Introduction to animals guided notes by Xc639I

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									•   Introduction to animals                NAME:________________________________Block:___________
•   Characteristics of Animals
•   All _________________________ (metazoans)
•   _______________________ (cells with nucleus & organelles)
•   _____________ heterotrophs (take in food and internally digest it)
•   Store _____________ reserves as glycogen
•   Support Systems
•   Have some type of ______________ support
•   ______________________ inside and made of cartilage &/or bone
•   _________________________ found in arthropods
             Cover the outside of the body
             Limit size
             Must be molted making animal vulnerable to predators
    An example of an animal with an exoskeleton is_______________________________________
•   Worms and echinoderms (starfish) have ____________-filled internal cavities giving them support
•   Called ______________________________ skeletons
•   Movement
•   Animals such as sponges may be _____________ (attached & non-moving)
•   Animals that move very little are said to be __________________ (clam)
•   Animals that can move are __________________
•   Have muscular tissue to provide energy for movement
•   Reproduction in Animals
•   All animals are capable of ______________ reproduction
•   Some animals like sponges and earthworms are ________________ producing both eggs and sperm
•   Hermaphrodites may exchange sperm and _____________ fertilize their own eggs
•   Reproduction in Animals
•   Females of some animals produce eggs, but the eggs develop without being fertilized
•   Called __________________________
•   New offspring will be all ________________
     Parthenogenesis occurs in some fishes, several kinds of insects, and a few species of frogs and lizards
•   Levels of Organization
•   Sponges are the ONLY animals that have just the __________________ level
•   All other animals show these levels – cell, ____________, organ, and ________________
•   Cells may ___________________ (take own different shapes and functions)
•   Cells are held together by cell junctions to form tissues
•   Characteristics of Invertebrates
•   _______________ animals
•   Contain the greatest number of different __________________
•   Most are __________________ (found in water)
•   Do NOT have a __________________
•   Includes sponges, cnidarians, flatworms, roundworms, annelids, mollusks, arthropods, and
    echinoderms
•   Roundworms (Nematoda) and Segmented Worms (Annelida)
•   Mollusca (With and Without Shells)
•   Arthropoda (_________________, spiders, crustaceans, horseshoe crab)
•   Vertebrata
•   More _____________________ animals
•   Most have a ______________ made up of individual bones called __________________
•   From simplest to most complex, the phylum includes: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals
•   Vertebrata
•   Vertebrates have _________________________ (internal)
•   Some vertebrates have skeletons of _______________ (sharks, rays, and skates)
•   Other vertebrates have skeletons of ______________ and cartilage (reptiles, birds, & mammals)
•   Fish             Amphibia                Reptilia              Birds - Aves
•   Mammalia
•   Surfaces
•   _______________ – back or upper surface
•   _______________ – belly or lower surface
•   _______________ – head or front end
•   _______________ – tail or hind end opposite the head
•   Oral surface (echinoderms) – is where the mouth is located (underside)
•   Aboral surface (echinoderms) – is opposite the mouth (top side)
•   Body Symmetry
•   ___________________ is the arrangement of body parts around a central plane or axis
•   ____________________ occurs when the body can’t be divided into similar sections (sponges)
•   Body Symmetry
•   ___________________ symmetry occurs when body parts are arranged around a central point like
    spokes on a wheel (echinoderms)
•   Most animals with radial symmetry are sessile (attached) or sedentary (move very little)
•   Body Symmetry
•   _____________ symmetry occurs when animals can be divided into equal halves along a single plane
•   Organisms will have right and left sides that are __________________ images of each other
•   More complex type of symmetry
•   Body Symmetry
•   Animals with _________________ symmetry are usually motile
•   Animals have an anterior and posterior ends
•   Show ____________________ (concentration of sensory organs on the head or anterior end)
•   Segmentation
•   Occurs whenever animal bodies are divided into repeating units or __________________
•   Found in more complex animals
•   Earthworms show _______________ segmentation
•   Humans show _________________ segmentation (backbone)
•   Segments may _____________ (cephalothorax)
•   Tissue Development
•   ______________ (fertilized egg) undergoes rapid cell divisions called cleavage
•   Forms a hollow ball of cells called the ______________
•   Tissue Development
•   The blastula INVAGINATES (folds _________________ at one point)
•    Called ______________________
•   The opening is called the blastopore
•   The center is the primitive gut or Archenteron
•   Tissue Development
•   Blastopore may become the mouth (Protostome) or anus (Deuterostome)
•   Protostomes (mollusks, arthropods, & annelids)
•   Deuterostomes (echinoderms & vertebrates)
•   Some animals form a middle germ layer called mesoderm
•   Germ Layers
•   Form tissues, organs, & systems
•   NOT present in sponges
•   Ectoderm (outer) – forms skin, nerves, sense organs
•   Endoderm (inner) – forms liver and lungs
•   Mesoderm (middle) – forms muscles & other systems
•   Body Layers
•   Sponges have NO tissues or organs, only specialized __________________
•   Cnidarians like jellyfish & coral have only two body layers & one body opening (mouth/anus) into
    gastrovascular cavity
•   Cnidarians have outer epidermis & inner gastrodermis with jelly-like mesoglea between the layers
   •   Body Layers
   •   All worms, mollusks, arthropods, echinoderms, and vertebrates have three cell layers
                 Ectoderm
                 Endoderm
                 mesoderm
   •   Cleavage
   •   Cleavage – rapid mitosis (cell division) of _________________
   •   Radial Cleavage – cells divide parallel or perpendicular to axis to each other
   •   Cleavage
   •   Spiral Cleavage – cellular divisions occur diagonally, in a twisting pattern
   •   Larval Forms
   •   Animals with Indirect development
   •   Go through immature (larval) forms
   •   Larva does _____________ resemble adult
   •   Cnidarian (jellyfish, coral, & sea anemone) larva called Planula
   •   Larval Forms
   •   Mollusk (squid & octopus) larva called trochophore
   •   Echinoderm (starfish) larva is called Dipleurula
   •   Metamorphosis
   •   Usually found in ___________________
   •   May be ______________ or ______________________
   •   Incomplete Metamorphosis:

egg    nymph adult
   •   Complete Metamorphosis:

egg larva pupa adult
   • Coelom - Body Cavity
   • Internal body cavity fully lined with mesoderm
   • Body organs suspended in this cavity
   • Coelom - Body Cavity
   • Acoelomate animals have solid bodies filled with cells
   • Acoelomate animals include sponges, cnidarians, & flatworms
   • Coelom - Body Cavity
   • Pseudocoelomate animals (roundworms) have a functional body cavity NOT fully lined with mesoderm
   • Exoskeletons of Chitin (arthropods)
                            ________________ size
                            Must be shed or ___________________ to           grow
                            Animal ___________________ to predators during molting
   • ____________________ skeleton – fluid filled body cavity (worms)
   • Inner Calcium plates or Test (echinoderms)
   • Bone and/or cartilage ______________________ (vertebrates)
   • Digestive Systems
   • All animals are __________________ heterotrophs
   • Choanocytes (specialized cells) capture & digest food for sponges
   • Gastrovascular cavity with one opening in cnidarians and flatworms for food to enter & leave; called
      two-way digestive system
   • Digestive Systems
   • Animals with a one-way digestive system have a _____________ and an ___________
   • Food enters the mouth, continues in one direction through the digestive tract, and wastes leave
      through the anus
   • Includes annelids, arthropods, & vertebrates
   • Circulatory Systems
   • Transports ________________ & nutrients to cells
•   Carries away wastes & _____________ ___________________ from cells
•   Sponges, cnidarians, & flatworms do NOT have circulatory systems
•   Circulatory Systems
•   In closed circulation, blood remains _______ blood vessels until it reaches cells (annelids & vertebrates)
•   In open circulation, blood is pumped out of blood vessels to bathe tissues in the body cavity or
    hemocoel (arthropods & mollusks)
•   Respiratory System
•   Taking in O2 & releasing CO2
•   Gases can ______________ across moist surfaces (earthworms)
•   _________________filter O2 from water (aquatic animals)
•   ________________ take O2 from air (terrestrial animals)
•   Nervous System
•   __________________ the activities of the animal’s body
•   __________________ – nerve cells that transmit electrochemical signals
•   __________________ ___________________ - network of neurons, very little coordination
•   _____________________ – clusters of neurons; may serve as a simple brain
•   ____________________ – control center at anterior end
•   Excretory System
•   ____________________ is the removal of nitrogen wastes from the body
•   _____________________ is used by simple aquatic animals
•   _____________ _______________ remove wastes in flatworms
•   Excretory System
•   Coiled tubules called __________________ remove nitrogen wastes in arthropods
•   Terrestrial animals remove wastes with __________________
              May be __________________ (most vertebrates)
              May be __________________ as in birds
•   Reproductive System
•   _______________________ is the process by which organisms make more of their own kind
•   All animals reproduce by _______________ reproduction (produce eggs and sperm)
•   Some animals also use _________________ reproduction creating identical offspring
•   Types of Animal Asexual Reproduction
•   _____________ or Fragmentation is the breaking off of pieces and the re-growth of a new organism
•   Found in simple animals like ___________ and ________________
•   ____________________ occurs in hydra whenever a growth on the parent is released
•   Creates a _____________
•   _______________________ – females produce eggs that develop unfertilized into female organisms
•   __________________ _________________________ is an example
•   _____________________ are animals like earthworms that produce BOTH eggs and sperm
•   Most hermaphrodites do _________________ fertilize their own eggs
•   Mate to exchange sperm
•   Fertilization
•   __________________ – sperm and eggs are released into water where they are fertilized
•   __________________ – sperm and egg are fertilized inside the female animal’s body

								
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