OPPOSITION to the MALAYAN UNION

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					OPPOSITION to the
MALAYAN UNION




   Mass Movements &
   Malay Nationalism
                  Mass
                Movements


Opposition to
Malayan Union
Mass Movements
widespread Malay opposition to the
 Malayan Union
opposition lead by Upper class Malay
 officials & Malay aristocracy
 Sultans joined the protest
Malays organized rallies , protests ,
 demonstrations
 Malay population was urged to take an
 interest in Malay rights
 urged to present a united front to protect
 Malay interests
 protests held on a ad- hoc state basis
 was ignored by the British
                   Mass
                 Movements


Opposition to
Malayan Union


                  Malay
                Nationalism
Malay Nationalism

 MU awakened the political consciousness
 & nationalism of Malays
 realized a stronger Malay stand was
 needed to protect their rights , interests &
 heritage
 what was needed was a united Malay
 stand
 this united representation marked the
 start of the Malay nationalist movement
Malay Nationalism

 the need for a united Malay stand was
 realized by Dato Onn bin. Jaafar
 he pressed for a united Malay stand
 he initiated the move towards greater
 unity among the Malays
                              Mass
                            Movements


           Opposition to
           Malayan Union


Dato Onn bin                 Malay
   Jaafar                  Nationalism
Dato Onn’ s actions

 Congress of Malays
 aim : 1. to bring about a union of all
 Malay associations
 2. Present a united stand on various
 objectives
 congress held 1st March 1946
attended by 200 reps. - 41 Malay
 Organizations
Result of Congress :
Formation of UMNO

 formation of United Malays National
 Organization : UMNO
inaugurated 11 May 1946
 Dato Onn was the first President
UMNO’s Actions                 Mass
                             Movements


            Opposition to
            Malayan Union


 Dato Onn bin                 Malay
    Jaafar                  Nationalism
Significance of UMNO

 UMNO marked the first united stand of
 Malay leadership & mass Malay support
 Aims of UMNO :
 1. Make British withdraw MU
 2. Defend Malay rights & interests
 3. Prepare Malays for part & position in
 self government
1st ACTIONS of UMNO

 demand withdrawal of Malayan Union
 Constitution
 UMNO claimed : MU invalid as it was
 implemented without the consent of the
 people
UMNO opposition to MU

 started a campaign against the British
1. Nationwide movement of non-
 cooperation was organized
2. Protestors wore white headbands as a
 sign of protest & mourning for the loss of
 rights of the Sultans
 3. Rallies & demonstrations organized
UMNO opposition to MU

4. Malay officials refused to serve on
 Councils & Boards of Malayan Union
5. Sultans refused to attend the
 installation of Sir Edward Gent as
 Governor of MU
6. Sultans refused to attend Advisory
 Council
Abolition of Malayan
Union
 British decided to withdraw MU - realized
 that Malayan Union scheme a failure
1. Due to the strong protests of Malays :
 lead by UMNO
2. Criticism in England by ex- Malayan
 officials : Frank Swettenham , George
 Maxwell
these retired officials encouraged Malay
 opposition -deplored the unjust way
 constitutional changes imposed on Malaya
Abolition of Malayan
Union
 3. British officials feared that the growing
 communist movement would use this
 period of instability to create trouble

 a committee set up under Sir Malcolm
 Macdonald to draw up new constitution
 committee had reps of Sultans , UMNO ,
 Chinese & Indian community
Effect of Malayan Union

 major effect of the Malayan Union was
 it’s contribution to the rise of Malay
 Nationalism
Nationalist Movement

 the rise & development of the nationalist
 movement in Malaya was slow
 nationalism & political consciousness
 developed only in the post occupation
 period
Satisfaction with
      govt.




            Reasons for Slow
       development of Nationalism
Satisfaction with govt.

Pre - war : govt was stable , Sultan’s had
 sovereignty
economic , social development &
 prosperity
educated Malays had high positions in
 govt
people generally contented & satisfied
Satisfaction with
      govt.
                            Lack of
                        centralized govt.



            Reasons for Slow
       development of Nationalism
Lack of Centralized govt

 pre - war Malaya country was too divided
 3 different groups of states
 1. Straits Settlements - did not want to
 loose free port status
 2. Federated Malay States - most
 advanced,did not want to help poor states
 3. UnFederated Malay States - had more
 power than other states, did not want to
 loose it
 Satisfaction with
       govt.
                              Lack of
                          centralized govt.



              Reasons for Slow
         development of Nationalism




Loyalties to State
  not Country
Loyalties to State not
Country

 Malays gave loyalty to Sultans of their
 states not country as a whole
 Sultans wanted to protect individual
 sovereignty
 did not encourage nationalism
lack of loyalty & unity to Malaya
 prevented the growth of nationalism as a
 whole
 Satisfaction with
       govt.
                              Lack of
                          centralized govt.



              Reasons for Slow
         development of Nationalism




Loyalties to State
  not Country               The Races
The Races of Malaya

 Malays were afraid of loosing their
 political powers to other races
 Chinese & Indians keen to protect their
 own interests - so no opposition to British
 administration
 Chinese - regarded China as homeland ,
 called themselves “Overseas Chinese” ,
 concerned with political & nationalism in
 China
The Races of Malaya

 Chinese - loyal to China , collected
 money to send back to China
 Indians - loyalty to India , followed the
 political & nationalist movements in India
                 Better
              Communication



Rise of Nationalism
BETTER
COMMUNICATION

 from the 1900’s onwards there was great
 improvements in the communication &
 transportation system in Malaya
 Malay people were able to come together
 share their problems & ideas
 better communication allowed for better
 planning of nationalist opposition activities
                 Better
              Communication



Rise of Nationalism




                Effects of
           Japanese Occupation
EFFECTS OF THE
JAPANESE OCCUPATION

Political consciousness of the Malays
 awakened during the occupation
Japanese encouraged the Malays to think
 of themselves as the rightful owners of
 Malaya - not the British
 Malay people’s faith in the British
 diminished with their defeat by the
 Japanese
                           Better
                        Communication



          Rise of Nationalism




 Effects of               Effects of
Malayan Union        Japanese Occupation
EFFECTS OF THE
MALAYAN UNION

 Malayan Union proposals aroused the
 anger of the Malays
 Awakened their political awareness
 They realized their special position&
 privileges
 Malays rallied together to protect their
 interests - formed united political
 movements
    Malay
  Community
                           Better
                        Communication



          Rise of Nationalism




 Effects of               Effects of
Malayan Union        Japanese Occupation
Malay Community
 United by their religion - Islam
 Saw the need to protect Islam in the face
 of the threats from the British & other
 races of Malaya
 A Malay educated elite came into
 existence - mainly English educated
 Aware of their rights , position &
 privileges - questioned British position in
 the country
 became the leaders of the nationalist
 movement
 Nationalism & Malay opposition lead to
 the abolition of the Malayan Union
 new administrative structure was
 proposed for Malaya
 this was : Federation of Malaya

				
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