities and vertical transmissibilities. �This study also made use
ween the phases. The MFE method is used to approximate the phase velocity based on the pressure (more precisely average pressure) at th

racture model (crossflow equilibrium) to approximate the two-phase flow with mass transfer in fractured media. The discrete-fracture model i
rolled displacement the recovery tends to its ultimate value with an approximately exponential decay (Barenblatt et al. 1990). When gravity d
 s new respresentation in its first order form exhibits to be a simple algebraic expression that is of an equivalent computational efficiency in


us forces (viscous limit VL) dominate flow. However the reservoir conditions for which these assumptions are valid have not been clearly d
 are used to perform initialization in a 2D cross section. We use both homogeneous and layered media without and with anisotropy in our ca

ir (2) laboratory displacement tests in a stack of matrix blocks with a large contrast in fracture and matrix capillary pressure functions and (3
The petro-elastic model is generally a fine-scale model (“pem) defined and calibrated for each specific case against core and logs data
ence are not limited by the size of the original image. We then develop a rate-dependent network model that accounts for viscous forces by

 tion. Potential incremental oil recovery is 8%. Significant capital investment (up to 140 new wells and 10 new jackets) will be required to rea

es display hysteresis effects. In this paper we investigate hysteresis in the relative permeability of the hydrocarbon phase in a two-phase sy

not the network of fractures intensify the free fall gravity drainage recovery of matrix blocks. For the experimental study a set of glass microm

rimentally or from the literature produced fluids in all experiments were found not to be in compositional equilibrium. This was not predicted b
of metres long and at least a metre thick. This paper investigates the non-equilibrium observed in series of multi-contact miscible displace
ects are ignored by imposing that the solvent and water fronts travel at the same speed. Here we study how the displacement efficiency an

e breeches casing failures and excessive subsidence because of production. This paper demonstrates that more information can be extrac

uction life of a reservoir such as parts of the San Juan basin. In contrast it is generally observed that the ratio of CO2:CH4 declines with tim
n Canada (Mavor et al. 2004) China (Robinson et al. 2004) Japan (Nago and Komaki 2004) and Poland (Van Bergen et al. 2004). During th



eters and three optical pressure and temperature gauges. Measurement of surface injection rate and the rate from each of the three flowmet
on and disposal and lead to significant economic loss. On the other hand precautionary but unnecessary sand prevention will mean unwarra
ailure and sand production. The laboratory perforation-collapse tests were conducted on weak sandstones obtained from downhole and out

uction life of a reservoir such as parts of the San Juan basin. In contrast it is generally observed that the ratio of CO2:CH4 declines with tim
d production target. This paper introduces a predictive tool that forecasts not only the initiation of sanding but also its rate and severity in real

 specimens were conducted involving real-time sand-production measurement under various conditions. A numerical approach was used fo
d can exhibit strong contrasts in permeability and formation water composition. Reservoir support is provided by combined injection of gas an
 that the 3D semianalytical model SPAN 6.0 software and the simple hybrid model described in this paper replicate the experimental results
sate drop-out and capillarity number effects (close to the well). Condensate drop-out causes a non-reversible reduction in well productivity w
ecific results from well-test analysis are the mobility and storativity ratios between the regions and the condensate-bank radius. For a given re
tudies have examined various ways to minimize the pressure drop in order to reduce liquid dropout and related problems. One solution imple

 these parameters and the base capillary number can be obtained from pressure-buildup data by using single-phase and two-phase pseudop
 been developing an alternative trend in well testing. Its distinctive features are: creation of bi-directional two-phase flow in the near-wellbo

plex interpretation models that are able to account for detailed geological features well test analysis has become a very powerful tool for rese
¿½ Two-phase immiscible pulsed flow experiments performed on homogenous packed glass beads cells are compared with flow behaviou
behavior in an integrated asset model (IAM) on time scales acceptable for concept selection. This paper describes the application of a new I
 ed or as a three-layer stratified flow at low flow rates in horizontal or slightly inclined pipes.�Most three-phase flows fall between these two
 eservoir fluid. We have processed 42 models from an oil field in China using this method and have subsequently applied these rules to inter

 ompatibility and injectivity tests were carried out before coreflooding and a carefully designed application/treatment process was required as

etween experiment and simulation by artificially increasing the diffusion coefficient of the injected vapour into the oil. Justifications for this inc

at 140C. New chemicals are used which alter wettability at high temperatures. The results show that: (1) wettability could be permanently alte

he Najmah-Sargelu of west Kuwait is an oil-bearing reservoir made of tight carbonates where porosity and permeability are provided mainly b
universal curves for the connectivity and its associated uncertainty which can be used to estimate the connectivity of all sorts of body sizes
 contrasts that control the flow called percolation approach. This assumes that the permeability disorder of a rock can be simplified to either

 meability contrasts controls the flow. The analysis of the connectivity based on finite size scaling assumes that fractures all have the same
 pletion the Leverett equivalent circular pore diameter has been used to distinguish between reservoir and nonreservoir rock. This composite

 tion throughout the reservoir. Several simulation efforts in the past have failed to reconcile the connected hydrocarbons initially in-place est

water and gas relative permeabilities and compare the behavior of water-wet and oil-wet media. We interpret the results in terms of pore-sc

tely swept attic oil zone resulting from a significant permeability contrast with the underlying high-permeability zone. Since 1995 a progressio
 ate several data types to obtain reliable conclusions. This paper describes some of the highlights and pitfalls experienced in Schiehallion. Sc
ming procedure that in addition returns only one single matched model. It has been shown that the best matched model may well not be a g

 lities. �This study also made use of methods for improving the convergence of the optimization cycle which included using correlations a
 ore precisely average pressure) at the interface between the nodes. This approach conserves the mass locally at the element level and gua

 media. The discrete-fracture model is numerically superior to the single-porosity model and overcomes limitations of the dual-porosity mode
arenblatt et al. 1990). When gravity dominates the approach to ultimate recovery is slower and varies as a power law with time (Hagoort 198
quivalent computational efficiency in comparison with the traditional Warren and Root. Yet the mutual-diffusion effect is not present in the lat


 ns are valid have not been clearly defined. It is generally supposed that the CL method is valid at ‘low’ flow rates over ‘small’
 without and with anisotropy in our calculations. Numerical examples for a binary mixture of C1/C3 and a multicomponent reservoir fluid are p

 x capillary pressure functions and (3) water injection in 2D and 3D fractured media with mixed-wettability state. Our results show that the alg
 cific case against core and logs data. Aiming a 4D history matching workflow at the flow model scale we then need to validate the use of t
 l that accounts for viscous forces by solving for the wetting and non-wetting phase pressure and which allows wetting layer swelling near an

0 new jackets) will be required to realise this opportunity. It is therefore important to capture the full range of possible subsurface scenarios

 ydrocarbon phase in a two-phase system. We propose a new model of trapping and waterflood relative permeability which is applicable for

erimental study a set of glass micromodels with real pattern of porous media was constructed in two main forms of single matrix model (as a

 equilibrium. This was not predicted by the simulator giving a poor match between experimental and simulated oil recoveries. The match was
es of multi-contact miscible displacements performed in the laboratory. For simplicity a two-phase three-component (IPA/water/cyclohexen
y how the displacement efficiency and the mobility ratio across the solvent front vary with the WAG ratio when fingering is included in the an

s that more information can be extracted from surface-deformation measurements by inverting the surface deformation for the volumetric de

e ratio of CO2:CH4 declines with time during field and laboratory desorption testing of coal cores. In this study we investigate numerically the
d (Van Bergen et al. 2004). During the course of our field measurements we have been using single-well injection soak and production tes



e rate from each of the three flowmeters provides real-time measurement of injection rate into each zone regardless of choke positions. The
ry sand prevention will mean unwarranted reduction in productivity. Reliable sanding prediction analysis thus provides a basis for designs tha
nes obtained from downhole and outcrop. The tests were performed under simulated in-situ effective stresses and drawdown conditions. Wa

e ratio of CO2:CH4 declines with time during field and laboratory desorption testing of coal cores. In this study we investigate numerically the
g but also its rate and severity in real time. A series of well-documented experiments on a large-size horizontal wellbore was simulated usin

 . A numerical approach was used for simulating the experimental results. The material behavior was simulated using an elastoplastic stress
vided by combined injection of gas and Utsira aquifer water. The wells are a combination of platform and subsea and comprise extended rea
per replicate the experimental results very well. On the other hand the results estimated from the McLeod method and the Karakas-Tariq me
rsible reduction in well productivity which is compensated in part by capillarity number effects. All these effects can be identified and quantif
ndensate-bank radius. For a given region however well-test analysis cannot uncouple the storativity ratio from the region radius and the sto
 related problems. One solution implemented over the past decade is the use of horizontal wells. There is a lack of published knowledge on

single-phase and two-phase pseudopressures simultaneously. These parameters can in turn be used to estimate gas relative permeability cu
nal two-phase flow in the near-wellbore region or forced creation of two- or three-phase fluid flow; interpretation of well test results based

 become a very powerful tool for reservoir characterization. A new milestone has been reached recently with the introduction of deconvolutio
ells are compared with flow behaviour under continuous injection. In the pulsed experiments injection is switched on/off using a timing devic
r describes the application of a new IAM tool to analyze options for the development of fields in the western part of BP’s Angolan deepwa
e-phase flows fall between these two extremes: partially mixed with slippage between the two liquid phases.�Closure relationships describ
sequently applied these rules to interpret reservoir layers. It is found that identifications by use of this method are in very good agreement wit

 n/treatment process was required as a result of the hydrophobic nature of these products. To understand the SI-transport and -retention mec

r into the oil. Justifications for this increase include convective dispersion an increased surface area due to the formation of oil films on sand

 wettability could be permanently altered from liquid-wetting to intermediate gas-wetting at high reservoir temperatures (2) wettability alterati

 nd permeability are provided mainly by the fracture network. In this paper we first introduce the method used to identify and predict the two m
connectivity of all sorts of body sizes and aspect ratios very quickly. The approach is then reviewed for variable body sizes as well as a syste
r of a rock can be simplified to either permeable or impermeable. The advantage is that by using some universal laws from percolation theor

mes that fractures all have the same sizes. However natural fracture networks involve a relatively wide range of fracture lengths modelled
nd nonreservoir rock. This composite parameter can incorporate mobility for multiphase work. It is linked to a discrete core porosity under sim

ed hydrocarbons initially in-place estimated from material balance and those calculated volumetrically leading to unsubstantiated assumptio

erpret the results in terms of pore-scale displacements.�In water-wet media the water relative permeability is lower in the presence of ga

ability zone. Since 1995 a progression of new technology deployment has taken place to improve oil recovery from this thin attic oil zone. Th
tfalls experienced in Schiehallion. Schiehallion Background The Schiehallion field is situated on the Atlantic margin of the United Kingdom C
 matched model may well not be a good predictor of future performance. In this work one of the first field applications of the Neighbourhood

e which included using correlations adopting a Bayesian approach and exploring the search space. The results obtained over the optimizatio
s locally at the element level and guarantees the continuity of the total flux across the interfaces. The DG method is used to solve the mass-b

limitations of the dual-porosity model including the use of a shape factor. The MFE method is used to solve the pressure equation where the
s a power law with time (Hagoort 1980). We apply transfer functions based on these expressions for core-scale recovery in field-scale simula
 ffusion effect is not present in the latter one. A numerical algorithm is also developed for this model when the full form of it which is of an in


w’ flow rates over ‘small’ lengthscales while the VL method is valid at ‘high’ flow rates over ‘large’ lengthscales. Th
 multicomponent reservoir fluid are presented. Results show a strong effect of natural convection in species distribution. Results also show t

ty state. Our results show that the algorithm is suitable for the simulation of water injection in heterogeneous porous media both in water-wet
we then need to validate the use of the logs-scale calibrated “pem at a larger scale vertically and laterally. In this paper we proposed a
allows wetting layer swelling near an advancing flood front. We propose a new time-dependent algorithm by accounting for partial filling of ele

ge of possible subsurface scenarios early in the study. A fundamental first step in the integrated modelling workflow has been to develop anï

permeability which is applicable for the entire range of rock wettability conditions. The proposed formulation overcomes some of the limitatio

ain forms of single matrix model (as a 2D simulator of conventional reservoirs) and fractured blocks model (as a 2D simulator of fractured res

 ulated oil recoveries. The match was significantly improved for the cross-bedded displacements by using alpha factors derived from the MC
ee-component (IPA/water/cyclohexene) liquid system that exhibits an upper critical point at ambient conditions was used. Both vaporising an
  when fingering is included in the analysis. We do so by computing analytical solutions to a one-dimensional model of two-phase three-co

ce deformation for the volumetric deformation at the reservoir level using the inversion techniques from the literature so that the areal distrib

 study we investigate numerically the importance of coal fabric namely cleat spacing and aperture width on the performance of coalbed gas
ell injection soak and production tests to collect data required to understand and predict enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery pote



e regardless of choke positions. The well is on a WAG cycle in which one zone is primarily intended for gas injection and the other three zon
 thus provides a basis for designs that achieve appropriate sand management strategies and maximization of economic production and ove
esses and drawdown conditions. Water was introduced into the flowing stream of either oil or gas at various stages of the tests to simulate w

 study we investigate numerically the importance of coal fabric namely cleat spacing and aperture width on the performance of coalbed gas
orizontal wellbore was simulated using a finite difference numerical model. The model accounts for the interaction between fluid flow and me

mulated using an elastoplastic stress-strain relationship. The model simulated the interaction between fluid flow and mechanical deformation
d subsea and comprise extended reach horizontals with complex geometry and lesser numbers of vertical wells. Detailed scale predictions h
od method and the Karakas-Tariq method substantially deviate from the experimental data; hence these models/methods should be used w
e effects can be identified and quantified from well test data. Tests in condensate reservoirs however tend to be difficult to interpret. Build-up
 io from the region radius and the storativity ratio must be estimated independently to obtain the correct bank radius. In most cases the stora
 is a lack of published knowledge on the flow behavior of horizontal wells in gas/condensate reservoirs. The limited studies in this area (Mula

 estimate gas relative permeability curves. Finally we illustrate this approach with both simulated pressure-buildup data and an actual field c
erpretation of well test results based on 1D 2D or 3D multiphase optimization problems. Obviously in this case well testing techniques are

 with the introduction of deconvolution. Deconvolution is a process which converts pressure data at variable rate into a single drawdown at co
s switched on/off using a timing device in the pumping system. Symmetric cyclic periods and different injection rates were used in the study
 ern part of BP’s Angolan deepwater Block 18. Novel aspects include the embedding of field scheduling rules such that the drilling sched
 ses.�Closure relationships describing the distribution between the liquid phases namely mixing and inversion are proposed.�The mod
 thod are in very good agreement with the results of well tests. Introduction An important log-analysis application is determining reservoir-flu

 d the SI-transport and -retention mechanisms for these nonaqueous systems comparisons were made with the corresponding aqueous app

e to the formation of oil films on sand grains imbibition of oil into those films and a greater dependence on drainage height. Convective dispe

  temperatures (2) wettability alteration has a substantial effect on increasing liquid mobility at reservoir conditions (3) wettability alteration re

 used to identify and predict the two main scales of fractures: joints and large-scale fractures (faults and fracture swarms). The shale content
variable body sizes as well as a system with oriented bodies. An effective size based on the square root of the average area of bodies can
universal laws from percolation theory the effect of the complex geometry which influences the global properties (e.g. connectivity or conduc

 range of fracture lengths modelled by either scale-limited laws (e.g. log normal) or power laws. In this paper we extend the applicability of
d to a discrete core porosity under simulated reservoir conditions so the adopted net reservoir cutoff is expressed as a limiting porosity. For w

eading to unsubstantiated assumptions in order to attain a reasonable history match. The paper draws on the strength of an integrated petr

eability is lower in the presence of gas during waterflooding due to an increase in oil/water capillary pressure that causes a decrease in wettin

 overy from this thin attic oil zone. The technology deployments included among others: recompletion with short-radius horizontal sidetracks
 antic margin of the United Kingdom Continental Shelf (UKCS) to the west of the Shetland Islands in water depths of approximately 400 m (F
 ld applications of the Neighbourhood Algorithm (NA) is presented. The NA is a stochastic sampling algorithm that explores the parameter sp

  results obtained over the optimization cycle are used to identify sensitivity parameters correlations and parameter trends in a global search
G method is used to solve the mass-balance equations which are generally convection-dominated. The DG method associated with suitable

olve the pressure equation where the concept of total velocity is invoked. The DG method associated with a slope limiter is used to approxim
 e-scale recovery in field-scale simulation. To account for heterogeneity in wettability matrix permeability and fracture geometry within a sing
en the full form of it which is of an integral form with history-dependency is incorporated into a set of multi-phase and multi-species flow equ


 s over ‘large’ lengthscales. These qualitative criteria are difficult to properly apply and can be easily violated yielding significant errors
 cies distribution. Results also show that there are at least two main rotating cells at steady state: one in the gas cap and one in the oil colum

eous porous media both in water-wet and mixed-wettability states. The novel approach with zero fracture capillary and nonzero matrix capilla
aterally. In this paper we proposed a methodology to define an upscaled “PEM (new set of relationships valid at reservoir-scale) by tunin
m by accounting for partial filling of elements. We use the model to study the effects of capillary number (Ncap the ratio of viscous forces to

 ng workflow has been to develop an� understanding of the depositional and tectonic history of the field in order to create static models tha

ation overcomes some of the limitations of existing trapping and relative permeability models. The new model is validated by means of pore-n

del (as a 2D simulator of fractured reservoirs) in laboratory. Also two numerical network model simulators were programmed based on pore

 g alpha factors derived from the MCM displacements in the homogeneous pack. Introduction The recovery of oil by miscible gas injection h
ditions was used. Both vaporising and condensing drives were performed in well-characterised homogenous glass-bead packs.�The use
sional model of two-phase three-component first-contact miscible flow that includes the macroscopic effects of viscous fingering. The ma

the literature so that the areal distribution of volumetric deformation can be identified. This leads to a better understanding of reservoir beha

h on the performance of coalbed gas wells and gas compositional shifts during production. Because of the cubic relationship between fractu
bed methane (ECBM) recovery potential and sequestration capacity. We found that changing the composition of the gas sorbed into the coa



 gas injection and the other three zones are primarily intended for water injection. Therefore equipment that can control and measure water
 on of economic production and overestimates or underestimates of sanding risk increase the chances of serious economical loss. This rais
ious stages of the tests to simulate water cut. The failure and sand-production processes were observed and recorded using a borescope in

h on the performance of coalbed gas wells and gas compositional shifts during production. Because of the cubic relationship between fractu
nteraction between fluid flow and mechanical deformation of the medium capturing various mechanisms of failure. The model allows capturi

uid flow and mechanical deformation of the medium in predicting sand production. The model simulated strain softening of the material accom
 al wells. Detailed scale predictions have been performed to identify the scaling risk for each producer. From these it was identified that the
e models/methods should be used with caution. The literature hosts many equations to predict the total skin factor in partially perforated vert
 nd to be difficult to interpret. Build-up and/or drawdown data are usually dominated by wellbore phase redistribution effects and the main ana
 bank radius. In most cases the storativity ratio is calculated incorrectly which explains why condensate bank radii from well-test analysis oft
The limited studies in this area (Muladi and Pinczewski 1999; Dehane et al. 2000; Harisch et al. 2001) focused on well performance rather th

ure-buildup data and an actual field case. Introduction and Background In gas/condensate reservoirs a condensate bank forms around the
 this case well testing techniques are rather more complicated. They become science-intensive. On the other hand they firstly extend the lis

able rate into a single drawdown at constant rate thus making more data available for interpretation than in the original data set where only p
jection rates were used in the study. Initially the dry packed cells were flushed with CO2 and saturated with water. This was followed by inje
ling rules such that the drilling schedules were predicted automatically from the model. In addition different field architectures were consider
nversion are proposed.�The model predictions are compared with experimental data of gas/oil/water pipe flows. Significant improvement
pplication is determining reservoir-fluid properties. It is common practice to calculate the water and oil saturations of reservoir formations by

 with the corresponding aqueous applications. These comparisions were made in terms of SI-return performance flowback permeability pos

on drainage height. Convective dispersion seems to be the most plausible mechanism. A first contact miscible liquid-liquid system was used

conditions (3) wettability alteration results in improved gas productivity and (4) wettability alteration does not have a measurable effect on th

 fracture swarms). The shale content (Vshale) and mechanical-beds thickness were found to be the two main geological drivers on joints occ
t of the average area of bodies can be used to represent the distribution of body sizes. For systems with oriented bodies a new aspect ratio
operties (e.g. connectivity or conductivity) can be easily estimated in a fraction of a second on a spread sheet. The aim of this contribution i

 paper we extend the applicability of the percolation approach to a system with a distribution of size. For scale-limited distributions we use t
 xpressed as a limiting porosity. For waterflood depletion an extrapolated endpoint relative permeability to oil has proved effective for the sam

 on the strength of an integrated petroleum engineering study that included detailed fault mapping on the re-processed 3D seismic dataset.

sure that causes a decrease in wetting layer conductance. The gas relative permeability is higher for displacement cycles after first gas inje

 h short-radius horizontal sidetracks single lateral re-entry sidetracks equipped with passive ICDs and new multilateral MRC wells equipped w
 ter depths of approximately 400 m (Fig. 1). Together with the smaller satellite Loyal field it is produced through subsea horizontal wells tied
orithm that explores the parameter space finds an acceptable ensemble of data fitting models and extracts robust information from this ense

d parameter trends in a global search space. In addition the original manual history match was further improved by adopting a pressure matc
DG method associated with suitable slope limiters can capture sharp gradients in the solution without creating spurious oscillations. We pres

h a slope limiter is used to approximate the species-balance equations.� The cell-based finite-volume schemes that are adapted to a disc
y and fracture geometry within a single gridblock we propose a multirate model (Ponting 2004). We allow the matrix to be composed of a se
ulti-phase and multi-species flow equations. A numerical example with the proposed model for a two-phase and three gas-species flow is pe


 ily violated yielding significant errors in predicted reservoir performance. We have identified a comprehensive suite of dimensionless grou
the gas cap and one in the oil column. Introduction Proper initialization is an important aspect of reliable reservoir simulations. The use of t

e capillary and nonzero matrix capillary pressure allows the proper prediction of sharp fronts in the fractures. Introduction This work is focus
 hips valid at reservoir-scale) by tuning a fine-scale existing “pem adjusting the most sensitive and relevant parameters by an optimisat
 (Ncap the ratio of viscous forces to capillary forces) mobility ratio (M) and network size on imbibition displacement patterns and saturation p

d in order to create static models that capture the range of uncertainty in geometry and� properties of the reservoirs. Data from core well

model is validated by means of pore-network simulation of primary drainage and waterflooding. We study the dependence of trapped (residua

 rs were programmed based on pore scale displacement mechanisms (drainage imbibition and flow through films) to study and compare the

 very of oil by miscible gas injection has been a subject of interest and research in petroleum engineering for more than 40 years (Stalkup 19
enous glass-bead packs.�The use of analogue fluids and bead-packs enabled visualisation of the displacements as well as the usual me
effects of viscous fingering. The macroscopic model originally proposed by Blunt and Christie employs an extension of the Koval fingering

etter understanding of reservoir behavior and also provides additional data for integration into coupled reservoir simulation modeling. This pa

the cubic relationship between fracture permeability and fracture aperture width (and thus fracture porosity) for a given cleat permeability the
osition of the gas sorbed into the coal changes the porosity and permeability of the coal natural-fracture system owing to gas-content change



 that can control and measure water flow and gas flow with no changes in hardware was critical for the success of this installation. The comb
of serious economical loss. This raises the question of how accurate and reliable sanding predictions might be achieved without overcomplic
d and recorded using a borescope in real time. The results showed that the effect of water cut on perforation strength and sand production d

the cubic relationship between fracture permeability and fracture aperture width (and thus fracture porosity) for a given cleat permeability the
s of failure. The model allows capturing the episodic nature of sanding and the resulting changes in the geometry and formation consistency

 strain softening of the material accompanied with shear-bands formation as well as tensile failure. In the post-disaggregation phase addition
From these it was identified that the major risk to well performance and integrity was CaCO3 precipitation in the upper tubing with potential fa
 skin factor in partially perforated vertical wells. Some of the available models have been tested against the results from the 3D semianalytica
edistribution effects and the main analysis challenge is to distinguish between reservoir effects boundary effects fluid behavior and wellbore
 bank radii from well-test analysis often differ greatly from those obtained by numerical compositional simulation. In this study a new method
 cused on well performance rather than on well-test behavior. There has been no evidence of condensate dropout effects in published horizo

 condensate bank forms around the wellbore when the bottomhole pressure (BHP) falls below the dewpoint pressure. This creates three diff
 other hand they firstly extend the list of parameters and relations determined - those required for up-to-date 3D flow simulations. Added fe

n in the original data set where only periods at constant rate can be analyzed. Consequently it is possible to see boundaries in deconvolved
 with water. This was followed by injection of oil up to leaving the cells at irreducible water saturation conditions. Then water was injected an
 ent field architectures were considered including tubing and pipeline sizes looping of pipelines and subsea multiphase boosting and the imp
  pipe flows. Significant improvements are observed over the predictions by the two-phase unified model of Zhang et al. (2003a) which assu
aturations of reservoir formations by use of electrical logs. With the development of well-logging technology a number of methods have been

 ormance flowback permeability possible formation damage and changes in the wettability conditions that might account for any post-treatm

miscible liquid-liquid system was used in these experiments so that all mechanisms contributing to increased-mixing apart from convective dis

 s not have a measurable effect on the absolute permeability of the rock for some chemicals. We also find the reservoir rock unlike Berea is

 main geological drivers on joints occurrence. The thickness of individual beds was recorded from borehole acoustic images which enabled
 h oriented bodies a new aspect ratio is defined and the reduced percolation thresholds of the system are determined. The results show tha
  sheet. The aim of this contribution is to establish the percolation framework to examine the connectivity of fracture systems at a given finite

 r scale-limited distributions we use the hypothesis that the connectivity of fractures of variable size is identical to the connectivity of fracture
 to oil has proved effective for the same purpose. Here the zero endpoint relative permeability is linked to a conventional absolute" core perm

 e re-processed 3D seismic dataset. The latter was guided by the outcomes of recent deconvolution well test analyses and a revised geolog

 splacement cycles after first gas injection at high gas saturation due to cooperative pore filling but lower at low saturation due to trapping.ï¿

 ew multilateral MRC wells equipped with intelligent completions. Until 2007 smart completions which are critical for water production contro
 through subsea horizontal wells tied back to the Schiehallion floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) vessel. The combination of
 cts robust information from this ensemble in a Bayesian framework. The aim is to forecast hydrocarbon production accurately and to assess

mproved by adopting a pressure match using an Evolutionary Strategy. Best matched cases were selected based on the global and partial ob
 eating spurious oscillations. We present several numerical examples in homogeneous and heterogeneous media that demonstrate the supe

e schemes that are adapted to a discrete-fracture model have deficiency in computing the fracture/fracture fluxes across three and higher int
ow the matrix to be composed of a series of separate domains in communication with different fracture sets with different rate constants in th
ase and three gas-species flow is performed in light of a parametric study demonstrating that multi-component gas species interactions have


ehensive suite of dimensionless groups which can be used to define the validity of steady-state methods. The groups account for the effect
 le reservoir simulations. The use of the Gibbs segregation condition generally cannot provide reliable initialization in hydrocarbon reservoirs.

 res. Introduction This work is focused on the numerical treatment of two main physical aspects of multiphase flow in fractured porous medi
 relevant parameters by an optimisation procedure. Some previous studies already addressed downscaling problems (from reservoir to ge
 splacement patterns and saturation profiles. By employing large networks we reproduce Buckley-Leverett profiles directly from pore-scale mo

  the reservoirs. Data from core well logs seismic and outcrop analogues have been integrated to produce depositional models highlighting

 y the dependence of trapped (residual) hydrocarbon saturation and waterflood relative permeability on several fluid/rock properties most not

 ough films) to study and compare the behavior of free fall gravity drainage process in two models. The simulator takes into account the domi

 g for more than 40 years (Stalkup 1983).� In a first-contact miscible (FCM) displacement the gas and oil mix instantly in all proportions.ï¿
splacements as well as the usual measurements of effluent composition against time and recovery.� Non-equilibrium was observed in th
s an extension of the Koval fingering model to multiphase flows. The premise is that the only parameter of the model - the effective mobility

servoir simulation modeling. This paper shows the results of mapped reservoir volume changes from two cyclic steam injection projects usin

ity) for a given cleat permeability the production profile of coal seams varies depending on whether the permeability is distributed among clo
system owing to gas-content changes which cause matrix swelling or shrinkage due to relative adsorption of different gases. We collected



uccess of this installation. The combination of downhole chokes and flowmeters allows full control and monitoring of zonal injection rates an
ght be achieved without overcomplicating the analyses and without requiring complex lab and field data that in most instances will be unav
ation strength and sand production depends on the mineralogical composition of the sandstone and the degree of residual water saturation.

 ity) for a given cleat permeability the production profile of coal seams varies depending on whether the permeability is distributed among clo
geometry and formation consistency and behavior within the sand impacted regions. Sand detachment is simulated by removal of the elemen

e post-disaggregation phase additional features were considered including allowing for the removal of the disaggregated elements that have
 n in the upper tubing with potential failure of the downhole safety valve. The risk varied from negligible to severe and reflected the variable c
 he results from the 3D semianalytical model. It has been shown that total skin-factor equations based on the summation of individual compo
y effects fluid behavior and wellbore phase redistribution perturbations. The paper compares theoretical well test behaviors in vertical and h
mulation. In this study a new method is introduced to estimate the storativity ratios between the different zones from buildup data when the s
 e dropout effects in published horizontal-well-test data. This paper presents preliminary results from a study aimed at establishing an under

point pressure. This creates three different saturation zones around the well. Close to the wellbore high condensate saturation reduces the e
o-date 3D flow simulations. Added features include relative permeabilities for oil gas and water capillary pressures and full tensor permeab

le to see boundaries in deconvolved data a considerable advantage compared to conventional analysis where boundaries are often not see
nditions. Then water was injected and the amount
sea multiphase boosting and the impact on production rates and drilling sched
 of Zhang et al. (2003a) which assumes a fully mixed liquid pha
ogy a number of methods have been developed for reservoir-flui

hat might account for any post-treatment differences. In addition approaches to mathema

sed-mixing apart from convective dispersion were eliminated. Impr

nd the reservoir rock unlike Berea is not str

ole acoustic images which enabled us to measure a fracture spac
re determined. The results show that with abov
y of fracture systems at a given finite observation scale in 2D

dentical to the connectivity of fractures of
o a conventional absolute" core permeability corrected to r

ll test analyses and a revised geological model over the entire fiel

er at low saturation due to trapping.�In oil-wet media the wat

re critical for water production control in multilateral producers in th
 (FPSO) vessel. The combination of water depth with strong winds
production accurately and to assess the related uncertainty by means o

ed based on the global and partial objective values of each match. Predi
 us media that demonstrate the superiority of our method to the finite-difference (FD) approach. Our

 re fluxes across three and higher intersecting-fracture branches. In our work the problem
sets with different rate constants in the transfer function. We use
 ponent gas species interactions have significant influ


s. The groups account for the effect of heterogeneity as w
 tialization in hydrocarbon reservoirs. This is caused in part b

iphase flow in fractured porous media: heterogeneity in
caling problems (from reservoir to geological/seismic scale) but
 tt profiles directly from pore-scale modelling thereby providing a bri

uce depositional models highlighting uncertaintie

everal fluid/rock properties most notably the wettability and the in

imulator takes into account the dominant displacement mechanisms observed in f

d oil mix instantly in all proportions.� No capillary forces exist so in principle
  Non-equilibrium was observed in the effluent from both the condensing and
 of the model - the effective mobility ratio - must be c

o cyclic steam injection projects using tiltmeter-based surface deformation m

permeability is distributed among closely spaced fractures (cle
on of different gases. We collected sufficient information to develop a method for



monitoring of zonal injection rates and has proved to be a valuable t
that in most instances will be unavailable or the acquisition of which will incur
degree of residual water saturation. The effect is most significant for sandstones

permeability is distributed among closely spaced fractures (cle
s simulated by removal of the elements that are deemed to

he disaggregated elements that have satisfied the sanding criteria and conseq
o severe and reflected the variable composition of the produced wa
n the summation of individual components do not work.� The 3D semianal
al well test behaviors in vertical and horizontal wells as ob
 t zones from buildup data when the saturation profile doe
study aimed at establishing an understanding of the near-wellbore well-test

condensate saturation reduces the effective permeability to gas resulting in
ry pressures and full tensor permeability. S

 where boundaries are often not seen and must be inferred.�Th

				
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