HYGIENE 2009 - 2015

                 DRAFT 2
              DECEMBER 2008
AMREF       African Medical Research Foundation
BCC         Behavioral Change Communication
BEST        Basic Education Statistic Tanzania
CCHP        Comprehensive Council Health Plan
CMO         Chief Medical Officer
CSOs        Civil Society Organisations
D by D      Decentralization by Devolution
DED         District Executive Director
DEO         District Education Officer
DHO         District Health Officer
DPS         Director of Preventive Services
DWE         District Water Engineer
DWST        District Water Supply and Sanitation Team
ECOSAN      Ecological Sanitation
EHU         Environmental Health Unit
EMIS        Education Management Information System
HESAWA      Health Sanitation and Water
HIV/AIDS    Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
HIMS        Health Information Management System
IEC         Information Education Communication
LGAs        Local Government Authorities
M&E         Monitoring and Evaluation
MDGs        Millennium Development Goals
MIS         Management Information system
MKUKUTA     Mkakati wa Kukuza Uchumi na Kupunguza Umaskini Tanzania
MKURABITA   Mpango wa kurasimisha Rasilimali za Biashara Tanzania.
MOCDGC      Ministry of Community Development Gender and Children
MoEVT       Ministry of Education and Vocational Training
MoHSW       Ministry of Health and Social Welfare
MoWI        Ministry of Water and Irrigation
MP          Member of Parliament.
MTEF        Medium Team Expenditure Framework
MUHAS       Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences
NAWAPO      National Water Policy
NGO         Non- Governmental Organization
NSCSH       National Steering Committee on Sanitation and Hygiene
NSHC        National Sanitation and Hygiene Committee
NSHP        National School Health Programme
NSSCP       National Schistosomiasis and Soil Transmitted Helminthes Control Program
NSSHS       National School Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy
NTCSSH      National Technical Committee on School Sanitation and Hygiene
NWSDP       National Water Sector Development Program
PEDP        Primary Education Development Program

PMO-RALG    Prime Ministers Office Regional Administration and local Government

PS       Permanent Secretary
RAS      Regional Administrative Secretary
ROEC     Reds Odorless Earth Closet
RWST     Regional Water Supply and Sanitation Team
SC       School Board
SC       School Committee
SEDP     Secondary Education Development Program
SHPM     School Health Programme Manager
SHP      School Health Programme
SSH      School sanitation and hygiene
SSHP     School sanitation and Hygiene Programme
STHs     Soil Transmitted Helminthes
SWOT/C   Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats/ Challenges
TASAF    Tanzania Social Action Fund
ToR      Terms of Reference
UN       United Nations
UNICEF   United Nation Children Fund
VC       Village Committee
VIP      Ventilated improved pit latrine
VPO      Vice president Office
VPO-E    Vice president Office- Environment.
WASH     Water Sanitation And Hygiene
WB       World Bank
WDC      Ward Development Committee
WHO      World Health Organization
WIMS     water supply Information Management System
WMSHC    Ward Management School Health Committee
WS       Water Sector
WSDP     Water Sector Development Program
WSP      Water and sanitation program

Table of Contents
ACRONYMS .................................................................................................................................................................... I
TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................................ III
FOREWORD ................................................................................................................................................................ IV
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .............................................................................................................................................V
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .......................................................................................................................................... VI
CHAPTER 1 ................................................................................................................................................................... 1
    1.0      INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................. 1
CHAPTER 2 ................................................................................................................................................................... 3
    2.0      SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS ...................................................................................................................................... 3
CHAPTER 3 ................................................................................................................................................................... 6
    3.0      VISION, MISSION, GOAL AND OBJECTIVES .......................................................................................................... 6
PLAN OF ACTIVITIES ...............................................................................................................................................17
CHAPTER 4 ..................................................................................................................................................................25
    4.0      FINANCING ........................................................................................................................................................25
CHAPTER 5 .................................................................................................................................................................29
    5.0      MONITORING AND EVALUATION .......................................................................................................................29
    6.0      ANNEXES ...........................................................................................................................................................34

The developments of WASH strategy are in line with MDG 7 that addresses to halve by 2010 the
people living without sanitation facilities, and the schools to acquire 100% adequate latrine.
The school WASH strategy stipulate various strategic areas to guide all the stakeholders including the
Government, development partners, NGOs, Civil Society Organizations and communities and others
working together towards attainment of the MDGs. It also complements other regional and national
efforts on improvement of school sanitation and hygiene.

The School WASH strategic plan aims at enhancing the quality of sanitation in schools, with an
impact of good quality of education and health to the overall school children population. The
development of the strategy will take advantage of the on going programs of Primary and Secondary
School Development Program (PEDEP & SEDEP) respectively which apart from raising enrolment
they are for improvement of quality of education. As a result of these programs the country has
experienced a massive enrollment of school children, a situation which requires efficient planning to
ensure that schools has sanitary facilities which cater for the increased enrollment. It is important
perhaps now than any other time before that school sanitation and hygiene become a priority issues in
order to cultivate a culture of cleanliness among young people, who can also play an important role as
change agents for our community. School is an imperative learning environment where moulding of
children takes place for them to lead a healthier, clean and civilized life.

Poor Sanitation and its immense contribution to infectious disease burden have put environmental
sanitation to a priority position on the global development agenda. Tanzania is experiencing high rates
of communicable diseases due to poor sanitation and unhygienic behavior among other things. This is
the reason for the Government of Tanzania to continue thriving to improve health of her citizens
with a full understanding that health is one of the priority sectors contributing to high quality
livelihood for all Tanzania, and that living in sanitary environment is a basic human need for all people
including school children.

Although this strategic plan has a span of five years from 2009 – 2014, it is expected that after
successful implementation of the first round of five years, a review will be carried out to incorporate
future development and ensure sustainability. The Government honors efforts and contributions of
various partners aimed at improving school sanitation and hygiene. It is expected that all stakeholders
including Local Government authorities will collaborate with the Ministry of Health and Social
Welfare, and Ministry of Education and Vocation Training in this endeavor of making school
environment healthier and supportive to our future generation.

Blandina S.J. Nyoni
Permanent Secretary
Ministry of Health and Social Welfare

This National School Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy (SSHS) has been developed by consultations
and collaborative efforts of various development partners, interested groups and individuals from
Environmental Health Unit and NSHP of the MOHSW, Ministry of Water and MOEVT. The
Ministry of Health and Social Welfare would like to acknowledge all stakeholders who contributed in
the successful development of this document. The Ministry particularly wishes to single out the
invaluable contribution of technical working group leader Mr. Alexander D. Mawi, a Freelance
Consultant on Water and Sanitation.

Special thanks should go to all participants who were involved in drafting of the document.
Commendation is made to the efforts of the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare team led by
Director of Preventive Services Dr. Donan Mmbando, Assistant Director of Environmental Health
Services Mr.F. Magoma, Acting Assistant Director Environmental Health Services Mr. Elias Chinamo,
Head Water and Sanitation Section Ms. Mary Swai, Head of Occupational Health Section Mr. M. J.
Msambazi, Head of Public Legislation Section Dr. Khalid Massa, Mr. Isaac Njau from National
School Health Program and the technical working group formed by Mr. Amour Seleman, Ms.Suzana
Nchalla, Mr. Robert Mussa, Ms. Jaquilline Makupa, and Ms. Salvata Silayo from Environmental Health
and Sanitation section

The Ministry, would also like to acknowledge efforts of other members of technical working group
from Ministry of Water and Irrigation Ms. E. Challya and Mr. M. Masasi, Ministry of Education and
Vocational Training Ms. N. Urassa, Ms. L. Katondo and J. Fredric; Muhimbili University of Health
and Allied Sciences Mr. Nassoro Yahya, Ardhi University Dr. E. O. Chagu, Sokoine University of
Agriculture Dr. S. Neke and Head of Health Sector Support Program of the Ministry of Health and
Social Welfare Dr. Faustin Njau.

Lastly, UNICEF is highly acknowledged for funding all process involved in developing this strategy.

Dr. Donan W.Mmbando
Director of Preventive Services

Executive Summary
School Health Services in Tanzania has a long historical background mentioned from independence in
1961 to date. All along, the objective has been to provide optimum health services to the school
population that eventually grow up to be the future nation and its leaders.
The historical background below gave room for the school development in all the key Ministries. The
Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) started with school children screening, x- ray
examinations and massive immunizations against the scourge of diseases like small pox. Within the
MOHSW, several developments occurred with the static medical school health services expanded
through the mobile outreach school services. However there still occurred escalating morbidity of
related diseases nationally, with O.P.D attendance in Health facilities varying from 60% -80 %1, being
due to poor sanitation, unsafe water supply and poor hygienic practices.

The Ministry Of Education and Vocational Training (MOEVT) has expanded its services from the
Universal Primary Education (UPE) to the Primary Education Development Programme (PEDP) and
of recent years massive expansion of Secondary Education through the Secondary Education
Development Programme (PEDP). However coverage of latrines in schools by 2006 was recorded as
38% of the Actual requirements with a gap of 62% (PHDR 2007).

These entire Programmes targeted the increase of classrooms and classroom services such as desks
but little attention was paid to the increasing demand of adequate sanitary facilities. The increase in
population at the Schools meant over crowding and a lot more proximity amongst them, thus
increasing the chances of getting contagious diseases.

The basic environmental and social services in the school environments such as water were not
provided, leaving a big room of doubt for the attainment of good school sanitation and hygiene.
Within the PEDP, Sanitation and hygiene learning in the curriculum have been concluded
successfully. The National School Health Steering Committee, which is multisectoral has been in place
since 1999 and the MOEVT&MOHSW have specific school Coordinators but the clear co-ordination
amongst them is yet to be well streamlined.

This strategic plan for school sanitation and hygiene (2009-2015), has a target of improving the
coordination and institutional arrangements for school WASH in Tanzania. This will ensure that there
shall be in place a strong collaboration and consultation forum for school sanitation and hygiene. This
shall also contribute to better financing mechanism both in getting the services and utilizing the
resources optimally.

The strategic plan will facilitate implementation of and strengthen the objectives of the MOHSW
Health Sector Strategic Plan III (2009 – 2015), which among others has a strategic objective of control
of communicable diseases.

The School strategic Plan when implemented will also contribute immensely to the National Strategy
for Growth and Poverty Reduction (NSGRP) commonly known as ‘’Mkakati wa Kukuza Uchumi na
Kupunguza Umaskini Tanzania ( MKUKUTA ), hence contributing to attainment of Vision 2025.

    Health Statistic Abstract, 2007

It is good to mention specifically that the school shall also contribute to the planned achievement of
MDG 7 which requires the population without access to a sanitary facilities is halved by 2010 and the
schools to have 100% adequate sanitary facilities.

It is on these major reasons mentioned above, the relevant stakeholders in school WASH both the
Government key Ministries, Institutional NGOs, and other Development Partners accepted to
support the Development of this Strategic Plan. It is to provide a framework for the development of
Implementation guidelines in a more systematic way. This strategic plan is in time when there is a very
big demand on School Sanitation, Water supply services and hygiene at all our schools. It has also
taken on board the clear roles and responsibilities of the key stakeholder’s .The strategy elaborates on
the working relationship and the implementation arrangements

For clarity of issues, this plan has included the strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and
Threats/Challenges (SWOT/C), under each strategic area. On the financing Institutions the strategic
plan has included an intended implementation plan of the major activities and a tentative budget
estimates of approximately Tshs. 7,632,156,000.00. The sources of funds for implementing major
activities will be from Government, development partners, local institution and communities.

Program for improving sanitation and hygiene in schools is an essential component of the present
efforts for education sector development. This School WASH strategy also address the need to
achieve national development targets in the social sectors (MKUKUTA) goals. The strategy is also
geared at achieving the MDG 7 which commits UN member states to halve by 2015, the proportion
of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation through provision of
sanitation and hygiene facilities in schools. Attainment of the sanitation related goals will in return
improve living condition, health, and wellbeing of school children, create conducive learning
environment and better academic performance.

1.0   Introduction

Subsequently the National strategic plan provides a framework for implementation of school
sanitation and Hygiene program by key actors for the period of 2009-2015.

1.2 Background

Health services for schools in Tanzania Mainland were initiated in 1921 from central parts of
Tanganyika and expanded to include coastal regions in 1923, under the British colonial rule (School
Health Program). In 1961 School health Services was expanded with formulation of Mobile School
Health teams. The Program was expanded further to national scale in 1997 with support from the Iris

In 2002 Tanzania initiated Primary Education Development Program (PEDP) followed by Secondary
Education Development Program (SEDP) later in 2004. The focus of both programs was to expand
enrolment, capacity building, optimising human, materials and financial resources utilisation. In the
course of implementing PEDP and SEDP a gap was observed that sanitation and hygiene standards
for the schools were not adhered to owing the pressing demand for increasing enrolment in both
primary and secondary schools. It is from this increased demand and recognition that school water,
hygiene and sanitation facilities must be considered and improved during design stage of the building,
and classrooms.

This School WASH strategy addresses MKUKUTA targets to have 100% of schools with adequate
sanitation facilities by 2010 and subsequently the MDG 7. The strategy is established as an instrument
for achieving the health service goals described in the Draft Health Sector Strategic Plan III 2009-15.

1.3 School water, sanitation and Hygiene initiative
Many actors are implementing school water sanitation and hygiene, in the country including the
government, development partners, NGOs, CSO, and communities. The MOHSW revised PHAST
materials focus to school age children in order to facilitate development of hygienic behaviour among
school age children. More sanitation and hygiene promotion programs will be adapted to suit school
age children requirements. Within the framework of this strategic plan multiple actors in school will be
coordinated with creation of collaborative forum and streamlining community efforts to appropriately
address school sanitation and hygiene needs. The strategic plan will also streamline school sanitation
and hygiene into other sector priorities in order to enhance sanitary education and community
developments. The key sectors in school sanitation and hygiene include health, education, water, land,
and community development.

1.4 Rationale for school sanitation and hygiene Strategic plan

This strategy provides a framework for implementation of National School Sanitation and Hygiene
Program for the period of 2009 – 2015. A national wide School Sanitation and Hygiene program is
proposed in order to address the need for improvement of the of hygiene and sanitation facilities in
schools. The SSHS establishes coordination machinery for school sanitation and hygiene
interventions for smooth service provision, and revitalization of sanitation and hygiene, which are
fundamental health service to the school age children and school communities at large. The SSHS
will integrate school sanitation and hygiene into education, water, and community development
programs. As an implementation tool, the strategy will enhance attainment of the goal of National
Health Policy under the framework of the National Health Sector Strategic plan III (2009-2015).

To maintain high public health standards and create conducive learning environment in schools

2.0   Situational analysis

2.1   Sanitation and hygiene in schools
Provision of sanitation and hygiene services in school is facing new challenges of addressing the
demands of a fast growing student population due to the expansion of the education sector.
Education in Tanzania has expanded considerably from 2002 after the adoption of deliberate sector
development programs (i.e. PEDP and SEDP), which have among other things created a huge
demand for sanitation infrastructures and services for school children, teachers and their

Primary school enrolment alone, increased by one third (33.1%) amounting to 8,316,925 pupils in the
years between 2002 and 2006. The increased number of pupils has also witnessed an increase in
demand of more than 227,052 pit latrines for primary school children alone in four years time (BEST
2007). The increased demand for sanitation and hygiene facilities is an additional need for services
that were already inadequate in schools. Sanitation needs goes beyond mere provision of latrine, but
also related utilities such as water supply, hygiene facilities (hand wash facilities), cleaning aids
(brushes) and cleaning agents (soaps and disinfectants), sound infrastructures for waste management
and general environmental cleanliness.

2.2   Disease pattern

Poor sanitation, unsafe water supply and unhygienic practices contribute to the prevalence of long list
of infectious diseases. It is nationally estimated that 60 – 80 % of morbidity is due to poor sanitation,
unsafe water supply and poor hygienic practices. Diseases caused by poor sanitation include malaria,
diarrhoea, cholera, typhoid, Schistosomiasis, dysentery, Soil Transmitted Helminthic (STHs), acute
respiratory infections, Polio, urinary tract infection, scabies and eye infection.

Disease statistics from the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare show that, in 2006 alone, a total
of 14, 297 cases and 254 deaths occurred, due to cholera; and 454,954 cases and 539 deaths of
children below five years occurred due to other diarrhoea. School children are also victims of
water and sanitation related diseases particularly helmiths infections. The World Health
Organization estimated that at least 50% of people who suffer from bilharzias and STHs are school

2.3   Sanitation and hygiene facilities


The national wide survey statistics have shown that until 2006 the latrines available in schools were
38% of the actual requirements, leaving behind a gap of more than 60% latrines in need of

construction (BEST 2006). Most likely the demand is now higher with the ongoing expansion of the
primary and secondary education class rooms.

A survey done in Morogoro and Dodoma regions showed the number of male pupils using one pit
ranged from 60 to 104 pupils, which was up to four (4) fold the national standard pit latrine students
ratio of 1:25 for boys. Further more, the survey reported that the ratio of pupils per pit to be higher
among schools with higher children enrolments, suggesting a gap in development of sanitation
infrastructure versus increased school enrolment particularly in urban schools2.

2.4       Hygienic behaviour and practice

Hygienic behaviour is a function of many factors namely availability of water supply, hygiene facilities,
attitude, and appropriate knowledge. Knowledge on hygiene is imparted to school children through
the existing primary school curriculum. Behaviour of the school children may not change to
expectations due to the fact that enabling factors such as water supply and other elements of hygiene
are inadequate or lacking.

2.5       Water supply

Water supply coverage in schools is still too low to match service needs for the growing school
population. A recent national survey showed that up to 65% of schools did not have water supply in
their compounds and only one in four schools had water supply for toilets3. The report showed
further that up to 80% of schools did not have hand washing facilities. Another field survey done in
six Tanzania Lake Zone districts similarly indicated that at least 50% of the surveyed schools were not
provided with water supply (HESAWA 2005).

2.6       Waste Management
Waste management facilities are otherwise inadequate in schools but administrative councils and the
general communities are hardly informed about the situation of waste management in schools.
Inadequacy in waste management facilities is leading to unsightly conditions, vector and vermin
attraction, and increase risk of transmission of related diseases and a threat to out breaks of the
diseases in schools.

2.7       Operation and Maintenance
Schools in Tanzania are enrolling large number of students within limited sanitation and hygiene
facilities. Overcrowding of sanitation facilities impairs proper use and maintenance of facilities hence
reduces their longevity. Regular maintenance of infrastructure and facilities is erratic due to budgetary
constraints leading to excessive costs of operating and maintenance among other things.

    Assessment report on management of factors contributing to the use of toilets in primary schools (unpublished report- MoHSW, Dec 2007).
    Assessment report on management of factors contributing to the use of toilets in primary schools (unpublished report- MoHSW, Dec 2007).

The fact that most schools in Tanzania are enrolling a large number of school children yearly, while
the number of latrine provided is not adequate, this situation results in short life span of the facilities.
Lack of education on correct use of various types of latrines has resulted into ill operations of these
facilities. Generally, most schools in Tanzania have no schedule for regular maintenance of sanitation
and hygiene facilities, this resulting into excessive costs of maintaining these facilities. The available
ones are filthy and un usable at the time of need.

2.8   School curriculum

Health education currently provided in primary school is integrated in Science and Life skills-and-
sports programs (Haiba na Michezo). The two subjects are practical oriented where learners develop
positive behaviour through practice. Hygiene education provided in primary schools covers important
elements of behavioural development and associated practices such as hand washing, proper use of
sanitation and hygiene facilities. Sanitation and hygiene content should also be included in
teachers training programs in colleges. Hygiene education given to pupils needs to be enhanced to
bring more positive life changes even after the school pupils and children complete their stay at school

2.9   Institutional arrangement
School sanitation and hygiene interventions have been implemented separately by many players
including ministries, departments and agencies without clear coordination structure, hence resulted to
duplication of efforts. The problem of institutional arrangement is compounded by lack specific
strategic guidelines, which vividly outline roles and responsibilities of each player and direction of

2.10 Opportunities
School WASH sees a number of opportunities for development despite many challenges being faced,
some key opportunities are;
 School health programme is a historical programme for promoting Environmental Sanitation and
   personal hygiene in Schools;
 Many development partners are willing to support School WASH programme in the country;
 The local communities are willing to participate in promoting and supporting School WASH
 There is Political will to support School WASH as a component of Primary Health Care
 There is International support as guided MDG7 and MKUKUTA

3.0       Vision, Mission, Goal and Objectives

3.1       Vision
To have school communities living in sanitary environment, free from diseases and effectively
contributing to learning and acquisition of lifelong social skills.

3.2       Mission
To ensure equitable, good quality, easily accessible, affordable and sustainable safe water, hygiene and
sanitation services delivered to all school age children and community’s at large for better health and

3.3       Goal
To promote health, safety, and wellbeing of school communities through provision of appropriate
sanitation and hygiene services in schools.

3.4       Objectives

          To advocate and lobby for support from political leaders and decision makers improved
           sanitation and hygiene in schools.
          To build human resource capacity for improved school sanitation and hygiene service delivery.
          To facilitate communities to participate in planning, construction, use and maintenance of user
           friendly sanitation and hygiene facilities for schools and communities.
          To facilitate provision and maintenance of adequate and safe water supply services in schools.
          To promote good hygienic behavior and practices among school children and community.
          To enhance multi-sectoral and multi-level approach to implement SSHS activities at all levels.

3.5     Strategic Plan Areas

This strategy has prioritised five areas of interventions, the areas have been aligned, harmonized and
linked to National Health Strategic plan III 2009/15(MoHSW,2008). In addition to that, the strategic
areas were identified through the analysis of Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Challenges
(SWOC) of various issues affecting the school WASH in Tanzania. The five Strategic Plan areas are:

   i.   Institutional arrangement,
  ii.   Management of financial resources,
 iii.   Capacity building,
 iv.    Policy formulation,
  v.    Cross-cutting issues.

Each Strategic Area bears Key result Area, strategic objectives, strategic outputs or performance
targets, performance/Output indicators, Major activities, means of verifications, responsible person,
time frame and risk and assumptions, as described below:

Strategic area 1: Institutional arrangement

Institutional arrangement describes the framework within which this School WASH strategy will
operate by involving various actors from community to central government bodies. The current
institutional arrangement will harmonize actors from different government sectors, together with non
governmental partner and stakeholders. This is explained in section 4.0 page 18-21. The level of
operation of this plan will start from community to council.

Key result areas

Coordination of multiple actors

Strategic objectives:
     To establish effective coordination of School WASH interventions at all levels by 2015

Strategic outputs
     Institutional coordination bodies/committees established by October 2009.
     Work plan and budget of the coordinating/committees established.
     Technical committee under the National Steering Committee of WASH established and

Performance/Output indicators

Endorsement of framework for coordinating bodies by senior management by November, 2009
Approved work plan and the budget of coordination bodies/committees by July, 2009
Technical committee of national steering committees of WASH established with clear ToRs.

Strategic area 2: Financial Mobilization and Management.

This strategic area aims at mobilizing financing of WASH from both the government and
development partners, communities, and other stakeholders through advocacy and lobbying. Will also
strengthen management of resources especially financial resource for results, and accountability.

Key Result area:
      Mobilization of funds from Government and Development Partners, and allocations of the
        same to school WASH,.
      Creating enabling environment for Political will to support school WASH.
Strategic objective:
To increase funding for School WASH and strengthen financial management by 2015.
Strategic outputs:
     School WASH program supported politically from higher levels to the community leadership
     Financing partners mobilized for funding strategies..
     Mechanisms for management of funds in place

Performance/output indicators-
    List of development partners interested for funding by October, 2009 [ updated annually ]
    Financial management document utilized..

Strategic Area 3: Capacity Building

Improvement of sanitation and hygiene in schools encompasses building capacity of human resource
through development of skills of staff and ability of the system to sustain constant delivery of
sanitation and hygiene services at schools. This will be achieved through continuing pre service and in
service staff capacity development in issues pertaining to sanitation and hygiene. Focus also will be in
raising awareness of all key stakeholders about sanitation and hygiene issues.

Key performance areas
Knowledge and skills in S&H operations and maintenance
Availability of system to constantly deliver sanitation and hygiene practices all the time

Strategic objective
To increate National capacity to support S&H in all the schools by 2015

Strategic outputs
     Capacities of key implementers on school S&H at all levels strengthened by 2011.
     Knowledge and skills of existing staff updated by 2015.
     Proper use and maintenance of sanitation and hygiene facilities in school advocated by 2015.
Performance/output indicators
     Number of key implementers for school S&H
     Number of existing staff updated
     Number of sanitation and hygiene facilities properly used and maintained

Strategic Area 4: Policy Guidelines and Strategy Formulation

This strategic area addresses the need for development of, strategies, operational manuals and
guidelines for various sanitation options for sustainable delivery of school WASH services.
The strategies, operational manuals and guidelines will be streamlined to address the goal of the
National Health Policy under the framework of Health Sector Strategic Plan III (2009 – 2015).

Key result area
National Sanitation and Hygiene Policy guidelines
Strategic Objective
To develop school WASH policy implementation guidelines and operational manuals by December
To implement and maintain school WASH strategies at all levels by 2010
Strategic out puts
     School WASH policy implementation guidelines operational manuals developed by August
     School WASH strategy at all levels implemented
Performance/output indicators
     School WASH policy guidelines operational manuals in place by December 2010
     Number of schools adopted strategies in school WASH by 2010

Strategic Area 5 Cross Cutting Issues

The cross cutting issues in this strategic plan include:

Gender and special needs responsiveness
Poverty at house holds and community level
Social cultural preferences and taboos
    Early childhood growth and development
    Early pregnancies in girls

Strategic objective
To mainstream the cross cutting issues in school WASH by 2015

     Lobbing for political and financial support
     Advocacy for gender and social protection at all levels
     Institutionalization of health promotion, prevention, treatment, care and support for school
     Capacity building for entrepreneurship in the areas of sanitation and WASH
     Continued Community sensitization
     Incorporation of gender and social protection in the programme

    Gender and social protection at all levels
    Key players at all levels sensitized

   Resources for care and support on HIV and AIDS mobilized
   Water, sanitation and hygiene facilities provided
   Community sensitized on the utilization of local resources in school water, sanitation and
   Community oriented
   Competition on water, sanitation and hygiene established
   Teachers, care givers and parents oriented.

      Strategic Plan Log frame

      Strategic Area 1: Institutional Arrangement and structure
      Key result area: Coordination of multiple actors

Strategic       Strategic        Performance/       Major activities Means of                 Responsible   Time    Risks and Assumptions
Objective       Outputs          Output                              verification                           frame
 To establish   Institutional    Endorsement of     To prepare ToR      Activity report       MOHSW,        2009    The key ministries involved
effective       coordination     framework for      To prepare          and availability of   PMO RALG,             in school WASH will meet
coordination    bodies/          coordinating       framework for       TORS and the          MoEVT, MoWI           to agree on coordination
of School       committees       bodies by senior   coordination        frame work docs.                            forum
WASH            established by   management by      To submit the
                October 2009     November 2009      draft document to
interventions                                       stakeholders                                                    Timely availability of
at all levels                                       Conduct advocacy    Reports available     MoHSW         2008-   resources
by 2015                                             sessions with                             MoEVT         2009
                                                    Government and                            MoWI
                                                    partners for                                                    Good governance is
                                                    mainstreaming                                                   maintained and partners
                                                    school WASH                                                     continue to support the
                Work plan and    Approved           Mainstream          Documentation         MOHSW,        2009
                budget of the    workplan and       school WASH         and Reports on        PMo RALG,             Natural disasters
                coordinating/    budget for         into the existing   implementation        MoEVT, MoWI
                committees       coordination       coordination
                established      bodies/            bodies/teams at                                                 Proper Workmanship and
                                 committees by      all levels                                                      adequate supervision
                                 July 2009

Strategic   Strategic         Performance/        Major activities Means of             Responsible   Time    Risks and Assumptions
Objective   Outputs           Output                               verification                       frame
            Technical         Technical           To establish sub-   Minutes of        MOHSW,        2009
            committee under   committee of        technical           meetings and      PMoLARG               The community will own the
            the National      national steering   committee under     reports                                 process and outcomes
            Steering          committees for      the National
            Committee for     school WASH         Steering
            school WASH       established with    Committee on                                                Over dependence of external
            established and   clear ToR           school WASH                                                 development partners
                                                  Convene school      Minutes and       MoHSW         2008
                                                  WASH                reports                                 Unwillingness of community
                                                  stakeholders                                                to participate
                                                  meeting to agree
                                                  on the roles and                                            Respective LGAs will
                                                  responsibilities                                            undertake their roles in
                                                                                                              financing and qualitative
                                                  Conduct             Copies of plans   RAS           2008-
                                                  participatory                                       2010
                                                  dialogue and                          Council
                                                  planning sessions                     directors
                                                  at district, ward
                                                  and community
                                                  level for school
                                                  and management

      Strategic Area 2: Financial Mobilization and Management
       Key result area: Allocation of funds to school WASH by Local Community, Government and Development Partners

Strategic objective   Strategic        Performance/ Major                  Means of          responsible    Time        Risks and Assumptions
                      Outputs          Output       Activities             verification                     frame
To increase funding   Financing        List of          Identifying        List of funding   MOHSW and      Immediate The key ministries involved in school
for school WASH       partners         development      interested         agencies in       other actors             WASH needs to have a forum
and strengthen        mobilized for    partners         development        place
financial             funding          interested in    partners.                                                       Timely availability of resources
management by         strategies.      funding school   Conducting
2015                                   WASH strategy    Fund raising                                                    Peace, stability and good governance is
                                       by October,      forum for other                                                 maintained
                                                        stake holders
                      Mechanisms for   Financial        To identify,       Inplementation    MOHSW and      Immediate Natural disasters
                      management of    management       collect relevant   reports and       other actors
                      funds agreed     document         financial          Financial and                                Proper Workmanship and adequate
                                       inplace          management         Audit reports                                supervision
                                                                                                                        The community will own the process
                                                                                                                        and outcomes

                                                                                                                        Over dependence of external
                                                                                                                        development partners

                                                                                                                        Unwillingness of community to
                                                                                                                        Respective LGAs will undertake their
                                                                                                                        roles in financing and qualitative

  Strategic Area 3: Capacity Building
  Key result area: Knowledge and skills in WASH

Strategic     Strategic            Performance/ Major Activities               Means of       responsible   Time    Risks and Assumptions
objective     Outputs              Output                                      verification                 frame
To create     Capacity of key      Number of key        Mapping of key         Report with                          The key ministries involved in
national      implementers on      implementers         implementers in        list of key    MOHSW         2015    school WASH needs to have a
capacity to   school WASH at       capacitated for      school WASH at all     implementers   MoEVT                 forum
support       all levels           school WASH          levels                                PMO RALG
WASH in all   strengthened by                                                                 MOWI                  Timely availability of resources
              2011                                      Training of key        Training
schools by                                              implementers on        reports in                           Peace, stability and good
2015                                                    school WASH at all     place                                governance is maintained
                                                                                                                    Natural disasters
                                                        Acquiring of
                                                        appropriate                                                 Proper Workmanship and
                                                        materials for school   Appropriate                          adequate supervision
                                                        WASH supplies and      materials
                                                        equipments             secured                              The community will own the
              Knowledge and        Number of            Preparing and          Training       MOHSW and     2008    process and outcomes
              skills of existing   existing staff       conducting tailor      reports in     all actors
              staff updated by     updated              made courses           place
              2015                                                                                                  Unwillingness of community to
              Proper use and       Number of            Preparing and          Number of      MOHSW and     2008    participate
              maintenance of       sanitation and       conducting             meetings       all actors
              sanitation and       hygiene facilities   advocacy meetings.     conducted                            Respective LGAs will
              hygiene facilities   properly used        Report of Sanitation   and minutes                          undertake their roles in
              in school            and maintained.      and Hygiene use        in place                             financing and qualitative
              advocated by         use survey           survey                                                      supervision

Strategic Area 4: Policy Guidelines and Strategy formulation
Key result area: National Sanitation and Hygiene Policy guidelines

Strategic objective   Strategic           Performance/ Major                    Means of           responsible   Time frame   Risks and
                      Outputs             Output       Activities               verification                                  Assumptions
To develop school     School WASH         School WASH         Developing        Reports and        MOHSW         2010         The key ministries
WASH policy           policy              Policy guidelines   ToR               documents in       MoEVT                      involved in school
implementation        implementation      and training                          place              PMO RALG                   WASH needs to have
guidelines and        guidelines and      manuals in place    Engaging task                        MOWI                       a forum
training manuals      training            by December         team in
                      manuals             2010                developing                                                      Timely availability of
by December           developed by                            guidelines and                                                  resources
2010.                 August 2010                             training
                                                              manuals                                                         Peace, stability and
To implement and      School WASH         Number of           To prepare        Reports and        MOHSW         2010         good governance is
maintain school       strategies at all   schools adopted     dissemination     documentation      MoEVT                      maintained
WASH strategies       levels              strategies in       mechanisms of                        PMO RALG
at all levels by      implemented         school WASH         School WASH                          MOWI                       Natural disasters
2010                                      by 2010             strategies to
                                                              stakeholders                                                    Over dependence of
                                                              Monitoring and    Monitoring and                                external development
                                                              evaluating        evaluating                                    partners
                                                              compliances       compliances
                                                                                reports in place

Strategic Area 5: Cross Cutting Issues
Key result area: Promote utilization of early childhood development guidelines by teachers, care givers and parents

Strategic objective         Strategic             Performance/          Major              Means of        responsible Time    Risks and
                            Outputs               Output                Activities         verification                frame   Assumptions
To mainstream               School WASH           Number and            Develop, pretest   Documents and   MOHSW,     2015     The key ministries
                            crosscutting          types of IEC and      produce and        Reports.        PMO                 involved in school
cross cutting               issues4               BCC developed,        disseminate IEC                    RALG                WASH needs to
issues in school            mainstreamed by       disseminated and      BCC Materials                      MOEVT,              have a forum
WASH by 2015                2010                  utilized.                                                MOCDGC,
                                                                                                           MOWI                Timely availability
                                                                                                                               of resources

                                                                                                                               Peace, stability and
                                                                                                                               good governance is

                                                                                                                               workmanship and

                                                                                                                               The community will
                                                                                                                               own the process and

    Cross cutting issues includes Gender, HIV/ AIDS, people with disabilities and ECD

Plan of activities
Key result area: Coordination of multiple actors

Strategic       Strategic       Major              Time frame                    Performance/          Responsibl   Cost            Risks and
Objective       Outputs         activities                                       Output                e            estimate        Assumption
                                                                                 indicators                         d               s
                                                   09   10   11   12   13   14

 To establish   Institutional   -Submit the      x                               Endorsement of        MOHSW,                       The key
                coordination    document to                                      framework for         PMO RALG,       26,640,000   ministries
coordination    bodies          the stakeholders                                 coordinating bodies   MoEVT,                       involved in
of School       established     -Prepare ToR                                     by senior             MoWI                         school WASH
WASH            by October      -Prepare                                         management by                                      needs to have
                2009            framework for                                    November 2009                                    0 a forum
interventions                   coordination
at all levels
by 2015                                            x                                                                                Timely
                                                                                                                                    availability of
                                                   x                                                                                resources
                                Conduct                                                                MoHSW
                                advocacy                                                               MoEVT
                                sessions with                                                          MoWI                         Peace, stability
                                Government                                                                                          and good
                                and partners for                                                                    372,172,000
                                                                                                                                    governance is
                                mainstreaming                                                                                       maintained
                                school WASH.
                                                   x    x    x    x    x    x

Strategic   Strategic      Major              Time frame                    Performance/          Responsibl   Cost          Risks and
Objective   Outputs        activities                                       Output                e            estimate      Assumption
                                                                            indicators                         d             s
                                              09   10   11   12   13   14

            Work plan      Develop TORs                                     Approved TORs         MOHSW,                     Proper
            and budget     for school                                       ,workplan and the     PMo RALG,                  Workmanship
            of the         coordination                                     budget of the         MoEVT,                     and adequate
            coordinating   bodies at all                                    coordination bodies   MoWI                       supervision
            committees     levels                                           by July 2009                       252,030,000
            established                       x    x    x    x    x    x
            Technical      To establish                                     Technical             MOHSW,                     The
            committee      technical                                        committee of          PMoLARG                    community
            under the      committee                                        national steering                                will own the
            National       under the                                        committees of                                    process and
            Steering       National                                         WASH established                                 outcomes
            Committee      Steering           x                             with clear ToR
            of WASH        Committee on
            established    WASH                                                                                300,000       Over
            and            Convene school                                   Technical             MoHSW                      dependence of
            mandated       WASH                                             committee of                                     external
                           stakeholders                                     national steering                                development
                           meeting to                                       committees of                                    partners
                           agree on the                                     WASH established
                           roles and          x    x    x    x    x    x    with clear ToR
                           responsibilities                                                                                  Unwillingness
                                                                                                               18,600,000    of community

Strategic       Strategic          Major               Time frame                             Performance/          Responsibl        Cost           Risks and
Objective       Outputs            activities                                                 Output                e                 estimate       Assumption
                                                                                              indicators                              d              s
                                                       09   10   11   12       13       14

                                   Conduct                                                                          RAS                              to participate
                                   dialogue and                                                                     Council                          Respective
                                   planning                                                                         directors                        LGAs will
                                   sessions at                                                                                                       undertake their
                                   council level for                                                                                                 roles in
                                   school WASH                                                                                                       financing and
                                   implementation                                                                                                    qualitative
                                   and                      x    x    x        x        x                                                            supervision


Strategic Area 2: Financial Mobilization and Management
Key result area: Allocation of funds to school WASH by Local Community, Government and Development Partners

Strategic            Strategic        Major            Time Frame                            Performance/ responsible Estimated              Risks and
objective            Outputs          Activities                                             Output                   Cost                   Assumptions
                                                       09   10   11   12   13       14       indicators
To increase          Financing        Identifying                                            List of           MOHSW                         The key
funding for school   partners         interested                                             development       and other                     ministries
WASH and             mobilized        development                                            partners          actors                        involved in
strengthen           for funding      partners.                                              interested for                                  school WASH
financial            strategies.      Conducting                                             funding by                                      needs to have a
management by                         Fund raising     x    x    x    x    x        x        October, 2009 [                    1,000,000    forum
2015                                  forum for                                              updated
                                      stake holders                                          annually]                                       Timely
                     Mechanisms       To identify,                                           Financial         MOHSW                         availability of
                     for              collect                                                management        and other                     resources

management    financial                 document    actors                 Peace, stability
of funds in   management                utilized.                          and good
place.        documents                                                    governance is
                           x   x                             127,248,000   maintained


                                                                           and adequate

                                                                           community will
                                                                           own the
                                                                           process and

                                                                           dependence of

                                                                           of community
                                                                           to participate

                                                                           LGAs will
                                                                           undertake their
                                                                           roles in
                                                                           financing and

Strategic Area 3: Capacity Building
Key result area: Knowledge and skills in WASH

Strategic   Strategic        Major                                         Performance/ Responsible       Estimated       Risks and
objective   Outputs          Activities                                    Output                         cost            Assumptions
                                             09   10   11   12   13   14
To create   Capacity of      Mapping of                                    Number of key                                  The key
national    key              key                                           implementers      MOHSW                        ministries
capacity    implementers     implementers                                  capacitated for   MoEVT                        involved in
to          on school        in school                                     school WASH       PMO RALG                     school WASH
support     WASH at all      WASH at all                                                     MOWI                         needs to have a
            levels           levels          x    x              x                                        10,000,000      forum
WASH in     strengthened
all the     by 2011          Establish                                                                                    Timely
schools                      database and                                                                                 availability of
by 2015                      data relay                                                                                   resources
                             system.              x    x    x                                             1,450,000,000
                                                                                                                          Peace, stability
                             Training of                                                                                  and good
                             key                                                                                          governance is
                             implementers                                                                                 maintained
                             on school
                             WASH at all          x    x    x    x    x                                   930,680,000     Natural disasters
                             Acquiring of                                                                                 Workmanship
                             appropriate                                                                                  and adequate
                             materials for                                                                                supervision
                             school WASH
                             supplies and         x    x    x    x    x                                   37,200,000      The community
                             equipments                                                                                   will own the
                                                                                                                          process and
            All              Preparing and                                 Number of         MOHSW and                    outcomes
            Knowledge        conducting                                    existing staff    all actors
            and skills of    tailor made                                   updated
            existing staff   courses                                                                                      Unwillingness of
            updated by                                                                                                    community to

2015                                                                                                         participate
                                    x   x   x   x   x                                        1,521,870,000
National        Retooling of                             National WASH        MOHSW                          LGAs will
WASH focal      national                                 workspace                                           undertake their
office          WASH focal                               established and                                     roles in financing
strengthened    office          x   x   x   x   x   x    retooled                                            and qualitative
                                                                                             980,000,000     supervision
by 2011
Appropriate     WASH                                     Appropriate          MOHSW,
WASH            technological                            technological        MOEVT,
facilities      design,                                  WASH designs         MOWI and
developed and   adoption, and                            developed and        other
distributed     distribution    x   x   x   x   x   x    distributed for      stakeholders
                                                         adoption and
Proper use      Preparing and                            Number of            MOHSW and
and             conducting                               sanitation and       all actors
maintenance     advocacy                                 hygiene facilities
of sanitation   meetings                                 properly used
and hygiene                                              and maintained
facilities in
school                              x   x                                                    48,000,000
advocated by

Strategic Area 4: Policy Guidelines and Strategy formulation
Key result area: National Sanitation and Hygiene Policy guidelines and training manuals

Strategic objective   Strategic         Major           Time frame             Performance/ responsible    Estimated      Risks and
                      Outputs           Activities                             Output                      Cost           Assumptions
                                                        09 10 11 12 13 14
To develop            School WASH       Developing                             School WASH         MOHSW                The key ministries
                      policy            ToR                                    Policy guidelines   MoEVT                involved in school
school WASH           implementation                    x                      in place by         PMO          200,000 WASH needs to
policy                guidelines and    Engaging task                          December 2010       RALG                 have a forum
implementation        training          team in                                                    MOWI
guidelines and        manuals           developing                                                                        Timely availability
                      developed by      guidelines      x                                                                 of resources
training              August 2010       and training                                                         65,100,000
manuals by                              manuals                                                                           Peace, stability
December                                                                                                                  and good
2010.                                                                                                                     governance is
To implement and      School WASH       Preparing and                          Number of           MOHSW
maintain school       strategy at all   disseminating                          schools adopted     MoEVT
                                                                                                                          Natural disasters
WASH strategies       levels            mechanisms                             strategies in       PMO
at all levels by      implemented       of strategies                          school WASH         RALG
                                                                                                                          Over dependence
2010                                    to the                                 by 2010             MOWI
                                                                                                                          of external
                                        stakeholders    x
                                                        x   x   x    x   x x

Strategic Area 5: Cross Cutting Issues
Key result area: Promote utilization of early childhood development guidelines by teachers, care givers and parents

Strategic              Strategic        Major                                             Performance/ responsible Estimated            Risks and
objective              Outputs          Activities                                        Output                   Cost                 Assumptions
                                                       09   10    11   12   13       14
To                     School           Develop,                                          Number and          MOHSW,                    The key ministries
                       WASH             pretest,                                          types of IEC        PMO                       involved in school
mainstream             crosscutting     produce and                                       and BCC             RALG                      WASH needs to
cross cutting          issues5          disseminate                                       developed,          MOEVT,                    have a forum
issues in              mainstreamed     IEC BCC                                           disseminated        MOCDGC,   195,756,000
                       by 2010          Materials                                         and utilized.       MOWI      +++ $... for    Timely availability
school                                                                                                                  the
                                        Conduct                                                                                         of resources
WASH by                                 consultation x       x     x   x    x    x        Numbeer of                    workshops
2015                                    sessions                                          stake holders                 or              Peace, stability and
                                        with key                                          meetings                      meetings!!!     good governance
                                        stakeholders                                      conducted to set                              is maintained
                                        on cross                                          direction of x-
                                        cutting                                           cutting issues in                             Proper
                                        issues to set                                     implementations                               Workmanship and
                                        the direction                                     strategy                                      adequate

                                                                                                                                        The community
                                                                                                                                        will own the
                                                                                                                                        process and

Grand total
(TSh.)                                                                                                                  7,632,156,000

    Cross cutting issues includes Gender, HIV/ AIDS, people with disables and ECD

Chapter 4

4.0   Financing

School WASH is costly but valuable community investment, which requires contribution of multiple
stakeholders. Implementation of this strategic plan will therefore require strong funding commitment
from the Government, development partners, communities and other stakeholders. The estimate total
funding amounts to TSH 1,962,867,000, equivalent to USD 1,635,723 for the first year of
implementation, (2009/10), and TSH 7,632,000, equivalent of USD 6,360,130 for the life of this plan
(2009 – 2014) The financing of the strategic plan will be by necessity in both recurrent and
development components.

4.1   Source of fund
School Water and Sanitation Strategy shall be funded jointly by the Government of Tanzania annual
budgets, development partners’ basket and other joint funding mechanisms including projects and
specific programs. The Government contribution will be made from basket funds through the
MoHSW’s, MoEVT, MoWI’s and the PMO-RALG, where as the development partners will
contribute through their donations to the common School WASH sub basket fund. At local
government levels, budgets will be set from the local government authorities. Sub-funding
mechanisms will be established for partners and community resources contribution. The proposed
WASH structure will also coordinate resources from direct organizations interventions.

The MoHSW will mobilize resources from national and international partners and interested parties in
endeavour to achieve the objectives of this strategy. The Ministry will also enhance maximization of
inputs from communities and local organizations’ of both financial and non financial resources to
foster the development of School WASH in the country.

Efforts shall be made to strengthen coordination of sanitation funds allocated from various sectors
and funding agencies to improve their utilization, transparency and accountability. At the period of
this strategic plan the government is committed to allocate sufficient support funds for its

4.2   Financial Management
Financial management of the school sanitation and hygiene funds will follow the existing government
financial procedures. At the beginning of the program financial procedure will be facilitated to allow
quick disbursement of funds and fast track implementation.

Four key ministries (MOHSW, MOEVT, MOWI, and PMO-RALG) will be responsible to financially
support school WASH activities under the framework of this strategic plan. To achieve the objectives
of the strategy the four ministries shall be required to include school WASH in their MTEF budgets
and facilitate MTEF budgeting for school health in LGAs.

4.3   Organization and Institutional arrangement on school Hygiene

Institutional arrangement is one of the main challenges facing Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene in
Tanzania; this is also a focus of MKUKUTA cluster 2 and the MDGs implementation arrangements. Hence it
requires a systematic distribution of roles and responsibilities among the stakeholders in order to have a
successful implementation. The coordination role is critical for the success of this strategy.

Below is the table indicating roles and responsibilities of various ministries and institutions expected to
implement this program collaboratively. However, the Ministry of MOHSW will bear the role of coordinating
the implementation as a key Ministry in, Sanitation and Hygiene.

Roles and Responsibilities of various actors of Water Supply, Sanitation and hygiene in

SN         Ministries/Agencies             Recommended Roles and Responsibilities
1          Ministry of Health and           Lead Ministry
           Social Welfare                   Develop Sanitation policy, guidelines and strategies
                                            Formulation of laws
                                            Formulation of standards
                                            Supervision and monitoring
                                            Evaluation
                                            Coordination
                                            Develop and review strategic plan?
                                            Develop and promote participatory approaches for sanitation
                                             and hygiene services ?
                                            Solicit funds?
                                            Disburse funds
                                            Capacity building
                                            Establish database
                                            Provide technical support

2          Ministry of Education and          Develop curriculum for school WASH
           Vocational Training                Capacity building
                                              Oversee implementation of school WASH
3          Ministry of Water and              Formulation and coordination of NAWAPO, WSDP
           Irrigation                         Quality monitoring and assurance
                                              Evaluation.
                                              Planning for water supply and sewerage
                                              Technical support for water supply and sewerage
                                              Setting standards for water supply and sewerage
                                              Financing water supply and sewerage
                                              Capacity building
                                              Promote approaches for participatory water supply and
                                               sanitation services
4          VPO-division of                    Develop and review Environmental Policy
           Environment                         Regulation of discharges and environmental    impact
5          PMO-Regional                       Coordinate plans from LGAs
           Administration and Local           Coordinate LGAs budget

SN   Ministries/Agencies          Recommended Roles and Responsibilities
     Government Authorities        Capacity building
6    Ministry of Land, Housing     Coordinate Land use planning
     and Human Settlement          Capacity building to LGAs on Town Planning
     Development                  
7    Ministry of Community         Capacity building on social marketing for WASH options
     Development Gender and        Seinsitize for change towards gender friendly WASH
     Children                       provisions
                                   Gender and children participation
                                   Mainstreaming of gender requirements
                                   Assist in designing for gender friendly equipment and facilities
8    Ministry of Infrastructure    Oversee standards for equipment and facilities
     Development                   Supervision of structural developments
9    Local Government              Planning
     Authorities                   Implementation of WASH projects
                                   Operational and maintenance/Sustainability
                                   Inspection
                                   Monitoring and evaluation of WASH
                                   Coordination
10   Development Partners          Capacity building
                                   Technical support
                                   Funding/Financing school WASH programme
11   Civil Societies               Advocacy
                                   Capacity building
                                   Technical support
                                   Implementation of WASH activities
12   Urban Water Supply and        Own, manage and develop sewerage facilities
     Sewerage Authorities          Regulate sewerage service provision
                                   Contract and manage service providers
                                   Formulate by-laws for service provision
                                   Safe water supplys
13   School committee              Involve the community
                                   Plan for WASH in schools
                                   Manage funds for WASH
                                   Contract artisans and oversee construction of standard
                                   Monitoring and evaluation
14   Community                     Identify needs
                                   Input resources
                                   Operation and maintenance/Sustainability
                                   Own and manage school WASH facilities

Organizational Structure for Implementation of School WASH

                                  NSCSH                             Chair - PS MoHSW
                         National steering Committee on             Secretary - DPS   MoHSW
                             Sanitation and Hygiene                 Members from Sectral Ministries

                                                                  Chair – DPS - MoHSW
                                                                  Secretariat MoHSW
                                 NTCSWASH                         Members from Sector Ministries
                                 National Technical
                                Committee on WASH

Coordinator                         Focal person
EHU- MoHSW                       PMO – RALG

      NSHC                                              NSHC                  NSHC
      MoHSW                                               MoEVT                 MoWI

                                                                      Regional School Health Coordinator

                                                                      District School Health Coordinator

                                     WDC                              Education and Health

                                   SC/SB                                      Key
                                                                                 Line of Command
                                                                                 Requests and report
submission                       Community
                                                                                  Members of the team

Chapter 5
5.0     Monitoring and evaluation

Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) is essential for evidence-based decision making, and accountability. The
M&E also provide valuable information on project development various beneficial uses.

For monitoring the developments in the School WASH programme, three elements are addressed as per
monitoring and evaluation process of vision 2025:-

     The MKUKUTA monitoring, which is the comprehensive monitoring of development and poverty
      alleviation actions in Tanzania; it incorporates the monitoring progress towards achieving targets of the
      Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). School WASH strategy shall adopt to the MKUKUTA
      monitoring and evaluation system. Cluster 2 of the MKUKUTA under MDG7 it has a goal geared towards
      improvement of sanitation.
     The health, education and water services routine and no-routine monitoring system collect information on
      School WASH services on regular basis (Quarterly, annually, mid term and end of the programme.). Such
      routine systems will be used per national requirements.
     The Local Government monitoring system, shall feed information to the PMO-RALG and sectoral
      ministries. The CCHP indicators are reported annually as part of the LGA technical and financial progress
      monitoring that shall include the School WASH. This programme shall assist the District health teams to
      report on this area of sanitation as planned in the strategy and guidelines.

Monitoring of the School WASH shall make use of the three systems, and combine information coming from
different school WASH Stakeholders. Hybrid monitoring tools may be developed to facilitate information
management from the different systems used. Indicators available in the existing systems shall be integrated
into the SHOOL WASH Monitoring and Evaluation.
As will be agreed with financing partners from time to time, the monitoring can be supplemented with short
term and specific studies to inform the programme.

School WASH review process
School WASH review process will include the following activities:-
  Documentation and Reports reviewed quarterly and annually; this will be a routine process where
    implementation progress for planned activities will be reviewed.
  Mid term and end of the programme evaluation; it will involve checking outcome and impact of the
    program activities.
  Situational evaluation; this will be carried out in cases where prompting issues arise e.g. outbreak of

Monitoring and evaluation Indicators

For Monitoring School WASH, a series of indicators has been developed which are grouped into School
WASH status indicators and School WASH system indicators. The indicators can also be categorised as input,
process, output, outcome and impact indicators.

The indicators were selected to cover the most critical issues for School WASH strategic areas implementation.
The information on those indicators will be collected as planned and will be used for monitoring and
evaluation of the programme. The strategic indicators are to be translated into quantified annual targets and
outputs in the MTEF planning process.

5.1     Data collection System
This shall be done according to Monitoring and Evaluation framework.

 Routine data system
 Progress and annual reporting
     Observation
     Desk study
     Research and Development
     Short term commissioned studies on specific issues,

     Routine Health, Education and Water Information Systems.
      These Interministerial routine M&E systems mentioned hereunder shall be used to collect School WASH
              o MoHSW-HIMS
              o MoWI-WMIS
              o MoEVT-EMIS
              o LGAs/PMO RALG-MIS

M&E Monitoring matrix

What information to be collected             Methodology                        Frequency of collection
   1. School population                      1. Observation in                  1. Monthly
   2. water        supply    service                Transect walk              2. Quarterly
        facilities                                  physical inspection        3. Bi- Annually
   3. Toilet/latrine facilities                                                 4. Annually
   4. Hygiene               practice         2.   Desk study                    5. Mid Term
        promotion facilities                            Review of report and 6. End Of Review
   5. O&M facilities and utilities                         document             7. Situational – In case of
   6. Class rooms/furniture                  3.   Research on progress              Outbreaks or when there is a
   7. Environmental cleanliness              4.   Routine Health, Education and     special demand
         Landscaping                             Water Supply information      8. As commissioned per TORs
         Maintenance             of              collection systems
             gardens                                    Submission of Reports
  8. Specific studies with clear             5.   Studies commissioned

School Wash Indicators
Indicator                        Numerator    Denominator     Baseline   Target   Data     Type      Frequency
                                                              2009                Source
Wash Status
Proportion of schools with                                                        EMIS     OUTPUT    Annually
adequate latrine and washroom.                                                    HIMS
Proportion of school with                                                         EMIS     OUTPUT    Annually
adequate staff house                                                              HIMS
Proportion of schools with                                                        EMIS     OUTPUT    Annually
adequate and safe water supply                                                    HIMS

Indicator                            Numerator   Denominator    Baseline   Target   Data     Type     Frequency
                                                                2009                Source
Proportion of schools with                                                          EMIS     OUTPUT   Annually
adequate ventilated classrooms                                                      HIMS
and staff offices
No of school with acceptable                                                        EMIS     OUTPUT   Annually
furniture.                                                                          HIMS
Proportion of school with                                                           EMIS     OUTPUT   Annually
acceptable      hand   washing                                                      HIMS
facilities.                                                                         WMIS
Proportion of school with                                                           EMIS     OUTPUT   Annually
appropriate school feeding                                                          HIMS

WASH                  service

No of medical and screening                                                         HIMS     Impact   Midterm/End
done to pupils                                                                                        Term
Proportions          of    pupils’                                                  HIMS     Impact   Annually
successfully       guided     and
counselled        in      Hygiene
behaviour and HIV/AIDS.
No of health education sessions                                                     EMIS     OUTPUT   Annually
conducted to pupils.                                                                HIMS
No of health learning materials                                                     EMIS     OUTPUT   Annually
disseminated to school pupils.                                                      HIMS
No of school with adequate and                                                      EMIS     OUTPUT   Annually
appropriate dustbin.                                                                HIMS
No of schools with adequate                                                         EMIS     OUTPUT   Annually
cleaning facilities.                                                                HIMS
No of schools with adequate                                                         EMIS     OUTPUT   Midterm/End
and appropriate disinfectants.                                                      HIMS              Term
Proportion of schools with                                                          EMIS     OUTPUT   Annually
appropriate        solid    waste                                                   HIMS
management system.
No of school with clean                                                             EMIS     OUTPUT   Annually
environment/ surrounding.                                                           HIMS
No of schools with functional                                                       EMIS     OUTPUT   Annually
health clubs.                                                                       HIMS
No of schools with first aid                                                        EMIS     OUTPUT   Annually
services.                                                                           HIMS
No of schools with emergency                                                        EMIS     OUTPUT   Bi-Annually
preparedness facilities.                                                            HIMS
Human Resources
Number of Pupils/a Latrine                                                          EMIS     OUTPUT   Bi-Annually
stance                                                                              HIMS
Number of Teachers/a Latrine                                                        EMIS     OUTPUT   Bi-Annually
stance                                                                              HIMS
Number of Pupils or students/                                                       EMIS     OUTPUT   Bi-Annually
Classroom                                                                           HIMS
Number of pupils or students                                                        EMIS     OUTPUT   Bi-Annually
per Teacher                                                                         HIMS
Number of Interministerial                                                          EMIS     OUTPUT   Bi-Annually
staff trained at all levels in                                                      HIMS
Number of pupils enrolled and                                                       EMIS     OUTPUT   Bi-Annually
dropout.                                                                            HIMS
Total government, community                                                         EMIS     OUTPUT   Bi-Annually
and donor allocation for School                                                     HIMS
Proportion of pupils enrolled in                                                    EMIS     OUTPUT   Bi-Annually
school                                                                              HIMS

5.2       Definition of Terms

                        Acceptable latrine/toilet is defined as a sanitation facility which has impervious washable floor,
           Acceptable   provide safety to the user including children, have adequate privacy - with walls height not less
      1    latrine      than 1.8m and a door.
      2    ECOSAN
                         Means the science and art of maintaining sound health through cleanliness or health practices
      3    Hygiene      e.g. hand washing with soap
      4    latrines
      5    latrines
      6    ROEC         Reeds Odourless Earth Closet
                        Sanitation refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human faeces
                        and urine; the word 'sanitation' covers the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services
      7    Sanitation   such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal.
      8    VIP          Is a type of latrine………………….

Acceptable latrines/toilets facilities
Acceptable latrine/toilet is defined as a sanitation facility which has impervious washable floor,
provides safety to the user including children, have adequate privacy - with adequate ventilation and
walls height not less than 1.8m and a door.

For the purpose of school sanitation, latrines/toilets included in this group are:
Pre-cast/Mobile latrines
Water borne systems (flush toilet, pour flush connected to public sewer or septic tank)

Hygiene facilities
Hygiene facilities for schools are essentially hand and body washing amenities, and sanitary bins in
girl’s toilets and dustbins.

6.0 Annexes
Institutional Arrangement
Key result area: Coordination of multiple actors’ actions Strengthened
STRENGTH                                        WEAKNESSES
     Multiple interventions and actors                          Inadequate participation of stakeholders
     Presence of steering committees on School                  Lack of coordination mechanism
      health, and Water, Sanitation                              Inadequate database on school Water,
     Presence of professional personnel in Water,                Sanitation and hygiene
      Sanitation and Hygiene at all levels                       Inadequate commitment and motivation
     Presence of management hierarchy
OPPORTUNITIES                                             THREATS/CHALLENGES
          Presence of parallel countrywide programs (           Conflict of interest among professionals within
           NWSDP, PEDP, SEDP, SHP, VHP)                           and outside the sectors
          Presence of information Management                    Government bureaucracy and
           systems (HMIS, EMIS & WMIS)                           Political interference

Financial Mobilisation and management
Key result area: Improved Allocation of funds to school WASH by local community,
Government and Development Partners

STRENGTH                                                  WEAKNESSES
 Some resources are allocated                             Inadequate funding
 Presence of interested partners in funding               Lack of update costed options for school
  school Water, Sanitation Hygiene                          Water, Sanitation and Hygiene facilities
 Political system in place                                Lack of marketing strategy on school Water,
                                                            Sanitation and Hygiene
                                                           Low priority accorded to School Water,
                                                            Sanitation and Hygiene

OPPORTUNITIES                                             THREATS/CHALLENGES
 Availability of training avenues to improve              Conflict of interest
  financial management skills                              Political sabotage on School intervention
 Availability of avenues for advocacy on School            programmes
  Water, Sanitation and Hygiene
Declaration of the 2008 as a UN Year of Water,
Sanitation Hygiene.

      Capacity Building

  Key result area: Knowledge and skills in Water, Sanitation and Hygiene
                   Latrine designs, construction and maintenance according to
                   Locality available
STRENGTH                                           WEAKNESSES
   Availability of human resource for Water,  Inadequate knowledge and skills in schools and
     Sanitation and Hygiene;                         general communities
   Presence of manuals and standards of            Inadequate deployment of professionals for
     latrine design and construction.                school Water, Sanitation and Hygiene activities
                                                    Insufficient training of local artisans.
OPPORTUNITIES                                      THREATS/CHALLENGES
  Presence of local and trainable artisans         Unavailability of funds
  Presence of development interventions by         Lack of political support
   other Ministries                                 Community unwillingness and lack of
  Presence of development partners                  commitment
  Availability of quality control/assurance on
   school development projects

 Policy guidelines and Strategy Formulation
     Key result area: National Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Policy implementation
                       guidelines formulated
 STRENGTH                                               WEAKNESSES
  Presence of the National Environmental               There is no Water, Sanitation and Hygiene policy.
     Health and Sanitation Policy guidelines            Political leaders and decision
  Presence of National Steering committee on           Hygiene policy.
     Water, Sanitation and Hygiene of the MoHSW  Political leaders and decision makers are not well
  Presence of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene             informed about Water, Sanitation and Hygiene
     components in policies of related Ministries i.e. Services in Schools.
     MoWI, MoEVT, VPoE, and MoCDGC.                     Low budget allocation for Water, Sanitation and
  Presence of implementation structure. i.e.            hygiene
     School Health Program from, Council Health  Outdated laws
     Management Team
  Existence of Water Sector Development
     Program (WSDP)
        Existence of various legislations on Water,
     Sanitation and Hygiene.
 OPPORTUNITIES                                          THREATS/CHALLENGES
 Existence of school health program.                    Policy development takes long time
 Development partners willingness to support            Inadequate cooperation and teamwork from
  Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Policy development          other actors
 District funding is being increased after (D by D)     Political will
  thus effective implementation                          Conflict of interest
 Availability of forums and media that can be used  Lack of Commitment by the lead ministry
  to sensitize MPs, Politicians and decision makers      Lengthy procedure and delays in law enactment
 Presence of Advocacy related platforms: Maji

 STRENGTH                                                     WEAKNESSES
  Week, World Toilet Day, Environment Day,
  International Year of Water, Sanitation, African
  Child Day, World Health Day, Adult Education
  Week, World HIV/AIDS Day, International
  Workers’ Day Farmers Day.
 Child friendly latrines and hand washing facilities
  are currently being promoted.
 Existence of training centres for teachers

Cross Cutting Issues
Key result area: Promote utilisation of early development guidelines by teachers,
                caregivers and parents
STRENGTH                                                WEAKNESSES
 Policies and guidelines in place                              Inadequate mainstreaming of gender issues
 The MoEVT and MoCDGC and MoHSW have                            leading to inequalities
  infrastructure for special need considerations (disabled)     Improper use or abuse of Water, Sanitation and
 Presence of Poverty alleviation strategies (MKUKUTA            Hygiene facilities by community members
  and MKURABITA) and TASAF                                      Most schools and public Water, Sanitation and
 Increased awareness on child development and survival          Hygiene facilities do not have provision for
 The MoEVT and MoCDGC and MoHSW have                            people with special needs
  infrastructure for special need considerations (disabled)             Over dependency to donor support
 Presence of Poverty alleviation strategies (MKUKUTA                   Low understanding on how to mainstream
  and MKURABITA) and TASAF                                          HIV/AIDS in Water, Sanitation and Hygiene
 Increased awareness on child development and survival             activities
                                                                        Inadequate dissemination of guidelines
                                                                        Slow economic growth
                                                                        Inadequate entrepreneurship skills
                                                                        Underutilization of poverty alleviation
                                                                Donor driven interventions
                                                               Inadequate commitment of community members
OPPORTUNITIES                                                  THREATS/CHALLENGES
 Presence of Ministries responsible with management of         Resistance to change by the community
  crosscutting issues                                           Gender unfriendly culture
Political will and advocacy for equal gender participation      Termination of Development Partner. support
     Development Partners and government
          commitment on HIV/AIDS prevention and
          control activities
 Resources available land and minerals
 Presence of social structure for development
Presence of national programs addressing early childhood


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