Canada in the Twentieth Century by 3SKfe0tk

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									Canada in the Twentieth
       Century
      A Different Canada
         1900-1914
A Different Canada
               Society and Manners
   In the early 1900’s most Canadians lived in villages or on
    farms.
   It was an English speaking minority that set the standard for
    society and manners.
       These people were middle and upper class.
       They were greatly influenced by the behaviors, tastes, and values
        Victorian Era.
       Moral strictness was a common trait, and there was high value placed
        on modesty and seriousness in life.
       It was expected that one would attend church regularly.
       People supported Britain and the monarch.
       People believed in honor, virtue, and duty.
       The ideas of right and wrong, and good and evil were clearly outlined.
Society and Manners
                 Society and Manners
   Poverty was thought to be a sign of laziness.
       If one was poor they must not be pulling their own weight in society.
   It was expected of families to take care of their own, and to do
    so without the help of the government or anyone else.
       Those who cold not do so looked towards charity for help in food and
        clothing.
            There was no welfare system in place like in today's society.
   Because of values and attitudes there was little tolerance for
    those who did not obey the laws.
       Punishment for breaking the law was normally harsh.
            1914, 27 men were sentenced to death for murder, and 11 of them were
             carried out.
            It has only been since 1976 that there has been no death penalty.
                Society and Manners
   Courtship in the early 1900’s was a formal affair.
       It happened under the watchful eyes of the surrounding
        community.
       Women possessed few rights once they were married.
            Women were not considered persons by law unless they committed
             a crime.
            Rights over property and children were limited.
            A women's wages were legally her husbands.
            Most worked as servants or factory workers outside of the home,
             and few were teachers, nurses, and the occasional doctor.
       Divorce was something that was rare and unheard of.
                 Society and Manners
   Women's suffrage began to arise in Canada as a result of the
    lack of rights that women had during this time frame.
       Women wanted the right to vote.
            There believed they could influence the government if they had the right to
             vote.
            They wanted to address social issues such as child labor, pollution,
             poverty, and one they believed was the cause of many problems, the sale of
             alcohol.
   Nelly McClung was a well know suffragist.
       Campaigned for women’s rights.
       Was instrumental in the famous ‘Person's Case’ which saw Canadian
        women declared persons in 1929.
       She helped put on a play called ‘The Women's Parliament,’ a satire
        which turned the tables and poked fun at the dangers of giving men the
        right to vote.
            This was instrumental in getting women the right to vote in Manitoba first.
                  Arts and Leisure
   Art and literature of the time was sentimental to the
    preference for rural life.
       This was happening as the urban population grew.
       Lucy Maud Montgomery published the Anne of Green
        Gables rural romance in 1908.
       Artists painted pictures of rural farm scenes and
        landscapes.
   The outdoors occupied much of peoples leisure time.
       Running, cycling, rowing, and swimming were favorite
        pastimes.
       In the summers people enjoyed trips to the beach, while in
        the winter tobogganing took the place of swimming.
Arts and Leisure
Still A British Nation
              Still A British Nation
   Even though Canada had its own government during
    this period in time, it was still considered a British
    protectorate and part of the British Empire.
   Britain still had the responsibility of solving issues
    that took place between Canada and other countries.
       Because of this some Canadians were disappointed from
        time to time in the way Britain dealt with issues.
       Britain did not always have Canada’s best interest in mind
        when making decisions for them.
       Case in point is the ‘Alaskan panhandle’ dispute.
                Still A British Nation
   Alaskan Panhandle Dispute.
       Britain negotiated and deal that favored the United States
        and not Canada.
            They did so to avoid conflict because of there involvement in the
             Boar War.
       The dispute was over the border of the Alaskan panhandle.
            In particular was the concern for ownership of the Lynn Canal
             because this provided access to the Yukon.
            The Yukon was in the middle of the gold rush.
       Some believe Britain sold-out to the United States.
           Still A British Nation
   Laurier in the political
    cartoon is seen bowing
    to Uncle Sam during the
    Alaska Boundary
    dispute.
                Still A British Nation
   Most English speaking Canadians were still proud to be
    British subjects under the crown.
       This being the case they were glad to help Britain out when needed.
            Boar War.
       People shared in the idea of expanding the British empire through
        imperialist ways.
   Most French speaking Canadians did not care for the British
    Empire.
       Many were descendents of New France and the people who settled it
        200 years earlier.
       They saw themselves as Canadiens, and not British subjects.
       The French tended to be nationalists and not loyal to the crown.
       They were disappointed in the decision to send troops to the Boar War.
Still A British Nation
              Canadian cavalry
               fighting in South Africa
               during the Boer War.
              Many nationalists
               disagreed, and French
               speaking Canadians
               were very disappointed
               with Laurier’s decision
               to send troops to South
               Africa – it’s not our
               war!
             Still A British Nation
   Language rights continued to be an issue in
    Canada.
       The French lost the right to French instruction in
        Manitoba, and then Alberta and Saskatchewan.
       Henri Bourassa stated that maybe Canadiens
        would be better off without Canada because their
        rights as a minority were not being protected as
        promised at confederation.
             Sir Wilfrid Laurier
   7th Prime Minister of
    Canada
   1896-1911
   French-Canadien
   “Golden Age of
    Laurier”
    Canada’s Changing Population
   Laurier realized after he become Prime Minister that
    Canada needed to grow in population if it were to
    prosper.
       Particularly the West.
   Laurier and his government circulated posters in
    northern and eastern Europe, and the United States to
    try and persuade people to come to Canada.
   ‘Last Best West’ is what the posters described
    Canada as.
   The efforts of the government resulted in big
    population increases through immigration.
    Canada’s Changing Population
   Entry to Canada was easy if
    you had money and were
    health.
   The government offered 160
    acres of land for $10.
       You had to build a house and
        homestead the land within
        three years of buying it.
   The prairies were often
    harsh and lonely, and
    conditions drove some
    people to more urban
    centers.
    Canada’s Changing Population
   Those who stayed found social lives in
    community dances and picnics, and church
    concerts and suppers.
   Cooperation was common in work and play on
    the prairies.
            Not Everyone Welcome
   Many Canadians did not want change in the ethnic
    composition of Canada.
       Outsiders were feared.
   Canadians were ethnocentric.
   French speaking Canadians were concerned they would
    become less of a minority and reduce their percentage of the
    population more.
   Many Ukrainians and Poles settled in the prairies.
       They become targets for ethnic prejudice.
       This included everything from their language to their dress.
   Many Chinese, Japanese, and East Indians settles in BC.
       They too suffered from racial and ethnic discrimination.
             Not Everyone Welcome
   R.B. Bennett stated that “BC must remain a white man’s
    country.”
   Many immigrants (especially Asians) did work that Canadians
    considered unpleasant.
       Hauling coal, packing fish, washing dishes, etc.
       Soon people felt fear and challenged that they immigrants might take
        there jobs.
   Special laws were passed to discourage the unwanted coming
    into Canada and limit immigration from Asia.
       Chinese Immigration Act
            Placed a head tax on all those entering Canada.
            81,000 paid the head tax; 1885 - $50 dollar head tax, 1903 – increased to
             $500 dollars.
           Not Everyone Welcome
   1907 there were race riots in Vancouver as a
    result of Chinese and Japanese immigration.
       Several restrictions on Japanese immigration
        resulted because of this.
   1908 East Indian immigration was banned.
       1914 the Komagata Maru was forced to return to
        India full of mostly Sikhs trying to enter Canada in
        BC.
Not Everyone Welcome
                   Aboriginal Peoples
   As immigration grew in the west, more natives began to get
    displaced from there lands.
   Their movement and lives was regulated by the Indian Act of
    1876.
   By the 1880’s many Indians were living on reserves.
       The purpose of the reserves was to open the land up for the settlers and
        immigrants, as well as, to avoid any conflict like what happened when
        the US west was settled.
       On the reserves the natives were to farm and not take part in their
        traditional lifestyles of hunting.
       The ;land they were given often had soil that was poor or unusable, and
        equipment was often limited or of poor quality.
            Many went hungry as a result.
                Aboriginal Peoples
   As more land was needed, some of the reserve land
    was taken by the government for settlers and
    company’s to mine.
   Native populations declined because of disease.
       Tuberculosis was a major cause.
       Population as declined due to poor diet and housing
        conditions.
   Residential school run by the churches separated
    families from their children, and caused irreversible
    amounts of psychological damage.
       In most cases they had overcrowded dormitories and
        unsanitary conditions.
                 Aboriginal Peoples
   Residential schools, reserves, and forced farming were all a
    part of the federal government policy of assimilation started in
    1871.
       This was to make aboriginal people abandon there traditions and take
        on a more European lifestyle.
   Although First Nations soldiers were commended for their
    performance on the battlefield, they often faced racism in the
    barracks and rarely rose to the rank of officer.
   Their contributions to the war were largely unrecognized and it
    was not until 1992 that First Nations veterans were permitted
    to place a wreath at the cenotaph during the official memorial
    service.
Aboriginal Peoples
                      Urbanization
   Thousands of immigrants settled in the cities while
    the rest still settled on farms.
   Jews in particular chose to settle in cities because this
    was more common to them as they could not own
    land in Europe.
   Urban populations grew dramatically.
   The populations contrasted from the rich to the poor.
       The wealthy lived in luxury – with servants, electricity, hot
        water heating and running water.
       The working class lived in overcrowded shacks.
                   Urbanization
   For the poor, lack of clean water, pollution
    from neighboring industry, and proper sewers
    resulted in health problems.
       Pneumonia, diphtheria, tuberculosis, and typhoid
        fever were common.
   Jobs and cultural and social opportunities are
    what attracted the people to the urban center
    and not the rural life.
Urbanization
        An Economy Transformed
   With populations increases in Canada that economy started to
    grow.
   Export of natural resources become extremely important to the
    economy.
       Timber, wheat, and minerals were key.
   Canadian export was able to benefit from the cheap cost of
    shipping across the Atlantic, and the Panama Canal opening in
    1914 created shorter shipping routes for west coast products
    going to Europe.
   The boom of the Yukon and BC gold rushes helped to
    contribute to the economic boom from a mining perspective.
       Gold was discovered on the Klondike River in 1896.
        An Economy Transformed
   Electricity in factories was created booms within the industrial
    growth of Canada.
       Electricity brought bigger and better machines that could produce more
        and make more different goods.
   With industrial grow come more jobs for people to work.
       With more people having jobs, and the economy booming, an increased
        demand for consumer goods developed.
            Canada Dry, Shredded Wheat, Palmolive soap, Heinz, and others all
             become household names in Canada.
   1914 wireless radios were used on many ships, and the 1911
    census showed 300,000 telephones being used in Canada.
   It was now that automobiles were beginning to appear on
    Canadian streets.
                   Corporate Giants
   With economic grow come growth of the big
    corporations.
       A few key company’s controlled a majority of the
        industry.
            i.e. Maple Leaf Milling, Dominion Steel, Massey
             Harris, and Imperial Oil.
   With so few business’s controlling the
    industry, employers were able to set high
    pieces for good and pay works a minimal
    wage.
                     Corporate Giants
   Workers began to create trade union because of the low wages
    and poor working conditions that they were forced to work in
    for long hours.
       Some unions went out on strike when the employers refused to grant
        their demands.
       Some strikes got very violent, and police and military were called in in
        some cases to dissolve the situations.
            Coal miners in Nanaimo were involved in a 2 year strike over unsafe
             working conditions and low pay.
   Recession had set in in Canada by 1914 after two decades of
    rapid growth.
       Industries cut back on production, and layoffs began to rise.
       Farmers lost out because the demand for wheat had dropped.
    Resources and the Environment
   Environmental safety was not of big importance in
    the early 1900’s.
   Even though this was the case, there was still some
    concern in certain situations.
   Rockslide at Hell’s Gate.
       Happened when the Grand Trunk Railway was blasting in
        the Fraser Cannon creating a new railway line.
       The rock slide had effects on the spawning beds of sockeye
        salmon.
       It blocked the river increasing the current and preventing
        salmon from swimming up stream.
       It was 30 years before the rock were moved.
    Resources and the Environment
   The Hell’s Gate incident created problems for First
    Nations people who depended on the fishing in the
    Fraser River.
       Sto:lo First Nations.
   Commercial fisheries were given right to fish to make
    up for losses in the money from the slide.
   The salmon would never reach the numbers they were
    before the slide.
   Federal and Provincial governments began to set
    aside land for provincial and national parks.
               War and Change
   Laurier predicted it
    would be the century of
    Canadian development,
    but had no idea that war
    was around the corner.
   WWI started in 1914,
    and was the most
    devastating thing the
    world had seen.

								
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