TANZANIA AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SECURITY INVESTMENT PLAN (TAFSIP)

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					                                UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA




        TANZANIA AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SECURITY INVESTMENT PLAN (TAFSIP)



                                          2011-12 to 2020-21



Working Paper No. 4

Priority Investments: IRRIGATION DEVELOPMENT,                       WATER
RESOURCES AND LAND USE MANAGEMENT


1.0    Introduction
2.0    Irrigation Developments
3.0    Water Resource Management
4.0    Integrated Agricultural Land Use Management




Annex 1A: Detailed Log-frame (Mainland)

Annex 1B: Detailed Log-frame (Zanzibar)
1.0 Introduction

Tanzania is endowed with an area of 94.5 million hectares of land, out of which 44 million hectares are
classified as suitable for agriculture. However, part of this arable land may be only marginally suitable for
agricultural production for a variety of reasons, including soil erosion, nutrient leaching and drought
proneness. Out of 44 million hectares suitable for agriculture only 29.4 million hectares are suitable for
irrigation whereby 2.3 million hectares are classified as high potential; 4.8 million hectares as medium
potential; and 22.3 million hectares as low potential. Furthermore, only 331,490 hectares have been
provided with improved irrigation infrastructure as of May 2010. However, Tanzania is endowed with
numerous and diverse water resources in the form of rivers, lakes, wetlands and aquifers. There is
therefore a need to have a good management plan of the available water catchments in order to have
sustainable irrigation development.

2.0 Irrigation Developments
The level of irrigation development in Tanzania is still very low resulting into marginal use of the available
potential for irrigation development due to various reasons such as inadequate financial capital and
human resources. The agricultural practice in this country is mainly rain fed and affected by vagaries of
weather mainly resulting from climate change. This invariably has subsequently subjected crop
production to be low hence the need for an effective means of increasing production and productivity.
Irrigation practices therefore is the most appropriate and sustainable solution. It will stabilise food and
cash crop production and productivity for curbing food shortages and increasing export of cash crop and
its products. In this regard, a concise plan and implementation for the development of irrigation
infrastructure is inevitable. Despite the fact that the Government is now giving high priority to irrigation
development which is emphasized within the National policy frameworks the pace of investment is still
very slow.
Given the abundance of water resources and high potential for irrigation area in Tanzania, expansion of
the area under irrigation is inevitable, for it is one of the effective means in increasing and stabilizing food
and cash crop production and productivity for curbing food shortages and increase export of cash crops
and its products.
Training is provided for contractors, consultants, NGOs, farmers, and irrigation staff from district to
Ministry levels; and Office Equipment/tools, Design Aided Software and Irrigation construction Heavy
Equipment procured.

There is great pressure of food supplies due to high rate of population growth hence expansion of
cultivated land or crop intensification particularly for irrigated agriculture is the only solution. The existing
irrigation potential (29.4 million ha) and supportive policies cannot bring tangible benefits without
undertaking appropriate research on irrigation interventions. The Plan therefore involves undertaking
research on irrigation and drainage where the findings will be applied in the improvement of irrigation
interventions.

All irrigation projects/schemes to be developed will have to conform to Environmental Management Act
(EMA) of 2004. This is important in order to safeguard the sustainability of the schemes, water sources
and health of the community. Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) will be conducted as part of
environmental sustainability approach. Mitigation Measures identified will have to be incorporated in the
scheme designs.


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Women play major roles in rural economic development especially in developing and practicing irrigated
agriculture but are hampered by low level of social status in the community, illiteracy, low entrepreneur
skills, inadequate access to productive resources and services. The concept of equity access to water or
irrigated lands and decision making is a challenge which has to be addressed.

Public health risks associated with the practice of irrigation include HIV/AIDS. This is more pronounced in
areas with large scale commercial farms which attract interaction of many people, thus making them
more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS pandemic. The level of the effect is not under rated in rural areas where
small scale irrigation farming is dominant. As a consequence in both cases, the reduction of manpower
that is required on the intensified activities in an irrigation scheme results.


Development Issues
      Irrigation practice in Tanzania is characterised by reliance on the run-of-the river water
       abstractions for gravity-fed irrigation schemes;
      Inadequate investments in water storage infrastructure;
      Inadequate capacity of farmers to invest in the infrastructure for their traditional irrigation
       systems.
      It is also characterised by low level of funding by the Government for irrigation investments;
      low rate of investment in irrigated agriculture by the private sector;
      Inadequate capacity of the private sector to participate in irrigation development;
      Absence of law which protect irrigation potential and irrigation developed areas
      Irrigation practices in the country are more focussed on paddy fields putting less emphasis on
       diversification which could include other crops such as vegetables, flowers, cotton, pasture,
       orchards and tree plantations.

3.0 Water Resource Management

 Tanzania is endowed with numerous and diverse water resources in the form of rivers, lakes, wetlands
and aquifers. The country is divided into nine river basins for ease of management of the country’s water
resources. These basins are: Pangani, Wami/Ruvu, Rufiji, Ruvuma and Lake Nyasa whereas The Internal
Drainage include Lakes Rukwa, Tanganyika and Victoria.

Furthermore, the country shares eleven international lakes and rivers with other nations including the
three East African Great Lakes ( Victoria, Tanganyika and Nyasa),chala and Jipe and rivers Kagera, Mara,
Umba, Ruvuma and Songwe. Each of these bodies exhibit unique characteristics and a complex range of
water resources management as well as development issues and challenges.

Despite its numerous water bodies, Tanzania faces water shortages in many areas due to climate
variability and poor distribution of the resource. Water resources are critical to Tanzania’s economic and
social development, and underpin the livelihood of the communities that rely heavily on Agriculture for
their food and income. Catchment communities of the United Republic of Tanzania are characterized by
extreme poverty, with less than US$ 100 per capital GDP at current price according to national survey;

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they depend mainly on small-holder farming, subsistence forestry, artisanal fishing, artisanal mining,
livestock husbandry and small scale trade. Hence addressing the issues associated with water
management for irrigation agriculture will contribute substantially to growth and reduction of poverty.

To identify potential water source both underground, surface water and its catchment on irrigation
schemes and look the impact contributed by inappropriate management of catchment which contribute
water source pollution and reduce water levels (Inventory)

Development issues
 A growing degradation of water resources ( surface and ground water) from the cumulative;
   consequences of poor water allocation, land management and pollution;
 Inadequate hydrological data and information;
 Environmental degradation as a result of increased human activities
 Inadequate coordination of Integrated Water Resources planning,
 Limited action on water catchments management by different actors
 Limited application of the national guideline on watershed management
 Limited capacity on watershed management

4.0 Integrated Agricultural Land Use Management

Tanzania is endowed with an area of 94.5 million hectares of land, out of which 44 million hectares are
classified as suitable for agriculture. However, part of this arable land may be only marginally suitable for
agricultural production for a variety of reasons, including soil erosion, nutrient leaching, drought
proneness, and tsetse infestation. According to recent studies, only 10.1 million hectares, or 23 percent of
the arable land is under cultivation. It is also estimated that out of 50 million hectares suitable for
livestock production only 26 million hectares is currently being used, whereas the remaining area is not
being used mainly due to tsetse fly infestation. Thus, the country has a large untapped land resource
whose utilization would require the development of physical infrastructure and eradication of tsetse.

Despite this abundance of unutilized land, Tanzanian agriculture is dominated by small-scale subsistence
farming. Approximately 85 percent of the arable land is used by smallholders who operate between 0.2
and 2.0 hectares and traditional agro-pastoralists who keep an average of 50 head of cattle. It is
estimated that the average per capita land holding is only 0.12 ha. Efforts to reduce poverty in the
country and especially the rural areas must be levelled at increasing the growth and development of the
agricultural sector which has a direct bearing for the livelihood of the majority of people. Land can no
longer be taken for granted and must be accorded a thorough attention unlike what has been the case in
the past.

Major environmental concerns in country are land degradation and desertification, predominantly caused
by agricultural activities on land. Apparently, this has direct link to climate change impact which in turn
affect agricultural production. Within the agricultural sector there are evidences of increasing
competition for the same land with nasty and sometimes fatal consequences. In several districts there are
simmering land disputes among crop farmers but more seriously between crop growers and pastoralists
to a level of losing lives in fighting for land. Whereas uncertainty of tenure can be a significant cause, it is
also true that the existing legislation remains poorly understood and yet to be applied in many places of
the country.


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Food production will have to be increased in order to feed the growing population in the country with
limited land resources. With land scarcity being manifested in the country, farmers will be obliged to get
greater yield out of the land already under cultivation rather than expanding their farms. But intensified
food production has traditionally meant increased dependence on pesticides and fertilizers and overuse
of water resources. Crop production can be increased in a sustainable way through making use of the
right kind of policies and the right kind of technologies and approaches that complement what nature
does. Fertilizers must be used wisely to reduce production costs and environmental problems. That can
be achieved through having in place a comprehensive land and water management strategy including
right policy and regal frameworks on agricultural land use planning and management.




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Annex1A.: DETAILED LOG FRAME FOR TAFSIP PROGRAMME 1: IRRIGATION DEVELOPMENT, WATER RESOURCES AND LAND USE MANAGEMENT




(A) MAINLAND:


     Sub-            Component               Outputs                         Priority inputs/ activities                Performance indicators                             Means of verification       Assumptions
  Programme

1.1: Irrigation   1.1.1:             Area under irrigation       Undertake feasibility studies for all new                Output indicators:-                            Annual Progress        Conducive land
Development       Development of      infrastructure increased       irrigation schemes;                                     - Number of farms shifting from rainfed         Reports (ASR-PER,       tenure and physical
                  Irrigation          to 1.0 million hectares       Construct/rehabilitate        water      storage          to irrigation schemes                         DADPs); Joint           environment for
                  Infrastructure      by 2015 (may need to           facilities (small, medium and strategic large                                                           Implementation          construction of
                                      be revised downwards)          scale dams), irrigation and drainage                                                                    Review Reports;         irrigation
                                                                     infrastructure for 33 schemes;                        Input indicators:-                               Midterm Evaluation      infrastructure.
                                                                    Rehabilitate existing traditional irrigation            - Timely release of study results and           and Completion
                                     Improved pasture for           schemes;                                                  recommendations for new irrigation            Reports; End-term
                                      livestock production                                                                     schemes;                                      Impact
                                                                    Establish/strengthen irrigation irrigators
                                                                                                                                                                             Assessments.
                                      Pasture development            organizations to facilitate smooth running of           - Construction and rehabilitation of new
                                                                     the irrigation schemes;                                   and old irrigation schemes achieved;
                                                                                                                             - Number of irrigators organizations
                                                                    Develop comprehensive database for
                                                                                                                               established;
                                                                     irrigation development
                                                                                                                             - Presence of a comprehensive database
                                                                    Promote appropriate water harvesting                      on irrigation development;
                                                                     saving technologies.                                    - Number of farmers adopted appropriate
                                                                    Establish irrigation infrastructure (dams,                water saving technology for irrigation.
                                                                     water reservoir and deep wells) in 8 public
                                                                     pasture seed farms (vikuge, Langwira,
                                                                     Kizota, Mabuki, Kongwa, Mivumoni, Buhuri
                                                                     and Sao Hill)
                  1.1.2: Capacity    Capacity of irrigation        Train irrigation staff of different disciplines        Output indicators:-                            Annual Progress        Presence of
                  Building for        staff, farmers and             at all levels;                                          - Level of staff, farmers and service           Reports (ASR-PER,        stakeholders’
                  Infrastructure      private sector enhanced       Create an enabling environment for                        providers’ competence on irrigation           DADPs); Joint            commitment and
                  Development                                        effective private sector participation in                 management.                                   Implementation           willingness to
                                                                     irrigation;                                                                                             Review Reports;          engage in the field
                                                                    Facilitate enforcement of legislation and                                                               Midterm Evaluation       of irrigation
                                                                     establish an effective coordination                   Input indicators:-                               and Completion
                                                                     mechanism for irrigation stakeholders;                  - Number of staffs trained;                     Reports; End-term
                                                                                                                             - Number of private sector stakeholders         Impact
                                                                    Train farmers on operation and
                                                                                                                                                                             Assessments.
                                                                     maintenance (O & M) of irrigation                         involved irrigation;
                                                                     infrastructure and in water management;                 - Number of farmers trained on O&Mce
                                                                                                                               of irrigation infrastructure and in water
                                                                    Recruit professionals to work in the DITS;
                                                                                                                               management;
                                                                     Retooling the zones and Headquarters
                                                                                                                             - Number of professionals working in the
                                                                     (procure office equipment/tools and
                                                                                                                               DITS;
                                                                     vehicles)

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 Establish district/village irrigation        - Number of irrigation equipment
    development teams in collaboration with    - Necessary facilities procured
    LGAs
   Revive irrigation construction Heavy
    Equipment (Bulldozers, excavators, wheel
    loaders.




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Programme1 (Mainland) continues…….


     Sub-            Component                 Outputs                      Priority inputs/ activities             Performance indicators                             Means of verification       Assumptions
  Programme

1.1: Irrigation   1.1.3: Irrigation    Improved research on          -     Establish irrigation research centre       Output indicators                               Annual Progress        Existence of
Development       Research              water use efficiency,               with all facilities to facilitate            - Number of research publications on            Reports (ASR-PER,        adequate
                                        production and                      irrigation research activities;                water use.                                    DADPs); Joint            irrigation
                                        productivity                        Undertake research on various fields                                                         Implementation           professionals to
                                                                           ( on agricultural land and water                                                             Review Reports;          undertake the
                                                                            resources development; socio-              Inputs indicators                                Midterm Evaluation       research
                                                                            economic and cultural management;            - Irrigation research center/unit in place;     and Completion
                                                                            environmental management issues;             - Number of research on irrigation              Reports; End-term
                                                                            on irrigation engineering aspects              technology, socio-economic,                   Impact
                                                                            such as flow measurements and                  environment, engineering etc                  Assessments.
                                                                            lining materials using different               conducted;
                                                                            approaches Upscale and out scale             - Irrigation management guidelines
                                                                            research findings                              formulated,
                                                                      -     Review of irrigation management              - Completion of field study on
                                                                            guideline for farmers to                       conservation and utilization of water
                                                                            accommodate research issues                    from the catchment areas.
                                                                      -     - Conduct field studies on
                                                                            conservation and utilization of water
                                                                            from the catchments areas for
                                                                            irrigation.




1.1: Irrigation   1.1.4:               All irrigation schemes    Carry out environmental assessment during           Output indicators                               Annual Progress        Effective
Development       Environnemental       conform to                    feasibility studies to determine the needs         - Minimum or absence of environmental           Reports (ASR-PER,        collaboration of
                                        Environmental                 for full EIA;                                        disputes with irrigation schemes.             DADPs); Joint            all irrigation
                  Management in
                  Irrigation
                                        Management Act            Carry out EIA for all irrigation development                                                          Implementation           stakeholders
                                                                      project requiring EIA;                                                                             Review Reports;
                                                                  Carry out Environmental Audit during the            Inputs indicators                                Midterm
                                                                      irrigation operations in line with the             - A comprehensive EIA in place;                 Evaluation and
                                                                      Environmental Management Act (EMA) No              - Regular environmental audit aligned           Completion
                                                                      20 of 2004;                                          with EMA No. 20 of 2004;                      Reports; End-term
                                                                 - Establish mechanism for pollution control in          - Relevant mitigation measures against          Impact
                                                                 irrigated agriculture;                                    climate change, pollution and other
                                                                                                                                                                         Assessments.
                                                                                                                           hazardous effects are prepared;
                                                                                                                         - and Number of research on irrigation

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            technology, socio-economic,
            environment, engineering etc
            conducted;
         - Irrigation management guidelines
            formulated.
         - Participatory national strategy on
            catchment management in place;
         - Number of sensitization seminar on
            catchment and watershed
            management strategy conducted at
            different levels;
         - Number of farms using recycled low
            quality water for irrigation;
       Completion of national strategy for
        conservation and utilization of water from
        the catchment areas.




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   Programme 1 (Mainland) continues…..


    Sub-            Component                 Outputs                      Priority inputs/ activities            Performance indicators                                Means of              Assumptions
 Programme                                                                                                                                                             verification

1.1 Irrigation   1.1.5: Gender        Promote active             Promote fair representation of both women         Output indicators:-                           Annual Progress       No socio-cultural
Development      Mainstreaming in      participation of women        and men in irrigators organizations;             -    Fair participation of women, men          Reports (ASR-PER,       limitations
                 Irrigation            and men in irrigation        Promote effective participation of both               and youths in irrigation development      DADPs); Joint           affecting women
                 Development          Ensure that women,            women and men in initiation, planning,                schemes.                                  Implementation          ownership and
                                       youths and vulnerable         implementation        and    operation and                                                      Review Reports;         participation.
                                       groups have equal             maintenance of irrigation schemes;                                                              Midterm Evaluation
                                       access to water, land        Facilitate awareness raising, training and      Input indicators:-                             and Completion
                                       and other productive          empowerment of women to actively                  -    Number of women involved in              Reports; End-term
                                       resources and support         participate at all stages of irrigation                irrigation planning and                  Impact
                                       services for irrigation       development; and                                       implementation process;                  Assessments.
                                       development.                                                                         Number of sensitization seminars
                                                                    Support women, youths and vulnerable              -
                                                                     groups to have equal access to water, land             offered to women and men on
                                                                     and other productive resources and support             irrigation development;
                                                                     services for irrigation development.              -    Number of women and men
                                                                                                                            accessing irrigation services.
                 1.1.6:               Mitigation of risks        Raise irrigators awareness on the public          Output indicators:-                           Annual Progress       Effective
                 Mainstreaming         associated with               health risks associated with the                  -    A clearly defined programme design       Reports (ASR-PER,       collaboration of all
                 HIV and AIDS,         HIV/AIDS in irrigation        HIV and AIDS pandemic and;                             that supports mitigation measures to     DADPs); Joint           irrigation
                 waterborne            development                                                                          reduce HIV and AIDS impact.              Implementation          stakeholders
                                                                                                                                                                     Review Reports;
                 diseases, malaria                                Develop and implement measures for
                                                                                                                                                                     Midterm Evaluation
                 control in                                          prevention and control of risk factors
                                                                     related to HIV and AIDS;                        Input indicators:-                             and Completion
                 Irrigation                                                                                                 Number of sensitization seminars         Reports; End-term
                 Development
                                                                    create awareness 0n malaria and other             -
                                                                                                                                                                     Impact
                                                                     waterborne disease control in irrigation               conducted to raise awareness of HIV
                                                                                                                            and AIDS pandemic.                       Assessments.




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1.1.7 Create an      Increased investments       Review incentive scheme for irrigation            Number, Type and nature of Incentive        
enabling              in irrigated agriculture       investments (cost structures, credit             schemes
environment for                                      facilities, investment opportunities            Consultative meetings
effective private                                   Demarcate land for medium and large scale       Annual General meeting decisions
                                                     irrigation schemes                               implemented
sector
                                                    Establish effective coordination/dialogue       Joint M & E Reports
participation in
                                                     between Public - Private Sector and other       Efficient coordination mechanism among
irrigation                                                                                            irrigation stakeholders;
                                                     non-state actors in irrigation development
development                                                                                       




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            Programme 1 (Mainland) continues…..

Sub-            Component         Outputs                 Priority inputs/ activities                             Performance indicators                          Means of verification        Assumptions
Programme


1.2: Water      1.2.1: Improve    National Strategy for             Revise the National Strategy on Water           Output indicators:-                         Annual Progress Reports      Effective
Resource        Management of     Water Resources                    Resources including catchments in                 -    New National Strategy for Water       (ASR-PER, DADPs); Joint      collaboration of
Management      Water Resources   Management                         participatory process;                                 Resources and catchment               Implementation Review        water users and
                                                                    Undertake focused awareness creation                   management in place.                  Reports; Midterm             policy makers
                                                                     about the catchment management                  Input indicators:-
                                                                                                                                                                  Evaluation and Completion
                                                                     strategy at different levels.                     -    Number of visual and audiovisual
                                                                    Formulate the a new national strategy for              aids distributed to all levels;       Reports; End-term Impact
                                                                     conservation and utilization of water from        -    Number of trainings conducted on      Assessments
                                                                     the catchments areas.                                  catchment management.
                                                                    Conduct dissemination workshops
                                                                    Develop institutional, policy and
                                                                     legislative frameworks for water
                                                                     resources management
                                                                    Prepare guidelines and operating manuals
                                                                     on water resources management issues
                                                                    Create awareness for LGAs on agricultural
                                                                     water resource management
                                                                    Create awareness for LGAs on agricultural
                                                                     water resource management for crops,
                                                                     livestock and fisheries
                                                               
                                                                                                                    Output indicators:-                          Annual Progress Reports     Effective
                                                                                                                     - Sustainable utilization of water            (ASR-PER, DADPs); Joint       collaboration of
                                                                                                                         resources for agricultural development     Implementation Review         water users and
                                                                                                                         attained.                                  Reports; Midterm              policy makers
                                                                                                                     Input indicators:-                            Evaluation and
                                                                                                                      - Stakeholder workshops conducted in          Completion Reports; End-
                                                                                                                         20 catchment areas;                        term Impact Assessments
                                                                                                                      - Number of irrigation development
                                                                                                                         teams formulated;
                                                                                                                      - Number of visual and audiovisual aids
                                                                                                                         distributed;
                                                                                                                     Number of guidelines and operational
                                                                                                                      manuals issued.




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                                                                                                                                                                                                           13

1.2 Water         1.2.2: :             Potential water             Assess the potential of water catchments             Output indicators:-                        Annual Progress Reports
Resource          Management of         catchments identified       Establish water user entities in the catchments        -    Sustainable utilization of water      (ASR-PER, DADPs); Joint
Management        Integrated            and enhanced by 2015         areas to facilitate implementation of crop,                 resources for irrigation attained     Implementation Review
                  Catchments Areas                                   livestock and fisheries activities                     -    Number of new water catchments        Reports; Midterm
                                                                    Prepare integrated water catchments                         identified and registered.            Evaluation and
                                                                     management strategy                                    -    Catchments strategy and plan          Completion Reports; End-
                                                                    Prepare and implement participatory                    -    Harmonized guidelines on              term Impact Assessments.
                                                                     catchments management plans                                 catchments management
                                                                    Revise and harmonise the national guidelines         Input indicators:-
                                                                     on catchments management                               -    Completion of baseline survey on
                                                                    Carry out catchments baseline studies, surveys,             water availability in potential
                                                                     mapping and document their characteristics                  catchment areas;
                                                                                                                            -    Results and documentation of
                                                                                                                                 catchment survey;
                                                                                                                           - Stakeholder workshops conducted in
                                                                 Provide extensive training on catchments
                                                                                                                              20 catchments areas;
                                                                    management professionals
                                                                                                                           - Catchments characteristics
                                                                   Undertake focused awareness creation at                   documented
                                                                    different levels                                       - Number of visual and audiovisual aids
                                                                   Conduct Stakeholders workshops in at least 20             distributed;
                                                                    catchments areas per year                              - Number of guidelines and operational
                                                                   Support the implementation of the catchments              manuals issued
                                                                    management plans




1.3: Integrated   1.3.1: Integrated   Development and            Develop appropriate database of the national soil       Output indicators:-                       Annual Progress Reports      Effective
Agricultural      Soil Fertility      promotion of integrated       fertility status;                                      -    Improved crop productivity in poor   (ASR-PER, DADPs); Joint      collaboration of
Land Use          Management          fertility management         Assess and document soil fertility management               fertility areas;                     Implementation Review        land users and
Management                            practices                     practices and technologies including indigenous        -    Increased farming activities in      Reports; Midterm             policy makers
                                                                    soil fertility management practices;                        previously abandoned fallow land.
                                                                                                                                                                     Evaluation and Completion
                                                                   Develop integrated soil fertility management                                                     Reports; End-term Impact
                                                                    packages suitable to different agro-ecologies;
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                                                Undertake extensive training on integrated soil          Input indicators:-                               Assessments
                                                   fertility management for major actors including          -    Availability of soil fertility status in
                                                   youth and women farmers.                                      different agro-ecological zones;
                                                                                                            -    Number of farmers trained on
                                                                                                                 integrated soil fertility management;
                                                                                                            -    Number of farmers accessing
                                                                                                                 extension services on soil fertility
                                                                                                                 management.
1.3.2: Agricultural    Agricultural land use    Undertake surveys and registration of farms in           Output indicators:-                              Annual Progress Reports     Effective
Land Use Planning      master plan developed       villages where there are land use plans in place;        -    New agricultural land use master           (ASR-PER, DADPs); Joint     collaboration of
                                                  Facilitate survey of all land parcels owned by                plan adopted;                              Implementation Review       land users and
                       Upgraded capacity for       Ministries;                                              -    Number of stakeholders attended            Reports; Midterm            policy makers
                                                  Assess the existing land use plan and water                   land use capacity building
                       land use planning                                                                                                                    Evaluation and Completion
                                                   resources management focusing on irrigation                   programmes.
                                                                                                            -    Percentage of land under sustainable       Reports; End-term Impact
                                                   agriculture, livestock and fisheries.
                                                                                                                 land management.                           Assessments
                                                  Identify and demarcate agricultural land for
                                                                                                          Input indicators:-
                                                  investment;
                                                                                                            -    Number of farms registered under
                                                  Build agricultural land database using GIS and                new land use plan;
                                                   remotely sensed information;                             -    Number of land parcels surveyed and
                                                  Promote appropriate technologies such as soil                 registered;
                                                   and water conservation, agro-pastoral forestry           -    Number of hectors demarcated;
                                                   systems, in-situ rain water harvesting,                  -    Number of GIS and remote sensing
                                                   conservation tillage and promotion of indigenous              information system developed.
                                                   knowledge.                                               -    Land use plan assessment conducted


1.3.3 Capacity         Enhanced capacity in     Train land use staff in various fields                
building in Land Use   Land use Planning        Recruit Land use Planners
Planning                                        Retool the zones and H/Q (procure office
                                                   equipment, tools and vehicles)




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1.3:           1.3.4: Agro-forestry   Community empowered           Develop capacity of agro-forestry (human,        Output indicators:-                        Annual Progress Reports   Effective
               development for        to actively participate to       institutional , public, private sectors);       -   Percentage of common forest            (ASR-PER, DADPs); Joint   collaboration of
Integrated     sustainable land       manage forest resources.        Promote appropriate technologies such as            resources under participatory forest   Implementation Review     land users and
Agricultural   and water                                               soil and water conservation, forestry               management                             Reports; Midterm          policy makers
Land Use       management                                              systems, in-situ rain water harvesting,                                                    Evaluation and
Management                                                             conservation tillage
                                                                                                                                                                  Completion Reports;
                                                                      Formulate guidelines for agro-forestry          Input indicators:-
                                                                                                                       -     Number of forest management          End-term Impact
                                                                       development
                                                                                                                             committee formed and trained         Assessments
                                                                      train community in Forest management
                                                                                                                       -     Number of resource persons
                                                                                                                             identified and engaged.




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                                                                                                                                                                                                   16

          Annex1B: PROGRAMME 1: IRRIGATION DEVELOPMENT, SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCES AND LAND USE MANAGEMENT (ZANZIBAR)


      Sub-           Component                Outputs                    Priority inputs/ activities           Performance indicators                         Means of            Assumptions
 Programme                                                                                                                                                   verification
1.1: Irrigation   1.1.1: Develop        Area under rice         Undertake field survey, drawing and               Output indicators:-                  Z-ASLM /MANR         Timely
Development       Irrigated and          irrigation increased     design in potential rice irrigation sites;        - Number and size of farms covered     Progress Reports;     availability of
                  Rain-fed Rice          from 700 ha to          Construction of 15 (300ha) water                    under irrigation and rainfed        Annual impact         resources for
                  Infrastructure         4,000 ha                 reservoirs;                                         infrastructures/schemes.             assessments;          irrigation and
                                        Area under improve      Construction of 300,000m water                  Input indicators:-                     Midterm               mechanized
                                         rainfed (bunding)        canals;                                           - Comprehensive survey report for      evaluation and        infrastructure.
                                         increased from 100      Drilling of 80 (30L/sec) boreholes;                 potential irrigation sites;          completion of
                                         ha to 2,500 ha          Consolidation of 4000ha rice fields;              - Completion of infrastructures        reports.
                                                                 Train farmers on appropriate water                  developed for water outsourcing,
                                                                  saving technology for irrigation.                   reserve and passage to the rice
                                                                                                                      farms;
                                                                                                                    - Quantity of land (hectors) under
                                                                                                                      rice irrigation schemes;
                                                                                                                    - Number of farmers adopted
                                                                                                                      appropriate water saving
                                                                                                                      technology for irrigation;
                                                                                                                    - Reduced incidences of pests and
                                                                                                                      diseases in rice farms;
                                                                                                                    - Number of farmers received
                                                                                                                      extension services.
                  1.1.2:                Area under              Survey, design and drawing of potential           Output indicators:-                  Z-ASLM /MANR         Timely
                  Diversification of     vegetable irrigation     areas for vegetable irrigation;                   - Number and size of farms covered     Progress Reports;     availability of
                  Irrigation             increased to 2,000      Construction of 20 (400ha) water                    under irrigation and rainfed        Annual impact         resources for
                  Infrastructure for     ha                       reservoirs;                                         infrastructures/schemes              assessments;          irrigation and
                  Other Crops                                    Drilling of 300 (5L/sec) boreholes;                                                     Midterm               mechanized
                                                                 Construction of 300 watering systems.           Input indicators:-                      evaluation and        infrastructure.
                                                                                                                    - Comprehensive survey report for      completion of
                                                                                                                      potential irrigation sites;          reports.
                                                                                                                    - Completion of infrastructures
                                                                                                                      developed for water outsourcing,
                                                                                                                      reserve and passage to the rice
                                                                                                                      farms;
                                                                                                                    - Quantity of land (hectors) under
                                                                                                                      rice irrigation schemes.



                                                                                                         16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   17

          Programme 1 (Zanzibar) continues……………


      Sub-           Component                  Outputs                      Priority inputs/ activities             Performance indicators                             Means of verification       Assumptions
  Programme
1.2:             1.2.1: Development      Sustainable              Conduct conservation campaigns in water                 Output indicators:-                         Z-ASLM /MANR           Strict measures in
Agricultural     of Water                 management of water         catchment’s areas;                                 -     New national strategy for catchment        Progress Reports;       place to ensure
Water            Catchment’s Areas        resources in the           Establish and support community                          management in place.                      Annual impact           minimum
Resources                                 catchment’s areas           conservation committees;                                                                            assessments;            environmental
Management                                improved                   Implement annual national tree planting           Input indicators:-                              Midterm evaluation      degradation and
                                                                      programmes;                                        - Number of community conservation               and completion of       destruction of
                                                                                                                            committees established;                       reports.                biodiversity
                                                                     Establishment and registration of new
                                                                                                                         - Number of new trees planted annually;
                                                                      community water resources management
                                                                                                                         - Operational by-laws in place;
                                                                      committees;
                                                                                                                         - Number of visual and audiovisual aids
                                                                     Institute by-laws for water user defaulters;          distributed to all levels;
                                                                     Conduct training courses for community              - Number of trainings conducted on
                                                                      members;                                              catchment management.
                                                                     Conduct training courses, study tours and
                                                                      exchange visits for WUAs.
1.3 Integrated   1.3.1: Enhanced soil    Soil fertility and         Create awareness programmes on                         Output indicators:-                        Z-ASLM /MANR           Strict measures in
Agricultural     fertility and plant      structure under coral       sustainable coral rag farming;                         - Sustainably productive coral rag           Progress Reports;       place to ensure
Land Use         nutrition in coral       crop/livestock             Production and distribution of 10,000,000                agricultural system in the islands.       Annual impact           minimum land
Management       farming systems          production systems          drought resistant agro-forestry seedlings in                                                        assessments;            degradation.
                                          improved                    the corals;                                            Input indicators:-                         Midterm evaluation
                                                                     Introduce 10,000ha pilot farms under                   - Number of campaigns and sensitization      and completion of
                                                                      herbaceous legume green manure/cover                      workshops on coral rag farming;           reports.
                                                                      cropping systems;                                      - Number of agro-forest seedlings
                                                                                                                                distributed per year;
                                                                     Provide farmer training courses on mixed
                                                                                                                             - Quantity of land (hectors) under green
                                                                      crop/livestock farming;
                                                                                                                                manure/cover cropping;
                                                                     Construct 100 shallow wells in coral areas;            - Number and types of training provided
                                                                      Establish grass-legume seed multiplication               to farmers every year;
                                                                      farms;                                                 - Number of shallow wells built;
                                                                      Provide farmer training courses on grass-             - Amount of grass-legume seedlings
                                                                      legume production technologies                            produced per year.
                 1.5.2: Agro-Forestry    Appropriate agro-        Develop capacity of agro-forestry (human,               Output indicators:-                         Z-ASLM /MANR           Strict measures in
                 Development for          forestry packages to        institutional, private and public sector);             - Sustainable natural resources              Progress Reports;       place to ensure
                 Sustainable Land         suit various agro-         Promote appropriate technologies such as                  development on the islands.              Annual impact           minimum land
                 and Water                ecological zones            soil and water conservation, forestry                                                               assessments;            degradation.
                                          developed and               systems, in-situ rain water harvesting,                Input indicators:-                         Midterm evaluation
                 Management
                                          implemented                 conservation tillage and promotion of                  - Number of stakeholders benefited from      and completion of
                                         Indigenous agro-            indigenous knowledge.                                     training and mass media campaigns;        reports.
                                          forestry practices                                                                 - Number of stakeholders adopted
                                          documented and up-                                                                    appropriate technologies for land and
                                          scaled.                                                                               water management.


                                                                                                              17
                                                                                                                                                                                       18

         Programme 1 (Zanzibar) continues….


     Sub-          Component              Outputs                  Priority inputs/ activities        Performance indicators                          Means of           Assumptions
 Programme                                                                                                                                           verification
1.4 Cross-       1.6.1:             Capacity to access     Improve capacity and access to              Output indicators:-                     Z-ASLMs Progress   Stakeholder
Cutting Issues   Mainstreaming       agricultural water      agricultural water by vulnerable             - Reduced distance between farms         Reports;           willingness,
                 Vulnerable          by vulnerable           groups;                                        and water sources;                    Annual impact      collaboration and
                 Groups,             groups improved;       Provide appropriate technologies and         - Number of climate change               assessments;       commitment in
                 Environment and    Appropriate             coping mechanisms for climate change;          mitigation measures adopted;          Midterm            proper resources
                 Good                technologies and       Extend field application of renewable        - Minimum community disputes             evaluation and     management,
                 Governance          coping mechanisms       sources of energy (recycling of animal         over water and land use practices;     completion of      distribution and
                                     for climate change      dung and crop residues for biogas                                                     reports.           utilization .
                                     adopted;                production and manure);                      Input indicators:-
                                    Good governance        Enforce good governance practices in         - Number of vulnerable farmers
                                     practices enforced      management of land and water                   accessing agricultural water;
                                     in management of        resources (accountability,                   - Number of technology adopted in
                                     land and water          transparency, political will etc).             coping up with climate change;
                                     resources;                                                           - Number of farmers applying
                                    Comprehensive                                                          renewable energy technologies in
                                     legal framework for                                                    their household and farms;
                                     protection and                                                       - State of peace and harmony
                                     utilization of                                                         among stakeholders involved in
                                     agricultural land                                                      land and water resources
                                     developed and                                                          utilization and management.
                                     enforced.




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