Land Use And Land Use Problems In Turkey by Ax4F0n

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									Land Use And Land
Use Problems In
Turkey
Funda KAYMAK
Neşe UYANIK
Outline
   The Definition of Land Use
   Land Capability Classification
   Land Use in The World
   Land Use Policies And Applications In Turkey
   Main Determinants Of Land Use And Land Use
    Problems
   The Cost Of Land Degradation And The Economics
    Results
   Conclusion
Introduction
   Land use is the human modification of
    natural environment or wilderness into
    built environment such as fields, pastures,
    and settlements.

   The significant effects of land use include
    urban sprawl, soil erosion, soil degradation,
    salinization, and desertification.
   Lands are so important for the industry and
    urbanization like for the agriculture

   The land use which is very important for
    sustainable development should be
    activated with the policies, planning or
    obligations by the states because of being
    insufficient and not renewable source and
    impossibility of accelerate of land formation
    time.
   Today, there are 22 institutions which
    apply planning, applications and controls
    and also 24 laws about these subjects. So, it
    causes an authority distribution problem.

   However, the reconstruction laws about
    shanty cause crooked urbanization and
    then wrong land use.
   The effects of land degeneration could not be
    measured exactly, but it is estimated that
    losses are huge amounts.

   The wrong use of lands creates negative
    effects on extant flora and animal along with
    agriculture production.

   On the other hand, the decreasing output
    lands have a huge cost to reacquire because of
    wrong use.
       The Land Use And Land Capability
                  Classification
   The land use includes the type of activity on a certain area
    that is available for physical, economic and social
    conditions of any region and defined characteristics.
   In order to efficient land use , experts improved several
    methods for efficient planning.
   Two of the most common the land usage methods which
    applied international are “Land Capability Classification”
    and “Land Evaluation Principles” which are determined by
    The World Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).
   In our country, “Land Capability Classification” method is
    mostly used.
                                      Table 1. Land Capability Classification
   In Land Capability                 Land Capability Class   What they must be used for
    Classification Method, lands
    are classified into 8 category.
                                      Class Lands             Agricultural Production (best)
   The first four category are       Class Lands             Agricultural Production (good-moderate)
    considered as suitable areas      Class Lands
                                      Class Lands
                                                               Agricultural Production (moderate)
                                                               Agricultural Production (insufficient)
    for agricultural production.
    Other four category are not
    suitable for agriculture and
    must be used for
    urbanization and for other        5. Class Lands           Particular Class

    activities.
   Land in Class 5 is generally      6. and 7. Class Lands    Forest, Pasture, Grassland, Brushwood
    limited to the production of
    perennial crops or other
                                      8. Class Lands           Urbanization, Industry, Tourism and
    specially adapted crops.                                   Other
    Productivity of these suited
    crops may be high.
The Land Structure of Turkey
   Turkey is the 36th in earth wideness in the world
    with 779,452 square meters area. But, if we look for
    productivity, 35-40 % of Turkey’s area is the
    mountains which are not economic. Although the
    forest areas are about 30%, 2/3 of them are the
    marquis, thickets etc.

   30-35% of the lands in our country are available for
    the agriculture but there has the erosion risk. The soil
    areas which are watered are limited and they are
    delta plains mostly.
   In Turkey, because of the dry and half dry climate, a
    lot of watering projects realized, but they were not
    completed, the enough information was not given to
    the farmers, and not enough measures.

   As a result the productive lands started to become
    barren. So, the barren lands increased. However,
    Mesopotamia plain which has the wide flatness
    opened to be watered with completing of Southeast
    Anatolian Project (GAP); but, there is getting barren
    and saltinization risks.
                                     Table 2. Land Capability Qualification of Turkey


   As it can see from the table,      Land Capability     Hectare         %
                                       Class
    Turkey’s total land quantity
                                       1. Class Lands      5.012.537       6.5
    is 26.546.585 ha in first four     2. Class Lands      6.758.702       8.8
    class according to the land        3. Class Lands      7.574.330       9.7
                                       4. Class Lands      7.201.016       9.5
    capability classification.
    This amount is 34,6 % of           Total Agriculture   26.546.585      34.6
    total lands                        Lands
                                       5. Class Lands      165.547         0.2
                                       6. Class Lands      10.238.533      13.3
   Quantity of 5., 6. and 7.          7. Class Lands      36.288.553      47.4

    class lands are 60,9% of
                                       Total Forest,       46.692.633      60.09
    total lands and 8. class           Pasture and
    lands are 3.455.513 ha,            Grasslands

    meanly 4,6 % of total lands.       8. Class Lands      3.455.514       4.6

                                       Total Lands         76.694.731      100.0

                                     Souce: Türkiye Ziraat Mühendisliği Teknik Kongresi,
                                     1995.
Table 3. Current Land Use in Turkey

Land Class     Dry Agriculture   Watery Agriculture      Gardens           Nut-Olive   Total




1              3.155.146         1.413.256               176.264           33.333      4.778.299

2              4.876.280         835.791                 187.972           86.823      5.986.866

3              5.438.715         476.222                 204.989           109.507     6.229.433

4              4.062.580         233.081                 172.414           135.054     4.603.129

5              13.340            3.980                   143               -           17.463

6              3.377.458         34.290                  201.714           235.037     3.848.499

7              1.683.515         4.260                   115.041           442.398     2.245.214

8              -                 -                       -                 -           -

Error term                                            6.111.176 ha (%23)               27.708.903




Source: TEMA Erozyonla Mücadele Seminer Notları
   In Table 3, it’s shown the existing usage figures
    of the lands.

   According to table 3, we see that it is made
    agriculture in the areas which should not be
    made agriculture according to the land usage
    classification.

   On this table, the most important point is that
    the standard deviation is too high. And this
    shows the difficulties to measure.
An Outlook of Land Use in the World


   According to the
    datas of UNCCD,
    70 % of 5,2 billion
    ha agriculture area
    has been
    deteriorated and
    for fighting land
    use corruptions in
    a global scale, it is
    required that 10-
    22,4 billion dollars
    of investment must
    be done over 20
    years.
   Kyoto Protocol that is on the agenda is very
    important for sustainable development and shows
    given importance by the world. The land use, land
    use changing and forestry activities are put on
    Kyoto Protocol in order to apply the carbon dioxide
    discount emission contract of developed countries.
   In this way, both planned and efficient land use and
    decreasing the amount of carbon dioxide would be
    provided.
   Because land-use change, together with use of fossil
    fuels, are the major anthropogenic sources of carbon
    dioxide, a dominant greenhouse gas
Land Use Policies and Applications in
Turkey
   Today, there are lots of laws and institutions that
    determine how lands will be used. For example in
    1982 Constitution, in Environmental Law, in Law of
    Agricultural Reform, in Law of Municipalities and
    in Law of Reconstruction there are many provisions
    about usage of lands.

   In planning processes, some complications occur
    about which rule will be applied and which
    institution is the top authority.
Main Determinants of Land Use and Land
Use Problems in Turkey
   Main determinants of land use are natural
    structure, legal and institutional effects,
    demography, economical situations and
    infrastructure investments.

   Rapid increase in industrialization and
    increase in population caused a requirement
    of new housing places. Hence, this ended up
    with unplanned and uncontrolled
    urbanization process and land use in cities.
   According to the end of 1987 registration of
    Ministry of Industry and Trade, 62% of 17,999
    hectare that appropriated for organized and
    small industry is on the earths that available for
    I-IV. class agriculture

   This situation shows insensitivity of the
    ministries to this subject. Because, the
    importance of agriculture and land usage are not
    taken into consideration by this acts.
   Touristic areas have used planless and
    improperly for attracting more tourist. Owners
    of lands in these areas have been selling them to
    earn more money for non-agricultural use.

   At the same time there are some problems
    originated from planning deficiencies. For
    example, in Kuşadası-Davutlar 24 hectare land
    has opened to tourism with license
   On the other hand some public investments by
    government have destroyed the productive lands.

   Infrastructure, highways, railways, brick and
    roofing-tile factory and such investments damage to
    existing lands with high costs. At these investments,
    more importance is given to cost and so, the land
    structure is not concerned.

   Brick and roofing-tile factories demolish more than
    17.000.000 tones valuable alluvional lands and it is
    very hard to regain them
   Today, there are 22 institutions and foundation and
    24 laws that enforce planning, implementation and
    governance. Naturally, this creates an authority
    problem and enables unplanned or wrong land use.

   Although the planning and implementing power
    deputed to municipalities, localization of planning
    and implementations cannot be realized as technical
    and financial deficiency.

   On the other hand, attendances of people to
    planning process take place by only elections and so
    it is not provided to attendance of public to every
    stage of planning.
The Cost Of Land Degradation And The
Economic Results
   The cost of land degradation is quite high and to
    calculate this cost, it is necessary to estimate the
    primary situation of the land, existing conditions
    and the potential returns in the future.
   However, in Turkey, more importance is given to
    short term returns rather than long term returns and
    long term effect are not taken into consideration.
   There are many factors that increase the cost of
    regaining efficient lands such as destroyer effects to
    flora and fauna, the decrease in the value of land
   Today, agriculture areas are generally used for
    housing, tourism, industry and infrastructure, but
    guiding these areas differently will increase
    efficiency. At the same time, wrong choices about
    agriculture areas have decreasing agricultural
    efficiency.

   Complexity of authority and some reconstruction
    laws channel people to irregular urbanization.
    Especially in election periods, the increase in wrong
    land use can be easily seen, and this situation causes
    many uncontrolled housing problems which create
    not only ecological problems but also environment
    pollution.
   In our country, some regional plannings and
    projects were done after 1980’s such as
    Çukurova Project, GAP Project and ATAK
    Project, but it is hard to say that they were
    successful.

   Especially in GAP region, lands have been
    irrigating too much and this causes saltinization.
    Its economical meaning is decreasing of
    efficiency and investment will be turn into loss
    in the long term.
   Effects of land degradation do not harm only
    agricultural area, at the same time this affects the
    whole environment.

   Most significant effects of land use include
    urban sprawl, soil erosion, soil degradation,
    saltinization and desertification. Land use
    change is one of the sources of carbon dioxide
    that is a dominant greenhouse gas.
   All of these are the examples of externality,
    because both government and the owners of
    lands take into consideration only short term
    returns of them; but this will affect not only
    Turkey’s economy but also next generation.

   In order to achieve an optimum efficiency level
    in land use, direct, indirect and cumulative
    effects must be calculated in the process of
    planning.
Conclusion And Policy Implications

   In recent times, the concept of “sustainable
    development” has come into prominence so
    much. However, in Turkey, it is concentrated
    only economical and industrial development
    and the importance of environment does not
    set off. It is not thought that it will be faced
    with high costly environmental problems in
    the future.
As a result
   Some arrangements must be realized with
    continuity improvement framework to provide a
    healthy environment for new generation.

   Otherwise, buildings would increase on the areas
    that should be made agriculture and use up
    agriculture lands. That’s why; it must not be
    thought the costs of the present time and so
    planning, arrangements and auditing must be
    realized to provide benefits in the future.

								
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