United States drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima, Nagasaki: Japan surrenders to end World War II.
American astronaut Neil Armstrong becomes the first human to walk on the moon.
Japan bombs Pearl Harbor: United States enters World War II.
Wilbur and Orville Wright fly the first powered airplane.
Women win the vote.
President John F. Kennedy assassinated in Dallas.
Horrors of Nazi Holocaust, concentration camps exposed.
World War I begins in Europe.
Brown v. Board of Education ends "separate but equal" school segregation.
U.S. stock market crashes: The Great Depression sets in.
Alexander Fleming discovers the first antibiotic, penicillin.
Structure of DNA discovered.
U.S.S.R dissolves, Mikhail Gorbachev resigns: Boris Yeltsin takes over.
President Richard M. Nixon resigns after Watergate scandal.
Germany invades Poland: World War II begins in Europe.
Russian revolution ends: Communists take over.
Henry Ford organizes the first major U.S. assembly line to produce Model T cars.
Soviets launch Sputnik, first space satellite: space race begins.
Albert Einstein presents special theory of relativity: general relativity theory to follow.
FDA approves birth-control pill.
Dr. Jonas Salk's polio vaccine proven effective in University of Pittsburgh tests.
Adolf Hitler named Chancellor of Germany: Nazi Party begins to seize power.
Civil rights leader Martin Luther King assassinated in Memphis, Tenn.
D-Day invasion marks the beginning of the end of World War II in Europe.
Deadly AIDS disease identified.
Congress passes landmark Civil Rights Act outlawing segregation.
Berlin Wall falls as East Germany lifts travel restrictions.
Television debuts in America at New York World's Fair.
Mao Tse-tung establishes Peoples Republic of China: Nationalists flee to Formosa (Taiwan).
Charles Lindbergh crosses the Atlantic in first solo flight.
First mass market personal computers launched.
World Wide Web revolutionizes the Internet.
Scientists at Bell Labs invent the transistor.
FDR launches "New Deal:" sweeping federal economic, public works legislation to combat depression.
Cuban Missile Crisis threatens World War III.
Unsinkable Titanic, largest man-made structure, sinks.
Germany surrenders: V.E. Day celebrated.
Roe v. Wade decision legalizes abortion.
World War I ends with Germany's defeat.
First regular radio broadcasts begin in America.
Worldwide flu epidemic kills 20 million.
'ENIAC' becomes world's first computer.
Regular TV broadcasting begins in the United States.
Jackie Robinson breaks baseball's color barrier.
Israel achieves statehood.
Plastic invented: revolutionizes products, packaging.
Montgomery, Ala., bus boycott begins after Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat to a white person.
Atomic bomb tested in New Mexico.
Apartheid ends in South Africa: law to treat races equally.
Civil rights march converges on Washington, D.C.: Martin Luther King gives "I Have A Dream" speech.
American scientists patent the computer chip.
Marconi transmits radio signal across the Atlantic.
White House sex scandal leads to impeachment of President William Jefferson Clinton.
Sec. of State George Marshall proposes European recovery program (The Marshall Plan).
Presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy assassinated in California.
U.S. Senate rejects Versailles Treaty: dooms League of Nations.
Rachel Carson's "Silent Spring" stimulates environmental protection movement.
British rock group The Beatles takes the United States by storm after debut on the Ed Sullivan show.
Congress passes Voting Rights Act, outlawing measures used to suppress minority votes.
Yuri Gagarin becomes first man in space.
First jet airplane takes flight.
U.S. combat troops arrive in South Vietnam: U.S. planes bomb North Vietnam.
North Vietnamese forces take over Saigon.
Manhattan Project begins secret work on atomic bomb: Fermi triggers first atomic chain reaction.
Congress strengthens "GI Bill of Rights" to help veterans.
Alan Shepard becomes first American in space.
Watergate scandal engulfs Nixon administration.
Earthquake hits San Francisco: "Paris of the West" burns.
United Nations is officially established.
Communists build wall to divide East and West Berlin.
Mohandas Gandhi begins leading nonviolent reform movement in India.
Standard Oil loses Supreme Court antitrust suit: monopolies suffer blow.
United States withdraws last ground troops from Vietnam.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization established.
Joseph Stalin begins forced modernization of the Soviet Union: resulting famines claim 25 million.
Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt beats incumbent President Herbert Hoover.
Mikhail Gorbachev becomes Soviet Premier: begins era of "Glasnost."
Max Planck proposes quantum theory of energy.
Scientists clone sheep, dubbed Dolly, in Scotland.
Congress passes interstate highway bill.
Panama Canal opens, linking the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
Betty Friedan's "The Feminine Mystique" inaugurates modern women's rights movement.
The Space Shuttle Challenger explodes killing crew including school teacher Christa McAuliffe.
United States sends troops to defend South Korea.
Violence erupts at Democratic National Convention in Chicago.
Sigmund Freud publishes "The Interpretation of Dreams."
China begins "Great Leap Forward" modernization program: estimated 20 million die in ensuing famine.
United States enters World War I.
Babe Ruth hits 60 home runs - a single-season record that would last for 34 years.
John Glenn becomes first American to orbit the earth.
North Vietnamese boats reportedly attack U.S. ships: Congress passes Gulf of Tonkin resolution.
Pathfinder lands on Mars, sending back astonishing photos.
Hitler launches "Kristallnacht," ordering Nazis to commit acts of violence against German Jews.
Winston Churchill designated Prime Minister of Great Britain.
Louise Brown, first "test-tube baby," born healthy.
Soviets blockade West Berlin: Western allies respond with massive airlift.
Bill Gates and Paul Allen start Microsoft Corp. to develop software for Altair computer.
Chernobyl nuclear plant explosion results in deaths of an estimated 7,000.
Teacher John Scopes' trial pits creation against evolution in Tennessee.
The U.S. Surgeon General warns about smoking-related health hazards.
1900 The zeppelin invented by Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin.
1900 Charles Seeberger redesigned Jesse Reno's escalator and invented the modern escalator.
1901 King Camp Gillette invents the double-edged safety razor.
1901 The first radio receiver, successfully received a radio transmission.
1901 Hubert Booth invents a compact and modern vacuum cleaner.
1902 Willis Carrier invents the air conditioner.
1902 French physicist George Claude invents neon light.
1902 The lie detector or polygraph machine is invented by James Mackenzie.
1902 The birth of the Teddy Bear.
1902 George Claude invented neon light.
1903 Edward Binney and Harold Smith co-invent crayons.
1903 Bottle-making machinery invented by Michael J. Owens.
1903 The Wright brothers invent the first gas motored and manned airplane.
1903 Mary Anderson invents windshield wipers.
1903 William Coolidge invents ductile tungsten used in lightbulbs.
1904 Teabags invented by Thomas Suillivan.
1904 Benjamin Holt invents a tractor.
1904 John A Fleming invents a vacuum diode or Fleming valve.
1905 Albert Einstein published the Theory of Relativity and made famous the equation, E = mc2.
1905 Mary Anderson invents windshield wipers.
1906 William Kellogg invents Cornflakes.
1906 Lewis Nixon invents the first sonar like device.
1906 Lee Deforest invents electronic amplifying tube (triode).
1907 Leo Baekeland invents the first synthetic plastic called Bakelite.
1907 Color photography invented by Auguste and Louis Lumiere.
1907 The very first piloted helicopter was invented by Paul Cornu.
1908 The gyrocompass invented by Elmer A. Sperry.
1908 Cellophane invented by Jacques E. Brandenberger.
1908 Model T first sold.
1908 J W Geiger and W Müller invent the geiger counter.
1908 Fritz Haber invents the Haber Process for making artificial nitrates.
1909 Instant coffee invented by G. Washington.
1910 Thomas Edison demonstrated the first talking motion picture.
1910 Georges Claude invents neon light.
1911 Charles Franklin Kettering invents the first automobile electrical ignition system.
1912 Motorized movie cameras invented, replaced hand-cranked cameras.
1912 The first tank patented by Australian inventor De La Mole.
1912 Clarence Crane created Life Savers candy in 1912.
1913 The crossword puzzle invented by Arthur Wynne.
1913 The Merck Chemical Company patented, what is now know as, ecstasy.
1913 Mary Phelps Jacob invents the bra.
1913 Gideon Sundback invented the modern zipper.
1914 Garrett A. Morgan invents the Morgan gas mask.
1915 Eugene Sullivan and William Taylor co-invented Pyrex in New York City.
1916 Radios tuners invented, that received different stations.
1916 Stainless steel invented by Henry Brearly.
1917 Gideon Sundback patented the modern zipper (not the first zipper).
1918 The superheterodyne radio circuit invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong. Today, every radio or television set uses this in
1918 Charles Jung invented fortune cookies.
1919 The pop-up toaster invented by Charles Strite.
1919 Short-wave radio invented.
1919 The flip-flop circuit invented.
1919 The arc welder invented.
1920 The tommy gun patented by John T Thompson.
1920 The Band-Aid (pronounced 'ban-'dade) invented by Earle Dickson.
1921 Artificial life begins -- the first robot built.
1921 John Larson invented the lie detector.
1922 Insulin invented by Sir Frederick Grant Banting.
1922 The first 3-D movie (spectacles with one red and one green lens) is released.
1923 Garrett A. Morgan invents a traffic signal.
1923 The television or iconoscope (cathode-ray tube) invented by Vladimir Kosma Zworykin.
1923 John Harwood invented the self-winding watch in 1923.
1923 Clarence Birdseye invents frozen food.
1924 The dynamic loudspeaker invented by Rice and Kellogg.
1924 Notebooks with spiral bindings invented.
1926 Robert H. Goddard invents liquid-fueled rockets.
1927 Eduard Haas III invents PEZ candy.
1927 JWA Morrison invents the first quartz crystal watch.
1927 Philo Taylor Farnsworth invents a complete electronic TV system.
1927 Technicolor invented.
1927 Erik Rotheim patents an aerosol can.
1927 Warren Marrison developed the first quartz clock.
1927 Philip Drinker invents the iron lung.
1928 Scottish biologist Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin.
1928 Bubble gum invented by Walter E. Diemer.
1928 Jacob Schick patented the electric shaver.
1929 American, Paul Galvin invents the car radio.
1929 Yo-Yo re-invented as an American fad.
1930 Scotch tape patented by 3M engineer, Richard G. Drew.
1930 The frozen food process patented by Clarence Birdseye.
1930 Wallace Carothers and DuPont Labs invents neoprene.
1930 The "differential analyzer", or analog computer invented by Vannevar Bush at MIT in Boston.
1930 Frank Whittle and Dr Hans von Ohain both invent a jet engine.
1931 Harold Edgerton invented stop-action photography.
1931 Germans Max Knott and Ernst Ruska co-invent the electron microscope.
1932 Polaroid photography invented by Edwin Herbert Land.
1932 The zoom lens and the light meter invented.
1932 Carl C. Magee invents the first parking meter.
1932 Karl Jansky invents the radio telescope.
1933 Frequency modulation (FM radio) invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong.
1933 Stereo records invented.
1933 Richard M. Hollingshead builds a prototype drive-in movie theater in his driveway.
1934 Englishmen, Percy Shaw invents cat eyes or roads reflectors.
1934 Charles Darrow claims he invented the game Monopoly.
1934 Joseph Begun invents the first tape recorder for broadcasting - first magnetic recording.
1935 Wallace Carothers and DuPont Labs invents nylon ( polymer 6.6.)
1935 The first canned beer made.
1935 Robert Watson-Watt patented radar.
1936 Bell Labs invents the voice recognition machine.
1936 Samuel Colt patents the Colt revolver.
1937 Chester F. Carlson invents the photocopier.
1937 The first jet engine is built.
1938 The ballpoint pen invented by Ladislo Biro.
1938 Strobe lighting invented.
1938 Roy J. Plunkett invented tetrafluoroethylene polymers or Teflon.
1938 Nescafe or freeze-dried coffee invented.
1938 The first working turboprop engine.
1939 Igor Sikorsky invents the first successful helicopter.
1939 The electron microscope invented.
1940 Dr William Reich invents the orgone accumulator.
1940 Peter Goldmark invents modern color television system.
1940 Karl Pabst invents the jeep.
1941 Konrad Zuse's Z3, the first computer controlled by software.
1941 Aerosol spray cans invented by American inventors, Lyle David Goodloe and W.N. Sullivan.
1941 Enrico Fermi invents the neutronic reactor.
1942 John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry built the first electronic digital computer.
1942 Max Mueller designs a turboprop engine.
1943 Synthetic rubber invented.
1943 Richard James invents the slinky.
1943 James Wright invent silly putty.
1943 Swiss chemist, Albert Hofmann discovered the hallucinogenic properties of LSD.
1943 Emile Gagnan and Jacques Cousteau invent the aqualung.
1944 The kidney dialysis machine invented by Willem Kolff.
1944 Synthetic cortisone invented by Percy Lavon Julian.
1945 Vannevar Bush proposes hypertext.
1945 The atomic bomb invented.
1946 The microwave oven invented by Percy Spencer.
1947 British/Hungarian scientist, Dennis Gabor, developed the theory of holography.
1947 Mobile phones first invented. Although cell phones were not sold commercially until 1983, AT&T came up with the idea w
1947 Bardeen, Brattain, and Shockley invent the transistor.
1947 Earl Silas Tupper patented the Tupperware seal.
1948 The Frisbee® invented by Walter Frederick Morrison and Warren Franscioni.
1948 Velcro ® invented by George de Mestral.
1948 Robert Hope-Jones invented the Wurlitzer jukebox.
1949 Cake mix invented.
1950 The first credit card (Diners) invented by Ralph Schneider.
1951 Super glue invented.
1951 Power steering invented by Francis W. Davis.
1951 Charles Ginsburg invented the first videotape recorder (VTR).
1952 Mr. Potato Head patented.
1952 The first patent for bar code (US Patent #2,612,994) issued to inventors Joseph Woodland and Bernard Silver.
1952 The first diet soft drink sold.
1952 Edward Teller and team build the hydrogen bomb.
1953 Radial tires invented.
1953 The first musical synthesizer invented by RCA.
1953 David Warren invented the black box - flight recorder.
1953 Transistor radio invented by Texas Instruments.
1954 Oral contraceptives invented.
1954 The first nonstick pan produced.
1954 The solar cell invented by Chaplin, Fuller and Pearson.
1954 Ray Kroc started McDonalds.
1955 Tetracycline invented.
1955 Optic fiber invented.
1956 The first computer hard disk used.
1956 The hovercraft invented by Christopher Cockerell.
1956 Bette Nesmith Graham invented "Mistake Out," later renamed Liquid Paper, to paint over mistakes made with a typewrite
1957 Fortran (computer language) invented.
1958 The modem invented.
1958 Gordon Gould invents the laser.
1958 The Hula Hoop invented by Richard Knerr and Arthur "Spud" Melin.
1958 The integrated circuit invented by Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce.
1959 The internal pacemaker invented by Wilson Greatbatch.
1959 Barbie Doll invented.
1959 Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce both invent the microchip.
1960 The halogen lamp invented.
1961 Valium invented.
1961 The nondairy creamer invented.
1962 The audio cassette invented.
1962 The fiber-tip pen invented by Yukio Horie.
1962 Spacewar, the first computer video game invented.
1962 Dow Corp invents silicone breast implants.
1963 The first videodisc invented.
1964 Acrylic paint invented.
1964 Permanent-press fabric invented.
1964 BASIC (an early computer language) is invented by John George Kemeny and Tom Kurtz.
1965 Astroturf invented.
1965 Soft contact lenses invented.
1965 NutraSweet invented.
1965 The compact disk invented by James Russell.
1965 Kevlar invented by Stephanie Louise Kwolek.
1966 Electronic Fuel injection for cars invented.
1967 The first handheld calculator invented.
1968 The computer mouse invented by Douglas Engelbart.
1968 The first computer with integrated circuits made.
1968 Robert Dennard invented RAM (random access memory).
1969 The arpanet (first internet) invented.
1969 The artificial heart invented.
1969 The ATM invented.
1969 The bar-code scanner is invented.
1970 The daisy-wheel printer invented.
1970 The floppy disk invented by Alan Shugart.
1971 The dot-matrix printer invented.
1971 The food processor invented.
1971 The liquid-crystal display (LCD) invented by James Fergason.
1971 The microprocessor invented by Faggin, Hoff and Mazor.
1971 VCR or videocassette recorder invented.
1972 The word processor invented.
1972 Pong (first video game) invented by Nolan Bushnell.
1972 Hacky Sack® invented by John Stalberger and Mike Marshall.
1973 Gene splicing invented.
1973 The ethernet (local computer network) invented by Robert Metcalfe and Xerox.
1973 Bic invents the disposable lighter.
1974 The post-it note invented by Arthur Fry.
1974 Giorgio Fischer, a gynecologist from Rome, Italy, invents liposuction.
1975 The laser printer invented.
1975 The push-through tab on a drink can invented.
1976 The ink-jet printer invented.
1977 Magnetic resonance imaging invented by Raymond V. Damadian.
1978 Dan Bricklin and Bob Frankston invented the VisiCalc spreadsheet.
1978 The artificial heart Jarvik-7 invented by Robert K. Jarvik.
1979 Cellular phones invented.
1979 Cray supercomputer invented by Seymour Cray.
1979 Walkman invented.
1979 Scott Olson invents roller blades.
1980 The hepatitis-B vaccine invented.
1981 MS-DOS invented.
1981 The first IBM-PC invented.
1981 The scanning tunneling microscope invented by Gerd Karl Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer.
1982 Human growth hormone genetically engineered.
1983 The Apple Lisa invented.
1983 Soft bifocal contact lens invented.
1983 First Cabbage Patch Kids sold.
1983 Programmer Jaron Lanier first coins the term "virtual reality".
1984 The CD-ROM invented.
1984 The Apple Macintosh invented.
1985 Windows program invented by Microsoft.
1986 A high-temperature super-conductor invented by J. Georg Bednorz and Karl A. Muller.
1986 Synthetic skin invented by G. Gregory Gallico, III.
1986 Fuji introduced the disposable camera.
1987 The first 3-D video game invented.
1987 Disposable contact lenses invented.
1988 Digital cellular phones invented.
1988 The RU-486 (abortion pill) invented.
1988 Doppler radar invented by Christian Andreas Doppler.
1988 Prozac® invented at the Eli Lilly Company by inventor Ray Fuller.
1988 The first patent for a genetically engineered animal is issued to Harvard University researchers Philip Leder and Timothy
1988 Ralph Alessio and Fredrik Olsen received a patent for the Indiglo ® nightlight. The bluish green light is used to illuminate
1989 High-definition television invented.
1990 The World Wide Web/Internet protocol (HTTP) and WWW language (HTML) created by Tim Berners-Lee.
1991 The digital answering machine invented.
1992 The smart pill invented.
1993 The pentium processor invented.
1994 HIV protease inhibitor invented.
1995 The Java computer language invented.
1995 DVD (Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) invented.
1997 The gas-powered fuel cell invented.
1998 Viagra invented.
y radio or television set uses this invention.
983, AT&T came up with the idea way back.
dland and Bernard Silver.
ver mistakes made with a typewriter.
earchers Philip Leder and Timothy Stewart.
ish green light is used to illuminate the entire face of a watch.
by Tim Berners-Lee.
1876 – 1876
1893 to 1900
Alexander Cartwright formalizes the first 20 rules of baseball
The first modern game of hockey is played in Kingston, Ontario, using rules similar to today's. Women's hockey
will become a new sports opportunity in the 1980's and '90's, with the US Women's team winning the gold medal
in 1998, the first year women's ice hockey is a medal sport.
Catherine Beecher (1800-78) publishes Physiology and Calisthenics for Schools and Families, the first fitness
manual for women.
New Yorker James Plimpton uses a rubber cushion to enable the wheels of roller skates to turn slightly when the
skater shifted his or her weight. This design is considered the basis for the modern roller skate, allowing for safer,
The Park Place Croquet Club of Brooklyn organizes with 25 members. Croquet is probably the first game played
by both men and women in America.
Matthew Vassar opens Vassar College with a special School of Physical Training with classes in riding,
gardening, swimming, boating, skating and "other physical accomplishments suitable for ladies to acquire ...
Vassar College fields the first two women's amateur baseball teams.
The Dolly Vardens, a black women's team from Philadelphia, is a women's professional baseball team.
Cincinnati Red Stockings become the first professional baseball team
Rutgers and Princeton played a college soccer football game, the first ever, November 6. The game used
modified London Football Association rules. During the next seven years, rugby gained favor with the major
eastern schools over soccer, and modern football began to develop from rugby.
Mary Ewing Outerbridge of Staten Island introduces tennis to the United States. She purchases tennis equipment
in Bermuda (and had trouble getting it through Customs!) and uses it to set up the first US tennis court at the
Staten Island Cricket and Baseball Club that spring.
Baseball glove introduced
The "Blondes" and "Brunettes" play their first match In Springfield, IL on Sept. 11. Newspapers heralded the
event as the "first game of baseball ever played in public for gate money between feminine ball-tossers."
Wellesley College opens with a gymnasium for exercising and a lake for ice skating and the first rowing program
The first roller-skating rink opens in London.
At the Massasoit convention, the first rules for American football were written.
The first National Archery Championship is held, with 20 women participating.
Indoor tennis is played inside the 7th Regiment Armory in New York City on Nov. 26, with 12 courts put in use for
women enthusiasts and their male partners.
The first American national tennis championships are held.
At the YWCA in Boston, the first athletic games for women are held.
Women's singles tennis competition is added to Wimbledon. Maud Watson wins in both 1884 and '85.
The Association of Collegiate Alumnae publishes a study which concludes that "...it is sufficient to say that
female [college] graduates...do not seem to show, ...any marked difference in general health for the average
health ... of women engaged in other kinds of work, or in fact, of women generally...", refuting the widely held
belief that college study impaired a woman’s physical health and ability to bear children.
Annie Oakley (Phoebe Ann Moses, 1860-1926), 25, is the sharp-shooting star of the Buffalo Bill Wild West
Show. She could hit a moving target while riding a galloping horse; hit a dime in mid-air; and regularly shot a
The New York Athletic Club holds the first track and field meet in the U.S.
The first known women's lacrosse game is played.
A women's field hockey club is started in Surrey, England.
Ellen Hansell is crowned the first Women's Singles tennis champion at the US Open. 1887
Indoor baseball (the forerunner of softball) was invented by George Hancock at the Farragut Boat Club on
Chicago's South Side. The first game was played on Thanksgiving Day. The basic equipment included a huge 17-
inch ball and a stick-like bat. No gloves were worn, and the catcher wore no mask. It quickly became the indoor
The modern "safety" for boys invented with area.
winter sport of choice bicycle isand girls in thea light frame and two equal-sized wheels and a chain drive.
The Amateur Athletic Union is formed to establish standards and uniformity in amateur sport. During its early
years, the AAU served as a leader in international sport representing the US in the international sports
AAU holds its first fencing championships.
Lord Stanley, the Governor General of Canada, has an outdoor skating rink created in his back yard for his wife
and 10 children (including 2 daughters) to skate and play hockey on. Lord Stanley will donate a silver bowl worth
about $50 which will become the coveted Stanley Cup, to be won each year by the top amateur hockey team in
More than a million American women will own and ride bicycles during the next decade. It is the first time in
American history that an athletic activity for women will become widely popular.
Nellie Bly (Elizabeth Cochran Seaman) becomes the first woman to travel around the world alone - she does it in
just 72 days while a reporter for the New York World newspaper, returning on Jan. 25.
Basketball is invented by James Naismith of the YMCA in Springfield, Massachusetts as an indoor sport to play
between football and baseball seasons.
The Shinnecock Hills Golf Club on Long Island opens its doors to women. Golf proved so popular that the club
opened a 9-hole course for women two years later.
The journal Physical Education (a publication of the YMCA) devote an issue to women, saying that women need
physical strength and endurance and dismiss the popular idea that women are too weak to exercise.
Gymnastics instructor Senda Berenson Abbott adapts James Naismith's basketball rules for women and
introduces the game to her students at Smith College, where she became the first director of physical education
in Jan. Her rules confine each player to one-third of the court.
The "Golden Age of the Bicycle", with the development of the modern-style "safety bicycle" with two equal- sized
wheels, coaster brakes, and pneumatic tires creating a comfortable, faster and safer ride. A side effect is more
common-sense dressing for women.
Katharine Lee Bates climbs to the top of Pike's Peak and is inspired to compose a poem, "America, the Beautiul."
First auto race
First U.S. Open in golf
Volleyball is invented in Holyoke, MA. By the 1990's, volleyball is the second-largest participation sport in the
United States with more than 42 million participants. There is indoor and outdoor competition for boys and girls,
men and women and co-ed teams.
The American Bowling Congress is organized, establishing equipment standards and rules on Sept. 9. By the
1990's, bowling is the second-largest participation sport in the world, with more than 100 million athletes, 46% of
whom are women who compete equally with men.
Women are buying 25-30% of all new bicycles.
Susan B. Anthony says that "the bicycle has done more for the emancipation of women than anything else in the
The first women's intercollegiate basketball championship is played between Stanford and the University of
California at Berkely. Stanford wins 2-1 on April 4 before a crowd of 700 women!
At the first modern Olympics in Athens, a woman, Melpomene, barred from the official race, runs the same
course as the men, finishing in 4 hours 30 minutes. Baron Pierre de Coubertin, founder of the modern Olympics,
says, "It is indecent that the spectators should be exposed to the risk of seeing the body of a women being
smashed before their very eyes. Besides, no matter how toughened a sportswoman may be, her organizm is not
Lena Jordan becomes the first person to successfully execute the triple somersault on the flying trapeze. The
first man to acomplish this didn't do so until 1909.
Lizzie Arlington becomes the first woman to sign a professional baseball contract, appearing in her first
professional game pitching for the Philadelphia Reserves.
Ping-pong, or table tennis, as it soon becomes known, is invented.
The first 19 women to compete in the modern Olympics Games in Paris, France, play in just three sports: tennis,
golf, and croquet. Margaret I. Abbott is the first American woman to win an Olympic gold medal. An art student in
Paris, she won the nine-hole golf tournament by shooting a 47.
Field Hockey is introduced to women in the United State by Constance M. K. Applebee, a British physical
education teacher. She presents a hockey exhibition at Harvard University.
Annie Taylor, 43, becomes the first person to go over Niagara Falls in a custom-built barrel and live. She couldn't
swim. Her comment on being retrieved: "Nobody ever ought to do that again."
Mrs. Adolph Landenburg introduces the split skirt for horseback riding in Saratoga Springs, NY.
The forward pass was legalized in football.
The first organized bowling league for women begins in St. Louis, MO. The first of three women's bowling
tournaments organized by the American Bowling Congress is held. The 1908 tournament is held in Cincinnati and
the 1909 tournament in Pittsburgh.
The national anthem of baseball, Take Me Out to the Ball Game, is written.
Edith Berg becomes the first woman to go up in an airplane. She was a passenger in the Wright Brother's Flyer in
a demonstration in France.
In England, Muriel Matters, a suffragette and balloonist, flies over the British Houses of Parliament, dropping
hundreds of flyers urging "votes for women."
Australia's Annette Kellerman is arrested for swimming in Boston Harbor in an "indecent" one-piece swimsuit for
exposing her legs.
Harriet Quimby makes her professional aviator debut with a moonlight flight over Staten Island before a crowd of
20,000 spectators to become the first woman to make a night flight on Sept. 5.
Swimming and diving debut at the Stockholm Olympic Games, with 57 women from 11 nations competing in
those sports plus tennis.
Black Sox Scandal in Baseball
The skimpy fashions of the '20's put a new emphasis on athletic bodies and narrow the gap between health and
glamour. Advertisers, like Grape-Nuts, say, "Grandmother went bathing - girls like Molly go in to swim."
First radio broadcast of a baseball game
The American Professional Football Association, founded in 1920, changes its name to the National Football
22% of US colleges have varsity sports teams for women.
New York City native Gertrude "Trudy" Ederle, 19, becomes the first woman to swim the English Channel in 14
hours, 31 minutes, beating the best time to date by 2 hours on Aug. 6. (She had won a gold medal and 2 bronzes
for swimming at the 1924 Olympics.)
Harlem Globetrotters play 1st game
The New York Giants defeated a team of former Notre Dame players coached by Knute Rockne 22-0 before
55,000 at the Polo Grounds, December 14. The proceeds went to the New York Unemployment Fund to help
those suffering because of the Great Depression, and the easy victory helped give the NFL credibility with the
Baseball Writers begin to name Most Valuable Player
Babe Didrikson scores enough points at the AAU national meet to win the team championship single-handedly.
She won 6 gold medals and broke 4 world's records, totalling 30 points. The entire second place team won just
22. She is named the Associated Press Woman Athlete of the Year for track and field.
Amelia Earhart, 34, becomes the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic in a red Lockheed Vega in 15 hours
and 39 minutes.
"Babe" Didrikson becomes the first woman to win medals in three events at the Summer Games. Olympic rules
restrict women competitors to three events.
Two black American women, Louise Stokes and Tidye Pickett qualify for the Olympic Games in Los Angeles, but
are not allowed to compete.
First Baseball All-Star Game
First Masters golf tournament
First NCAA Division I Basketball Tournament
Baseball Hall of Fame opens
First televised baseball game
Pro football integrates. Kenny Washington and Woody Strode sign with Los Angeles; Marion Motley and Bill Willis
sign with Cleveland
Jackie Robinson integrates baseball
Althea Gibson won the first of ten consecutive American Tennis Association national championships.
The National Basketball Association was formed. It was a combination of the Basketball Association of America
and the National Basketball League.
Nat "Sweetwater" Clifton, Chuck Cooper, and Earl Lloyd become the NBA first black players
Althea Gibson becomes the first black player to compete at Wimbledon.
The U.S. Women's Open comes under the auspices of the USGA.
NBA adopts the 24-second shot clock & 6 team-foul rule.
American Football League founded
Wilma Rudolph, during the Olympic Games in Rome, becomes the first American woman to win 3 track and field
gold medals - in the 100 meter dash, the 200 meter dash, and the 400 meter relay.
American Football League and National Football League merge
The Education Act of 1972 is passed, which contains Title IX, prohibiting gender discrimination in educational
institutions that receive federal funds.
Billie Jean King wins the "battle-of-the-sexes" tennis match against Bobby Riggs in Houston in front of more than
30,000 people and a world-wide TV audience of more than 50 million.
Baseball strikes leads to cancellation of World’s Series
American Basketball Association’s first season
Inaugural WNBA season
1800 Napoleon's Chicken Marengo
1803 Frugal Housewife, Susannah Carter
1807 A New System of Domestic Cookery, Mrs. Rundell
1817 Remoulade, Le Cuisinier Royal (en Francais)
1818 Mulaga-tawny soup, Dr. William Kitchener
1821 Tomato catsup & orange marmelade, Frederick Accum's Culinary Chemistry
1828 Dr. Creed Haskins' Brunswick stew
1828 Mary Randolph's Fried chicken
1830 Frugal Housewife, Lydia Maria Child
1830 Reform Club chef Alex Soyer's Dessert gelatin
1830 Mrs. Isaac Cocks' Long Island corn bread
1830 Cornmeal mush, early Texas cuisine
1849 California sourdough bread & Hangtown fry
1855 Boston cream pie
1861 Mrs. Beeton's Book of Household Management
1861 Beef Stroganoff
1869 parfait & Chateaubriand
1872 Blackjack chewing gum
1876 Premium soda crackers (later Saltines)
1876 Heinz begins selling Tomato Catsup
1879 funnel cakes
1881 Pillsbury flour
1883 Salt Water Taffy
1885 Dr Pepper
1886 Clark bars
1887 Ball-Mason jars
1887 Cherries jubilee
1888 Log Cabin syrup
1889 Aunt Jemima pancake mix
1889 Calumet Baking Powder
1889 McCormick Spices
1889 Pabst Brewing Company
1890 Knox gelatine
1890 Libby introduces keys to canned meat
1890 Lipton tea
1890 Corn fritters
1891 Del Monte
1891 Fig Newton
1891 Quaker Oats Company
1892 Science in the Kitchen, Ella Eaton Kellogg
1893 Cream of Wheat
1893 Good & Plenty
1893 Juicy Fruit gum
1894 chili powder
1894 Hershey bar
1894 Iceberg lettuce
1894 Eggs Benedict
1895 shredded coconut
1896 Cracker Jack
1896 Michelob beer
1896 S&W canned foods
1896 Tootsie Roll
1896 Chop Suey
1896 Boston Cooking School Cook Book, Fannie Merritt Farmer
1897 Campbell's condensed soup
1897 Campbell's tomato soup
1897 Grape Nuts
1897 1000 Island Dressing
1898 Nabisco graham crackers
1898 shredded wheat cereal
1899 Wesson oil
1900 Chiclets gum
1900 cotton candy
1900 Hershey's chocolate bar
1901 instant coffee
1902 Barnum's Animal Crackers
1902 Karo corn syrup
1903 Best Foods
1903 canned tuna
1903 Sunshine Biscuit Company
1903 U.S. Senate Bean Soup
1904 banana split
1904 Campbell's Kids introduced
1904 Campbell's Pork and Beans
1904 Canada Dry ginger ale
1904 Dr. Pepper
1904 peanut butter
1904 ice cream cone
1904 Jumballaya, Cooking in Old Creole Days
1905 Epsicle (later Popsicle)
1905 Holly Sugar
1905 Royal Crown cola
1906 A-1 Sauce
1906 bouillon cube
1906 Kellogg's Corn Flakes
1907 Hershey's kiss
1908 Dixie cup
1908 electric toaster
1908 monosodium glutamate isolated
1909 Lipton tea
1909 Melitta drip coffeemaker
1909 puffed wheat and rice (Quaker)
1909 Tillamook cheese
1910 tea bag
1910 Chipped beef, Manual for Army Cooks
1911 Mazola corn oil
1912 Cracker Jack puts in a prize
1912 hamburger buns
1912 Hellmann's mayonnaise
1912 Life Savers
1912 Lorna Doone cookies
1912 Morton table salt
1912 Ocean Spray cranberry sauce
1912 Whitman's Sampler
1913 Campbell's cream of celery
1913 Oreo cookie
1913 Peppermint Life Savers
1913 Coq au vin
1914 Doublemint gum
1914 fruit cocktail
1914 Morton Salt girl
1915 processed cheese
1915 Pyrex bakeware
1916 fortune cookie
1916 Kellogg's All-Bran cereal
1916 Mr. Peanut
1916 Orange Crush
1917 Clark Bar
1917 Moon Pie
1918 Campbell's vegetable beef
1918 Contadina tomato sauce
1918 Welch's first jam, Grapelade
1919 Konabar, Peter Paul
1919 Sunkist oranges
1920 Baby Ruth
1920 Good Humor bar
1920 La Choy Food Products
1920 Wonder Bread
1921 Betty Crocker
1921 Eskimo Pie
1921 Hershey kisses get blue & white streamer
1921 hybrid corn
1921 iodized salt
1921 Land O' Lakes butter
1921 Mounds bar
1921 Oh Henry!
1921 Sioux Bee Honey
1921 White Castle hamburger chain
1921 Wrigley's gum
1922 A&W Root Beer
1922 Charleston Chew candy
1922 Almond Rocha
1922 Girl Scout Cookies
1923 Milky Way bar
1923 Reese's Peanut Butter Cup
1923 Welch's grape jelly
1924 Bit-O-Honey candy
1924 Caesar salad
1924 Dum Dum sucker
1924 fruit-flavored Life Savers
1924 packaged sliced bacon (Oscar Mayer)
1924 Caesar salad
1925 Green Giant canned peas
1925 Mr. Goodbar
1925 Wesson oil
1926 Cobb Salad
1926 Hormel canned ham
1926 Milk Duds
1926 Orange Julius
1927 Gerber baby food
1927 homogenized milk
1927 Lenders bagels
1927 Mike & Ike
1927 Wonder Bread
1928 broccoli introduced to U.S.
1928 Peter Pan peanut butter
1928 Nabisco shredded wheat
1928 Progresso Foods
1928 Reese's Peanut Butter Cups
1928 Rice Krispies
1928 Velveeta cheese
1929 Colombo yogurt
1929 Klondike bar
1929 Libby canned pumpkin
1929 Lithiated Lemon (later 7-Up)
1929 Niblets corn
1929 Oscar Mayer weiner
1929 Po' Boy sandwich
1929 Popeye the Sailor
1929 Ruby grapefruit
1930 Birds Eye Frosted Foods
1930 Jiffy Biscuit Mix
1930 Lime Jell-O
1930 Mott's Apple Sauce
1930 sliced Wonder Bread
1930 Philadelphia cheese steak
1931 Beech-Nut baby food
1931 Cryst-O-Mint Life Savers
1931 dehydrated onion
1931 The Joy of Cooking, Irma S. Rombauer
1931 Reed's Butterscotch candy
1931 Tootsie Pop
1931 souffle, Joy of Cooking
1932 3 Musketeers bar
1932 corn chips
1932 Heath bar
1932 Jell-O chocolate pudding
1932 Skippy peanut butter
1933 Budweiser Clydesdales
1933 canned pineapple juice
1933 Lithiated Lemon renamed 7-Up
1933 Prohibition ends
1933 Sunsweet prune juice
1933 V8 Juice
1933 Waldorf salad
1934 Campbell's chicken noodle
1934 Campbell's cream of mushroom
1934 Ritz crackers
1934 Sugar Daddy
1935 5 flavors Life Savers
1935 Adolph's Meat Tenderizer
1935 Friendly Ice Cream restaurant
1935 Realemon lemon juice
1935 Royal Crown cola
1935 Sugar Babies
1936 Dom Pérignon champagne
1936 Elsie the Cow (Borden)
1936 5th Avenue bar
1936 Girl Scout cookies
1936 Mars Bar
1936 Waring blender
1937 A & P Supermarket
1937 Good 'n Plenty
1937 Kit Kat bar
1937 Kix cereal
1937 Kraft Macaroni & Cheese Dinner
1937 Pepperidge Farm Bread
1937 Ragu Spaghetti Sauce
1937 Rolo candy
1937 shopping cart
1937 Reuben sandwiches
1938 Bumble Bee tuna
1938 Hershey Krackel bar
1938 Lawry's Seasoned Salt
1938 Mott's apple juice
1938 Nescafé, first instant coffee
1938 Nestlé Crunch bar
1939 food stamps
1939 Lay's potato chips
1939 Nestlé chocolate chip
1939 pressure cooker
1939 Sara Lee cheese cake
1939 Colonel Sanders' secret recipe
1940 cellophane-wrapped meat
1940 Dairy Queen
1940 Rain-Blo gum ball
1940 York Peppermint Patty
1941 Cheerioats (renamed Cheerios in 1946)
1941 garbage disposal
1941 M&M's Plain chocolate candies
1942 Dannon yogurt
1942 Kellogg's Raisin Bran
1942 Sunbeam bread
1944 Chiquita banana jingle
1945 Constant Comment tea
1945 Fleischmann's Active Dry Yeast
1945 Junior Mints
1946 French's Instant Potatoes
1946 Minute Maid frozen o.j.
1946 Mrs. Paul's frozen food
1946 Ragu pasta sauce
1947 Almond Joy
1947 aluminum foil
1947 cake mix
1947 Kraft singles
1947 Minute Maid o.j. concentrate
1948 Nestle's Quik
1948 V-8 juice
1949 electric dishwasher
1949 Jolly Rancher candy
1949 Junior Mints
1949 Minute Rice
1949 Pillsbury Bake-Off
1949 Whoppers malted milk balls
1949 violet M&Ms replaced with tan
1950 Ball-O-Fire gumball
1950 Dunkin' Donuts
1950 Green Giant Co.
1950 Sugar Pops cereal
1951 Ore-Ida Foods
1951 Swanson beef, chicken, turkey pot pies
1951 Tropicana juice
1952 fish sticks
1952 Kellogg's Frosted Flakes
1952 Lipton onion soup mix
1952 No-cal Ginger Ale, 1st sugar-free soft drink
1952 Pez comes to the U.S.
1952 Saran Wrap
1953 Cheez Whiz
1953 Danny's Donuts opens (became Denny's in 1959)
1953 Howdy Doody tumbler from Welch's
1953 Irish coffee invented in S.F.'s Buena Vista Cafe
1953 Lawry's spaghetti sauce
1953 Sugar Smacks cereal
1953 Swanson TV dinner
1954 Burger King
1954 Butterball turkey
1954 colored appliance (G.E.)
1954 M&M's Peanut Candies
1954 Shakey's pizza opens
1955 Del Monte stewed tomatoes
1955 Kentucky Fried Chicken
1955 Special K cereal
1956 Imperial margarine
1957 Sweet'n Low
1958 aluminum beverage can (Coors)
1958 Cocoa Krispies, Kellogg
1958 Cocoa Puffs, General Mills
1958 Green Giant canned beans
1958 Internation House of Pancakes
1958 Jif Peanut Butter
1958 Lipton Instant Tea
1958 Pizza Hut (Wichita, KS)
1958 Williams-Sonoma opens
1959 Haagen-Dazs ice cream
1959 Frosty O's, General Mills
1960 Coffee Rich non-dairy creamer
1960 Dominoes pizza (Detroit)
1960 Granny Smith apple imported to U.S.
1960 red, green, & yellow M&M's
1961 Coffee-Mate non-dairy creamer
1961 Green Giant frozen vegetables
1961 Mrs. Butterworth's Syrup
1961 Total cereal, General Mills
1961 Charlie the Tuna (Starkist)
1962 Bridgford frozen bread dough
1962 Diet-Rite cola
1962 Pet-Ritz Frozen Pie Crust
1962 Taco Bell
1963 Chips Ahoy! cookies
1963 Chiquita banana blue sticker
1963 Cremora non-dairy creamer
1963 Fruit Loops
1963 self-cleaning oven
1963 Tab cola
1963 The French Chef debuts
1963 Weight Watchers founded
1964 Kellogg's Pop-Tarts
1965 Cool Whip
1965 Poppin' Fresh, Pillsbury Doughboy
1968 McDonald's Big Mac
1969 Diet 7-Up
1969 sugarless gum
1970 Eggo waffles
1970 Hamburger Helper
1971 canned A&W Root Beer
1971 Jell-O pudding treat
1971 Rolos candy
1971 smoked Spam
1972 Egg McMuffin
1972 Top Ramen
1972 Tuna Helper
1973 Cuisinart food processor
1973 Honey Maid cinnamon grahams
1975 Pasta primavera
1976 Jelly Belly
1976 orange M&M's
1977 McDonald's Happy Meal
1977 Yoplait yogurt
1978 Reese's Pieces
1981 Prego spaghetti sauce
1981 Stouffer's Lean Cuisine
1982 Diet Coke
1984 Ben & Jerry's ice cream
1985 Cherry Coke
1985 New Coke
1985 Pop Secret microwave popcorn
1986 Classic Coke
1987 Cherry 7-Up
1987 Nestlé Alpine White chocolate bar
1987 soy milk
1989 Symphony candy bar
1990 Campbell's cream of broccoli soup
1990 dolphin-safe tuna
1990 Hershey's kisses with almonds
1990 Jamba Juice
1992 Crystal Pepsi
1992 Spam Lite
1993 The Food Network
1993 Hershey's Hugs
1995 blue M&Ms
1998 Jell-O Museum, Rochester, NY
1998 Pepsi One
1998 Wow potato chips
1999 Hershey's Bites
1999 Incredibles, push-up food
2000 Betasweet carrot, bred to be a powerful antioxidant
2000 Heinz green ketchup
2000 pre-cut carrots and celery sticks
2001 Boston Market Homestyle Meals
2001 Chicken of the Sea Tuna Salad Kits
2001 Heinz purple ketchup
2001 It's Pasta Anytime
1850s Eliza Leslie's Strawberry shortcake
1860s Baked Alaska
1910's Jell-O: America's most famous dessert
1918, French dip sandwich
1970's California rolls
1900 Lionel train
1903 Crayola Crayons
1903 Teddy bear
1913 Erector set
1914 Tinker Toys
1916 Lincoln Logs
1917 Radio Flyer wagon
1938 View-Master 3-D viewer
1942 Little Golden Books
1943 Chutes and Ladders
1946 Tonka trucks
1949 Candy Land,
1950 Silly Putty
1952 Mr. Potato Head
1954 Matchbox cars
1956 Original Ant Farm
1962 Mille Bornes card game
1963 G.I. Joe
1963 Easy Bake Oven
1968 Hot Wheels
1970 Nerf balls
1970 Bachmann trains
1974 Dungeons & Dragons
1978 Hungry Hungry Hippos
1979 Rubik's Cube
1983 Cabbage Patch Kids
1983 Trivial Pursuit
1988 Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles
1989 Super Soaker
Black entrepreneur Annie Turnbo produces a hair treatment containing sage and egg rinses. She and her sister
manufacture Wonderful Hair Grower and sell it door-to-door. Turnbo moves the business to St. Louis in 1902 and
in 1906 registers the trade name Poro.
Max Factor, a Russian immigrant, moves to the United States and launches a theatrical makeup and hair-goods
shop. He originally works with Hollywood movie studios, but his influence soon spreads to the general public.
French chemist Eugene Schueller develops the first safe commercial hair dye and founds the French Harmless
Dye Co. The next year, he renames the company L'Oreal.
When Sarah McWilliams' hair begins to thin and fall out, she creates a product she calls Wonderful Hair Grower,
just like Turnbo's, and sells it door-to-door in Denver. She later marries Charles J. Walker, becomes known as
Madam C.J. Walker and settles in Indianapolis, which she deems a good place to launch her company nationally.
Florence Graham and cosmetologist Elizabeth Hubbard open a salon on Fifth Avenue in New York. When the
partnership fails, Graham redecorates and works on the formulas; when she reopens the shop, she takes the
Maybelline is founded, specializing in mascara.
Lipstick in cylindrical metal tubes is introduced.
Max Factor's Society Makeup line debuts, the first full-scale cosmetics collection intended for nontheatrical use. It
is distributed nationally in 1927.
Pencil-thin eyebrows are the rage.
The bobby pin is invented as a tool for bobbed hair.
The craze for short hair causes the number of cutting salons to increase from 5,000 to 23,000 between 1922 and
1924. Among those epitomizing the trend are designer Coco Chanel and actress Louise Brooks.
Suntanning becomes a craze.
False eyelashes are a beauty trend.
Revlon is founded, specializing in nail polish.
A New York chemist named Lawrence Gelb brings home from Paris a hair color product that penetrates the hair
shaft. He opens a company named after the product, Clairol. In 1950, he introduces Miss Clairol Hair Color Bath,
a one-step color product, and in 1951, Lady Clairol Whipped Creme hair lightener, which changes the way
Zotos introduces a chemical permanent wave process, which doesn't require electricity or machines. In 1936
beauty shops give 35 million permanent waves. By the 1940s, products such as Toni home permanents offer a
Pan-Cake makeup, originally called Panchromatic Make-up Cake, is created by Max Factor. It was developed to
replace greasepaint and look natural on the color film used to shoot movies. When actresses begin taking it
home with them for personal use, Max Factor figures the public will go for it, too. The product is patented in 1936.
Aerosols are patented, paving the way for hair spray. (Hair spray will be the best-selling beauty product in 1964.)
Sunscreen is developed by Miami beach pharmacist Benjamin Green, who creates it to protect soldiers on duty in
the South Pacific. He adds cocoa butter and jasmine to the formula and tests it on his own bald head.
Pan-Stik, a cream-based makeup in stick form, is introduced by Max Factor. It was developed as a product for
use in television and the movies, but debuts at retail at the same time.
Mascara wands debut, eliminating the need for applying mascara with a brush.
Long hair is the rage. To straighten their hair, women set it on orange juice cans. Hippies wear flowers in their
hair. Men go for long hair, too, especially after the Beatles tour the United States.
Also hot is curly hair. Afro styles are popular with blacks, and those who don't have naturally curly hair get
The flip hairstyle is worn by Mary Tyler Moore on "The Dick Van Dyke Show."
Introduction of Cover Girl Medicated makeup from Noxzema, one of the first brands sold in grocery stores and
targeted to teens.
Revlon offers the first powdered blush-on, a cake of pink powder applied with a small brush.
Vidal Sassoon creates the geometric haircut, the first cut women could simply wash and blow dry. In 1967,
Sassoon and his staff create the wash-and-wear perm, which allows women to shower and go, eliminating their
need for weekly salon appointments.
Trend-setting English designer Mary Quant launches her cosmetics line.
Clinique line is introduced by Estee Lauder, the first brand to be pitched with a hygienic, asexual message with
emphasis on the product, not glamorous models.
The musical "Hair" debuts.
The first unisex salon is opened by Paul McGregor in New York.
The shag haircut decade: Jane Fonda in "Klute" (1971) and Farrah Fawcett on "Charlie's Angels" (1976).
The first day spa opens.
Spike haircuts appear in London, as do Mohawks in fluorescent pink, green or purple.
Olympic medal-winner Dorothy Hamill becomes as famous for her wedge haircut as she does for her ice skating.
Horst Rechelbacher founds Aveda, a company focusing on botanically based products and environmentally
Princess Diana's short, chic blond coif is created by Richard Dalton, who serves as her personal stylist until 1991.
Mousse, which gives hair lift at the roots, is the hot product for men and women.
Color is the big story, with such supermodels as Linda Evangelista going from brunette to blond to redhead and
then dying her hair black. Chunky highlights are first seen about 1992.
Chanel Beaute introduces Vamp, a black nail polish that sparks a trend for offbeat colors.
Fashion model Iman introduces a cosmetics collection for women of color. In 1999, she announces plans for a
new makeup collection targeted to all women.
The tousled layered cut that Chris McMillan created for "Friends" actress Jennifer Aniston soon came to be
known as The Rachel, named for Aniston's character.
Jun 7, George Byran "Beau" Brummell, English wit, was born. He influenced men's fashion and introduced
trouser to replace breeches.
Mar 4, James Madison became 1st President inaugurated in American-made clothes.
May 27, American reformer Amelia Jenks Bloomer, who popularized the "bloomers" garment that bears her
name, was born in Homer, N.Y.
Henry Sands Brooks began H. & D.H. Brooks & Co. in mostly rural Manhattan. It became a key military supplier
during the Civil War. A 2nd store opened in 1928 and operations grew to the well known chain known as Brooks
Jul 9, Elias Howe (d.1867), inventor of the sewing machine, was born in Spencer, Mass. Howe, a machinist,
developed his sewing machine in 1843-45 and patented it in 1846. Although Howe's machine sewed only short,
straight lines, tailors and seamstresses saw it as a threat to their jobs. Unable to market his machine in America,
Howe took it to Britain where he sold the rights to an English manufacturer in 1847. Upon his return to the United
States, Howe discovered that his patent had been infringed upon by other sewing machine manufacturers, such
as Isaac Singer. After a lengthy court battle, Howe's patent was upheld and royalties from sewing machine sales
Lt. Harry Lumsden in the heat of India’s Punjab dyed his PJs a tawny color. They were made of cotton and called
Britain introduced khaki uniforms for British colonial troops in India.
Apr 10, Walter Hunt, a mechanic, patented the safety pin in NYC. He sold rights for $100. Hunt’s other inventions
included a new stove, paper collar, ice-breaking boat, fountain pen and nail-making machine.
Levi Strauss, Bavarian-born dry goods merchant, arrived in California. and Co. He got his start peddling tough
canvas pants to California gold miners. When his canvas ran out he switched to serge de Nimes, which evolved
Apr 21, Alexander Douglas patented the bustle.
Jun 2, James Gibbs, Va., patented a chain-stitch single-thread sewing machine.
Englishman Charles Worth establishes first haute couture fashion house in Paris
Levi Strauss and Jacob Davis patented the rivets that adorned their miners' work pants.
May 20, Levi Strauss began marketing blue jeans with copper rivets at $13.50 per doz.
Jul 23, Isaac Merritt Singer (63), inventor (sewing machine), died.
Jun 6, An electric iron was patented by Henry W. Seely in NYC.
Aug 19, Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel (d.1971), French fashion designer, was born: "My friends, there are no friends."
May 19, Jan Matzeliger began the 1st mass production of shoes in Lynn, Massachusetts.
Mar 13, Chester Greenwood of Maine patented earmuffs.
Abercrombie & Fitch, clothing retailers, began operations.
Mar 31, Whitcomb Judson patented a hookless fastening (zipper) in Chicago.
Sep 10, Elsa Schiaparelli, French fashion designer, was born.
Brooks Brothers introduced button down collars after observing polo players button down their collar points to
keep them from flapping during play.
Jan 24, The rubber heel was patented by Humphrey O'Sullivan.
Marquis Mills Converse founded the Converse shoe company. In 1917 the All-Stars basketball shoe was
introduced. In 1923 it was renamed the Chuck Taylor All-Star. In 2003 the company was sold to Nike.
Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel opened her 1st shop, a millinery, in Paris.
May 18, Pierre A Balmain, fashion designer (1940's "New Look"), was born in France.
Nov 20, Emilio Pucci, fashion designer (Neiman-Marcus Award-1954), was born in Naples.
May 25, Madame C.J. Walker (51), African American cosmetics manufacturer, died
Madeleine Vionnet creates flowing, feminine clothes, including the chiffon handkerchief dress; creates cowl neck,
halter top; sets trends in 1930s
Popularity of rayon causes decline in use of cotton
May 28, US Attorney General said it is legal for women to wear trousers anywhere.
Barney Pressman pawned his wife's wedding ring in NYC to lease a Seventh Ave. store selling discounted men's
suits. In 1993 Barney's opened a $270 million Madison Ave. showcase store.
Knee-length hemlines mark new high
Elsa Schiaparelli opens Paris boutique; pioneers use of zippers, shoulder pads, unusual buttons; favors bright
colors, including "shocking pink"
Dec 13, The clip-on tie was designed.
Levi's became a trademark.
Jan 26, San Francisco police took Frances Orlando (19) to the Bush Police Station because she was dressed in
Hemlines drop; then gradually rise
Ellery J. Chun (d.2000 at 91) designed the 1st Hawaiian aloha shirt for mass-production and sale at his family’s
store in Honolulu. He put a trademark to the aloha shirt name in 1936.
Willis & Geiger Outfitters were awarded a US Army & Air Force contract for A-2 flight jackets.
May 23, Wallace Carothers manufactured the 1st nylon, polymer 66.
Bra makers first started using cup sizes.
May 15, Nylon stockings went on general sale for the first time in the United States. [see Oct 24, 1939]
Jul 5, The bikini bathing suit, created by former civil engineer Louis Reard, made its debut during a fashion show
at the Molitor Pool in Paris. Model Micheline Bernardini wore the skimpy two-piece outfit. Its name correlated with
the July 1 American atom bomb test on Bikini Atoll. Réard wanted his design to have a similar explosive affect.
Christian Dior reestablishes Paris as fashion center; revives haute couture; replaces wartime austerity with the
glamour of the "New Look" with tight waist, stiff petticoats, billowing skirts
Shoes have pointed toes, stiletto heels
Hazel Bishop (d.1998 at 92) formed Hazel Bishop Inc. to manufacture and market her kiss proof lipstick. It was
introduced in the summer at $1 a tube.
Martha Matilda Harper (b.1857), Canadian-born hair-care businesswoman, died. She was probably the 1st
person to perfect the franchise system of business organization.
May 8, Dacron men's suits were introduced.
Armi Ratia, Finnish designer, expanded her husband's printing business into a fashionable "total work of art"
business (Gesamtkunstwerk) that became "Marimekko."
A Vatican rule that required women to wear head coverings in Catholic churches was repealed.
Mar 1, K-Mart opened.
Pierre Cardin becomes first designer to license his name for various products; is first to create ready-to-wear
London boutique owner Mary Quant champions the youth movement; introduces mini-skirt, hot pants; launches
Twiggy as supermodel; becomes 1960s most influential 1960s designer
Influenced by rock music, "Mod" scene makes London major fashion center with fun, revolutionary clothes: bell
bottoms, psychedelic prints, wild colors, dresses made of vinyl, paper, cellophane, metal, covered in mirrors; go-
go boots; ruffled shirts for men; Nehru jackets; fur vests
Rudi Gernreich creates "radical" fashion - topless swimsuit, see-through blouse, "no bra" look
Calvin Klein begins producing elegant, simple clothes, favoring neural earth tones and luxurious fabrics
Ralph Lauren creates men's wear line; expands into women's wear; favors natural fabrics; designs feature
western or country motifs
Mar 11, Levi-Strauss started to sell bell-bottomed jeans.
Donald and Doris Fisher founded the Gap in San Francisco.
Known as Halston, Roy Halston Frowick dominates 1970s with pantsuits, sweater sets, form-fitting dresses, knit
Nike Shoes began production.
Giorgio Armani creates men's wear line; popularizes Italian tailoring
Foot Locker, a division of Woolworth Stores, opened its 1st outlet.
Yves St. Laurent launched the perfume Opium.
Apr 2, Velcro was 1st put on the market.
Nike signed a 5-year contract with Michael Jordan. The Air Jordan basketball shoe was released in 1985 for $65.
Levi Strauss & Co. introduced Dockers, a line of roomy khakis aimed at baby boomers.
Jun 22, Florida passed a law that prohibited wearing a thong bathing suit.
The Gap opened its Old Navy discount clothing store in Colma, Ca.
Feb 3, IBM in fashion shed its dress code in favor of casual wear.
John Galliano, British designer, became chief designer for Dior. In 1999 he introduced the saddle bag handbag.
Feb 22, Levi Strauss, falling victim to a fashion generation gap, announced that it would close 11 of 22 US plants
and lay off 5,900 factory workers.
Jun 8, The WSJ covered the thong as a fashion statement on page 1.
Aug 9, Four large apparel corporations settled out of court in a suit to end sweatshop labor in Saipan. Nordstrom,
J. Crew, Cutter & Buck and Gymboree agreed to pay $1.25 million to reimburse workers for recruitment fees and
to set up a program to monitor island contractors.
Oct 1, Conde Nast said it would its Mademoiselle (b.1935) fashion magazine would be published for the last time
Apr 24, Estee Lauder (b.1906), cosmetics pioneer whose pots of potions and tubs of moisturizers have turned the
clock back for millions of faces across the globe, died in NYC.
1900 Concentration Camp
1906 High brow, low brow
1914 Birth control
1915 Cosmic ray
1920 White Collar
1926 Chain reaction
1931 Black market
1952 Canned laughter
1956 Third World
1957 Moonlight (additional job)
1959 Kinky (unconventional)
1961 Tax shelter
1964 Heavy metal
1966 High five
1967 Icon (computer)
1969 Jet lag
1970 Whistle blower
1972 Child abuse
1975 Surrogate mother
1976 Couch potato
1979 User friendly
1984 Spin doctor
1985 Virtual reality
1905 Albert Marsh patents alloy of nickel and chromium, Nichrome, making electric toasters possible.
1908 First U.S. patent for vacuum cleaner, James W. Spangler.
1909 First successful electric toaster was produced.
1909 Development of high-speed universal motor for vacuum cleaners.
1913 First refrigerator for home use.
1919 Eureka produces 2,000 vacuums a day due to improved mass production techniques.
1919 Charles Strite invents first pop-up toaster.
1920s Safety standards for electric outlets and plugs revise housing codes.
1926 General Electric introduces refrigerator with hermetically sealed compressor.
1927 John W. Hammes patents garbage disposal.
1929 Cost of U.S. electric refrigerator $292, down from $600 in 1920.
1931 U.S. refrigerator production tops one million units.
1931 Birds Eye Frosted Foods go on sale across the United States.
1932 Electric dishwasher.
1935 Clothes dryer, Ross Moore.
1937 Hand-held vacuum.
1946 Microwave oven, Percy L. Spencer.
1947 First top-loading automatic clothes washer.
1955 Domestic deep freezer.
1957 Spin clothes dryer.
1961 Smaller freezers with front doors introduced, more suitable for home kitchens.
1963 Steam-or-dry electric iron.
1976 Singer electronic sewing machine that dials up to 25 preset stitches, self-winding bobbin.
1980s Microprocessors revolutionize household appliances.
Potter Palmer opened a dry goods store in Chicago, which eventually became Marshall Field & Co.
Joseph Lowthian Hudson opened his first store in Detroit
Barney Kroger established a grocery store in Cincinnati.
Sears began when Richard Sears started selling watches in 1886 to supplement his income, and later hired
watchmaker Alvah C. Roebuck to join his venture.
David May opened the first store of what would become The May Department Stores Co. in Leadville, Colo.
F.W. Woolworth first opened for business.
Marshall Field & Co. Incorporates.
Merchant Henry Siegel forms a syndicate of stores that includes Siegel-Cooper's stores, Simpson-Crawford-
Simpson store, Manhattan, and the Schlesinger and Mayer store, Chicago.
Shoe merchant J.W. Nordstrom, a Swedish immigrant and former gold miner, opens his first store in the Seattle
R.H. Macy moves from Manhattan's Ladies Mile (Sixth Street) to 34th Street and Broadway.
J.C. Penney opens his first store called the Golden Rule in Kemmerer, Wyo.
Carson Pirie Scott & Co. opens on State Street, Chicago.
The Spiegel Co. publishes its first catalog in Chicago and mails to customers within a 100-mile radius.
Lehman Brothers and Goldman, Sachs finance the expansion of Sears, Roebuck & Co. The mail-order company
first incorporates in 1893. Sears' first catalog, featuring only watches and jewelry, debuted in 1888.
Herbert Marcus Sr., his sister, Carrie Marcus Neiman, and her husband, A.L. Neiman, open the first Neiman
Marcus store, Dallas.
Edward A. Filene begins selling excess merchandise in the basement of his father's store on Washington Street,
May Department Stores, St. Louis, incorporates in New York City.
the number of chain stores operating is probably less than 5,000.
May acquires the William Barr Dry Goods Co. and combines it with The Famous Clothing Co., both in St. Louis,
to form Famous-Barr.
The same banking firms that financed Sears in 1906 finance and reorganize F.W. Woolworth Co., increasing its
stores from 18 in 1892 to 600, in America and Europe.
John Wanamaker opens 24-story department store on Market Street, Philadelphia.
Famous-Barr opens its flagship in downtown St. Louis.
J.P. Morgan helps reorganize the businesses of merchants Henry Siegel (Siegel-Cooper's) and John Claflin
(owner of 40 department stores including Lord & Taylor, McCreey's and Hahne's) into the Associated Dry Goods
B. Altman moves to a 12-story Italian Renaissance building at Fifth Avenue and 34th Street, New York City.
R.H. Macy, B. Altman's, Lord & Taylor, Sterns, Arnold Constable and Saks Fifth Avenue all operate stores in
Manhattan ranging from 34th Street to 52nd Street.
Barnes & Noble opens its first bookstore at 31 W. 15th Street, New York City.
J C Nichols opens Country Club Plaza in Kansas City, Mo. It is the first shopping district constructed as a
business district for a large-scale residential development.
Barney Pressman opens a men's discount clothing store at Seventh Avenue and 17th Street, New York City.
The first Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade takes place in New York City. Dubbed the "Christmas Parade," the five-
mile event is watched by 10,000 people.
Macy's Herald Square location becomes largest store in the world, following completion of Seventh Avenue
Loehmann's opens its first store in Brooklyn.
Sears Roebuck & Co. opens first store in a catalog center on Chicago's west side. Another unit opens in
Cataloger Montgomery Ward opens its first store in Plymouth, Ind.
Grandview Shopping Center in suburban Columbus, Ohio, opens. It features a straight line of 30 shops with
parking for 400 cars in front.
In Seattle, three brothers buy out their father and his partner, taking over a couple of shoe stores, changing their
name from Wallin & Nordstrom to Nordstrom.
Federated Department Stores is founded as a holding company and includes the family-owned department stores
of Abraham and Straus and F&R Lazarus and Co.
The first true self-service store, a King Kullen supermarket opens in Jamaica, Queens, N.Y.
Bloomingdale's joins Federated.
Hugh Parther develops Highland Park Shopping Village, Dallas, the first planned shopping center. Unlike Country
Club Plaza, storefronts face inward and occupy a single site not bisected by public streets.
Bloomingdale's opens at 59th and Lexington, New York City.
Hendrik Meijer opens his first grocery store In Greenville, Mich.
According to the U.S. Bureau of Census, the number of chain stores operating is 127,482.
First shopping cart introduced at Humpty Dumpty stores in Oklahoma City, Okla.
Congress establishes Thanksgiving as the fourth Thursday of November rather than the fifth Thursday. Fred
Lazarus Jr. (Federated Stores) convinces President Franklin Roosevelt that changing the date (thereby extending
the Christmas shopping season) would be good for the nation's business.
Japanese invasion of Pearl Harbor effectively ends The Great Depression Labor, building material and
merchandise shortages follow.
Sears catalog shrinks in size. 1942 edition is nearly 200 pages shorter than 1941. Material shortages and
government regulations put new store construction on hold.
Variety store retailer W.T. Grant opens first non-food, self-service store in Glen Cove, N.Y. Labor shortage and
increase of working women combine to make self-service a necessity.
Film "Miracle on 34th Street" premieres.
The McDonald Brothers open a limited-menu, drive-thru restaurant in San Bernardino, Calif.
E.J. Korvette opens first discount store in New York.
Minimum wage grows from 40 to 75 cents per hour.
Thom McAn develops a standardized store design beginning with establishing a standard size for shoe boxes.
Northgate Shopping Center, the first open-air pedestrian mall, opens in Seattle featuring two strip centers face-to-
face with a pedestrian walkway in between.
Shoppers World, the first two-level center, opens in Framingham, Mass.
Northland Center opens in Southfield, Mich. It is the first center to feature central heating and air-conditioning.
Southdale Shopping Center opens in Edina, Minn. It is the first fully-enclosed, two-level regional mall.
After six years of planning, the open-air Old Orchard Shopping Center opens in Skokie, Ill. Originally anchored by
Marshall Field's, The Fair and later, Montgomery Ward, the center was redesigned and redeveloped as a "village
square" in 1994, nearly doubling the number of tenants.
Garden State Plaza, an open-air center, opens in Paramus, N.J., anchored by Bamberger's. Periodic expansions
and renovations brought about the addition of Gimbel's and JCPenney. Now enclosed, the center is anchored by
Macy's, Nordstrom, JCPenney and Neiman Marcus.
Baby Furniture and Toy Supermart (today's Toys 'R' Us) opens in Washington.
The International Council of Shopping Centers forms in Chicago.
Lenox Square opens in Atlanta as an open-air center anchored by Rich's and Davison's. Located a considerable
distance from major interstates, it is the Southeast's first mall. In 1972, the center's first major renovation includes
enclosing the center and adding Neiman Marcus.
First Wal-Mart store opens in Rogers, Ark.
Dayton Hudson Stores open first Target store in Roseville, Minn.
Leslie Wexner opens first Limited store in Kingsdale Shopping Center, Columbus, Ohio.
Mace Siegel founds The Macerich Real Estate Co., Santa Monica, Calif.
Sound of Music store opens, changes name to Best Buy in 1983.
First B. Dalton bookstore opens.
Dayton Hudson Stores Corp. goes public.
Federated Department Stores Co. enters discount arena with debut of Gold Circle stores in Ohio. Its Rich's
division opens Richway discount stores in Georgia.
Donald and Doris Fisher open the first Gap store on Ocean Street, San Francisco.
Limited goes public.
Wal-Mart goes public.
The U.S Supreme Court contends that a shopping center is quasi-public and serves as a community business
area, and that states cannot exclude those wishing to exercise their First Amendment rights on the premises.
Shopping Center World begins publication with its February issue.
First electronic scanner installed in a Marsh Supermarket store, Troy, Ohio.
Water Tower Place, the first vertical mall, opens on North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, anchored by Lord & Taylor
and Marshall Field's.
The Rouse Co. opens Faneuil Hall, Boston, signaling the beginning of festival marketplaces and urban revival.
The industry grows to 17,523 U.S. shopping centers, or 2.3 billion sq. ft., producing annual sales of $217 billion.
White Flint Shopping Center in North Bethesda, Md., offers the first shopping center credit card.
S.S. Kresge Co. changes its name to Kmart Corp.
The Home Depot's first store opens in Decatur, Ga.
E. J. Korvette liquidates after unsuccessful turnaround attempt.
West Edmonton Mall - the largest mall in North America - opens in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, occupying 5.5
million sq. ft. of space.
Food courts become focal points in malls.
The Home Shopping Network debuts.
The Mills Corp. opens its first center, Potomac Mills, a 1.6 million sq.ft. off-price entertainment center in Prince
The Hahn Co. opens Horton Plaza in downtown San Diego.
Gimbel's flagship closes in New York City.
Australian developer L J Hooker acquires B. Altman, Bonwit Teller, Sakowitz and Parisian.
First Disney mall store opens in Glendale, Calif.
Canadian developer Robert Campeau acquires Federated Department Stores.
Both L J Hooker and Campeau declare bankruptcy.
SCW calls Homart Development Co. the most active developer.
Federated Department Stores declares bankruptcy.
Wal-Mart is number one U.S. retailer in sales.
SCW calls Crown American the year's most active developer with 9.1 million sq. ft. under construction.
BAA Pittsburgh devotes 100,000 sq. ft. of space to typical mall tenants, with merchants promising "street pricing,"
at the Pittsburgh International Airport. Original tenants include Gap, Body Shop and Sunglass Hut.
Federated emerges from bankruptcy.
Macy's files Chapter 11.
Woolworth Corp. announces it will close 900 of its 6,500 U.S. specialty stores.
Simon Property Group opens Mall of America, the country's largest mall, in Bloomington, Minn., modeled after the
successful West Edmonton Mall in Alberta, Canada. The center covers 4.2 million sq. ft. and includes a seven-
acre amusement park, nightclubs and restaurants.
Simon opens The Forum Shops at Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, complete with animatronic statues, a painted sky
and Italian architecture.
Sears ceases publication of its "Big Book" catalog.
To ease capital concerns, many developers go public and become real estate investment trusts. The REITs raise
Macy's is acquired by Federated.
The merger of Horizon Outlet Centers and McArthur/Glen Realty Corp. creates the largest owner of outlet
centers. The new company is called HGI Realty.
Bookseller Amazon.com opens for business on the Internet with 2.5 million titles.
General Growth Properties completes the purchase of Homart and becomes the largest operator of U.S.
shopping centers, only to lose the title when Simon Property Group merges with DeBartolo Realty Corp.
Woolworth Corp. closes all its general merchandise stores.
Montgomery Ward declares bankruptcy.
Proffitt's acquires Saks Fifth Avenue.
Filene's Basement declares bankruptcy.
Service Merchandise declares bankruptcy.
Loehmann's declares bankruptcy