The Solar System by dJGwPR5k

VIEWS: 39 PAGES: 77

									   The Solar System
       Chapter 19, 20, & 21

Please write down all the underlined
  items. Abbreviate to save time.


         Used with permission of V.Morris,
           Phillips Preparatory School
        What is Astronomy?
1. Astronomy is the study of the universe.
  – This includes planets, stars, galaxies, black
    holes, moons, meteors, comets, asteroids and
    all of the matter that exists in space.


2. Astronomers are people who observe &
  study space.


               Used with permission of V.Morris,
                 Phillips Preparatory School
             Modern Calendar
1. Our modern calendar is based on the
   observations of bodies in our solar system.

2. A year is the time it takes for the Earth to orbit
    the sun; year = revolution.

3. A month is the time it takes for the moon to orbit
    the Earth.

4. A day is the time it takes for the Earth to rotate
    once on its axis; day = rotation.

                  Used with permission of V.Morris,
                    Phillips Preparatory School
The Size and Scale of our Universe
It is important to consider scale when we
     think about the universe.

Stars appear to be very small when viewed
   from Earth, but they are actually very
   large, some, like our sun, are bigger than
   Earth.


               Used with permission of V.Morris,
                 Phillips Preparatory School
The Scale of our Solar System




     Earth

             Used with permission of V.Morris,
               Phillips Preparatory School
          Scale of the Universe

                                                   SUN




Mercury




               Used with permission of V.Morris,
                 Phillips Preparatory School
        Our Galaxy and Scale
• Our Milky Way galaxy is huge.

• Let's now pretend that our galaxy is a kid's
  sandbox, and our sun is a grain of sand in a
  sandbox.
  – The Earth is a dust speck near the grain of sand, too
    small to be seen without a microscope.

  – If our sun were a grain of sand in this sandbox
    representing the Milky Way galaxy, the sandbox
    would be somewhat oval and yet flat, and would be
    about 20 feet in diameter.

  – The sand would be about 12 inches thick in the
                   Used with permission V.Morris,
    center, and thinner towardsofSchooledges.
                     Phillips Preparatory
                                          the
THE MILKY WAY GALAXY: our home
                                               •Each swirling object
                                               you see is a galaxy in
                                               our universe.
                                               1. We can estimate that
                                               there are about 100
                                               billion stars in our
                                               galaxy.
                                               2. Andromeda is the
                                               nearest major galaxy to
                                               our own Milky Way
                                               Galaxy.
                                               3. Most scientists
                                               believe that Andromeda
                                               is about 2 million light
                                               years away from the
                                               Milky Way.

                Used with permission of V.Morris,
                  Phillips Preparatory School
Milky Way Galaxy: home to our solar
             system




           Used with permission of V.Morris,
             Phillips Preparatory School
            Distance in Space
1. Distance in space—mainly distance outside of
   our solar system—is measured in light years.
      Example: distance to another star; which is a very,
                  very, large distance

2. A light year is the distance light travels in a
   year, 5.88 trillion miles. IT IS NOT TIME!!!

3. Light travels at 186,000 miles/sec or 300,000
    km/s.

4. If it takes the light from a star 15 years to reach
     you, then how far away is the star?
                  Used with permission of V.Morris,
                    Phillips Preparatory School
 Distance from the Sun to Earth =
       An Astronomical Unit
• The distance from the Sun to the Earth is
  93 million miles.

  – 93 million miles = 1 astronomical unit
  – 1 astronomical unit = (150 million kilometers)


• this is the unit of measurement for
  distances b/w planets in our solar system
                Used with permission of V.Morris,
                  Phillips Preparatory School
     Astronomical Unit (AU) for the
               planets
Planet                              Average Distance from the Sun
                                    (measured in AU)


         Mercury                                       0.39

         Venus                                         0.723

          Earth                                         1.0

          Mars                                         1.524

         Jupiter                                       5.203

         Saturn                                        9.539

         Uranus                                        19.18

         Neptune   Used with permission of V.Morris,
                                                       30.06
                     Phillips Preparatory School
   The Sun: The Center of Our Solar
               System

• Wider than 100 Earths

• 10,000 °F on surface & 27,000,000 °F in
  its core

• less bright & massive than the very largest
  stars

               Used with permission of V.Morris,
                 Phillips Preparatory School
                           Different Views of The
                                     Sun



3-D Image of the sun




                                                           Normal Telescopic
                                                           Image of the sun
                       Used with permission of V.Morris,
UV Image of the sun      Phillips Preparatory School
  Just what is a planet anyway? Well, according to
         The International Astronomical Union
The IAU therefore resolves that planets and other bodies in
  our Solar System, except satellites be defined into three
  distinct categories in the following way:
  (1) A "planet“ 1 is a celestial body that (a) is in orbit
  around the Sun, (b) has sufficient mass for its self-
  gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it
  assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round)
  shape, and (c) has cleared the neighborhood around
  its orbit.
  (2) A "dwarf planet" is a celestial body that (a) is in
  orbit around the Sun, (b) has sufficient mass for its self-
  gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes
  a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape 2, (c) has
  not cleared the neighborhood around its orbit, and (d) is
  not a satellite.
                     Used with permission of V.Morris,
                       Phillips Preparatory School
                                                         http://www.iau.org/iau0602.423.0.html
 Just what is a planet anyway? Well, according to
       The International Astronomical Union
(3)All other objects, except satellites, orbiting the Sun shall
  be referred to collectively as "Small Solar System
  Bodies".
  1. The eight planets are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars,
  Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

  2. An IAU process will be established to assign
  borderline objects into either dwarf planet and other
  categories.

  3. These currently include most of the Solar System
  asteroids, most Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs),
  comets, and other small bodies.

                               Used with permission of V.Morris,
                                   Phillips Preparatory School
       http://www.iau.org/iau0602.423.0.html
 Distances of the Inner Planets from the
Sun in Astronomical Units (150 million km
                 = 1 AU)




              Used with permission of V.Morris,
                Phillips Preparatory School
    The Inner Planets: the terrestrial
     planets; all are dense & rocky

•   Mercury
•   Venus
•   Earth
•   Mars

• They are solids & close to the sun because the
  materials that make them can be a solid at high
  temperatures.
                 Used with permission of V.Morris,
                   Phillips Preparatory School
The Inner Planets’ Orbits




       Used with permission of V.Morris,
         Phillips Preparatory School
                            Mercury
• 1/3 wide as Earth

• No moons; resembles our moon because of all of its craters

• Big, grey rock made of iron

• 2nd hottest planet & smallest

• Revolves around the sun in 88 days; Rotates on its axis every 58
  days
    – 1.5 days on Mercury = 88 days on Earth

• Temperature varies -173°C to 427°C since it lacks a protective
  atmosphere.

• Temperature variations on Mercury are the most extreme in the
  solar system.

                        Used with permission of V.Morris,
                          Phillips Preparatory School
                                          Mercury




   In Roman mythology Mercury is the god of commerce, travel and thievery,
   the Roman counterpart of the Greek god Hermes, the messenger of the
   Gods. The planet probably received this name because it moves so quickly
   across the sky.

   Mercury has been known since at least the time of the Sumerians (3rd
   millennium BC). It was given two names by the Greeks: Apollo for its
   apparition as a morning star and Hermes as an evening star. Greek
   astronomers knew, however, that the two names referred to the same body.
   Heraclitus even believed that Mercury and Venus orbit the Sun, not the
   Earth.                     Used with permission of V.Morris,
http://www.nineplanets.org/mercury.html
                                          Phillips Preparatory School
                             Venus
• Earth’s twin—its size is almost as big as Earth

• No moons; thick yellow clouds of acid

• Dense nickel & iron planet w/a molten core; covered by
  many shield volcanoes (largest one is Sif Mons)

• Hottest planet in solar system at 464°C due to its thick
  atmosphere—exerts 90% times more pressure than the
  Earth’s atmosphere (would be like being 1km deep in the
  ocean to stand on Venus)

• Atmosphere made of carbon dioxide (90%) & sulfuric
  acid, which creates a monstrous greenhouse effect.

• Had water @ oneUsed with permission of V.Morris, away.
                  point but it all boiled
                         Phillips Preparatory School
                                     Venus



 Venus (Greek: Aphrodite; Babylonian: Ishtar) is the goddess of love and beauty.
 The planet is so named probably because it is the brightest of the planets known
to the ancients. (With a few exceptions, the surface features on Venus are named
                                  for female figures.)
Venus has been known since prehistoric times. It is the brightest object in the sky
except for the Sun and the Moon. Like Mercury, it was popularly thought to be two
 separate bodies: Eosphorus as the morning star and Hesperus as the evening
 star, but the Greek astronomers knew better. (Venus's apparition as the morning
                       star is also sometimes called Lucifer.)

                 http://www.nineplanets.org/venus.html of V.Morris,
                               Used with permission
                                 Phillips Preparatory School
                            Earth
• “Third rock from the sun,” made completely of rock; core
  made of iron & nickel; has magnetic field lines

• 1 moon—Luna

• Temperatures range from -13°C to 37°C

• Densest planet in our solar system; has water in all 3
  states of matter (solid, liquid,& gas)

• 5th largest planet in solar system

                    Used with permission of V.Morris,
                      Phillips Preparatory School
                                 Earth




Earth is the only planet whose English name does not derive from
Greek/Roman mythology. The name derives from Old English and
Germanic.
In Roman Mythology, the goddess of the Earth was Tellus - the
fertile soil (Greek: Gaia, terra mater - Mother Earth).
It was not until the time of Copernicus (the sixteenth century)
that it was understood that the Earth is just another planet.
                         Used with permission of V.Morris,
                                                         http://www.nineplanets.org/earth.html
                           Phillips Preparatory School
Aurora Borealis: Earth’s atmosphere
interacts with its magnetic field lines
  creating a spectacular light show




            Used with permission of V.Morris,
                              http://earth.jsc.nasa.gov/sseop/efs/query.pl
              Phillips Preparatory School
      Earth’s Moon: Luna (384,400 km from Earth)




 Called Luna by the Romans, Selene and Artemis by the Greeks, and many other
                             names in other mythologies.
  The Moon, of course, has been known since prehistoric times. It is the second
brightest object in the sky after the Sun. As the Moon orbits around the Earth once
 per month, the angle between the Earth, the Moon and the Sun changes; we see
this as the cycle of the Moon's phases. The time between successive new moons
                               is 29.5 permission of V.Morris,
                              Used with days (709 hours).
                              Phillips Preparatory School
                                                            http://www.nineplanets.org/luna.html
                                Mars
• The red planet—red from rust, meaning that it had water on it at one
  time

• Once had water on it; has polar ice caps that have both frozen water
  & carbon dioxide in them

• Many scientists believe that most of Mars’ water lies frozen beneath
  Mars’ soil

• Has 2 volcanoes—Tharsis (8,000 km wide) & Olympus Mons—an
  extinct shield volcano the largest volcano in the solar system

• Temperature ranges: -123°C to 37°C

• Revolution: 1 yr, 322 days

• 2 moons: Phobos & Deimos (mean fear & panic)

• Spirit & Endeavor
                       Used with permission of V.Morris,
                         Phillips Preparatory School
                                Phobos




Phobos ("FOH bus") is the larger and innermost of Mars' two moons. Phobos is
Greek for “fear.”Phobos is closer to its primary than any other moon in the solar
system, less than 6000 km above the surface of Mars. It is also one of the smallest
moons in the solar system. Used with permission of V.Morris,
                               Phillips Preparatory School
                                            http://www.nineplanets.org/phobos.html
                           Deimos




Deimos ("DEE mos") is the smaller and outermost of Mars' two
moons. It is one of the smallest known moons in the solar system.
In Greek mythology, Deimos is one of the sons of Ares (Mars) and
                         Used
                              is permission "panic".
Aphrodite (Venus); "deimos" withGreek for of V.Morris,
                           Phillips Preparatory School
                                   Mars




Mars (Greek: Ares) is the god of War. The planet probably got this name
due to its red color; Mars is sometimes referred to as the Red Planet.
(An interesting side note: the Roman god Mars was a god of agriculture
before becoming associated with the Greek Ares; those in favor of
colonizing and terraforming Mars may prefer this symbolism.) The name
of the month March derives from Mars.
                           Used with permission of V.Morris,   http://www.nineplanets.org/mars.html
                             Phillips Preparatory School
Mars—Home to the largest volcano in
       the solar system

                                Olympus Mons is the largest volcano
                                on Mars. This shield volcano, similar
                                to volcanoes in Hawaii, measures 624
                                km (374 mi) in diameter by 25 km (16
                                mi) high. It is 100 times larger than
                                Mauna Loa on Earth. Located on the
                                Tharsis Plateau near the equator,
                                Olympus Mons is bordered by an
                                escarpment. The caldera in the center
                                is 80 km (50 mi) wide and contains
                                multiple circular, overlapping collapse
                                craters created by different volcanic
                                events. The radial features on the
                                slopes of the volcano were formed by
                                overflowing lava and debris.
           Used with permission of V.Morris,
             Phillips Preparatory School
                                 http://www.nineplanets.org/mars.html
               The Asteroid Belt
• Small, rocky bodies that revolve around the sun
   – Made of leftovers from the formation of the universe

• Range in size from a few meters to greater than 900 km
  in diameter

• Irregular shapes, but larger ones are spherical

• Most orbit the sun in the asteroid belt—a region of space
  b/w Mars & Jupiter

• Asteroids vary in color depending on their location in the
  asteroid belt
   – Outermost region = reddish brown to black (organic composition)
   – Innermost region = gray (carbon); light gray = stony/metallic
                      Used with permission of V.Morris,
                        Phillips Preparatory School
         Famous Asteroids
Hektor




                                      Ida and Dactyl

            Used with permission of V.Morris,
                               http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/images/ida.html
              Phillips Preparatory School
Ceres: the largest of the asteroids

                                               Observations of 1
                                               Ceres, the largest
                                               known asteroid, have
                                               revealed that the object
                                               may be a "mini planet,"
                                               and may contain large
                                               amounts of pure water
                                               ice beneath its surface.




                                               http://www.spaceflight
                                               now.com/news/n0509/
           Used with permission of V.Morris,   07ceres/
             Phillips Preparatory School
Meteoroids: “cousins” to asteroids;
         shooting stars
• Much smaller than asteroids
    but very similar

• Meteoroids are small, rocky bodies that
  revolve around the sun.
  – Once it enters Earth’s atmosphere it becomes
    a meteor & stays a meteor if it burns up in the
    atmosphere.

  – If it strikes the Phillips permission ofSchool meteorite.
                       ground it is a
                    Used with
                               Preparatory
                                             V.Morris,
       Meteoroids continued
• 3 types:

  – Stony—rocky material

  – Metallic—iron & nickel

  – Stony-iron—rocky, iron & nickel


                Used with permission of V.Morris,
                  Phillips Preparatory School
Rocky Meteorites




    Used with permission of V.Morris,
      Phillips Preparatory School
  http://meteorites.asu.edu/images/new-concord-big.jpg
              Metallic Meteorites




http://www.astro.virginia.edu/class/oconnell/astr121/im/iron-meteorite.jpg
                        Used with permission of V.Morris,
                          Phillips Preparatory School
              Stony-iron Meteorites




http://www.gpc.edu/~pgore/myphotos/rocks/stonyironmeteor.jpg
                           Used with permission of V.Morris,
                             Phillips Preparatory School
                          Meteorite Crater




In Canyon Diablo in Arizona, USA, you can visit the best preserved meteorite crater on
earth. It was formed about 22,000 years ago by the impact of a giant metallic nickel-iron
meteorite, which arrived from space at a speed of about 50,000 kilometers per hour, and
weighed many hundreds of tons. Friction with the atmosphere does not really slow such
a mighty mass, which smashed into the solid earth, punching away 300 million tons of
rock in a mighty blast which left a crater which even today is still 1.5 kilometers in
diameter and 170 meters deep.Used with permission of V.Morris,
                                    Phillips Preparatory School
(http://www.rocksonfire.com/About-Meteorites.htm)
                 Stars Fell On Alabama,
          November 12, 1833, Leonid Meteor Shower
      •    New car license plate introduced in January, 2002, commemorating this.
      •    The new slogan on these plates is "Stars Fell on Alabama," in reference to
           the 1934 song written by Mitchell Parish and Frank Perkins and made
           famous by Ella Fitzgerald and Louis Armstrong, Frank Sinatra, and other
           artists over the years.
      •    The top of the plate contains a field of stars and musical notes around the
           slogan.




                                  Used with permission of V.Morris,
http://www.15q.net/al.html          Phillips Preparatory School
The Outer Planets: The Gas Giants
        or Jovian Planets
• Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, & Neptune

• All are made of gas. They are not solids like the inner
  planets.
   – They get denser with increasing depth.


• All have rings. Some are barely visible unlike Saturn’s
  rings.

• Since their masses are so much larger, they have
  more moons than the inner planets.
   – Which planet should have the largest number of moons?
                      Used with permission of V.Morris,
                        Phillips Preparatory School
Distances of the Outer Planets from the
      Sun in Astronomical Units
        (150 million km = 1 AU)
Jupiter   5.203 AU

Saturn    9.539 AU

Uranus    19.18 AU

Neptune   30.06 AU

Pluto     39 AU

             Used with permission of V.Morris,
               Phillips Preparatory School
                             Jupiter
• The largest planet in our solar system (318 times as large as Earth)
   – Its mass holds the asteroid belt in place & protects Earth from
     asteroid assault.

• Made mainly of hydrogen & helium
   – Outer part is made of layered clouds of water, methane, &
     ammonia

• Radiates more energy into space than it receives from the sun

• Cold planet; average temperature = -110°C

• Great Red Spot (1.5X the size of the Earth) is a storm system similar
  to a hurricane that is > 400 yrs old.

• Rotation = 9 hrs, 54 min; Revolution = 11 yrs, 313 days


                       Used with permission of V.Morris,
                         Phillips Preparatory School
                 Jupiter continued
• Has 63 moons as of Feb. 2004

• Jupiter probably has a core of rocky material amounting to
  something like 10 to 15 Earth-masses.

• Above the core lies the main bulk of the planet in the form of liquid
  metallic hydrogen.

• The environment near Jupiter contains high levels of energetic
  particles trapped by Jupiter's magnetic field.
   – This "radiation" is similar to, but much more intense than, that
     found within Earth's Van Allen belts. It would be immediately
     fatal to an unprotected human being.

• Has rings like Saturn, but much fainter & smaller

                        Used with permission of V.Morris,
                          Phillips Preparatory School
                 Jupiter:        http://www.nineplanets.org/jupiter.html




Jupiter (a.k.a. Jove; Greek Zeus) was the King of the Gods, the ruler of Olympus
    and the patron of the Roman state. Zeus was the son of Cronus (Saturn).
   Jupiter is the fourth brightest object in the sky (after the Sun, the Moon and
 Venus). It has been known since prehistoric times as a bright "wandering star".
   But in 1610 when Galileo first pointed a telescope at the sky he discovered
  Jupiter's four large moons Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto (now known as
 the Galilean moons) and Used with permission of V.Morris, and forth around Jupiter.
                             recorded their motions back
                               Phillips Preparatory School
                      Jupiter’s Rings




                                                       http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/callisto/p48188.html



Unlike Saturn's, Jupiter's rings are dark. They're probably composed of very small
   grains of rocky material. Unlike Saturn's rings, they seem to contain no ice.



                           Used with permission of V.Morris,         http://www.nineplanets.org/jupiter.html
                             Phillips Preparatory School
                        Saturn
• 2nd largest planet in the solar system (95 X larger
  than Earth)

• Composed mainly of hydrogen & helium w/a small
  rocky core
   – Methane, ammonia, & ethane are in upper
     atmosphere

• Gives off more heat than it gets from the sun
  because of the helium falling from its atmosphere—
  Saturn seems to still be forming

• Average temperature = -140°C
                  Used with permission of V.Morris,
                    Phillips Preparatory School
                       Saturn
• Saturn’s rings are the largest of the gas giants.
  – Made of icy particles that range from a few cm
    to a few m wide

• Gold, brown,& white; rings gold, brown, white,
  red, yellow, & green

• Revolution: 29 years, 155 days

• Rotation: 10 hrs, 42 min

• 31 moons
                 Used with permission of V.Morris,
                   Phillips Preparatory School
                               Saturn




In Roman mythology, Saturn is the god of agriculture. The associated Greek
god, Cronus, was the son of Uranus and Gaia and the father of Zeus (Jupiter).
Saturn is the root of the English word "Saturday“.

                          http://www.nineplanets.org/saturn.html
                          Used with permission of V.Morris,
                            Phillips Preparatory School
                           Saturn’s Rings




 Saturn’s rings are 250,000 km or
 more in diameter & they're less
 than one kilometer thick .



http://www.nineplanets.org/saturn.htm
                             Used with permission of V.Morris,
l                              Phillips Preparatory School
                          Uranus
• Super cold -195°C

• 21 moons; 11 rings

• Revolution: 83 yrs, 273 days; Rotation: 17 hrs, 12 min

• 3rd largest planet

• Rotates on its side---planet was probably knocked on
  its side after a collision w/an asteroid
   – One side points toward the sun & the other in complete
     darkness for part of the year


• Made of hydrogen & methane—2 gases that absorb red
                     Used with permission blue/green color
  light, giving Uranus its distinct of V.Morris,
                       Phillips Preparatory School
                           Uranus




Uranus is the ancient Greek deity of the Heavens, the earliest supreme
   god. Uranus was the son and mate of Gaia the father of Cronus
(Saturn) and of the Cyclopes and Titans (predecessors of the Olympian
                                 gods).
Uranus, the first planet discovered in modern times, was discovered by
   William Herschel while systematically searching the sky with his
                      telescope on March 13, 1781.
                       Used with permission of V.Morris,
                                        http://www.nineplanets.org/uranus.html
                         Phillips Preparatory School
                        Uranus’ rings




http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/1996/15/image/a/format/web/
                            Used with permission of V.Morris,
                              Phillips Preparatory School
         Neptune: Big Blue World
• 11 moons

• Rotation: 16 hrs, 6 min.

• Revolution: 163 yrs, 263 days

• Temperature: -200 °C

• Has dark rings

• Neptune & Pluto’s orbits overlap causing
  Neptune to sometimes orbitV.Morris,
                Used with permission of
                                        beyond Pluto
                      Phillips Preparatory School
     Neptune: Big Blue World

• Gets its blue color from being made of
  methane gas that absorbs red light,
  making Neptune appear blue

• Has belts of clouds & a great Dark Spot
  similar to Jupiter’s great Red Spot

• Tilted at a 30° angle so its poles are in
                 Used with yrs of V.Morris,
  light or dark for 40permission@ a time
                 Phillips Preparatory School
                             Neptune




  The Great Dark Spot


In Roman mythology Neptune (Greek: Poseidon) was the god of the Sea.
                          Used with permission of V.Morris,
                                                              http://www.nineplanets.org/neptune.html
                            Phillips Preparatory School
Neptune’s Dark Rings




     Used with permission of V.Morris,
       Phillips Preparatory School
              In Roman mythology, Pluto (Greek: Hades) is the god of the underworld.

 Pluto was discovered in 1930 by a fortunate accident. Calculations which later turned out to be
in error had predicted a planet beyond Neptune, based on the motions of Uranus and Neptune.

   Not knowing of the error, Clyde W. Tombaugh at Lowell Observatory in Arizona did a very
                      careful sky survey which turned up Pluto anyway.
                                           Used with permission of V.Morris,
http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/solar_system_level2/pluto_image.html
                                             Phillips Preparatory School
  Kupier Belt (pronounced kew p a)
• A region in space beyond Neptune where @ least 70,000 small, icy,
  slow-moving objects orbit the sun

• A region where the planet-building process stopped before any large
  objects where formed

• Pluto & is moon Charon (pronounced Sharon) are thought to be
  large members of it

• Short-lived comets like Haley’s comet are also thought to come from
  the Kupier Belt

• Discovered in 1992 by Dutch-American astronomer Gerard P.
  Kupier


                       Used with permission of V.Morris,
                         Phillips Preparatory School
Used with permission of V.Morris,
  Phillips Preparatory School
   Pluto: the dwarf planet that rotates on its side
• No longer a planet
    – Now called a “dwarf planet”—reclassified in 8/2006

• Has 3 moons—Charon, Nix, & Hydra

• Rotation: 6 days, 10 hrs
                                            http://www.nineplanets.org/pluto.html
• Revolution: 248 yrs, 4 days

• Temperature: -225°C

• Covered by frozen nitrogen

• Made of rock & ice

• Less than ½ the size of
  Mercury
                         Used with permission of V.Morris,
• Will be visited in 2015  Phillips Preparatory School
Pluto’s largest moon Charon (which is
    more than ½ the size of Pluto)
                                                                  http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/science/ever
                                                                  ything_pluto/5_looks.php?selectedI
                                                                  mage=image07.php




 Charon is named for the mythological figure who ferried the dead across the
 River Acheron into Hades (the underworld).
(Though officially named for the mythological figure, Charon's
discoverer was also naming it in honor of his wife, Charlene.
Thus, those in the know pronounce it with the first syllable
                             Used with permission of V.Morris, http://www.nineplanets.org/pluto.html
                                en").
sounding like 'shard' ("SHAHR Phillips Preparatory School
                   Oort Cloud
• A large sphere that surrounds the solar system

• Where the bulk of comets originate

• Suggested by astronomer Jan Oort in 1950

• Both the Kupier Belt & the Oort Cloud are relatively
  pristine remnants of the nebula from which the entire
  solar system was formed.

• Could contain as many as a trillion comets

                    Used with permission of V.Morris,   http://www.nineplanets.org/kboc.html
                      Phillips Preparatory School
                                    Used with permission of V.Morris,
                                      Phillips Preparatory School
http://www.astro.rug.nl/~onderwys/ACTUEELONDERZOEK/JAAR2000/oort/oort_cloud.gif
Used with permission of V.Morris,
                 http://www.fas.org/irp/imint/docs/rst/Sect19/H_oort-cloud_02,0.jpg
  Phillips Preparatory School
   Comets




                  http://www.nineplanets.org/comets.html
Used with permission of V.Morris,
  Phillips Preparatory School
                        Comets
• Comets are sometimes called dirty
  snowballs or "icy mud balls". They are
  a mixture of ices (both water and frozen
  gases) and dust that for some reason
  didn't get incorporated into planets when
  the solar system was formed. This makes
  them very interesting as samples of the
  early history of the solar system.

http://www.nineplanets.org/comets.html
                   Used with permission of V.Morris,
                     Phillips Preparatory School
Comets: When they are near the Sun & active, comets have
                 several distinct parts:

  nucleus: relatively solid & stable, mostly ice & gas with a small
               amount of dust & other solids—the icy dirt core

  coma: dense cloud of water & gases from the nucleus

  hydrogen cloud: huge (millions of km in diameter) but very sparse
             envelope of hydrogen

  dust tail: up to 10 million km long composed of smoke-sized dust
  particles driven off the nucleus by escaping gases; this is the most
  commonly seen part of the comet

  ion tail: as much as several hundred million km long; composed of
  plasma & laced with rays and streamers caused by interactions with
  the solar wind


                       Used with permission of V.Morris,
                         Phillips Preparatory School
                                Dust




Used with permission of V.Morris,
  Phillips Preparatory School
Label the parts of a comet: hydrogen
envelope, ion tail, coma, nucleus, & dust tail




               Used with permission of V.Morris,
                 Phillips Preparatory School
Used with permission of V.Morris,
  Phillips Preparatory School
                      Sedna
• Large planetoid or asteroid

• More than 2X as far from the sun as Pluto

• Huge ball of ice, w/reddish color

• Revolves around the sun once every 10,500
  yrs

                Used with permission of V.Morris,
                  Phillips Preparatory School
Sedna—what we think it looks like




Sedna's physical composition is a bit of a mystery. You would expect it to be
 mostly ices but apparently that's not the case. About all that's known at this
time is that it is very red and that water and methane ices seem to be absent
                                  on the surface.
   Sedna is definitely not the "Planet X" that many astronomers anticipated
                             Used with permission of supposed to be a much larger
  before the discovery of Pluto. Planet X was V.Morris,
   object.                     Phillips Preparatory School
                                                        http://www.nineplanets.org/sedna.html
  Eris—the next “dwarf planet”
• Officially named in 9/2006

• Named for the goddess of chaos &
  strife

• 1 moon = Dysomia
    • Spirit of lawlessness


                Used with permission of V.Morris,
                  Phillips Preparatory School
                      Xena
• Another planetoid that will probably
  become another “dwarf planet” in the
  coming months




              Used with permission of V.Morris,
                Phillips Preparatory School

								
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