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AP Top 100 - Digital History.xls


									rating   year
     1   1945
     2   1969
     3   1941
     4   1903
     5   1920
     6   1963
     7   1945
     8   1914
     9   1954
    10   1929
    11   1928
    12   1953
    13   1991
    14   1974
    15   1939
    16   1917
    17   1913
    18   1957
    19   1905
    20   1960
    21   1953
    22   1933
    23   1968
    24   1944
    25   1981
    26   1964
    27   1989
    28   1939
    29   1949
    30   1927
    31   1977
    32   1989
    33   1948
    34   1933
    35   1962
    36   1912
    37   1945
    38   1973
    39   1918
    40   1909
    41   1918
    42   1946
    43   1941
    44   1947
    45   1948
    46   1909
    47   1955
    48   1945
    49   1993
    50   1963
    51   1959
 52   1901
 53   1998
 54   1947
 55   1968
 56   1920
 57   1962
 58   1964
 59   1965
 60   1961
 61   1939
 62   1965
 63   1975
 64   1942
 65   1945
 66   1961
 67   1973
 68   1906
 69   1945
 70   1961
 71   1920
 72   1911
 73   1973
 74   1949
 75   1928
 76   1932
 77   1985
 78   1900
 79   1997
 80   1956
 81   1914
 82   1963
 83   1986
 84   1950
 85   1968
 86   1900
 87   1958
 88   1917
 89   1927
 90   1962
 91   1964
 92   1997
 93   1938
 94   1940
 95   1978
 96   1948
 97   1975
 98   1986
 99   1925
100   1964
United States drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima, Nagasaki: Japan surrenders to end World War II.
American astronaut Neil Armstrong becomes the first human to walk on the moon.
Japan bombs Pearl Harbor: United States enters World War II.
Wilbur and Orville Wright fly the first powered airplane.
Women win the vote.
President John F. Kennedy assassinated in Dallas.
Horrors of Nazi Holocaust, concentration camps exposed.
World War I begins in Europe.
Brown v. Board of Education ends "separate but equal" school segregation.
U.S. stock market crashes: The Great Depression sets in.
Alexander Fleming discovers the first antibiotic, penicillin.
Structure of DNA discovered.
U.S.S.R dissolves, Mikhail Gorbachev resigns: Boris Yeltsin takes over.
President Richard M. Nixon resigns after Watergate scandal.
Germany invades Poland: World War II begins in Europe.
Russian revolution ends: Communists take over.
Henry Ford organizes the first major U.S. assembly line to produce Model T cars.
Soviets launch Sputnik, first space satellite: space race begins.
Albert Einstein presents special theory of relativity: general relativity theory to follow.
FDA approves birth-control pill.
Dr. Jonas Salk's polio vaccine proven effective in University of Pittsburgh tests.
Adolf Hitler named Chancellor of Germany: Nazi Party begins to seize power.
Civil rights leader Martin Luther King assassinated in Memphis, Tenn.
D-Day invasion marks the beginning of the end of World War II in Europe.
Deadly AIDS disease identified.
Congress passes landmark Civil Rights Act outlawing segregation.
Berlin Wall falls as East Germany lifts travel restrictions.
Television debuts in America at New York World's Fair.
Mao Tse-tung establishes Peoples Republic of China: Nationalists flee to Formosa (Taiwan).
Charles Lindbergh crosses the Atlantic in first solo flight.
First mass market personal computers launched.
World Wide Web revolutionizes the Internet.
Scientists at Bell Labs invent the transistor.
FDR launches "New Deal:" sweeping federal economic, public works legislation to combat depression.
Cuban Missile Crisis threatens World War III.
Unsinkable Titanic, largest man-made structure, sinks.
Germany surrenders: V.E. Day celebrated.
Roe v. Wade decision legalizes abortion.
World War I ends with Germany's defeat.
First regular radio broadcasts begin in America.
Worldwide flu epidemic kills 20 million.
'ENIAC' becomes world's first computer.
Regular TV broadcasting begins in the United States.
Jackie Robinson breaks baseball's color barrier.
Israel achieves statehood.
Plastic invented: revolutionizes products, packaging.
Montgomery, Ala., bus boycott begins after Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat to a white person.
Atomic bomb tested in New Mexico.
Apartheid ends in South Africa: law to treat races equally.
Civil rights march converges on Washington, D.C.: Martin Luther King gives "I Have A Dream" speech.
American scientists patent the computer chip.
Marconi transmits radio signal across the Atlantic.
White House sex scandal leads to impeachment of President William Jefferson Clinton.
Sec. of State George Marshall proposes European recovery program (The Marshall Plan).
Presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy assassinated in California.
U.S. Senate rejects Versailles Treaty: dooms League of Nations.
Rachel Carson's "Silent Spring" stimulates environmental protection movement.
British rock group The Beatles takes the United States by storm after debut on the Ed Sullivan show.
Congress passes Voting Rights Act, outlawing measures used to suppress minority votes.
Yuri Gagarin becomes first man in space.
First jet airplane takes flight.
U.S. combat troops arrive in South Vietnam: U.S. planes bomb North Vietnam.
North Vietnamese forces take over Saigon.
Manhattan Project begins secret work on atomic bomb: Fermi triggers first atomic chain reaction.
Congress strengthens "GI Bill of Rights" to help veterans.
Alan Shepard becomes first American in space.
Watergate scandal engulfs Nixon administration.
Earthquake hits San Francisco: "Paris of the West" burns.
United Nations is officially established.
Communists build wall to divide East and West Berlin.
Mohandas Gandhi begins leading nonviolent reform movement in India.
Standard Oil loses Supreme Court antitrust suit: monopolies suffer blow.
United States withdraws last ground troops from Vietnam.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization established.
Joseph Stalin begins forced modernization of the Soviet Union: resulting famines claim 25 million.
Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt beats incumbent President Herbert Hoover.
Mikhail Gorbachev becomes Soviet Premier: begins era of "Glasnost."
Max Planck proposes quantum theory of energy.
Scientists clone sheep, dubbed Dolly, in Scotland.
Congress passes interstate highway bill.
Panama Canal opens, linking the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
Betty Friedan's "The Feminine Mystique" inaugurates modern women's rights movement.
The Space Shuttle Challenger explodes killing crew including school teacher Christa McAuliffe.
United States sends troops to defend South Korea.
Violence erupts at Democratic National Convention in Chicago.
Sigmund Freud publishes "The Interpretation of Dreams."
China begins "Great Leap Forward" modernization program: estimated 20 million die in ensuing famine.
United States enters World War I.
Babe Ruth hits 60 home runs - a single-season record that would last for 34 years.
John Glenn becomes first American to orbit the earth.
North Vietnamese boats reportedly attack U.S. ships: Congress passes Gulf of Tonkin resolution.
Pathfinder lands on Mars, sending back astonishing photos.
Hitler launches "Kristallnacht," ordering Nazis to commit acts of violence against German Jews.
Winston Churchill designated Prime Minister of Great Britain.
Louise Brown, first "test-tube baby," born healthy.
Soviets blockade West Berlin: Western allies respond with massive airlift.
Bill Gates and Paul Allen start Microsoft Corp. to develop software for Altair computer.
Chernobyl nuclear plant explosion results in deaths of an estimated 7,000.
Teacher John Scopes' trial pits creation against evolution in Tennessee.
The U.S. Surgeon General warns about smoking-related health hazards.
year                                                   event
1900   The zeppelin invented by Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin.
1900   Charles Seeberger redesigned Jesse Reno's escalator and invented the modern escalator.
1901   King Camp Gillette invents the double-edged safety razor.
1901   The first radio receiver, successfully received a radio transmission.
1901   Hubert Booth invents a compact and modern vacuum cleaner.
1902   Willis Carrier invents the air conditioner.
1902   French physicist George Claude invents neon light.
1902   The lie detector or polygraph machine is invented by James Mackenzie.
1902   The birth of the Teddy Bear.
1902   George Claude invented neon light.
1903   Edward Binney and Harold Smith co-invent crayons.
1903   Bottle-making machinery invented by Michael J. Owens.
1903   The Wright brothers invent the first gas motored and manned airplane.
1903   Mary Anderson invents windshield wipers.
1903   William Coolidge invents ductile tungsten used in lightbulbs.
1904   Teabags invented by Thomas Suillivan.
1904   Benjamin Holt invents a tractor.
1904   John A Fleming invents a vacuum diode or Fleming valve.
1905   Albert Einstein published the Theory of Relativity and made famous the equation, E = mc2.
1905   Mary Anderson invents windshield wipers.
1906   William Kellogg invents Cornflakes.
1906   Lewis Nixon invents the first sonar like device.
1906   Lee Deforest invents electronic amplifying tube (triode).
1907   Leo Baekeland invents the first synthetic plastic called Bakelite.
1907   Color photography invented by Auguste and Louis Lumiere.
1907   The very first piloted helicopter was invented by Paul Cornu.
1908   The gyrocompass invented by Elmer A. Sperry.
1908   Cellophane invented by Jacques E. Brandenberger.
1908   Model T first sold.
1908   J W Geiger and W Müller invent the geiger counter.
1908   Fritz Haber invents the Haber Process for making artificial nitrates.
1909   Instant coffee invented by G. Washington.
1910   Thomas Edison demonstrated the first talking motion picture.
1910   Georges Claude invents neon light.
1911   Charles Franklin Kettering invents the first automobile electrical ignition system.
1912   Motorized movie cameras invented, replaced hand-cranked cameras.
1912   The first tank patented by Australian inventor De La Mole.
1912   Clarence Crane created Life Savers candy in 1912.
1913   The crossword puzzle invented by Arthur Wynne.
1913   The Merck Chemical Company patented, what is now know as, ecstasy.
1913   Mary Phelps Jacob invents the bra.
1913   Gideon Sundback invented the modern zipper.
1914   Garrett A. Morgan invents the Morgan gas mask.
1915   Eugene Sullivan and William Taylor co-invented Pyrex in New York City.
1916   Radios tuners invented, that received different stations.
1916   Stainless steel invented by Henry Brearly.
1917   Gideon Sundback patented the modern zipper (not the first zipper).
1918   The superheterodyne radio circuit invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong. Today, every radio or television set uses this in
1918   Charles Jung invented fortune cookies.
1919   The pop-up toaster invented by Charles Strite.
1919   Short-wave radio invented.
1919   The flip-flop circuit invented.
1919   The arc welder invented.
1920   The tommy gun patented by John T Thompson.
1920    The Band-Aid (pronounced 'ban-'dade) invented by Earle Dickson.
1921   Artificial life begins -- the first robot built.
1921   John Larson invented the lie detector.
1922   Insulin invented by Sir Frederick Grant Banting.
1922   The first 3-D movie (spectacles with one red and one green lens) is released.
1923   Garrett A. Morgan invents a traffic signal.
1923   The television or iconoscope (cathode-ray tube) invented by Vladimir Kosma Zworykin.
1923   John Harwood invented the self-winding watch in 1923.
1923   Clarence Birdseye invents frozen food.
1924   The dynamic loudspeaker invented by Rice and Kellogg.
1924   Notebooks with spiral bindings invented.
1926   Robert H. Goddard invents liquid-fueled rockets.
1927   Eduard Haas III invents PEZ candy.
1927   JWA Morrison invents the first quartz crystal watch.
1927   Philo Taylor Farnsworth invents a complete electronic TV system.
1927   Technicolor invented.
1927   Erik Rotheim patents an aerosol can.
1927   Warren Marrison developed the first quartz clock.
1927   Philip Drinker invents the iron lung.
1928   Scottish biologist Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin.
1928   Bubble gum invented by Walter E. Diemer.
1928   Jacob Schick patented the electric shaver.
1929   American, Paul Galvin invents the car radio.
1929   Yo-Yo re-invented as an American fad.
1930   Scotch tape patented by 3M engineer, Richard G. Drew.
1930   The frozen food process patented by Clarence Birdseye.
1930   Wallace Carothers and DuPont Labs invents neoprene.
1930   The "differential analyzer", or analog computer invented by Vannevar Bush at MIT in Boston.
1930   Frank Whittle and Dr Hans von Ohain both invent a jet engine.
1931   Harold Edgerton invented stop-action photography.
1931   Germans Max Knott and Ernst Ruska co-invent the electron microscope.
1932   Polaroid photography invented by Edwin Herbert Land.
1932   The zoom lens and the light meter invented.
1932   Carl C. Magee invents the first parking meter.
1932   Karl Jansky invents the radio telescope.
1933   Frequency modulation (FM radio) invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong.
1933   Stereo records invented.
1933   Richard M. Hollingshead builds a prototype drive-in movie theater in his driveway.
1934   Englishmen, Percy Shaw invents cat eyes or roads reflectors.
1934   Charles Darrow claims he invented the game Monopoly.
1934   Joseph Begun invents the first tape recorder for broadcasting - first magnetic recording.
1935   Wallace Carothers and DuPont Labs invents nylon ( polymer 6.6.)
1935   The first canned beer made.
1935   Robert Watson-Watt patented radar.
1936   Bell Labs invents the voice recognition machine.
1936   Samuel Colt patents the Colt revolver.
1937   Chester F. Carlson invents the photocopier.
1937   The first jet engine is built.
1938   The ballpoint pen invented by Ladislo Biro.
1938   Strobe lighting invented.
1938   Roy J. Plunkett invented tetrafluoroethylene polymers or Teflon.
1938   Nescafe or freeze-dried coffee invented.
1938   The first working turboprop engine.
1939   Igor Sikorsky invents the first successful helicopter.
1939   The electron microscope invented.
1940   Dr William Reich invents the orgone accumulator.
1940   Peter Goldmark invents modern color television system.
1940   Karl Pabst invents the jeep.
1941   Konrad Zuse's Z3, the first computer controlled by software.
1941   Aerosol spray cans invented by American inventors, Lyle David Goodloe and W.N. Sullivan.
1941   Enrico Fermi invents the neutronic reactor.
1942   John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry built the first electronic digital computer.
1942   Max Mueller designs a turboprop engine.
1943   Synthetic rubber invented.
1943   Richard James invents the slinky.
1943   James Wright invent silly putty.
1943   Swiss chemist, Albert Hofmann discovered the hallucinogenic properties of LSD.
1943   Emile Gagnan and Jacques Cousteau invent the aqualung.
1944   The kidney dialysis machine invented by Willem Kolff.
1944   Synthetic cortisone invented by Percy Lavon Julian.
1945   Vannevar Bush proposes hypertext.
1945   The atomic bomb invented.
1946   The microwave oven invented by Percy Spencer.
1947   British/Hungarian scientist, Dennis Gabor, developed the theory of holography.
1947   Mobile phones first invented. Although cell phones were not sold commercially until 1983, AT&T came up with the idea w
1947   Bardeen, Brattain, and Shockley invent the transistor.
1947   Earl Silas Tupper patented the Tupperware seal.
1948   The Frisbee® invented by Walter Frederick Morrison and Warren Franscioni.
1948   Velcro ® invented by George de Mestral.
1948   Robert Hope-Jones invented the Wurlitzer jukebox.
1949   Cake mix invented.
1950   The first credit card (Diners) invented by Ralph Schneider.
1951   Super glue invented.
1951   Power steering invented by Francis W. Davis.
1951   Charles Ginsburg invented the first videotape recorder (VTR).
1952   Mr. Potato Head patented.
1952   The first patent for bar code (US Patent #2,612,994) issued to inventors Joseph Woodland and Bernard Silver.
1952   The first diet soft drink sold.
1952   Edward Teller and team build the hydrogen bomb.
1953   Radial tires invented.
1953   The first musical synthesizer invented by RCA.
1953   David Warren invented the black box - flight recorder.
1953   Transistor radio invented by Texas Instruments.
1954   Oral contraceptives invented.
1954   The first nonstick pan produced.
1954   The solar cell invented by Chaplin, Fuller and Pearson.
1954   Ray Kroc started McDonalds.
1955   Tetracycline invented.
1955   Optic fiber invented.
1956   The first computer hard disk used.
1956   The hovercraft invented by Christopher Cockerell.
1956   Bette Nesmith Graham invented "Mistake Out," later renamed Liquid Paper, to paint over mistakes made with a typewrite
1957   Fortran (computer language) invented.
1958   The modem invented.
1958   Gordon Gould invents the laser.
1958   The Hula Hoop invented by Richard Knerr and Arthur "Spud" Melin.
1958   The integrated circuit invented by Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce.
1959   The internal pacemaker invented by Wilson Greatbatch.
1959   Barbie Doll invented.
1959   Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce both invent the microchip.
1960   The halogen lamp invented.
1961   Valium invented.
1961   The nondairy creamer invented.
1962   The audio cassette invented.
1962   The fiber-tip pen invented by Yukio Horie.
1962   Spacewar, the first computer video game invented.
1962   Dow Corp invents silicone breast implants.
1963   The first videodisc invented.
1964   Acrylic paint invented.
1964   Permanent-press fabric invented.
1964   BASIC (an early computer language) is invented by John George Kemeny and Tom Kurtz.
1965   Astroturf invented.
1965   Soft contact lenses invented.
1965   NutraSweet invented.
1965   The compact disk invented by James Russell.
1965   Kevlar invented by Stephanie Louise Kwolek.
1966   Electronic Fuel injection for cars invented.
1967   The first handheld calculator invented.
1968   The computer mouse invented by Douglas Engelbart.
1968   The first computer with integrated circuits made.
1968   Robert Dennard invented RAM (random access memory).
1969   The arpanet (first internet) invented.
1969   The artificial heart invented.
1969   The ATM invented.
1969   The bar-code scanner is invented.
1970   The daisy-wheel printer invented.
1970   The floppy disk invented by Alan Shugart.
1971   The dot-matrix printer invented.
1971   The food processor invented.
1971   The liquid-crystal display (LCD) invented by James Fergason.
1971   The microprocessor invented by Faggin, Hoff and Mazor.
1971   VCR or videocassette recorder invented.
1972   The word processor invented.
1972   Pong (first video game) invented by Nolan Bushnell.
1972   Hacky Sack® invented by John Stalberger and Mike Marshall.
1973   Gene splicing invented.
1973   The ethernet (local computer network) invented by Robert Metcalfe and Xerox.
1973   Bic invents the disposable lighter.
1974   The post-it note invented by Arthur Fry.
1974   Giorgio Fischer, a gynecologist from Rome, Italy, invents liposuction.
1975   The laser printer invented.
1975   The push-through tab on a drink can invented.
1976   The ink-jet printer invented.
1977   Magnetic resonance imaging invented by Raymond V. Damadian.
1978   Dan Bricklin and Bob Frankston invented the VisiCalc spreadsheet.
1978   The artificial heart Jarvik-7 invented by Robert K. Jarvik.
1979   Cellular phones invented.
1979   Cray supercomputer invented by Seymour Cray.
1979   Walkman invented.
1979   Scott Olson invents roller blades.
1980   The hepatitis-B vaccine invented.
1981   MS-DOS invented.
1981   The first IBM-PC invented.
1981   The scanning tunneling microscope invented by Gerd Karl Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer.
1982   Human growth hormone genetically engineered.
1983   The Apple Lisa invented.
1983   Soft bifocal contact lens invented.
1983   First Cabbage Patch Kids sold.
1983   Programmer Jaron Lanier first coins the term "virtual reality".
1984   The CD-ROM invented.
1984   The Apple Macintosh invented.
1985   Windows program invented by Microsoft.
1986   A high-temperature super-conductor invented by J. Georg Bednorz and Karl A. Muller.
1986   Synthetic skin invented by G. Gregory Gallico, III.
1986   Fuji introduced the disposable camera.
1987   The first 3-D video game invented.
1987   Disposable contact lenses invented.
1988   Digital cellular phones invented.
1988   The RU-486 (abortion pill) invented.
1988   Doppler radar invented by Christian Andreas Doppler.
1988   Prozac® invented at the Eli Lilly Company by inventor Ray Fuller.
1988   The first patent for a genetically engineered animal is issued to Harvard University researchers Philip Leder and Timothy
1988   Ralph Alessio and Fredrik Olsen received a patent for the Indiglo ® nightlight. The bluish green light is used to illuminate
1989   High-definition television invented.
1990   The World Wide Web/Internet protocol (HTTP) and WWW language (HTML) created by Tim Berners-Lee.
1991   The digital answering machine invented.
1992   The smart pill invented.
1993   The pentium processor invented.
1994   HIV protease inhibitor invented.
1995   The Java computer language invented.
1995   DVD (Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) invented.
1997   The gas-powered fuel cell invented.
1998   Viagra invented.
y radio or television set uses this invention.
983, AT&T came up with the idea way back.

dland and Bernard Silver.
ver mistakes made with a typewriter.
earchers Philip Leder and Timothy Stewart.
ish green light is used to illuminate the entire face of a watch.

by Tim Berners-Lee.








1876 – 1876












1893 to 1900




























 Alexander Cartwright formalizes the first 20 rules of baseball
 The first modern game of hockey is played in Kingston, Ontario, using rules similar to today's. Women's hockey
will become a new sports opportunity in the 1980's and '90's, with the US Women's team winning the gold medal
in 1998, the first year women's ice hockey is a medal sport.
 Catherine Beecher (1800-78) publishes Physiology and Calisthenics for Schools and Families, the first fitness
manual for women.
 New Yorker James Plimpton uses a rubber cushion to enable the wheels of roller skates to turn slightly when the
skater shifted his or her weight. This design is considered the basis for the modern roller skate, allowing for safer,
The Park Place Croquet Club of Brooklyn organizes with 25 members. Croquet is probably the first game played
by both men and women in America.
 Matthew Vassar opens Vassar College with a special School of Physical Training with classes in riding,
gardening, swimming, boating, skating and "other physical accomplishments suitable for ladies to acquire ...
 Vassar College fields the first two women's amateur baseball teams.
 The Dolly Vardens, a black women's team from Philadelphia, is a women's professional baseball team.
 Cincinnati Red Stockings become the first professional baseball team
 Rutgers and Princeton played a college soccer football game, the first ever, November 6. The game used
modified London Football Association rules. During the next seven years, rugby gained favor with the major
eastern schools over soccer, and modern football began to develop from rugby.
 Mary Ewing Outerbridge of Staten Island introduces tennis to the United States. She purchases tennis equipment
in Bermuda (and had trouble getting it through Customs!) and uses it to set up the first US tennis court at the
Staten Island Cricket and Baseball Club that spring.
 Baseball glove introduced
 The "Blondes" and "Brunettes" play their first match In Springfield, IL on Sept. 11. Newspapers heralded the
event as the "first game of baseball ever played in public for gate money between feminine ball-tossers."
 Wellesley College opens with a gymnasium for exercising and a lake for ice skating and the first rowing program
 The first roller-skating rink opens in London.
At the Massasoit convention, the first rules for American football were written.
 The first National Archery Championship is held, with 20 women participating.
 Indoor tennis is played inside the 7th Regiment Armory in New York City on Nov. 26, with 12 courts put in use for
women enthusiasts and their male partners.
The first American national tennis championships are held.
 At the YWCA in Boston, the first athletic games for women are held.
 Women's singles tennis competition is added to Wimbledon. Maud Watson wins in both 1884 and '85.
 The Association of Collegiate Alumnae publishes a study which concludes that " is sufficient to say that
female [college] not seem to show, ...any marked difference in general health for the average
health ... of women engaged in other kinds of work, or in fact, of women generally...", refuting the widely held
belief that college study impaired a woman’s physical health and ability to bear children.
 Annie Oakley (Phoebe Ann Moses, 1860-1926), 25, is the sharp-shooting star of the Buffalo Bill Wild West
Show. She could hit a moving target while riding a galloping horse; hit a dime in mid-air; and regularly shot a
 The New York Athletic Club holds the first track and field meet in the U.S.
 The first known women's lacrosse game is played.
 A women's field hockey club is started in Surrey, England.
Ellen Hansell is crowned the first Women's Singles tennis champion at the US Open. 1887
Indoor baseball (the forerunner of softball) was invented by George Hancock at the Farragut Boat Club on
Chicago's South Side. The first game was played on Thanksgiving Day. The basic equipment included a huge 17-
inch ball and a stick-like bat. No gloves were worn, and the catcher wore no mask. It quickly became the indoor
 The modern "safety" for boys invented with area.
winter sport of choice bicycle isand girls in thea light frame and two equal-sized wheels and a chain drive.
 The Amateur Athletic Union is formed to establish standards and uniformity in amateur sport. During its early
years, the AAU served as a leader in international sport representing the US in the international sports
 AAU holds its first fencing championships.
 Lord Stanley, the Governor General of Canada, has an outdoor skating rink created in his back yard for his wife
and 10 children (including 2 daughters) to skate and play hockey on. Lord Stanley will donate a silver bowl worth
about $50 which will become the coveted Stanley Cup, to be won each year by the top amateur hockey team in
 More than a million American women will own and ride bicycles during the next decade. It is the first time in
American history that an athletic activity for women will become widely popular.
Nellie Bly (Elizabeth Cochran Seaman) becomes the first woman to travel around the world alone - she does it in
just 72 days while a reporter for the New York World newspaper, returning on Jan. 25.
 Basketball is invented by James Naismith of the YMCA in Springfield, Massachusetts as an indoor sport to play
between football and baseball seasons.
 The Shinnecock Hills Golf Club on Long Island opens its doors to women. Golf proved so popular that the club
opened a 9-hole course for women two years later.
 The journal Physical Education (a publication of the YMCA) devote an issue to women, saying that women need
physical strength and endurance and dismiss the popular idea that women are too weak to exercise.
 Gymnastics instructor Senda Berenson Abbott adapts James Naismith's basketball rules for women and
introduces the game to her students at Smith College, where she became the first director of physical education
in Jan. Her rules confine each player to one-third of the court.
 The "Golden Age of the Bicycle", with the development of the modern-style "safety bicycle" with two equal- sized
wheels, coaster brakes, and pneumatic tires creating a comfortable, faster and safer ride. A side effect is more
common-sense dressing for women.
Katharine Lee Bates climbs to the top of Pike's Peak and is inspired to compose a poem, "America, the Beautiul."
 First auto race
 First U.S. Open in golf
 Volleyball is invented in Holyoke, MA. By the 1990's, volleyball is the second-largest participation sport in the
United States with more than 42 million participants. There is indoor and outdoor competition for boys and girls,
men and women and co-ed teams.
 The American Bowling Congress is organized, establishing equipment standards and rules on Sept. 9. By the
1990's, bowling is the second-largest participation sport in the world, with more than 100 million athletes, 46% of
whom are women who compete equally with men.
 Women are buying 25-30% of all new bicycles.
 Susan B. Anthony says that "the bicycle has done more for the emancipation of women than anything else in the
 The first women's intercollegiate basketball championship is played between Stanford and the University of
California at Berkely. Stanford wins 2-1 on April 4 before a crowd of 700 women!
 At the first modern Olympics in Athens, a woman, Melpomene, barred from the official race, runs the same
course as the men, finishing in 4 hours 30 minutes. Baron Pierre de Coubertin, founder of the modern Olympics,
says, "It is indecent that the spectators should be exposed to the risk of seeing the body of a women being
smashed before their very eyes. Besides, no matter how toughened a sportswoman may be, her organizm is not
 Lena Jordan becomes the first person to successfully execute the triple somersault on the flying trapeze. The
first man to acomplish this didn't do so until 1909.
 Lizzie Arlington becomes the first woman to sign a professional baseball contract, appearing in her first
professional game pitching for the Philadelphia Reserves.
 Ping-pong, or table tennis, as it soon becomes known, is invented.
 The first 19 women to compete in the modern Olympics Games in Paris, France, play in just three sports: tennis,
golf, and croquet. Margaret I. Abbott is the first American woman to win an Olympic gold medal. An art student in
Paris, she won the nine-hole golf tournament by shooting a 47.
 Field Hockey is introduced to women in the United State by Constance M. K. Applebee, a British physical
education teacher. She presents a hockey exhibition at Harvard University.
Annie Taylor, 43, becomes the first person to go over Niagara Falls in a custom-built barrel and live. She couldn't
swim. Her comment on being retrieved: "Nobody ever ought to do that again."
Mrs. Adolph Landenburg introduces the split skirt for horseback riding in Saratoga Springs, NY.
The forward pass was legalized in football.
The first organized bowling league for women begins in St. Louis, MO. The first of three women's bowling
tournaments organized by the American Bowling Congress is held. The 1908 tournament is held in Cincinnati and
the 1909 tournament in Pittsburgh.
The national anthem of baseball, Take Me Out to the Ball Game, is written.
Edith Berg becomes the first woman to go up in an airplane. She was a passenger in the Wright Brother's Flyer in
a demonstration in France.
In England, Muriel Matters, a suffragette and balloonist, flies over the British Houses of Parliament, dropping
hundreds of flyers urging "votes for women."
 Australia's Annette Kellerman is arrested for swimming in Boston Harbor in an "indecent" one-piece swimsuit for
exposing her legs.
Harriet Quimby makes her professional aviator debut with a moonlight flight over Staten Island before a crowd of
20,000 spectators to become the first woman to make a night flight on Sept. 5.
Swimming and diving debut at the Stockholm Olympic Games, with 57 women from 11 nations competing in
those sports plus tennis.
Black Sox Scandal in Baseball
The skimpy fashions of the '20's put a new emphasis on athletic bodies and narrow the gap between health and
glamour. Advertisers, like Grape-Nuts, say, "Grandmother went bathing - girls like Molly go in to swim."
First radio broadcast of a baseball game
The American Professional Football Association, founded in 1920, changes its name to the National Football
22% of US colleges have varsity sports teams for women.
New York City native Gertrude "Trudy" Ederle, 19, becomes the first woman to swim the English Channel in 14
hours, 31 minutes, beating the best time to date by 2 hours on Aug. 6. (She had won a gold medal and 2 bronzes
for swimming at the 1924 Olympics.)
Harlem Globetrotters play 1st game
The New York Giants defeated a team of former Notre Dame players coached by Knute Rockne 22-0 before
55,000 at the Polo Grounds, December 14. The proceeds went to the New York Unemployment Fund to help
those suffering because of the Great Depression, and the easy victory helped give the NFL credibility with the
Baseball Writers begin to name Most Valuable Player
Babe Didrikson scores enough points at the AAU national meet to win the team championship single-handedly.
She won 6 gold medals and broke 4 world's records, totalling 30 points. The entire second place team won just
22. She is named the Associated Press Woman Athlete of the Year for track and field.
Amelia Earhart, 34, becomes the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic in a red Lockheed Vega in 15 hours
and 39 minutes.
"Babe" Didrikson becomes the first woman to win medals in three events at the Summer Games. Olympic rules
restrict women competitors to three events.
Two black American women, Louise Stokes and Tidye Pickett qualify for the Olympic Games in Los Angeles, but
are not allowed to compete.
First Baseball All-Star Game
First Masters golf tournament
First NCAA Division I Basketball Tournament
Baseball Hall of Fame opens
First televised baseball game
Pro football integrates. Kenny Washington and Woody Strode sign with Los Angeles; Marion Motley and Bill Willis
sign with Cleveland
Jackie Robinson integrates baseball
Althea Gibson won the first of ten consecutive American Tennis Association national championships.
The National Basketball Association was formed. It was a combination of the Basketball Association of America
and the National Basketball League.
Nat "Sweetwater" Clifton, Chuck Cooper, and Earl Lloyd become the NBA first black players
Althea Gibson becomes the first black player to compete at Wimbledon.
The U.S. Women's Open comes under the auspices of the USGA.
NBA adopts the 24-second shot clock & 6 team-foul rule.
American Football League founded
Wilma Rudolph, during the Olympic Games in Rome, becomes the first American woman to win 3 track and field
gold medals - in the 100 meter dash, the 200 meter dash, and the 400 meter relay.
First Superbowl
American Football League and National Football League merge
The Education Act of 1972 is passed, which contains Title IX, prohibiting gender discrimination in educational
institutions that receive federal funds.
Billie Jean King wins the "battle-of-the-sexes" tennis match against Bobby Riggs in Houston in front of more than
30,000 people and a world-wide TV audience of more than 50 million.
Baseball strikes leads to cancellation of World’s Series
American Basketball Association’s first season
Inaugural WNBA season
year                                          event
 1800   Napoleon's Chicken Marengo
 1803   Frugal Housewife, Susannah Carter
 1807   A New System of Domestic Cookery, Mrs. Rundell
 1817   Remoulade, Le Cuisinier Royal (en Francais)
 1818   Mulaga-tawny soup, Dr. William Kitchener
 1821   Tomato catsup & orange marmelade, Frederick Accum's Culinary Chemistry
 1828   Dr. Creed Haskins' Brunswick stew
 1828   Mary Randolph's Fried chicken
 1830   Frugal Housewife, Lydia Maria Child
 1830   Reform Club chef Alex Soyer's Dessert gelatin
 1830   Mrs. Isaac Cocks' Long Island corn bread
 1830   Cornmeal mush, early Texas cuisine
 1849   California sourdough bread & Hangtown fry
 1855   Boston cream pie
 1859   cobbler
 1861   Mrs. Beeton's Book of Household Management
 1861   Beef Stroganoff
 1869   parfait & Chateaubriand
 1872   Blackjack chewing gum
 1876   Premium soda crackers (later Saltines)
 1876   Heinz begins selling Tomato Catsup
 1876   popovers
 1879   funnel cakes
 1881   Pillsbury flour
 1883   Salt Water Taffy
 1885   Dr Pepper
 1886   Coca-Cola
 1886   Clark bars
 1887   Ball-Mason jars
 1887   Cherries jubilee
 1888   Log Cabin syrup
 1889   Aunt Jemima pancake mix
 1889   Calumet Baking Powder
 1889   McCormick Spices
 1889   Pabst Brewing Company
 1890   Knox gelatine
 1890   Libby introduces keys to canned meat
 1890   Lipton tea
 1890   Corn fritters
 1891   Del Monte
 1891   Fig Newton
 1891   Quaker Oats Company
 1892   Science in the Kitchen, Ella Eaton Kellogg
 1893   Cream of Wheat
 1893   Good & Plenty
 1893   Juicy Fruit gum
 1894   chili powder
 1894   Hershey bar
 1894   Iceberg lettuce
 1894   Eggs Benedict
 1895   shredded coconut
1895   Triscuits
1896   Cracker Jack
1896   Michelob beer
1896   S&W canned foods
1896   Tootsie Roll
1896   Chop Suey
1896   Boston Cooking School Cook Book, Fannie Merritt Farmer
1897   Campbell's condensed soup
1897   Campbell's tomato soup
1897   Grape Nuts
1897   Jell-O
1897   1000 Island Dressing
1898   Nabisco graham crackers
1898   shredded wheat cereal
1899   Wesson oil
1900   Chiclets gum
1900   cotton candy
1900   Hershey's chocolate bar
1901   instant coffee
1902   Barnum's Animal Crackers
1902   Karo corn syrup
1902   Pepsi
1903   Best Foods
1903   canned tuna
1903   Sanka
1903   Sunshine Biscuit Company
1903   U.S. Senate Bean Soup
1904   banana split
1904   Campbell's Kids introduced
1904   Campbell's Pork and Beans
1904   Canada Dry ginger ale
1904   Dr. Pepper
1904   peanut butter
1904   popcorn
1904   ice cream cone
1904   Jumballaya, Cooking in Old Creole Days
1905   Epsicle (later Popsicle)
1905   Holly Sugar
1905   Royal Crown cola
1906   A-1 Sauce
1906   bouillon cube
1906   Kellogg's Corn Flakes
1907   Hershey's kiss
1908   Dixie cup
1908   electric toaster
1908   monosodium glutamate isolated
1909   Lipton tea
1909   Melitta drip coffeemaker
1909   puffed wheat and rice (Quaker)
1909   Tillamook cheese
1910   tea bag
1910   Chipped beef, Manual for Army Cooks
1911   Crisco
1911   Mazola corn oil
1912   Cracker Jack puts in a prize
1912   hamburger buns
1912   Hellmann's mayonnaise
1912   Life Savers
1912   Lorna Doone cookies
1912   Morton table salt
1912   Ocean Spray cranberry sauce
1912   Vitamins
1912   Whitman's Sampler
1913   Campbell's cream of celery
1913   Oreo cookie
1913   Peppermint Life Savers
1913   Coq au vin
1914   Doublemint gum
1914   fruit cocktail
1914   Morton Salt girl
1915   processed cheese
1915   Pyrex bakeware
1916   fortune cookie
1916   Kellogg's All-Bran cereal
1916   Mr. Peanut
1916   Orange Crush
1917   Clark Bar
1917   Moon Pie
1918   Campbell's vegetable beef
1918   Contadina tomato sauce
1918   Welch's first jam, Grapelade
1919   Fridgidaire
1919   Konabar, Peter Paul
1919   Malt-O-Meal
1919   Sunkist oranges
1920   Baby Ruth
1920   boysenberry
1920   Good Humor bar
1920   La Choy Food Products
1920   Wonder Bread
1921   Betty Crocker
1921   Eskimo Pie
1921   Hershey kisses get blue & white streamer
1921   hybrid corn
1921   iodized salt
1921   Land O' Lakes butter
1921   Mounds bar
1921   Oh Henry!
1921   Sioux Bee Honey
1921   White Castle hamburger chain
1921   Wonderbread
1921   Wrigley's gum
1922   A&W Root Beer
1922   Charleston Chew candy
1922   Almond Rocha
1922   Girl Scout Cookies
1923   Milky Way bar
1923   Reese's Peanut Butter Cup
1923   Welch's grape jelly
1924   Bit-O-Honey candy
1924   Caesar salad
1924   Dum Dum sucker
1924   fruit-flavored Life Savers
1924   packaged sliced bacon (Oscar Mayer)
1924   Wheaties
1924   Caesar salad
1925   Green Giant canned peas
1925   Mr. Goodbar
1925   Wesson oil
1926   Cobb Salad
1926   Hormel canned ham
1926   Milk Duds
1926   Orange Julius
1927   Gerber baby food
1927   homogenized milk
1927   Kool-Aid
1927   Lenders bagels
1927   Mike & Ike
1927   Wonder Bread
1927   Welch-ade
1928   broccoli introduced to U.S.
1928   Butterfinger
1928   Peter Pan peanut butter
1928   Nabisco shredded wheat
1928   Progresso Foods
1928   Reese's Peanut Butter Cups
1928   Rice Krispies
1928   Velveeta cheese
1929   Colombo yogurt
1929   Karmelkorn
1929   Klondike bar
1929   Libby canned pumpkin
1929   Lithiated Lemon (later 7-Up)
1929   Niblets corn
1929   Oscar Mayer weiner
1929   Po' Boy sandwich
1929   Popeye the Sailor
1929   Ruby grapefruit
1930   Birds Eye Frosted Foods
1930   Bisquick
1930   Jiffy Biscuit Mix
1930   Lime Jell-O
1930   Mott's Apple Sauce
1930   Snickers
1930   Toll House cookies
1930   Twinkies
1930   sliced Wonder Bread
1930   Philadelphia cheese steak
1931   Alka-Seltzer
1931   Beech-Nut baby food
1931   Cryst-O-Mint Life Savers
1931   dehydrated onion
1931   The Joy of Cooking, Irma S. Rombauer
1931   Reed's Butterscotch candy
1931   Tootsie Pop
1931   souffle, Joy of Cooking
1932   3 Musketeers bar
1932   bagel
1932   corn chips
1932   Heath bar
1932   Jell-O chocolate pudding
1932   Skippy peanut butter
1933   Budweiser Clydesdales
1933   canned pineapple juice
1933   Lithiated Lemon renamed 7-Up
1933   Prohibition ends
1933   Sunsweet prune juice
1933   V8 Juice
1933   Waldorf salad
1933   Ruth Wakefield's Toll House cookies
1934   Campbell's chicken noodle
1934   Campbell's cream of mushroom
1934   Ritz crackers
1934   Sugar Daddy
1935   5 flavors Life Savers
1935   Adolph's Meat Tenderizer
1935   Friendly Ice Cream restaurant
1935   Realemon lemon juice
1935   Royal Crown cola
1935   Sugar Babies
1936   Dom Pérignon champagne
1936   Elsie the Cow (Borden)
1936   5th Avenue bar
1936   Girl Scout cookies
1936   Mars Bar
1936   Waring blender
1937   A & P Supermarket
1937   Good 'n Plenty
1937   Kit Kat bar
1937   Kix cereal
1937   Kraft Macaroni & Cheese Dinner
1937   Pepperidge Farm Bread
1937   Ragu Spaghetti Sauce
1937   Rolo candy
1937   shopping cart
1937   Smarties
1937   Spam
1937   Reuben sandwiches
1938   Bumble Bee tuna
1938   Hershey Krackel bar
1938   Lawry's Seasoned Salt
1938   Mott's apple juice
1938   Nescafé, first instant coffee
1938   Nestlé Crunch bar
1938   Teflon
1939   food stamps
1939   Lay's potato chips
1939   Nestlé chocolate chip
1939   pressure cooker
1939   Sara Lee cheese cake
1939   Colonel Sanders' secret recipe
1940   cellophane-wrapped meat
1940   Dairy Queen
1940   McDonald's
1940   Rain-Blo gum ball
1940   York Peppermint Patty
1941   Cheerioats (renamed Cheerios in 1946)
1941   garbage disposal
1941   M&M's Plain chocolate candies
1942   Dannon yogurt
1942   Kellogg's Raisin Bran
1942   Sunbeam bread
1944   Chiquita banana jingle
1945   Constant Comment tea
1945   Fleischmann's Active Dry Yeast
1945   Junior Mints
1945   Tupperware
1946   French's Instant Potatoes
1946   Minute Maid frozen o.j.
1946   Mrs. Paul's frozen food
1946   Ragu pasta sauce
1946   Tupperware
1947   Almond Joy
1947   aluminum foil
1947   cake mix
1947   Kraft singles
1947   Minute Maid o.j. concentrate
1947   Reddi-Wip
1948   Baskin-Robbins
1948   Nestle's Quik
1948   V-8 juice
1949   electric dishwasher
1949   Jolly Rancher candy
1949   Junior Mints
1949   Minute Rice
1949   Pillsbury Bake-Off
1949   Whoppers malted milk balls
1949   violet M&Ms replaced with tan
1950   Ball-O-Fire gumball
1950   cyclamates
1950   Dunkin' Donuts
1950   Green Giant Co.
1950   Sugar Pops cereal
1951   Ore-Ida Foods
1951   Swanson beef, chicken, turkey pot pies
1951   Tropicana juice
1952   fish sticks
1952   Kellogg's Frosted Flakes
1952   Lipton onion soup mix
1952    No-cal Ginger Ale, 1st sugar-free soft drink
1952   Pez comes to the U.S.
1952   Saran Wrap
1953   Cheez Whiz
1953   Danny's Donuts opens (became Denny's in 1959)
1953   Howdy Doody tumbler from Welch's
1953   Irish coffee invented in S.F.'s Buena Vista Cafe
1953   Lawry's spaghetti sauce
1953   Sugar Smacks cereal
1953   Swanson TV dinner
1954   Burger King
1954   Butterball turkey
1954   colored appliance (G.E.)
1954   M&M's Peanut Candies
1954   Reddi-wip
1954   Shakey's pizza opens
1954   Trix
1955   Del Monte stewed tomatoes
1955   Kentucky Fried Chicken
1955   McDonald's
1955   Special K cereal
1956   Imperial margarine
1957   Sweet'n Low
1958   aluminum beverage can (Coors)
1958   Cocoa Krispies, Kellogg
1958   Cocoa Puffs, General Mills
1958   Green Giant canned beans
1958   Internation House of Pancakes
1958   Jif Peanut Butter
1958   Lipton Instant Tea
1958   Pizza Hut (Wichita, KS)
1958   Rice-a-Roni
1958   Williams-Sonoma opens
1959   Haagen-Dazs ice cream
1959   Frosty O's, General Mills
1960   Coffee Rich non-dairy creamer
1960   Dominoes pizza (Detroit)
1960   Granny Smith apple imported to U.S.
1960   red, green, & yellow M&M's
1960   Sprite
1961   Coffee-Mate non-dairy creamer
1961   Green Giant frozen vegetables
1961   Mrs. Butterworth's Syrup
1961   Total cereal, General Mills
1961   Charlie the Tuna (Starkist)
1961   kiwifruit
1961   Sprite
1962   Bridgford frozen bread dough
1962   Diet-Rite cola
1962   Pet-Ritz Frozen Pie Crust
1962   Taco Bell
1963   Chips Ahoy! cookies
1963   Chiquita banana blue sticker
1963   Cremora non-dairy creamer
1963   Fruit Loops
1963   self-cleaning oven
1963   Tab cola
1963   The French Chef debuts
1963   Weight Watchers founded
1964   Kellogg's Pop-Tarts
1964   nachos
1965   Cool Whip
1965   Gatorade
1965   Poppin' Fresh, Pillsbury Doughboy
1965   SpaghettiOs
1965   Tang
1966   Fresca
1967   Bugles
1968   McDonald's Big Mac
1969   Bac-Os
1969   Diet 7-Up
1969   sugarless gum
1970   Eggo waffles
1970   Hamburger Helper
1971   canned A&W Root Beer
1971   Jell-O pudding treat
1971   Rolos candy
1971   smoked Spam
1971   Starbucks
1972   Egg McMuffin
1972   Top Ramen
1972   Tuna Helper
1973   Cuisinart food processor
1973   Honey Maid cinnamon grahams
1975   Pasta primavera
1976   Jelly Belly
1976   orange M&M's
1977   McDonald's Happy Meal
1977   Yoplait yogurt
1978   Reese's Pieces
1981   aspartame
1981   Prego spaghetti sauce
1981   Stouffer's Lean Cuisine
1982   Diet Coke
1982   Equal
  1983   Nutrasweet
  1984   Ben & Jerry's ice cream
  1985   Cherry Coke
  1985   New Coke
  1985   Pop Secret microwave popcorn
  1986   Classic Coke
  1987   Cherry 7-Up
  1987   Nestlé Alpine White chocolate bar
  1987   soy milk
  1989   Symphony candy bar
  1990   Campbell's cream of broccoli soup
  1990   dolphin-safe tuna
  1990   Hershey's kisses with almonds
  1990   Jamba Juice
  1992   Crystal Pepsi
  1992   Spam Lite
  1993   The Food Network
  1993   Hershey's Hugs
  1995   blue M&Ms
  1996   Olestra
  1998   Jell-O Museum, Rochester, NY
  1998   Pepsi One
  1998   Wow potato chips
  1999   Benecol
  1999   Hershey's Bites
  1999   Incredibles, push-up food
  2000   Betasweet carrot, bred to be a powerful antioxidant
  2000   Heinz green ketchup
  2000   pre-cut carrots and celery sticks
  2001   Boston Market Homestyle Meals
  2001   Chicken of the Sea Tuna Salad Kits
  2001   Heinz purple ketchup
  2001   It's Pasta Anytime
1850s    Eliza Leslie's Strawberry shortcake
1860s    Baked Alaska
1910's   Jell-O: America's most famous dessert
1918,    French dip sandwich
1970's   California rolls
1970's   Tiramisu
1900   Lionel train
1903   Crayola Crayons
1903   Teddy bear
1913   Erector set
1914   Tinker Toys
1916   Lincoln Logs
1917   Radio Flyer wagon
1929   Yo-Yo
1930   Lego
1934   Sorry
1935   Monopoly
1938   View-Master 3-D viewer
1942   Little Golden Books
1943   Chutes and Ladders
1945   Slinky
1946   Tonka trucks
1948   Scrabble
1949   Candy Land,
1949   Clue
1950   Silly Putty
1952   Mr. Potato Head
1954   Matchbox cars
1955   Play-Doh
1956   Yahtzee
1956   Original Ant Farm
1959   Barbie
1959   Risk
1960   Etch-A-Sketch
1962   Mille Bornes card game
1963   G.I. Joe
1963   Easy Bake Oven
1966   Spirograph
1966   Twister
1968   Hot Wheels
1970   Nerf balls
1970   Bachmann trains
1972   Uno
1974   Dungeons & Dragons
1978   Hungry Hungry Hippos
1979   Rubik's Cube
1983   Cabbage Patch Kids
1983   Trivial Pursuit
1984   Transformers
1988   Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles
1989   Super Soaker



















Black entrepreneur Annie Turnbo produces a hair treatment containing sage and egg rinses. She and her sister
manufacture Wonderful Hair Grower and sell it door-to-door. Turnbo moves the business to St. Louis in 1902 and
in 1906 registers the trade name Poro.
Max Factor, a Russian immigrant, moves to the United States and launches a theatrical makeup and hair-goods
shop. He originally works with Hollywood movie studios, but his influence soon spreads to the general public.
French chemist Eugene Schueller develops the first safe commercial hair dye and founds the French Harmless
Dye Co. The next year, he renames the company L'Oreal.
When Sarah McWilliams' hair begins to thin and fall out, she creates a product she calls Wonderful Hair Grower,
just like Turnbo's, and sells it door-to-door in Denver. She later marries Charles J. Walker, becomes known as
Madam C.J. Walker and settles in Indianapolis, which she deems a good place to launch her company nationally.
Florence Graham and cosmetologist Elizabeth Hubbard open a salon on Fifth Avenue in New York. When the
partnership fails, Graham redecorates and works on the formulas; when she reopens the shop, she takes the
Maybelline is founded, specializing in mascara.
Lipstick in cylindrical metal tubes is introduced.
Max Factor's Society Makeup line debuts, the first full-scale cosmetics collection intended for nontheatrical use. It
is distributed nationally in 1927.
Pencil-thin eyebrows are the rage.
The bobby pin is invented as a tool for bobbed hair.
The craze for short hair causes the number of cutting salons to increase from 5,000 to 23,000 between 1922 and
1924. Among those epitomizing the trend are designer Coco Chanel and actress Louise Brooks.
Suntanning becomes a craze.
False eyelashes are a beauty trend.
Revlon is founded, specializing in nail polish.
A New York chemist named Lawrence Gelb brings home from Paris a hair color product that penetrates the hair
shaft. He opens a company named after the product, Clairol. In 1950, he introduces Miss Clairol Hair Color Bath,
a one-step color product, and in 1951, Lady Clairol Whipped Creme hair lightener, which changes the way
Zotos introduces a chemical permanent wave process, which doesn't require electricity or machines. In 1936
beauty shops give 35 million permanent waves. By the 1940s, products such as Toni home permanents offer a
Pan-Cake makeup, originally called Panchromatic Make-up Cake, is created by Max Factor. It was developed to
replace greasepaint and look natural on the color film used to shoot movies. When actresses begin taking it
home with them for personal use, Max Factor figures the public will go for it, too. The product is patented in 1936.
Aerosols are patented, paving the way for hair spray. (Hair spray will be the best-selling beauty product in 1964.)
Sunscreen is developed by Miami beach pharmacist Benjamin Green, who creates it to protect soldiers on duty in
the South Pacific. He adds cocoa butter and jasmine to the formula and tests it on his own bald head.
Pan-Stik, a cream-based makeup in stick form, is introduced by Max Factor. It was developed as a product for
use in television and the movies, but debuts at retail at the same time.
Mascara wands debut, eliminating the need for applying mascara with a brush.
Long hair is the rage. To straighten their hair, women set it on orange juice cans. Hippies wear flowers in their
hair. Men go for long hair, too, especially after the Beatles tour the United States.
Also hot is curly hair. Afro styles are popular with blacks, and those who don't have naturally curly hair get
The flip hairstyle is worn by Mary Tyler Moore on "The Dick Van Dyke Show."
Introduction of Cover Girl Medicated makeup from Noxzema, one of the first brands sold in grocery stores and
targeted to teens.
Revlon offers the first powdered blush-on, a cake of pink powder applied with a small brush.
Vidal Sassoon creates the geometric haircut, the first cut women could simply wash and blow dry. In 1967,
Sassoon and his staff create the wash-and-wear perm, which allows women to shower and go, eliminating their
need for weekly salon appointments.
Trend-setting English designer Mary Quant launches her cosmetics line.
Clinique line is introduced by Estee Lauder, the first brand to be pitched with a hygienic, asexual message with
emphasis on the product, not glamorous models.
The musical "Hair" debuts.
The first unisex salon is opened by Paul McGregor in New York.
The shag haircut decade: Jane Fonda in "Klute" (1971) and Farrah Fawcett on "Charlie's Angels" (1976).
The first day spa opens.
Spike haircuts appear in London, as do Mohawks in fluorescent pink, green or purple.
Olympic medal-winner Dorothy Hamill becomes as famous for her wedge haircut as she does for her ice skating.
Horst Rechelbacher founds Aveda, a company focusing on botanically based products and environmentally
friendly packaging.
Princess Diana's short, chic blond coif is created by Richard Dalton, who serves as her personal stylist until 1991.
Mousse, which gives hair lift at the roots, is the hot product for men and women.
Color is the big story, with such supermodels as Linda Evangelista going from brunette to blond to redhead and
then dying her hair black. Chunky highlights are first seen about 1992.
Chanel Beaute introduces Vamp, a black nail polish that sparks a trend for offbeat colors.
Fashion model Iman introduces a cosmetics collection for women of color. In 1999, she announces plans for a
new makeup collection targeted to all women.
The tousled layered cut that Chris McMillan created for "Friends" actress Jennifer Aniston soon came to be
known as The Rachel, named for Aniston's character.





















Jun 7, George Byran "Beau" Brummell, English wit, was born. He influenced men's fashion and introduced
trouser to replace breeches.
 Mar 4, James Madison became 1st President inaugurated in American-made clothes.
May 27, American reformer Amelia Jenks Bloomer, who popularized the "bloomers" garment that bears her
name, was born in Homer, N.Y.
Henry Sands Brooks began H. & D.H. Brooks & Co. in mostly rural Manhattan. It became a key military supplier
during the Civil War. A 2nd store opened in 1928 and operations grew to the well known chain known as Brooks
Jul 9, Elias Howe (d.1867), inventor of the sewing machine, was born in Spencer, Mass. Howe, a machinist,
developed his sewing machine in 1843-45 and patented it in 1846. Although Howe's machine sewed only short,
straight lines, tailors and seamstresses saw it as a threat to their jobs. Unable to market his machine in America,
Howe took it to Britain where he sold the rights to an English manufacturer in 1847. Upon his return to the United
States, Howe discovered that his patent had been infringed upon by other sewing machine manufacturers, such
as Isaac Singer. After a lengthy court battle, Howe's patent was upheld and royalties from sewing machine sales
Lt. Harry Lumsden in the heat of India’s Punjab dyed his PJs a tawny color. They were made of cotton and called
Britain introduced khaki uniforms for British colonial troops in India.
Apr 10, Walter Hunt, a mechanic, patented the safety pin in NYC. He sold rights for $100. Hunt’s other inventions
included a new stove, paper collar, ice-breaking boat, fountain pen and nail-making machine.
Levi Strauss, Bavarian-born dry goods merchant, arrived in California. and Co. He got his start peddling tough
canvas pants to California gold miners. When his canvas ran out he switched to serge de Nimes, which evolved
Apr 21, Alexander Douglas patented the bustle.
Jun 2, James Gibbs, Va., patented a chain-stitch single-thread sewing machine.
Englishman Charles Worth establishes first haute couture fashion house in Paris
Levi Strauss and Jacob Davis patented the rivets that adorned their miners' work pants.
May 20, Levi Strauss began marketing blue jeans with copper rivets at $13.50 per doz.
Jul 23, Isaac Merritt Singer (63), inventor (sewing machine), died.
Jun 6, An electric iron was patented by Henry W. Seely in NYC.
Aug 19, Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel (d.1971), French fashion designer, was born: "My friends, there are no friends."
May 19, Jan Matzeliger began the 1st mass production of shoes in Lynn, Massachusetts.
Mar 13, Chester Greenwood of Maine patented earmuffs.
Abercrombie & Fitch, clothing retailers, began operations.
Mar 31, Whitcomb Judson patented a hookless fastening (zipper) in Chicago.
Sep 10, Elsa Schiaparelli, French fashion designer, was born.
Brooks Brothers introduced button down collars after observing polo players button down their collar points to
keep them from flapping during play.
Jan 24, The rubber heel was patented by Humphrey O'Sullivan.
Marquis Mills Converse founded the Converse shoe company. In 1917 the All-Stars basketball shoe was
introduced. In 1923 it was renamed the Chuck Taylor All-Star. In 2003 the company was sold to Nike.
Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel opened her 1st shop, a millinery, in Paris.
May 18, Pierre A Balmain, fashion designer (1940's "New Look"), was born in France.
Nov 20, Emilio Pucci, fashion designer (Neiman-Marcus Award-1954), was born in Naples.
May 25, Madame C.J. Walker (51), African American cosmetics manufacturer, died
The "flapper"
Madeleine Vionnet creates flowing, feminine clothes, including the chiffon handkerchief dress; creates cowl neck,
halter top; sets trends in 1930s
Popularity of rayon causes decline in use of cotton
May 28, US Attorney General said it is legal for women to wear trousers anywhere.
Barney Pressman pawned his wife's wedding ring in NYC to lease a Seventh Ave. store selling discounted men's
suits. In 1993 Barney's opened a $270 million Madison Ave. showcase store.
Knee-length hemlines mark new high
Elsa Schiaparelli opens Paris boutique; pioneers use of zippers, shoulder pads, unusual buttons; favors bright
colors, including "shocking pink"
Dec 13, The clip-on tie was designed.
Levi's became a trademark.
Jan 26, San Francisco police took Frances Orlando (19) to the Bush Police Station because she was dressed in
Hemlines drop; then gradually rise
Ellery J. Chun (d.2000 at 91) designed the 1st Hawaiian aloha shirt for mass-production and sale at his family’s
store in Honolulu. He put a trademark to the aloha shirt name in 1936.
Willis & Geiger Outfitters were awarded a US Army & Air Force contract for A-2 flight jackets.
May 23, Wallace Carothers manufactured the 1st nylon, polymer 66.
Bra makers first started using cup sizes.
May 15, Nylon stockings went on general sale for the first time in the United States. [see Oct 24, 1939]
Jul 5, The bikini bathing suit, created by former civil engineer Louis Reard, made its debut during a fashion show
at the Molitor Pool in Paris. Model Micheline Bernardini wore the skimpy two-piece outfit. Its name correlated with
the July 1 American atom bomb test on Bikini Atoll. Réard wanted his design to have a similar explosive affect.
Christian Dior reestablishes Paris as fashion center; revives haute couture; replaces wartime austerity with the
glamour of the "New Look" with tight waist, stiff petticoats, billowing skirts
Shoes have pointed toes, stiletto heels
Hazel Bishop (d.1998 at 92) formed Hazel Bishop Inc. to manufacture and market her kiss proof lipstick. It was
introduced in the summer at $1 a tube.
Martha Matilda Harper (b.1857), Canadian-born hair-care businesswoman, died. She was probably the 1st
person to perfect the franchise system of business organization.
May 8, Dacron men's suits were introduced.
Armi Ratia, Finnish designer, expanded her husband's printing business into a fashionable "total work of art"
business (Gesamtkunstwerk) that became "Marimekko."
A Vatican rule that required women to wear head coverings in Catholic churches was repealed.
Mar 1, K-Mart opened.
Pierre Cardin becomes first designer to license his name for various products; is first to create ready-to-wear
London boutique owner Mary Quant champions the youth movement; introduces mini-skirt, hot pants; launches
Twiggy as supermodel; becomes 1960s most influential 1960s designer
Influenced by rock music, "Mod" scene makes London major fashion center with fun, revolutionary clothes: bell
bottoms, psychedelic prints, wild colors, dresses made of vinyl, paper, cellophane, metal, covered in mirrors; go-
go boots; ruffled shirts for men; Nehru jackets; fur vests
Rudi Gernreich creates "radical" fashion - topless swimsuit, see-through blouse, "no bra" look
Calvin Klein begins producing elegant, simple clothes, favoring neural earth tones and luxurious fabrics
Ralph Lauren creates men's wear line; expands into women's wear; favors natural fabrics; designs feature
western or country motifs
Mar 11, Levi-Strauss started to sell bell-bottomed jeans.
Donald and Doris Fisher founded the Gap in San Francisco.
Known as Halston, Roy Halston Frowick dominates 1970s with pantsuits, sweater sets, form-fitting dresses, knit
Nike Shoes began production.
Giorgio Armani creates men's wear line; popularizes Italian tailoring
Foot Locker, a division of Woolworth Stores, opened its 1st outlet.
Yves St. Laurent launched the perfume Opium.
Apr 2, Velcro was 1st put on the market.
Nike signed a 5-year contract with Michael Jordan. The Air Jordan basketball shoe was released in 1985 for $65.
Levi Strauss & Co. introduced Dockers, a line of roomy khakis aimed at baby boomers.
Jun 22, Florida passed a law that prohibited wearing a thong bathing suit.
The Gap opened its Old Navy discount clothing store in Colma, Ca.
Feb 3, IBM in fashion shed its dress code in favor of casual wear.
John Galliano, British designer, became chief designer for Dior. In 1999 he introduced the saddle bag handbag.
Feb 22, Levi Strauss, falling victim to a fashion generation gap, announced that it would close 11 of 22 US plants
and lay off 5,900 factory workers.
Jun 8, The WSJ covered the thong as a fashion statement on page 1.
Aug 9, Four large apparel corporations settled out of court in a suit to end sweatshop labor in Saipan. Nordstrom,
J. Crew, Cutter & Buck and Gymboree agreed to pay $1.25 million to reimburse workers for recruitment fees and
to set up a program to monitor island contractors.
Oct 1, Conde Nast said it would its Mademoiselle (b.1935) fashion magazine would be published for the last time
Apr 24, Estee Lauder (b.1906), cosmetics pioneer whose pots of potions and tubs of moisturizers have turned the
clock back for millions of faces across the globe, died in NYC.
year              word
1900   Concentration Camp
1900   Phony
1904   Adolescent
1904   Paranoid
1905   Hormone
1905   Smog
1906   Allergy
1906   High brow, low brow
1906   Jukebox
1906   Psychoanalysis
1906   Tabloid
1906   Suffragette
1907   Blurb
1907   Television
1909   Gaffe
1909   Jazz
1910   Feminism
1910   Electronics
1913   Isotope
1914   Birth control
1914   Documentary
1915   Cosmic ray
1917   Camouflage
1917   Jaywalk
1919   Collage
1920   White Collar
1920   Wimp
1922   Broadcast
1923   Robot
1925   Motel
1926   Briefcase
1926   Chain reaction
1929   Lifestyle
1930   Technocrat
1931   Black market
1931   Microwave
1938   Nylon
1939   Blitzkrieg
1941   Jeep
1941   Teenager
1945   Kamikaze
1946   Bikini
1947   Charisma
1948   Jogging
1950   Brainwashing
1950   Nerd
1952   Canned laughter
1955   Karate
1955   Meltdown
1956   Psychedelic
1956   Third World
1957   Moonlight (additional job)
1959   Kinky (unconventional)
1960   Hacker
1960   Laser
1960   Sit-in
1960   Software
1961   Tax shelter
1962   Counterinsurgency
1962   Glitch
1962   Put-down
1963   Biodegradable
1963   Scam
1964   Heavy metal
1964   Sitcom
1964   Skateboard
1964   Stonewall
1965   Miniskirt
1965   Sexism
1965   Uptight
1966   Disinformation
1966   High five
1966   Hippie
1966   Jacuzzi
1966   Skinny-dip
1967   Icon (computer)
1968   Outreach
1968   Workaholic
1968   Unisex
1969   Jet lag
1970   Database
1970   Whistle blower
1972   Child abuse
1973   Miniseries
1975   Surrogate mother
1976   Couch potato
1979   User friendly
1980   AIDS
1982   Camcorder
1982   Yuppie
1984   Spin doctor
1985   Virtual reality
1988   Crack
1988   CD-ROM
 year                                                     event
1905    Albert Marsh patents alloy of nickel and chromium, Nichrome, making electric toasters possible.
1908    First U.S. patent for vacuum cleaner, James W. Spangler.
1909    First successful electric toaster was produced.
1909    Development of high-speed universal motor for vacuum cleaners.
1913    First refrigerator for home use.
1919    Eureka produces 2,000 vacuums a day due to improved mass production techniques.
1919    Charles Strite invents first pop-up toaster.
1920s   Safety standards for electric outlets and plugs revise housing codes.
1926    General Electric introduces refrigerator with hermetically sealed compressor.
1927    John W. Hammes patents garbage disposal.
1929    Cost of U.S. electric refrigerator $292, down from $600 in 1920.
1931    U.S. refrigerator production tops one million units.
1931    Birds Eye Frosted Foods go on sale across the United States.
1932    Electric dishwasher.
1935    Clothes dryer, Ross Moore.
1937    Hand-held vacuum.
1946    Microwave oven, Percy L. Spencer.
1947    First top-loading automatic clothes washer.
1955    Domestic deep freezer.
1957    Spin clothes dryer.
1961    Smaller freezers with front doors introduced, more suitable for home kitchens.
1963    Steam-or-dry electric iron.
1976    Singer electronic sewing machine that dials up to 25 preset stitches, self-winding bobbin.
1980s   Microprocessors revolutionize household appliances.






By 1910






























Potter Palmer opened a dry goods store in Chicago, which eventually became Marshall Field & Co.
Joseph Lowthian Hudson opened his first store in Detroit
Barney Kroger established a grocery store in Cincinnati.
Sears began when Richard Sears started selling watches in 1886 to supplement his income, and later hired
watchmaker Alvah C. Roebuck to join his venture.
David May opened the first store of what would become The May Department Stores Co. in Leadville, Colo.
F.W. Woolworth first opened for business.
Marshall Field & Co. Incorporates.
Merchant Henry Siegel forms a syndicate of stores that includes Siegel-Cooper's stores, Simpson-Crawford-
Simpson store, Manhattan, and the Schlesinger and Mayer store, Chicago.
Shoe merchant J.W. Nordstrom, a Swedish immigrant and former gold miner, opens his first store in the Seattle
R.H. Macy moves from Manhattan's Ladies Mile (Sixth Street) to 34th Street and Broadway.
J.C. Penney opens his first store called the Golden Rule in Kemmerer, Wyo.
Carson Pirie Scott & Co. opens on State Street, Chicago.
The Spiegel Co. publishes its first catalog in Chicago and mails to customers within a 100-mile radius.
Lehman Brothers and Goldman, Sachs finance the expansion of Sears, Roebuck & Co. The mail-order company
first incorporates in 1893. Sears' first catalog, featuring only watches and jewelry, debuted in 1888.
Herbert Marcus Sr., his sister, Carrie Marcus Neiman, and her husband, A.L. Neiman, open the first Neiman
Marcus store, Dallas.
Edward A. Filene begins selling excess merchandise in the basement of his father's store on Washington Street,
May Department Stores, St. Louis, incorporates in New York City.
the number of chain stores operating is probably less than 5,000.
May acquires the William Barr Dry Goods Co. and combines it with The Famous Clothing Co., both in St. Louis,
to form Famous-Barr.
The same banking firms that financed Sears in 1906 finance and reorganize F.W. Woolworth Co., increasing its
stores from 18 in 1892 to 600, in America and Europe.
John Wanamaker opens 24-story department store on Market Street, Philadelphia.
Famous-Barr opens its flagship in downtown St. Louis.
J.P. Morgan helps reorganize the businesses of merchants Henry Siegel (Siegel-Cooper's) and John Claflin
(owner of 40 department stores including Lord & Taylor, McCreey's and Hahne's) into the Associated Dry Goods
B. Altman moves to a 12-story Italian Renaissance building at Fifth Avenue and 34th Street, New York City.
R.H. Macy, B. Altman's, Lord & Taylor, Sterns, Arnold Constable and Saks Fifth Avenue all operate stores in
Manhattan ranging from 34th Street to 52nd Street.
Barnes & Noble opens its first bookstore at 31 W. 15th Street, New York City.
J C Nichols opens Country Club Plaza in Kansas City, Mo. It is the first shopping district constructed as a
business district for a large-scale residential development.
Barney Pressman opens a men's discount clothing store at Seventh Avenue and 17th Street, New York City.
The first Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade takes place in New York City. Dubbed the "Christmas Parade," the five-
mile event is watched by 10,000 people.
Macy's Herald Square location becomes largest store in the world, following completion of Seventh Avenue
Loehmann's opens its first store in Brooklyn.
Sears Roebuck & Co. opens first store in a catalog center on Chicago's west side. Another unit opens in
Evansville, Ind.
Cataloger Montgomery Ward opens its first store in Plymouth, Ind.
Grandview Shopping Center in suburban Columbus, Ohio, opens. It features a straight line of 30 shops with
parking for 400 cars in front.
In Seattle, three brothers buy out their father and his partner, taking over a couple of shoe stores, changing their
name from Wallin & Nordstrom to Nordstrom.
Federated Department Stores is founded as a holding company and includes the family-owned department stores
of Abraham and Straus and F&R Lazarus and Co.
The first true self-service store, a King Kullen supermarket opens in Jamaica, Queens, N.Y.
Bloomingdale's joins Federated.
Hugh Parther develops Highland Park Shopping Village, Dallas, the first planned shopping center. Unlike Country
Club Plaza, storefronts face inward and occupy a single site not bisected by public streets.
Bloomingdale's opens at 59th and Lexington, New York City.
Hendrik Meijer opens his first grocery store In Greenville, Mich.
According to the U.S. Bureau of Census, the number of chain stores operating is 127,482.
First shopping cart introduced at Humpty Dumpty stores in Oklahoma City, Okla.
Congress establishes Thanksgiving as the fourth Thursday of November rather than the fifth Thursday. Fred
Lazarus Jr. (Federated Stores) convinces President Franklin Roosevelt that changing the date (thereby extending
the Christmas shopping season) would be good for the nation's business.
Japanese invasion of Pearl Harbor effectively ends The Great Depression Labor, building material and
merchandise shortages follow.
Sears catalog shrinks in size. 1942 edition is nearly 200 pages shorter than 1941. Material shortages and
government regulations put new store construction on hold.
Variety store retailer W.T. Grant opens first non-food, self-service store in Glen Cove, N.Y. Labor shortage and
increase of working women combine to make self-service a necessity.
Film "Miracle on 34th Street" premieres.
The McDonald Brothers open a limited-menu, drive-thru restaurant in San Bernardino, Calif.
E.J. Korvette opens first discount store in New York.
Minimum wage grows from 40 to 75 cents per hour.
Thom McAn develops a standardized store design beginning with establishing a standard size for shoe boxes.
Northgate Shopping Center, the first open-air pedestrian mall, opens in Seattle featuring two strip centers face-to-
face with a pedestrian walkway in between.
Shoppers World, the first two-level center, opens in Framingham, Mass.
Northland Center opens in Southfield, Mich. It is the first center to feature central heating and air-conditioning.
Southdale Shopping Center opens in Edina, Minn. It is the first fully-enclosed, two-level regional mall.
After six years of planning, the open-air Old Orchard Shopping Center opens in Skokie, Ill. Originally anchored by
Marshall Field's, The Fair and later, Montgomery Ward, the center was redesigned and redeveloped as a "village
square" in 1994, nearly doubling the number of tenants.
Garden State Plaza, an open-air center, opens in Paramus, N.J., anchored by Bamberger's. Periodic expansions
and renovations brought about the addition of Gimbel's and JCPenney. Now enclosed, the center is anchored by
Macy's, Nordstrom, JCPenney and Neiman Marcus.
Baby Furniture and Toy Supermart (today's Toys 'R' Us) opens in Washington.
The International Council of Shopping Centers forms in Chicago.
Lenox Square opens in Atlanta as an open-air center anchored by Rich's and Davison's. Located a considerable
distance from major interstates, it is the Southeast's first mall. In 1972, the center's first major renovation includes
enclosing the center and adding Neiman Marcus.
First Wal-Mart store opens in Rogers, Ark.
Dayton Hudson Stores open first Target store in Roseville, Minn.
Leslie Wexner opens first Limited store in Kingsdale Shopping Center, Columbus, Ohio.
Mace Siegel founds The Macerich Real Estate Co., Santa Monica, Calif.
Sound of Music store opens, changes name to Best Buy in 1983.
First B. Dalton bookstore opens.
Dayton Hudson Stores Corp. goes public.
Federated Department Stores Co. enters discount arena with debut of Gold Circle stores in Ohio. Its Rich's
division opens Richway discount stores in Georgia.
Donald and Doris Fisher open the first Gap store on Ocean Street, San Francisco.
Limited goes public.
Wal-Mart goes public.
The U.S Supreme Court contends that a shopping center is quasi-public and serves as a community business
area, and that states cannot exclude those wishing to exercise their First Amendment rights on the premises.
Shopping Center World begins publication with its February issue.
First electronic scanner installed in a Marsh Supermarket store, Troy, Ohio.
Water Tower Place, the first vertical mall, opens on North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, anchored by Lord & Taylor
and Marshall Field's.
The Rouse Co. opens Faneuil Hall, Boston, signaling the beginning of festival marketplaces and urban revival.
The industry grows to 17,523 U.S. shopping centers, or 2.3 billion sq. ft., producing annual sales of $217 billion.
White Flint Shopping Center in North Bethesda, Md., offers the first shopping center credit card.
S.S. Kresge Co. changes its name to Kmart Corp.
The Home Depot's first store opens in Decatur, Ga.
E. J. Korvette liquidates after unsuccessful turnaround attempt.
West Edmonton Mall - the largest mall in North America - opens in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, occupying 5.5
million sq. ft. of space.
Food courts become focal points in malls.
The Home Shopping Network debuts.
The Mills Corp. opens its first center, Potomac Mills, a 1.6 million sq.ft. off-price entertainment center in Prince
William, Va.
The Hahn Co. opens Horton Plaza in downtown San Diego.
Gimbel's flagship closes in New York City.
QVC debuts.
Australian developer L J Hooker acquires B. Altman, Bonwit Teller, Sakowitz and Parisian.
First Disney mall store opens in Glendale, Calif.
Canadian developer Robert Campeau acquires Federated Department Stores.
Both L J Hooker and Campeau declare bankruptcy.
SCW calls Homart Development Co. the most active developer.
Federated Department Stores declares bankruptcy.
Wal-Mart is number one U.S. retailer in sales.
SCW calls Crown American the year's most active developer with 9.1 million sq. ft. under construction.
BAA Pittsburgh devotes 100,000 sq. ft. of space to typical mall tenants, with merchants promising "street pricing,"
at the Pittsburgh International Airport. Original tenants include Gap, Body Shop and Sunglass Hut.
Federated emerges from bankruptcy.
Macy's files Chapter 11.
Woolworth Corp. announces it will close 900 of its 6,500 U.S. specialty stores.
Simon Property Group opens Mall of America, the country's largest mall, in Bloomington, Minn., modeled after the
successful West Edmonton Mall in Alberta, Canada. The center covers 4.2 million sq. ft. and includes a seven-
acre amusement park, nightclubs and restaurants.
Simon opens The Forum Shops at Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, complete with animatronic statues, a painted sky
and Italian architecture.
Sears ceases publication of its "Big Book" catalog.
To ease capital concerns, many developers go public and become real estate investment trusts. The REITs raise
$15 billion.
Macy's is acquired by Federated.
The merger of Horizon Outlet Centers and McArthur/Glen Realty Corp. creates the largest owner of outlet
centers. The new company is called HGI Realty.
Bookseller opens for business on the Internet with 2.5 million titles.
General Growth Properties completes the purchase of Homart and becomes the largest operator of U.S.
shopping centers, only to lose the title when Simon Property Group merges with DeBartolo Realty Corp.
Woolworth Corp. closes all its general merchandise stores.
Montgomery Ward declares bankruptcy.
Proffitt's acquires Saks Fifth Avenue.
Filene's Basement declares bankruptcy.
Service Merchandise declares bankruptcy.
Loehmann's declares bankruptcy

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