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					Cohesion in English
Seminar
Dr. Kerstin Kunz
Saarland University
Germany
Overview
 18/08: Conceptualizing cohesion
 19/08: Analyzing cohesion I
 20/08: Analyzing cohesion II
What is Cohesion
Example
Definition of Cohesion - quotations
Cohesion concerns the ways in which the components of the
SURFACE TEXT, i.e. the actual words we hear or see, are mutually
connected within a sequence. The surface components
depend upon each other according to grammatical forms and
conventions, such that cohesion rests upon GRAMMATICAL
DEPENDENCIES. […]
All of the functions which can be used to signal relations among
surface elements are included under our notion of COHESION.
(de Beaugrande & Dressler )
Note that our use of the term is extremely broad, including all
means of signalling surface dependencies (cf. Halliday 1964: 303).
(de Beaugrande & Dressler)
Definition of Cohesion - quotations
[…]set of lexicogrammatical systems that have
evolved specifically as a resources for making it
possible to transcend the boundaries of the
clause – that is the domain of the highest-ranking
grammatical unit. (Halliday & Matthiessen
2004:523)
Definition of Cohesion - quotations

relations between sentences that are indicated
by explicit syntactic or semantic ties between
linguistic elements (see Linke et. al 2004:245).
Definition of Cohesion - quotations
The concept of cohesion is a semantic one; it refers
to relations of meaning that exist within the text,
and that define it as text.
Cohesion occurs where the INTERPRETATION of
some element in the discourse is dependent on that
of another. The one PRESUPPOSES the other, in the
sense that it cannot be effectively decoded except
by recourse to it. When this happens, a relation of
cohesion is set up, and the two elements, the
presupposing an the presupposed, are thereby at
least potentially integrated into a text. (Halliday &
Hasan 1976:4)
   Cohesion  Coherence
   Example
                     No smoking
                                          It is raining.
Arab nations yesterday backed the Palestinian President's refusal to
immediately restart direct talks with Israel despite heavy US pressure.
The cat has been waiting for hours in front of the mouse hole. If
product gets in eyes, rinse well with plenty of water and consult a
doctor. Get away!

              Prince Charles usually plays polo on Monday. He is
              preparing the bullfight. He has long black hair. He is
              the first man to travel to Mars.
   The dog growled and barked even louder. Mary tried
   to get up the tree as quickly as possible.
What is Cohesion
Example
Cohesion – linguistic levels
 Phonological
 Morphological
 Lexical
 Syntactical
 Textual: structural (information structure,
  focus, theme), cohesive
 (Semantic)
 (Conceptual, coherence)
    Cohesion  coherence
Often no detailed differentiation
 Halliday & Hasan 1976 only use „cohesion‟
 Werlich 1983 only talks about „coherence‟
 For Brinker the cohesion-coherence distinction is
  unnecessary (2005)

 Two out of seven standards of „textuality‟ in de
  Beaugrande & Dressler (1981)
 => along with intentionality, acceptability,
  informativity, situationality, intertextuality
 See:
  http://www.beaugrande.com/introduction_to_text_li
  nguistics.htm
             Cohesion Coherence
                     phonemes
                     morphemes
Linguistic            lexemes
structure             phrases
                       clauses
                      cohesive
                       devices




Mental
textual               coherence
 world
                          Cohesion Coherence


                                  cohesive
             Linguistic            devices
             structure

Speech situation


             Mental
             textual               coherence
              world
                                 Cohesion Coherence


                                          cohesive
             Linguistic                    devices
             structure

Speech situation


             Mental
             textual                      coherence
              world

                       Long term memory
                           Cohesion Coherence



Peter wasn’t at work yesterday. He was ill.




   He refers to the same person
             as Peter.
               Cohesion Coherence


Peter wasn’t
at work                 coreference
yesterday.
He was ill.




He refers
  to the
  same                   identity of
person as                reference
  Peter.
                           Cohesion Coherence



Peter wasn’t at work yesterday. He was ill.



                  inference



         The second sentences
      provides the cause for the first
                sentence.
                  Cohesion Coherence


   Peter wasn’t
   at work
   yesterday.
   He was ill.




  The second
   sentences
  provides the               cause
 cause for the
first sentence.
                                 Cohesion Coherence

Peter wasn’t at work yesterday because he was ill.
Peter was ill yesterday.       Therefore, he wasn’t at work.




     The second sentences provides the
        cause for the first sentence.
Definition of coherence -
quotations
Coherence is a semantic property of
discourse formed through the
interpretation of each individual sentence
relative to the interpretation of other
sentences, with "interpretation" implying
interaction between the text and the
reader (van Dijk 1979: 93).
Definition of coherence -
quotations
COHERENCE     concerns the ways in which
the components of the TEXTUAL WORLD,
i.e. the configuration of CONCEPTS and
RELATIONS which underlie the surface text
are mutually accessible and relevant. (de
Beaugrande 1981:73).
Definition of coherence -
quotations
Coherence can be viewed as a covert
potential meaning relationship among parts
of a text, made overt by the reader or listener
through processes of interpretation. (Blum-
Kulka 1986:17).
    So what is coherence?
 Creation     of semantic/ logical/ conceptual
    relations of meaning during text
    processing on the basis of:
   the linguistic structure of the text
   linguistic knowledge
   world knowledge
   knowledge about speech events
So what is cohesion?
Cohesion is the explicit marking of
semantic/ logical/ conceptual relations of
meaning via grammatical and lexical ties
between linguistic expressions in different
clauses, clause complexes and/ or text
passages.
Cohesion  Coherence
briefly put
A text is cohesive if its elements are tied
 together.
=> Objectively verifiable through text analysis
=> Cohesion: explicit linguistic marking of
 meaning relations above the clause level

A text is coherent if it makes sense.
=> More subjective
=> Coherence: mental creation of meaning
 relations during text processing
Concepts of cohesion
Halliday / Hasan (1976)

Reference

Lexical cohesion

Substitution

Ellipsis

Conjunctions

                          26
Concepts of cohesion
Halliday / Hasan (1976)
                     Items, which, instead of being interpreted
Reference            semantically in their own right, make reference to
                     something else for their interpretation

Lexical cohesion Cohesive effect achieved by the selection
                 of the vocabulary

                     Replacement of one item by another, in contrast to
Substitution         reference, a relation of wording rather than
                     meaning

Ellipsis             Substitution by zero
                     Conjunctive elements are cohesive not in
                     themselves but indirectly, by virtue of their specific
Conjunctions         meaning; […]they express certain meanings which
                     presuppose the presence of other components in
                     the discourse
                                                                          27
Concepts of cohesion
Halliday / Hasan (1976)
                          personal
Reference                 demonstrative
                          comparative
                          general nouns
Lexical cohesion          repetition
                          sense relations
                          collocation

Substitution              nominal
                          verbal
                          clausal

                          nominal
Ellipsis                  verbal
                          clausal

                          additive
Conjunctions              adversative
                          causal
                          temporal
                                            28
                          continuatives
    Reference
     Halliday / Hasan (1976)

                             REFERENCE




        exophoric                               endophoric




homophoric     situational               anaphoric      cataphoric



                                                                 29
         Reference
homophoric    The sun won„t come out today
              The president of the United States just has announced that,
              …
situational   Don‟t go, the train is coming.
              Look at that man over there.
              Are you coming.
              That‟s not funny!

anaphoric     When Nixon struggled to deliver a "peace with honor" in
              Vietnam, he could sense he was further alienating America's
              youth, …


cataphoric    When he struggled to deliver a "peace with honor" in
              Vietnam, Nixon could sense he was further alienating
              America's youth, …

                                                                       30
         Reference
personal          Tad Williams is one of the most writers of modern times. In addition to
                  Memory, Sorrow and Thorn he has written the acclaimed Otherland
                  series.
                  Tad Williams? I just read on of his novels.
                  Tad Williams? I just read a novel of his.

demonstrative The United States will be taking three very important messages to
                   Johannesburg. America's vision for Johannesburg is to build on these
                   three messages [...].
                   During the November/December ministerial, we created consensus in
                   some very important areas.These would include […]
                   At present, the only sure way to circumvent the problem of immune
                   rejection would be to create an ES cell line using a patient's own
                   genetic material through nuclear transfer or cloning. This technique
                   […]
comparative        Mr Bell‟s clubs were privately owned. Like most such clubs [...]
                   We accept that thought is a common property of the human race. But
                   we cannot make the same assumption about machines.
                   Germany, Denmark and France face declines in young people. Ireland
                   is confronted with a contrasting problem.                          31
Nominal Coreference
Example


This past spring, the U.S. Department of Education issued a report,
The Condition of Education 2000. Some of the trends it pinpointed
offer evidence that […].
The report found that the benefits of attending college are greater
today than ever before. […]
With significant increases in the number of students who may not
speak English at home, this report suggests that […]. [EO_06].




                              HAMBURG, 06.11.2009                 32
Nominal Coreference
Example


This past spring, the U.S. Department of Education issued a
report, The Condition of Education 2000. Some of the trends
it pinpointed offer evidence that […].
The report found that the benefits of attending college are
greater today than ever before. […]
With significant increases in the number of students who may not
speak English at home, this report suggests that […]. [EO_06].




                            HAMBURG, 06.11.2009                33
         Co-reference chains
This evening I find myself settled here in this comfortable guest house in a
street not far from the centre of Salisbury.[...] The landlady, a woman of
around forty or so, appeals to regard me as a rather grand visitor on account
of Mr Farraday' s Ford and the high quality of my suit. [...]. She informed me
that a double room at the front was available, though I was welcome to it for
the price of a single.
I was then brought up to this room, in which, at that point of the day, the sun
was lighting up the floral patterns of the wall paper quite agreeably.There
were twin beds and a pair of good-sized windows overlooking the street. On
inquiring where the bathroom was, the woman told me in a timid voice that
although it was the door facing mine, there would be no hot water available
until after supper. I asked her to bring me up a pot of tea, and when she had
gone, inspected the room further. [...] The basin in the corner was also very
clean.
         Lexical chains
         Repetition
This evening I find myself settled here in this comfortable guest house in a
street not far from the centre of Salisbury.[...] The landlady, a woman of
around forty or so, appeals to regard me as a rather grand visitor on account
of Mr Farraday' s Ford and the high quality of my suit. [...]. She informed me
that a double room at the front was available, though I was welcome to it for
the price of a single.
I was then brought up to this room, in which, at that point of the day, the sun
was lighting up the floral patterns of the wall paper quite agreeably.There
were twin beds and a pair of good-sized windows overlooking the street. On
inquiring where the bathroom was, the woman told me in a timid voice that
although it was the door facing mine, there would be no hot water available
until after supper. I asked her to bring me up a pot of tea, and when she had
gone, inspected the room further. [...] The basin in the corner was also very
clean.
         Lexical chains
         Semantic relations
This evening I find myself settled here in this comfortable guest house in a
street not far from the centre of Salisbury.[...] The landlady, a woman of
around forty or so, appeals to regard me as a rather grand visitor on account
of Mr Farraday' s Ford and the high quality of my suit. [...]. She informed me
that a double room at the front was available, though I was welcome to it for
the price of a single.
I was then brought up to this room, in which, at that point of the day, the sun
was lighting up the floral patterns of the wall paper quite agreeably.There
were twin beds and a pair of good-sized windows overlooking the street. On
inquiring where the bathroom was, the woman told me in a timid voice that
although it was the door facing mine, there would be no hot water available
until after supper. I asked her to bring me up a pot of tea, and when she had
gone, inspected the room further. [...] The basin in the corner was also very
clean.
Types of cohesion or coherence?
Hasan (1985)
Coreference
=> Situational identity of reference


Coclassification
=> Class identity of reference

Coextension
=> Same field of meaning
Types of cohesion or coherence?
Hasan (1985)
Coreference

Recognizing the growing strains on energy systems as he took office, President
Bush sought to develop a comprehensive and balanced energy policy.

Nelson Mandela is to make a rare public appearance in London next month
for a Live Aid-style concert to mark his 90th birthday[…]. The former South
African president[…]will be joined by some of the biggest names from the
worlds of pop and politics at the Hyde Park event.

A lot of these activities go on in parallel. Others are sequential, particular
proteins being synthesized in a well-defined sequence determined by the
feedback circuits of gene activities changing cytoplasmic properties that in
turn change gene activities. This dynamic sequence of events with its changing
patterns of gene activities during cell reproduction is called
 the genetic program and it directs the development of a new organism.
Types of cohesion or coherence?
Hasan (1985)
Coclassification
Why does this boy wriggle all the time? Other boys don't wriggle.
(Halliday & Hasan 1976:282)

Can I borrow your pen? -Yes, but what happened to yours? (Hasan
1985a:74)

Mummy will you buy me a bus? - I want that red one. (Halliday &
Hasan 1976:99)
Types of cohesion or coherence?
Hasan (1985)
Coextension
Yesterday I had an accident with my car.The breaks weren't
functioning.

Soybean blossoms resemble orchids.The seeds ripen in pods and
vary in terms of shape, color and size, depending on the variety.
Concepts of cohesion in the
literature
Halliday & Hasan (1976)          Linke et al. (2004)
Reference                        Pro-forms
Lexical cohesion                 Article
     • general nouns             Deixis
     • repetition                Recurrence
     • reiteration by means of   Explicit text connection
         other sense relations   Tense
     • collocation               Substitution
Substitution                     Ellipsis
Ellipsis                         Connectives
Conjunctive relations

                                                            41
Concepts of cohesion in the
literature
Schubert (2008)             Lexical Cohesion
                            • Repetition
Grammatical Cohesion            • total
• Proforms
                                • partial
   • Reference
                            • Semantic relations
   • Substitution
                                • Synonymy
• Syntactic constructions
                                • Antonymy
   • Ellipsis
                                • Hyponymy
   • Parallelism
                                • Meronymy
• Conjunction
                            • Paraphrase
• Grammatical categories
                            • Collocation
   • Tense
   • Aspect
                                                   42
Cohesive non cohesive
Clause internal  clause external relations

Referring  non-referring expressions

Endophoric  exophoric reference
Cohesive non cohesive
Examples
He, who hesitates is lost.
He was annoyed by the fact that she was late
again.
He has been cleaning and washing all day.

It is raining.

Is this your pen?
    Analysis of cohesion
    Types of variation

   Variation over time
   Variation across registers
   Variation across languages
   Variation across originals and translations
Analysis of cohesion
Analysis of systemic inventory of cohesion
Analysis of instances of cohesion in texts
    Analysis of cohesion
    Methodology

   Theoretical and example-based analysis
   In-depth text analysis
   Empirical analysis
Variation over time: But–Aber/Doch

EngOrig: But what caused these calamities
 in the first place [...]?
GerTrans: Aber Wie kam es zu der
 erstaunlichen Klima-Instabilität [...]?
 ‘But How did the astonishing climate
 instability come about?’

 But regularly left untranslated due to
 interactional function as question marker
 (Becher et al. forthc.)
                              Becher, Hödder, Kranich 2009
Variation over time:
But/Aber/Doch
1978–1982 vs. 1999–2002




                          Becher, Hödder, Kranich 2009
Variation through contact
Contact through Translation English-German

   Shining-through easily occurs in English-
    German translations. (= a first step towards
    change)
   Seems to be favored by perceivable form-
    function equivalence (e.g. but-aber, but not
    may- könnte, mag, vielleicht, wohl…)
   In a second step, spread to monolingual
    German text production


                               Becher, Hödder, Kranich 2009
        Register Variation
        Example: syntactic position and function of coreferential
        NPs
Compared to the texts in other registers, political essays
exhibit:
   a high distribution of first person pronouns
   a high distribution of full lexical anaphors
   a high number of semantic relations of repetition
   a medium number of coreference chains per text
   a medium number of coreferential elements per coreference chain
   a high number of coreferential ties with longer distance spans
   a high distribution of coreferential subjects
   a high distribution of coreferential NPs realized in sentence initial
    position
                                                          Kunz 2009         51
Systemic differences English-German
Personal reference
                                                  speaker
                                                                       social distance
                            speech              addressee
                             roles                                     non-distance
                                                 singular

                                                  plural                                             er
              person

                                                                                 human    entity     sie
                                                               singular
                                            specific                              non-   extended    es
                           other                                                 human   reference
                                                                  plural
                                          non-specific                            it
Personal                                                                                  textual
reference                                                                                reference
(English /
German)                                            direct part.

                             participant               pers. pronoun
                                                                             meiner
                              pers. pronoun        „attributed“
             referential      poss. pronoun                                der meinige
                                                       poss. pronoun
              status as
                              attribute

                              possessive
                              determiner
Systemic differences English-German
Demonstrative reference
              neutral

              article (as attribute)



                                           near

 Demons-                                 not near
   trative
 reference
 (English /                             as attribute
 German)
                                         as entity


              selective
                                                       singular
                                       participant
                                                        plural


                                  logico-semantic
                                    relationship                                    towards
                                                                                    speaker
                                                                  + direction
                                                        place                      away from
                                  circumstance                    – direction       speaker
                                                        time
                                                                    pronominal adverbs
In-depth text analysis
English original                        German translation
„WHY DO YOU want me to go?‟ I asked her “Warum willst du, daß ich hingehe?” fragte ich sie am
the night before.                                Abend vorher.
„Because if you don't go, I'll have to go to     “Weil ich, wenn du nicht gehst, ins Gefängnis komme.”
prison.‟ She picked up the knife. „How many      Sie griff nach dem Messer. “Wieviele Scheiben willst
slices do you want?‟                             du?”
„Two,‟ I said. „What's going in them?‟           “Zwei”, sagte ich. “Was machst du drauf?” “Sülze, und
„Potted beef, and be thankful.‟                  sei gefälligst dankbar.”
„But if you go to prison you'll get out again.   “Aber wenn du ins Gefängnis kommst, kommst du auch
St. Paul was always going to prison.‟            wieder raus. Der heilige Paulus war auch dauernd im
„I know that‟ (she cut the bread firmly, so      Gefängnis.”
that only the tiniest squirt of potted beef      “Ich weiß” (sie schnitt das Sandwich mit fester Hand
oozed out) ... „but the neighbours don't.        durch, so daß nur ein ganz kleines bißchen Sülze an den
Eat this and be quiet.‟                          Seiten herausquoll). “Aber die Nachbarn wissen es
She pushed the plate in front of me. It          nicht. Iß jetzt und sei still.”
looked horrible. „Why can't we have chips?‟      Sie schob den Teller vor mich. Er sah gräßlich aus.
„Because I haven't time to make you chips.       “Wieso gibt es keine Pommes?”
There's my feet to soak, your vest to iron,      “Weil ich keine Zeit habe, dir welche zu machen. Ich
and I haven't touched all those requests for     muß noch ein Fußbad nehmen und deine Bluse bügeln,
prayer. Besides, there's no potatoes.‟           und dabei habe ich mit den vielen Bitten um Gebete
(EO_FICTION_008)                                 noch nicht einmal angefangen. Außerdem sind keine
                                                 Kartoffeln da.” (GTrans_FICTION_008)
         Corpuslinguistic analysis
         CroCo corpus design
                          English texts
                                                            8 registers, at
                                           Register-
           Reference                                        least 10 texts
                                          controlled         each, 3,125
           Corpus ER
                                          Corpus EO           words (av.)

 17 registers,           Translation                     Translation
  2,000 word
                           Corpus                          Corpus
samples each
                           GTrans                          ETrans

                                           Register-
           Reference
                                          controlled
           Corpus GR
                                          Corpus GO
                          German texts

         68,000 words                  1 million words                  55
                                                                              55
            The CroCo registers
              English texts                              ESSAY
                               Register-
Reference
                              controlled
Corpus ER
                              Corpus EO                  FICTION
             Translation                   Translation
               Corpus                        Corpus
               GTrans                        ETrans
                                                         INSTR
                               Register-
Reference
                              controlled                 POPSCI
Corpus GR
                              Corpus GO
              German texts
                                                         SHARE

                                                         SPEECH

                                                         TOU

                                                         WEB

                                                                   56
                                                                        56
Annotation layers

                                  + Metainformation

      Translation                 + Tokenization                     Register-
        Corpus                    + PoS tagging                     controlled
                                  + Morphology                        Corpus
                                  + Sense relations
                        Word layer              Word layer

                    Chunk layer                       Chunk layer

            Clause layer                                   Clause layer

       Sentence layer                                        Sentence layer
                           + Phrase structure
                           + Grammatical functions

                                                                                 57
                                                                                      57
Alignment layers


        Translation                                     Register-
          Corpus                                       controlled
                                                         Corpus


                          Word layer   Word layer

                      Chunk layer        Chunk layer
                                                              + Alignment

              Clause layer                    Clause layer

          Sentence layer                        Sentence layer




                                                                     58
cf. Hansen-Schirra et al. (2006)
                                                                            58
Differences in cohesive instances English-German
Example: frequencies "it/es"
ESSAY      EO               ETrans            GTrans             GO
tokens     34998            42040             35345              35668
it         118              177               99                 130               es
It         40               36                42                 41                Es
total      158     0.45 %   206      0.49 %   141      0.39 %    171     0.48 %    total
Cohesive                                                                           Cohesive
           19      47.9 %   21       58.3 %   6        14.29 %   5       12.20 %
It                                                                                 Es
FICTION    EO               ETrans            GTrans             GO
tokens     36916            40037             35345              36781
it         330              335               260                244               es
It         61               72                50                 65                Es
total      391     1.06 %   407      1.02 %   310      0.88%     309     0.84%     total
Cohesive                                                                           Cohesive
           38      62.3 %   35       48.61 % 16        36.29 %   23      32 %
It                                                                                 Es


                                                                                           59
Differences in cohesive instances English-German
Example: frequencies "it/es"

ESSAY      EO               ETrans            GTrans             GO
tokens     34998            42040             35345              35668
it         118              177               99                 130               es
It         40               36                42                 41                Es
total      158     0.45 %   206      0.49 %   141      0.39 %    171     0.48 %    total
Cohesive                                                                           Cohesive
           19      47.9 %   21       58.3 %   6        14.29 %   5       12.20 %
It                                                                                 Es
FICTION    EO               ETrans            GTrans             GO
tokens     36916            40037             35345              36781
it         330              335               260                244               es
It         61               72                50                 65                Es
total      391     1.06 %   407      1.02 %   310      0.88%     309     0.84%     total
Cohesive                                                                           Cohesive
           38      62.3 %   35       48.61 % 16        36.29 %   23      32 %
It                                                                                 Es


                                                                                           60
Differences in cohesive instances English-German
Example: frequencies "it/es"

ESSAY      EO               ETrans            GTrans             GO
tokens     34998            42040             35345              35668
it         118              177               99                 130               es
It         40               36                42                 41                Es
total      158     0.45 %   206      0.49 %   141      0.39 %    171     0.48 %    total
Cohesive                                                                           Cohesive
           19      47.9 %   21       58.3 %   6        14.29 %   5       12.20 %
It                                                                                 Es
FICTION    EO               ETrans            GTrans             GO
tokens     36916            40037             35345              36781
it         330              335               260                244               es
It         61               72                50                 65                Es
total      391     1.06 %   407      1.02 %   310      0.88%     309     0.84%     total
Cohesive                                                                           Cohesive
           38      62.3 %   35       48.61 % 16        36.29 %   23      32 %
It                                                                                 Es


                                                                                           61
Example: frequencies "it/es"

ESSAY      EO               ETrans            GTrans             GO
tokens     34998            42040             35345              35668
it         118              177               99                 130               es
It         40               36                42                 41                Es
total      158     0.45 %   206      0.49 %   141      0.39 %    171     0.48 %    total
Cohesive                                                                           Cohesive
           19      47.9 %   21       58.3 %   6        14.29 %   5       12.20 %
It                                                                                 Es
FICTION    EO               ETrans            GTrans             GO
tokens     36916            40037             35345              36781
it         330              335               260                244               es
It         61               72                50                 65                Es
total      391     1.06 %   407      1.02 %   310      0.88%     309     0.84%     total
Cohesive                                                                           Cohesive
           38      62.3 %   35       48.61 % 16        36.29 %   23      32 %
It                                                                                 Es


                                                                                           62
Differences in cohesive instances English-German
Example: frequencies "it/es"

ESSAY      EO               ETrans            GTrans             GO
tokens     34998            42040             35345              35668
it         118              177               99                 130               es
It         40               36                42                 41                Es
total      158     0.45 %   206      0.49 %   141      0.39 %    171     0.48 %    total
Cohesive                                                                           Cohesive
           19      47.9 %   21       58.3 %   6        14.29 %   5       12.20 %
It                                                                                 Es
FICTION    EO               ETrans            GTrans             GO
tokens     36916            40037             35345              36781
it         330              335               260                244               es
It         61               72                50                 65                Es
total      391     1.06 %   407      1.02 %   310      0.88%     309     0.84%     total
Cohesive                                                                           Cohesive
           38      62.3 %   35       48.61 % 16        36.29 %   23      32 %
It                                                                                 Es


                                                                                           63
Shifts: EO  GTrans


The UK has always been a strong supporter of European
enlargement and I am very pleased to mark this latest
accession of ten new members on 1 May. We welcome it as
another important and historic step towards sealing over the
artificial divisions created by the Cold War. [EO_ESSAY_003]

Großbritannien hat sich immer schon für die europäische
Erweiterung stark gemacht und deshalb begrüße ich den
Beitritt von zehn neuen Mitgliedstaaten am 1. Mai von ganzem
Herzen. Er ist ein historischer Schritt auf dem Weg, die
künstlichen Risse zu kitten, die der Kalte Krieg hinterlassen hat.
[GTrans_ESSAY_003]
Shifts: EO  GTrans

 We work for prosperity and opportunity because they‟re right.
 It‟s the right thing to do. [EO_ESSAY_006]
 Wir arbeiten für Wohlstand und Chancen, weil das richtig ist.
 Wir tun damit das Richtige. [GTrans_ESSAY_006]

 And he answered them courteously that they should speak on,
 for he had not come so far and so wearily simply in order to
 turn back. Moreover he was charged by his father with a
 mission, which he might not reveal in that place. „It is known to
 us already,‟ said the three damsels. [EO_FICTION_002]
 Und er erwiderte ihnen artig, daß sie weitersprechen sollten,
 denn er habe die Mühsal und Beschwerden des weiten Weges
 nicht auf sich genommen, um nun kehrtzumachen. Und zudem
 habe sein Vater ihn mit einer Aufgabe betreut, die er an diesem
 Ort zu enthüllen nicht gesonnen sei. “Dies ist uns bekannt”,
 sagten die drei Jungfrauen. [GTrans_FICTION_002]
Shifts: GO  ETrans
due to ambiguous scope

  Er war ein eher ängstliches Kind, sagte die Mutter. Er log nicht.
  Er war anständig. Und vor allem, er war tapfer, sagte der Vater,
  schon als Kind. Der tapfere Junge.
  So wurde er beschrieben, auch von entfernten Verwandten. Es
  waren wörtliche Festlegungen, und sie werden es auch für ihn
  gewesen sein. [GO_FICTION_008]

  He was rather a timid boy, said our mother. He didn't tell lies.
  He was well-behaved, and above all, said our father, he was
  brave even as a child.
  People described him as that brave boy, even distant relations.
  These were verbatim observations, and they will have been
  meant for him too. [ETrans_FICTION_008]
Empirical corpus-linguistic analysis
                 das     der       die
GO_SPEECH          173         4         4
GTrans_SPEECH      38          3         -
GO_FICTION         113     15        12
GTrans_FICTION     100     10            7
GO_POPSCI          110         4         1
GTrans_POPSCI      44          3         1   Frequencies of
GO_TOU             31          9         2   demonstrative “der/ die/
GTrans_TOU         14          2         1
                                             das” in German subcorpora
GO_SHARE           44          3         1
GTrans_SHARE       46          3         -
GO_ESSAY           90          1         3
GTrans_ESSAY       49          -         -
GO_INSTR           20          -         -
GTrans_INSTR       18          -         -
GO_WEB             31          1         2
GTrans_WEB         27          1         -
Shifts: GO  ETrans
Ich lenkte mich ab, suchte Schlaf, vergaß, sank weg - prompt schoss mir das
entscheidende Bild in den Kopf: mein Freund Axel am Tisch der Mensa, neben
uns die Zeitung, aufgeschlagen die Seite mit einer Überschrift zum
beginnenden Prozess gegen diesen Richter, der am Volksgerichtshof
mindestens 230 Todesurteile gefällt hatte. Sogleich stellte sich der Ton
zu diesem Bild ein, der bittere, verächtliche Satz, den Axel hatte fallen lassen
und der mich erst jetzt, im Bett, wie eine böse Erleuchtung traf: Der hat das
Urteil für meinen Vater fabriziert, der und der Freisler. [GO_FICTION_001]
I distracted myself, sought sleep, forgot, drifted off - and promptly the crucial
image popped into my head: my friend Axel at the cafeteria table, the
newspaper next to us opened to a headline about the start of the trial of
this judge who had passed at least 230 death sentences at the
People's Tribunal. Immediately the soundtrack to this image kicked in,
Axel's bitter, contemptuous words which hit me only now, in bed, like an evil
epiphany: He fabricated my father's verdict - him and Freisler.
[ETrans_FICTION_001]
Shifts: GO  ETrans

Bei den Gebühren für Rundfunk kann ich es mir, verehrter
Herr Ministerpräsident, ganz leicht machen: die dürfen nur die
deutschen Länder erheben. [GO_SPEECH_012]

As for the licence fee issue, I have a very simple answer, for
these, Mr Minister-President, are a matter purely for the
Länder." [ETrans_FICTION_012]
                                                                corpuslinguistic analysis
features to analyze:                                    questions to answer:
a) additional possibilities                              Which devices do exist?
   not covered in purely
   theoretical approaches
                               concerning the           Which of them are used?
                                actual utilization of
                                the theoretical
                                possibilities
                               in the sense of          How often are they used?
b) the use of cohesive          frequency                Are there typical co-
   devices                                                occurrences in texts of the
                                                          same language?
c) the nature of the
   cohesive ties set up        in relation to their     Which mechanisms of
   between a cohesive           cognitive function        cognitive text processing do
   device and its                                         they reflect?
   antecedent                  in relation to their     In which contexts of
                                pragmatic/                situation/ registers do they
d) the nature of cohesive       interpersonal             occur?
   chains                       function                 Which cohesive devices do
                                                          co-occur in which registers?

                               in translations          What can be said on their
                                                          range, frequency and
                                                          function in translations?
                                                                                         70
  Literature
Becher,V., Hödder S. & S. Kranich. A Tentative typology of language change through
   translation. Talk held at !!!
Blum-Kulka, S. 1986. Shifts of Cohesion and Coherence in Translation. In: House, J.
   & S. Blum-Kulka (eds.), Interlingual and Intercultural Communication. Tübingen:
   Narr,17-35.
Brown, G. & G. Yule.1983. Discourse Analysis. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge
   University Press.
De Beaugrande, R.-A. and W. Dressler. 1981. Introduction to Text Linguistics. London,
   New York: Longman (German version also in 1981 published by Niemeyer).
Halliday, M.A.K. & R. Hasan. 1976. Cohesion in English. London: Longman.
Halliday, M.A.K & C. Matthiessen. 2004. An Introduction to Functional Grammar. New
   York: Oxford University Press.
Hasan, R. 1985a. The texture of a text. In: Halliday, M.A.K. & R. Hasan. Language,
   context and text: aspects of language in a social-semiotic perspective. Oxford:
   Oxford University Press.
Kunz, K. 2009. English and German Nominal Coreference. A study of Political
   Essays. Saarbrücken: PhD thesis
Schubert, C. 2008. Englische Textlinguistik. Eine Einführung. Berlin: Schmidt.
Werlich, E. 1983. A text grammar of English. Heidelberg: Quelle & Meier
To Our Shareholders
Fiscal 2002 was a very challenging year for the entire industry, and the most
difficult environment Cisco Systems has ever faced. In a tough market, we focused
on the four elements that we could influence and control-profit contribution, cash
flow from operations, available market, and productivity. And although we all wish
the market conditions had been different, we were pleased with our progress in
each of these areas. One area where we set aggressive stretch goals was our focus
on the available market, with our goal being to grow 10 percent faster than our
top ten North American competitors. We achieved this goal consistently
throughout the year. And in Q4 fiscal 2002, for example, the delta was impressive
when our fourth quarter revenues from 2001 to 2002 increased 12 percent, while
the revenue of our top ten competitors shrunk by 44 percent in their most
recently reported quarters, compared with the prior year. During challenging
market transitions, successful companies usually get surprised by the downturn,
they determine how long it will last and how deep it will be, and then they get
ready for the upturn. We mapped these three stages to our business strategy, the
first being aligned with our breakaway opportunity, the second being aligned with
our six-point plan, and the third stage focusing on the four elements that we could
influence or control, as mentioned above. In each of our quarterly result
announcements for fiscal 2002, we attempted to cover our progress in this way,
and I will summarize the entire year on this basis.

				
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