Athletic Field Management System

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					         Athletic Field Management System
                                                   Design Report
                                                    May05-14




Client:
Mary Beth Chinery
Director, Boone Area Recreation                                                        Team Members:
                                                                                       Craig Cartier - CprE
Faculty Advisors:                                                                      Steven Cornelius - EE
Mr. Thomas Baird                                                                       Alex McLaren - EE
Prof. Ralph Patterson III                                                              Michael Schmitt - CprE
Dr. John Lamont




DISCLAIMER: This document was developed as a part of the requirements of an electrical and computer engineering course at Iowa
State University, Ames, Iowa. This document does not constitute a professional engineering design or a professional land surveying
document. Although the information is intended to be accurate, the associated students, faculty, and Iowa State University make no
claims, promises, or guarantees about the accuracy, completeness, quality, or adequacy of the information. The user of this document
shall ensure that any such use does not violate any laws with regard to professional licensing and certification requirements. This use
includes any work resulting from this student-prepared document that is required to be under the responsible charge of a licensed
engineer or surveyor. This document is copyrighted by the students who produced this document and the associated faculty advisors.
No part may be reproduced without the written permission of the senior design course coordinator.


                                                    November 12, 2004
                                                              Table of Contents

LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................................................... III
LIST OF TABLES ...................................................................................................................................... IV
LIST OF DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................................................. V
1. INTRODUCTORY MATERIAL ........................................................................................................... 1
    1.1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................ 1
       1.1.1 Document Purpose ...................................................................................................................... 1
       1.1.2 Major Problem ............................................................................................................................ 1
       1.1.3 Problems Encountered ................................................................................................................ 1
       1.1.4 Final Results ............................................................................................................................... 2
       1.1.5 Solution Application.................................................................................................................... 2
    1.2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ....................................................................................................................... 3
    1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT........................................................................................................................ 3
       1.3.1 General Problem Statement ........................................................................................................ 3
       1.3.2 General Solution Approach ........................................................................................................ 4
    1.4 OPERATING ENVIRONMENT................................................................................................................ 4
    1.5 INTENDED USER AND INTENDED USES................................................................................................ 5
       1.5.1 Intended User(s) .......................................................................................................................... 5
       1.5.2 Intended Use(s) ........................................................................................................................... 5
    1.6 ASSUMPTIONS AND LIMITATIONS ....................................................................................................... 5
       1.6.1 Initial Assumptions List .............................................................................................................. 5
       1.6.2 Initial Limitations List ................................................................................................................ 5
    1.7 EXPECTED END PRODUCT AND OTHER DELIVERABLES.................................................................... 6
2. APPROACH AND PRODUCT DESIGN RESULTS ........................................................................... 6
    2.1 APPROACH USED ................................................................................................................................. 6
       2.1.1 Design Objectives ........................................................................................................................ 6
       2.1.2 Functional Requirements ........................................................................................................... 7
       2.1.3 Design Constraints ...................................................................................................................... 7
       2.1.4 Technical Approach Considerations and Results ...................................................................... 8
            2.1.4.1 ASIC Consideration ............................................................................................................................ 8
            2.1.4.2 Lighting Contactors .......................................................................................................................... 10
            2.1.4.3 Coin Readers...................................................................................................................................... 10
            2.1.4.4 Displays .............................................................................................................................................. 11
            2.1.4.5 Transformers ..................................................................................................................................... 12
            2.1.4.6 Timing Unit ........................................................................................................................................ 12
            2.1.4.7 Vandalism Deterrent ......................................................................................................................... 13
            2.1.4.8 Metal Halide Re-strike Considerations ........................................................................................... 13
            2.1.4.9 Alarms ................................................................................................................................................ 14
            2.1.4.10 Modes of Operation ......................................................................................................................... 16
            2.1.4.11 Modular units vs. Combined Units ................................................................................................ 18
            2.1.4.12 Coin-to-Token Converter ............................................................................................................... 21
            2.1.4.13 Monitoring Usage ............................................................................................................................ 22
            2.1.4.14 System Housing ............................................................................................................................... 23
       2.1.5 Testing Approach Considerations .............................................................................................23
       2.1.6 Recommendations for Project Continuation or Modification ..................................................24
    2.2 DETAILED DESIGN..............................................................................................................................24
       2.2.1 Parts Listings ..............................................................................................................................24
       2.2.2 Location of Modules ..................................................................................................................25
       2.2.3 Module Design ...........................................................................................................................27
       2.2.4 PLC Functionality ......................................................................................................................31
3. RESOURCES AND SCHEDULES .......................................................................................................32



                                                                                  -i-
   3.1 ESTIMATED RESOURCES ....................................................................................................................32
      3.1.1 Personnel ....................................................................................................................................32
      3.1.2 Other Resources .........................................................................................................................33
      3.1.3 Financial Requirements.............................................................................................................35
   3.2 SCHEDULES.........................................................................................................................................37
4. CLOSURE MATERIAL ........................................................................................................................39
   4.1 PROJECT TEAM INFORMATION .........................................................................................................39
      4.1.1 Client Information .....................................................................................................................39
      4.1.2 Faculty Advisor Information .....................................................................................................39
      4.1.3 Student Team Information ........................................................................................................40
   4.2 CLOSING SUMMARY ...........................................................................................................................41




                                                                         - ii -
List of Figures
FIGURE 1 - PARK OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................................... 4
FIGURE 2 - OVERRIDE METHOD 1 ...................................................................................................................17
FIGURE 3 - LIGHTING LAYOUT .......................................................................................................................19
FIGURE 4 - MODULE LOCATION AT TENNIS COURTS ......................................................................................25
FIGURE 5 – MODULE LOCATION AT THE SOFTBALL FIELD .............................................................................26
FIGURE 6 - SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM ............................................................................................................27
FIGURE 7 - OUTPUT SURGE PROTECTION FOR LIGHTING CONTACTOR ...........................................................28
FIGURE 8 - INTERMEDIARY RELAY CIRCUIT ...................................................................................................29
FIGURE 9 - WARNING LABEL..........................................................................................................................29
FIGURE 10 - FINAL CIRCUIT DESIGN ..............................................................................................................30
FIGURE 11 - PLC FLOWCHART .......................................................................................................................31
FIGURE 12 - ORIGINAL GANTT CHART FOR PROJECT TASKS ..........................................................................37
FIGURE 13 - UPDATED GANTT CHART FOR PROJECT TASKS ...........................................................................38
FIGURE 14 - GANTT CHART FOR PROJECT DELIVERABLES .............................................................................39




                                                                      - iii -
List of Tables
TABLE 1 - PARTS LIST ....................................................................................................................................24
TABLE 2 - TASK DEFINITIONS.........................................................................................................................32
TABLE 3 - ORIGINAL TIME USAGE ESTIMATES ...............................................................................................32
TABLE 4 - UPDATED TIME USAGE ESTIMATES ...............................................................................................33
TABLE 5 - ORIGINAL OTHER RESOURCE ESTIMATES ......................................................................................33
TABLE 6 - UPDATED OTHER COSTS ESTIMATES .............................................................................................34
TABLE 7 – ORIGINAL COST ESTIMATES PER UNIT ..........................................................................................35
TABLE 8 - UPDATED COST ESTIMATES PER UNIT ...........................................................................................36




                                                                         - iv -
List of Definitions
Term                  Definition
ASIC                  (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) – Any type of
                      programmable device that is used to control a system in I/O
                      devices.
C                     High level programming language.
I/O                   (Input/Output) – Input and output to and from system
                      peripherals.
LCD                   (Liquid Crystal Display) – A device to display information to
                      users.
PIN                   (Personal Identification Number) – Used to identify a person or
                      group to a database.
PLC                   (Programmable Logic Controller) – Device used to control the
                      system based on programmed conditional logic.
RTC                   (Real Time Clock) – A component to many programmable
                      devices that most commonly keeps system time based on a
                      weekly or monthly basis.
System                The solution proposed by the group including physical devices
                      and structural recommendations.
Verilog               Programming language used to describe hardware and
                      combinatorial logic.
VHDL                  (Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description
                      Language) – Programming langue used to describe hardware and
                      combinatorial logic.




                                       -v-
1. Introductory Material
This section includes an introduction to the project including project abstract, special
acknowledgements, general problem statement and solution approach, operating
environment, intended users and uses, and initial assumptions and limitations.

       1.1 Executive Summary
       This section of the design report outlines the document including document
       purpose, major problem, problems encountered, final results, and solution
       applications.

              1.1.1 Document Purpose
              The purpose of this design report is to provide a detailed description of the
              problem, proposed solutions and alternatives, and details pertaining to the
              problem solution. This proposed solution includes the intended use of the
              team’s solution, detailing its purpose. Also presented are the assumptions
              and limitations of the project, further defining the specific problem. The
              paper will discuss many approaches and possible alternatives, and will
              include: design objectives/constraints, functional requirements, technical
              approach considerations, testing approach considerations, and
              recommendations for project continuation or modification. This document
              will also present the detailed solution design, including a parts listing,
              location of modules, module design, and PLC functionality. Another
              section will cover the resources and schedules, including personal man
              hours and financial resources. The document will conclude with project
              stakeholder information.

              1.1.2 Major Problem
              The primary purpose of this project is to develop a pay-for-use lighting
              management system for the City of Boone’s Park and Recreation
              Department. The system will be used to manage lighting arrangements at
              a variety of outdoor athletic fields including four tennis courts, two
              softball diamonds, an ice skating pond, a soccer field, and the future
              addition of basketball courts.

              There are many reasons this project is being considered, the most
              significant of which is to help the Park Department offset the rising costs
              of electricity by requiring facility patrons to pay for the light they use.
              Another reason the project was developed is to control the time when the
              lights can be operated in order to not allow light usage during times when
              the parks are closed. This has two fold benefits, one being that it will help
              reduce electricity expenses as well as prevent lights from being left on
              after park hours, which requires a park employee to return to turn off.

              1.1.3 Problems Encountered
              Throughout the course of the project, there have been numerous problems
              that the group has encountered. These have taken place on the design


                                          -1-
level and also on the scheduling level. One of the main problems
encountered with the design is that the voltage and current levels for the
lights are unknown. This has made it difficult to find some parts such as a
specific lighting contactor. Another design problem encountered has been
finding parts, such as a PLC, that can withstand the extreme temperature
requirements. A final problem is finding parts that are simultaneously
inexpensive and meet functional requirements. The solution to this is
ongoing research for parts.

One of the scheduling problems that the group has encountered is that it is
sometime difficult to find a time when all group members can meet. This
problem has been circumvented by having one large meeting and then
splitting off into smaller groups to design different aspects of the project,
find parts, and write documents. Another problem encountered is that
Mary Beth was hard to contact and keep up to date with our project
because she was pregnant.

1.1.4 Final Results
This document will cover all the possible solutions and give a final
solution as recommended by the team. The solution is to build a system
that will accept tokens as a form of payment at all locations to purchase
light time. A coin-to-token converter will be purchased to dispense coins
to the public. As a way of keeping track of the club and team usage, the
Park Department will manually distribute free tokens to them and keep
track of this information on paper. In order to help deter vandalism of the
system, security warning labels will be affixed in all locations so users
believe that they are monitored. To cover the problem of re-strike time on
certain lights, a warning label will be placed on all systems explaining the
problem, and an audio and visual alarm will sound two minutes before the
lights shut off to allow users to purchase more time. There will also be a
visual countdown for the remaining purchased time all users have
remaining to allow users to regulate the amount of time that they purchase.
An internal clock will keep track of the actual time to allow the system to
automatically shut off at 11:00 PM everyday. Finally, a switch will be
located on the inside of the system that will allow a manual override to
turn the lights on at anytime of the day without depositing tokens.

1.1.5 Solution Application
The team developed a system that may be used to transfer the burden of
cost from the city of Boone to the users. The system will also successfully
automatically turns off lights at park closing, or some other specified time.
This was designed to be applicable in a range of settings, from tennis
courts to softball fields. The report will detail the steps and price to
implement system modules, and can be used as a resource by the City of
Boone to decide if, when, and where implementation of the system will
work.



                            -2-
       The design could extend to similar applications beyond the scope of our
       project. The report describes a system which gives pay control to lights by
       controlling the current passing through. The system does not care what
       the current is driving, so with some minor parts modifications, the system
       could be extended to control any electrical appliance.

1.2 Acknowledgements
Special thanks are to be extended to Mary Beth Chinery, director of the Boone
Area Recreation Department, for her help of providing input for design
requirements, gathering required information about current lighting setup and
electricity specifications, as well as helping to guide the team toward a cost
effective and practical solution.

Acknowledgments are also extended to Professor Lamont, Assistant Professor
Patterson, and Mr. Tom Baird for their extensive guidance and input regarding
technical and business aspects of the project. Specifically in helping to identify
any problems that may arise and providing exhaustive input on individual goal
solutions and available product ideas.

The team would also like to thank Mr. Randy Larabee for his help on the project
including lighting diagrams, parts lists, facility tours, and other aspects of a
similar project undertaken by Iowa State University.

Special thanks are also extended to Mr. Al Powers of P & E Engineering for his
help on PLC and microcontroller input.

1.3 Problem Statement
This section covers the general problem statement and general problem solution,
providing a broad overview to the entire project.

   1.3.1 General Problem Statement
   The task is to develop a system to control light usage at park facilities for the
   City of Boone. An individual system will be developed for each of the
   facilities, including a set of tennis courts, two separate softball diamonds, an
   ice-skating pond, a soccer field at the fairgrounds, and a set of basketball
   courts that will be added in the future. Each system will provide a pay-per-
   use type solution for the lighting where users of the general public will be able
   to deposit money to buy lighting. Each system will also sound an audio alarm
   to indicate that the amount of time paid is about to expire. Also, since many
   of the teams and clubs that use the facilities pay for resurfacing and upkeep,
   they will be given tokens at no charge for use in each system. A timer will be
   designed to automatically turn the lights off when the park closes at 11:00pm.
   Finally, a type of administrative override will be provided for the Recreation
   Department to turn the lights on or off at any time and to monitor the amount
   of time used by teams and clubs. Figure 1 on the following page is an



                                   -3-
   overview shot of some of the Boone Park facilities, with primary areas of
   focus pointed out in yellow. Photo courtesy of http://ortho.gis.iastate.edu/.




                             Figure 1 - Park Overview

   1.3.2 General Solution Approach
   The general approach is to design a system that will be as modular as possible.
   The planned solution approach is to use a programmable device to control
   each facility’s system. The device will interface with a coin or token reader to
   allow patrons to pay for use. A way to monitor the usage by clubs and teams
   of the facilities will also be included. An audio alarm will also be installed to
   alert patrons of when time is about to expire, allowing them to add more
   money if desired. Each system will also control a lighting contactor, or other
   type of switching device, to allow the lights to be turned on and off by the
   programmable device. A seven-segment or LCD type display, able to
   withstand all types of weather, will show the remaining amount of time, as
   well as provide a medium with which to view the club and team light usage
   amounts if stored locally. Another device to be included is a time unit and a
   form of battery backup to keep the time if power should fail. Finally, the
   security of each system will be addressed by adding an overhead light or
   security system warning stickers to deter a portion of vandalism attacks.

1.4 Operating Environment
Each system will be required to operate outdoors in all types of weather. Since
similar devices will be used to control facilities used both during summer and
winter, such as tennis courts and an ice-skating rink, it must be able to withstand


                                   -4-
extreme hot and cold temperatures. It must also withstand any sort of moisture,
including rain, snow, fog, hail, and dew as well as be able to function in dusty,
humid, or dry conditions. Each system must also be durable enough to handle any
type of accidental contact, as well as mild vandalism attacks.

1.5 Intended User and Intended Uses
This section describes the intended users and uses for the system. This will aid in
identifying use cases and project considerations.

   1.5.1 Intended User(s)
   Each system should be easily operable by patrons capable of using the athletic
   facilities. Each system should also be able to be used by a system
   administrator in order to change timer values, gather funds, or manually turn
   the lights on and off.

   1.5.2 Intended Use(s)
   The intended use is to provide control over the lights at the outdoor facilities
   in Boone, including automatic shut off and coin operation. Patrons, teams and
   clubs will be able to deposit tokens into the unit, which will turn on the lights
   for a predetermined amount of time.

1.6 Assumptions and Limitations
This section covers the initial assumptions and limitations of the project. The
assumptions are decided upon by the team and the limitations are constraints
place upon the project by the client.

   1.6.1 Initial Assumptions List
   The following is a listing of the initial assumptions.
    Maximum number of users will be one per device.
    The system will be designed in a modular fashion, such that one design
       will work for each facility with few alterations.
    The administrator will be able to turn the lights on or off at each system at
       any time with a switch locked in the system housing.
    A cosmetic security system consisting of security stickers will be
       implemented to deter vandals.
    Tokens will be used at each system location, with a central location used
       for a coin-to-token machine.
    Clubs and teams will be able to get multiple tokens from the Recreation
       Department to use the facilities without having to directly pay.
    Voltage levels at all sites will be consistent.
    Each system will be designed to be cost effective.
    The ice rink system will be located inside the building next to the rink to
       help protect the system from the elements.

   1.6.2 Initial Limitations List
   Below are the initial limitations provided by the client.


                                   -5-
              System must have low power consumption to be cost effective.
              System must contain administrative override mode.
              System will turn lights off at 11pm, unless in administrative mode.
              The Recreation Department will keep record of allocated tokens to clubs
               and teams in order to monitor their usage.
              A power backup method will be provided to handle power spikes and dips
               in all types of weather.
              System must provide a way to alert patrons to allow for cool down period
               required to turn the sodium-based lights on again.

       1.7 Expected End Product and Other Deliverables
       A design document of various solution ideas and costs will be provided to the
       client. This will include a group-decided recommended solution and
       corresponding cost, as well as other options for different aspects of the system.
       Included with each aspect will be costs for any additional hardware, and pros and
       cons for each solution option.

       Operations and maintenance manuals will be provided to the client including the
       basic operation procedures, possible cases for alternative uses and maintenance,
       along with the design document. Lastly, a final project plan will be provided to
       the client containing initial estimates, ideas, revisions throughout the project, and
       actual results.

2. Approach and Product Design Results
This section covers the details of the proposed approach and design for the final system
solution.

       2.1 Approach Used
       The following section is a description of the approach used for completing this
       project.

               2.1.1 Design Objectives
               The following is a list of the design objectives:
                    Develop a system to charge users for light usage - the system will
                      allow pay-by-use to reduce the financial burden on the City of
                      Boone.
                    Allow for groups to have free access - teams and clubs that pay for
                      facility upkeep and care will be provided tokens at no cost.
                    Automatically turn system off at 11:00pm - the park closes at this
                      time, so the lights need to be off as well.
                    Administrative override to turn system on at anytime - this will
                      allow the Recreation Department to use the lights if games run past
                      11:00PM or if the lights need to be on for any other reason.
                    Monitor group usage time - this will allow the Recreation
                      Department a way to keep track of usage in order to check for
                      proper use by teams and clubs.


                                           -6-
2.1.2 Functional Requirements
All the functional requirements are as follows:
     The system will accept tokens as payment – this will provide a
        single input to turn on the lights for the user.
     Keep records of club and team usage – this will allow the
        Recreation Department to monitor team and club usage.
     Allow for administrator use for override – this will allow the
        Recreation Department to turn the lights on and off at any time for
        any reason.
     Deposit coins in secure storage location – to help deter vandalism
        and prevent theft of deposited money.
     Allow for easy access to coins and tokens for the system
        administrator – this will make collection of money and tokens as
        simple as possible to reduce excess work done by the Recreation
        Department.
     Turn system off at 11:00PM – the system will shut off the lights at
        the same time as park closing.

2.1.3 Design Constraints
The following are the constraints considerations on the system:
     Maximum number of users will be one per device at a time - this
       will limit the number of components needed per system to a
       manageable level.
     The system will be designed in a modular fashion such that one
       design will work for each facility - this will reduce the amount of
       labor required from the team as one system will be easily adaptable
       to multiple situations.
     The administrator will be able to turn the lights on or off at each
       system at any time with a switch locked in the cabinet - this will
       provide the Recreation Department with a method to turn the lights
       on or off whenever needed.
     A cosmetic security system consisting of security stickers will be
       implemented to deter vandals - this solution will provide a cost
       effective means of deterring minor vandalism on the system.
     Tokens will be used at each system location, with a central location
       used for a coin-to-token converter - this will allow the central
       location of legal tender to be in a more secure location, as well
       decrease the cost of remote systems by using token readers versus
       coin readers.
     Clubs and teams will be able to get multiple tokens from the
       Recreation Department to use the facilities without having to
       directly pay - this way club and team coaches and captains do not
       have to spend extra money in order to purchase tokens. Each
       remote system will then be operated in the same fashion for the
       clubs and teams as well as the general public.


                           -7-
      Voltage levels at all sites will be consistent - this will help in
       designing a modular solution because one system will work at all
       locations.
      The ice rink system will be located inside the building next to the
       rink to help protect the module from the elements - this way the
       PLC and other system components will be able to function during
       winter conditions.
      System must have low power consumption to be cost effective -
       this is a constraint provided by the client to ensure they will be
       able to save money in the long run.
      System must contain administrative override mode - this will allow
       the Recreation Department to use the lights at any time.
      System will turn lights off at 11pm, unless in administrative mode
       - this will prevent from lights being left on after park closing.
      A way to monitor club and team usage will be provided - this will
       allow the Recreation Department to check and ensure clubs and
       teams are using the lights properly and not wasting electricity.
      A power backup method will be provided to handle power spikes
       and dips in all types of weather - this will prevent the system from
       losing the current time.
      System must provide a way to alert patrons and allow for cool
       down period required to turn the metal halide lights on again - this
       will help prevent user dissatisfaction from paying for lighting
       while the lights are cooling down before they re-strike.

2.1.4 Technical Approach Considerations and Results
The following is a list of technology considerations that were considered
for the project and the reasons they were or were not used.

   2.1.4.1 ASIC Consideration
   For a system solution, two possible control unit logic devices were
   considered. The first was an FPGA and the second a PLC. Both of
   these are discussed below with their associated advantages and
   disadvantages as well as the recommended choice.

   1. One solution was to use a FPGA that is programmable with C,
      VHDL, or Verilog. This device would then drive intermediate
      relays which would control the lighting contactor.
      Advantages:
       Inexpensive
       Programmable with current knowledge
       Easy to program custom logic using already known
          programming languages
       Operable in all temp ranges (-40 to 85 Celsius)
      Disadvantages:
       Need a printed circuit board


                           -8-
      Need intermediate relays to power lighting contactors
      Operate at a very low power, 5VDC, requiring intermediate
       relays and power transformers to supply the chip
      Need to purchase and connect all I/O ports, power supplies,
       and connectors to program the ASIC
      Have to program custom timers
      Need a separate clock unit

2. Another solution is to use a PLC that has built in programmable
   software to do comparative logic that operates at much higher
   voltage levels in order to drive the contactors and accept inputs
   directly.
   Advantages:
    Very flexible in operating environments, 120/240VAC
    I/O is sufficiently large enough to control lighting contactor
       and accept input
    Real time clock
    Counters and timers
    Operable in temperature ranges from -13 to 131 F
    Battery backup for clock time
    EEPROM memory for data storage if power loss occurs
    Automatically restart into run mode after power loss
    Comes with 120/240VAC to 24VDC power supply which can
       be used to power the token reader as well
    Surge suppression on outputs
    90 days free tech support
    Included keyboard and LCD to allow park department to
       reprogram portions of the system at any time from a scroll
       through menu.
   Disadvantages:
    More expensive than FPGA
    Need to learn ladder style programming
    Slight overkill for the application even with small end PLCs

The approach chosen is to use the PLC because it is designed for a
more industrial environment and already has all the features needed in
one convenient package. This approach will increase the cost of the
end product as the PLCs are more expensive than purchasing the
individual components. However, the time it would take to research
and find all the parts for the FPGA, as well as get all the parts
functioning properly including mounting and soldering makes this
higher price worth it as the assumed value of the team’s time would
outweigh the increase in price of the PLC. Also, with the PLC
package, there is no need to have an extra power supply for the token
reader or the light and alarm. This approach also allows the


                       -9-
Recreation Department to order a single device rather than multiple
components and to reprogram the devices at any time with a simple
scrolling menu.

2.1.4.2 Lighting Contactors
The specific lighting contactor cannot be determined at this time
because the voltage and current ratings of the ballasts are not known.
Some of the contactors manufacturers that have been considered are
Square D, White-Rodgers, and Allen-Bradley. Since the size and
current rating of the contactor will depend on the load, different
contactors will need to be used depending on the location. For
example, since the control at the softball diamond will be turning on
more lights than the control at the tennis court, the contactor for the
softball diamond lights will need to be larger than the tennis court
contactor. If the PLC is unable to drive the lighting contactor directly,
an intermediary relay will be required along with the lighting
contactor. This relay will be driven by the PLC while will supply
sufficient voltage and current levels to drive the contactor. The
location of the lighting contactor will be on the same light pole that the
control module, but at a higher height so that people can not easily
tamper with it. Separating the lighting contactor from the module
control box will increase safety for patrons using the module and for
people servicing the module. The contactor will have its own box to
protect it from weather conditions, supplied by the same company that
sells the contactor.

2.1.4.3 Coin Readers
Two different approaches were taken in determining the type of
payment medium to be used at each remote location. One was to have
a coin acceptor at each location, and another was to have more simple
token readers at each location, with a central coin-to-token converter.

1. The first option, to use coin readers at each location, has its
   associated advantages and disadvantages listed below.
   Advantages:
    Use legal tender at all locations
    No other devices need to be purchased
   Disadvantages:
    More expensive than token reader
    Need to be cleaned bi-weekly
    Spreads out locations of legal tender
    Need to make a more secure remote system housing

2. The second option, to use a token reader at each remote location
   with a central coin-to-token dispenser, is outlined below for
   advantages and disadvantages.


                        - 10 -
   Advantages:
    One central secure location for all legal tender
    Less expensive than a coin reader
    Same payment media at all locations
    Cleaning cycles are less often
   Disadvantages:
    Additional cost for coin-to-token conversion machine.

The team ultimately decided on using token readers at each remote
location with a central coin-to-token conversion machine. This way
the Recreation Department will not have to go to all the locations to
clean the coin readers as often. Also, it will simplify the process of
having all the legal tender in a central secure location.

2.1.4.4 Displays
The team considered two different approaches to this, one being a 7-
segment display and the other an LCD for displaying the time
remaining on the lights.

1. The first option, the 7-segment displays, would simply display just
   the number of minutes remaining, and no other information.
   Advantages:
    Work in all temperature ranges.
    Come in a variety of character heights.
    Are bright enough to be seen at a distance.
    Inexpensive
   Disadvantages:
    Unsure how to drive them.
    Only display 0-9 and A-F

2. The second option is to use a LCD to display information on time
   remaining as well as other data.
   Advantages:
    Can display all characters on multiple lines
    Included on the PLC
   Disadvantages:
    More expensive than 7-segment display
    Doesn’t work in colder temperatures
    Need to have a back light for night viewing
    Characters are smaller and cannot be viewed at distances

The approach the team chose was to use 7-segment displays to output
the time remaining. The reasons for this are price for one, but mostly
due to the ease of viewing 7-segment displays in dark environments
and that they come in larger sizes for easier viewing from distances.



                       - 11 -
Also, they work in all temperature ranges and will function in winter
weather when the ice rink is open.

2.1.4.5 Transformers
Transformers were researched but have no use in the system as the
PLC comes with its own power supply. This power supply can be
used to power the devices in the system as it will transform
120/240VAC to 24VDC, which is the operating voltage for the system
components.

2.1.4.6 Timing Unit
The functionality of this could be provided in one of the following
manners:

1. The first method is to use an atomic clock that would feed the time
   as an input to the programmable device, which would then use this
   to either set system times, or as a reference in controlling system
   operation.
   Advantages:
    Never needs to be reset
   Disadvantages:
    Needs to output an ASCII value for time to read as an input
    Unsure of how to set up a device like this in the programming

2. The second method is to use a separate timer that would have a
   device to turn on/off the power supply to the PLC and the overall
   system based on the time.
   Advantages:
    Purchasable unit to control all timing aspects
   Disadvantages:
    Needs to be reset after power failure
    Additional component to purchase

3. The third method is to use the RTC inside of the PLC. The device
   will use this time to base control operations on.
   Advantages:
    Included with PLC
    Has own battery backup
    Used to directly control all lighting from one device

   Disadvantages:
    Not 100% accurate and may need to be updated after extended
      time

   The team decided to use the RTC option because it is included in
   the PLC (chosen earlier) incurring no extra cost.


                       - 12 -
2.1.4.7 Vandalism Deterrent
There are two options for deterring vandalism to the system. One is to
install an add-on to the system that would detect damage and sound
and alarm. The second is to place security stickers on the system.

1. For the first option the system would detect excess motion or
   possible damage, then sound an alarm or perform some other
   assertive action.
   Advantages:
    Very secure
    Actively deter vandalism
    Keep the system safe
   Disadvantages:
    Very expensive
    Difficult to implement

2. The second option of security stickers is to help prevent any
   damage by giving patrons and passersby the assumption that the
   system is secure, while it has no assertive security system.
   Advantages:
    Inexpensive
    Help deter minor vandalism
   Disadvantages:
    Passive approach to vandalism deterring
    Will not actually alert anyone if actual vandalism occurs

The team decided to go with the security stickers due to price
constraints. The client also agreed to this method.

2.1.4.8 Metal Halide Re-strike Considerations
One problem that arises when dealing with metal halide lamps is that
once the lights have been on for a period of time and then are turned
off, the lights do not turn on again for approximately 15 minutes. This
could lead to frustration when a patron tries to buy some time after the
lights have just shut off. Since the lights would not re-strike
immediately, the time spent waiting for the lights to turn on would be
deducted from the time that has been previously paid. There is no way
of getting around the re-strike time, but there are three possible
solutions to reduce the occurrence of people losing money during the
cool down period.

1. Implement a current detector which would tell the PLC when the
   lights are actually on or off. This would then begin to deduct time
   from the amount paid for exactly when the lights begin operation.
   Advantages:


                       - 13 -
     The user would be charged only for the light that they use, not
      including the cool down period
   Disadvantages:
    Extra cost of a current detecting device
    Could lead to more problems when trying to trouble shoot

2. Post a sign that clearly states that the lights will not turn on for 15
   minutes after they have been turned off.
   Advantages:
    Cost effective
   Disadvantages:
    Prone to human error leading to unsatisfied customers

3. Use a second time delay estimating the re-strike time in the
   controller. The time delay would delay the main time delay until
   the lights can be re-struck. The controller can keep track of the
   history of the lights to check if they have been used a short enough
   time previously to cause a delay in the lights going on.
   Advantages:
    Customer pays only for light used
    No extra equipment necessary
   Disadvantages:
    The cool down time may vary with weather conditions
    Could require more advanced control technology

The approach to be used will combine alternatives 2 and 3. The time
delay can come close to accurately predicting the re-strike time
without the extra cost of a current detector. The controllers considered
for the project all had more than enough capability, so the extra
programming necessary will not be a strain on the technology. A sign
will also be provided to communicate to patrons that the lights will
come on, and they will not be charged for cool-down time.

2.1.4.9 Alarms
Since the metal halide lights have a significant re-strike time, patrons
will not be happy if they wish to continue to use a facility and the
lights go out. If they purchase more time after the lights dim, a
significant amount of time will pass before they return. If patrons
purchase time before lights dim, the lights will continue to illuminate
uninterrupted. Obviously the preferable situation is to have the patron
purchase more light time before the lights go out. Since the system
will incorporate a sign warning users of the metal halide light
operation, the users will be assumedly be aware of the lights re-strike
time, but may also be surprised when their time expires. A warning
system could be used to remind users that their time is about to expire.
The team discussed three options dealing with this situation:


                        - 14 -
1. The burden of keeping track of time is put on the user, with no
   additional modifications to the system:
   Advantages:
    Cheap
    Adds no additional system complexity
    Will not distract from competition
   Disadvantages:
    Users are less reliable than systematic solution
    High probability of failure

2. Add an audio warning alarm to sound some time near the end of
   the paid time
   Advantages:
    Systematic, reliable warning
    Clear and noticeable
   Disadvantages:
    Distracting
    Unspecific, if multiple units are nearby, the alarm would not
       signify which court’s lights need to be renewed
    Limited effectiveness to deaf/hard of hearing
3. Add a warning light to illuminate some time near the end of the
   paid time
   Advantages:
    Not as distracting
    Easier to see which specific court’s lights need renewal
    Functions as a warning device for the hard of hearing.
   Disadvantages:
    Not as noticeable

The team will combine approaches 2 and 3 to warn users when their
time is about to expire. The alarm can sound for a limited time,
warning the user, and then shutting off to not be distracting. The non-
distracting light can continue to operate, showing users which lights
need to be renewed, as well as warning those who are deaf/hard of
hearing. The decibel level of the audio alarm was chosen at 76 dB,
based on researching devices with similar functions. The team has
found bulb and LED assemblies operating at both 12 and 24 volts DC
with no final decision made as of yet.

For a 12 volt DC input, some type of conversion is necessary because
only a 24 volt source available. This can be accomplished one of three
ways: a 24/12 VDC converter, inserting two 12V lights in series, or
inserting a resistor in series with the light, with the same power
dissipation as the light.



                       - 15 -
1. Converter
   Advantages:
    No inefficient power dissipation
   Disadvantages:
    Expensive

2. Resistor in series:
   Advantages:
    Inexpensive
   Disadvantages:
    Inefficient power dissipation

The power dissipation is assumed to be rather low, and to have much
less associated cost than that of a converter, which ranges from $30 to
$200 depending on load current. The team evaluated the efficiency of
the converter to not be worth the cost, and will use a resistor in series
to step down the voltage.

2.1.4.10 Modes of Operation
The unit will have three different modes of operation.

1. Override mode. In this mode, the lights will be on no matter what
   time of the day or night it is.

2. Normal mode. This is the mode that will be used by people using
   the tennis courts and other facilities in order to pay for the time
   that the lights are on.

3. Power off mode. This mode will be used to turn off the power to
   the lights and the PLC if components need to be serviced or
   repaired.

There are two different methods of implementing the three modes of
operation, each having advantages and disadvantages.

Method 1: Use a three-way switch mounted inside of the housing that
encloses the PLC and coin reader to switch between modes. A simple
diagram of this is shown in Figure 2 on the following page. The
different positions of the switch corresponding to the mode are labeled
next to the switch. As shown, when the unit is in mode 1, the power
supply will be disconnected from the PLC and connected directly to
the lighting contactor. This can be done assuming that the input
voltage of the PLC and lighting contactor coil voltage are the same.
This mode allows the lights to be on without coins deposited, and
since the PLC is not controlling the lighting contactor in this mode, the
lights will not turn off at 11pm.


                        - 16 -
            Figure 2 - Override method 1



   Advantages:
    Only turns off one light control unit at a time
    Lights will still be operable by administrator if the PLC should
      malfunction
   Disadvantages:
    Extra hardware is required for this to be implemented
    User would need to turn power off at the transformer to remove
      the module. May lead to accidental removal of the unit while
      there are still live wires
    Easy for someone to leave the switch in the “Power Off” mode
      when they actually want the “Normal Operation” mode. This
      is due to the three-way switch
    Requires multiple feeds to the lighting contactor
    Loss of power to PLC could cause loss of RTC setting
    Repetitive loss of power to PLC each time this occurs

Method 2: Program the PLC to override the normal functionality
when an input is given from a two position switch. The two positions
would be “Override On” and “Normal Operation.” To override the
system to the “Power Off” mode for maintenance and servicing, the
power would be disconnected at the existing transformer.
    Advantages:


                       - 17 -
     When removing the unit for storage or maintenance, the user
      would be sure that the power is completely off for all modules
      thus increasing safety
    Provides an easy to identify on/off switch for override
      operation
    Will not cause power loss to PLC during “Override On.”
    Less chance of leaving the lights in the “Power Off” mode
      because only “Override On” and “Normal Operation” will be
      controlled from the module location
    All lighting control operations are from a single PLC output
   Disadvantages:
    User would have to walk from the module control location to
      the transformer which may or may not be a long distance away
      for servicing
    User would need to have a key for the module control unit, as
      well as the transformer
    Would turn power off to all units instead of only one
    If a PLC failure occurs, the lights will not be able to be turned
      on

The team has decided to use method 2 for the modes of operation.
This method will be the safest for the user and has the least probability
of being left in the “Power Off” position.

2.1.4.11 Modular units vs. Combined Units
There are several options concerning the number of control modules at
the tennis courts and in the future, basketball courts. For the existing
tennis court, there are three options of where to place the module(s)
which are shown in Figure 3 on the following page.




                        - 18 -
              Figure 3 - Lighting Layout

1. For the location corresponding to the number “1” on the diagram,
   there are two options. The first option is to have one module per
   site. This means there would be one module for all of the tennis
   courts. All of the lights would either be on or off.
   Advantages:
    Reduced project cost since only one PLC, token reader, and
       lighting contactor would be needed
    Could be integrated with existing controls
   Disadvantages:
    This would only work for the existing tennis court. It could not
       be easily adapted to other existing tennis courts or courts to be
       built in the future
    One person would have to pay for all of the courts regardless of
       how many people are playing or how many courts are being
       used
    Would waste electricity by lighting courts not being used
    Not a modular design

   The second option for this location is to use one module, but have
   it control the different light groups separately. This means that
   people would pay for the court they would like to use, but it would
   all be done from the central location.
   Advantages:



                        - 19 -
     Reduced project cost since only one PLC and token reader
      would be needed
    Smaller number of units to service. This decreases time for
      token retrieval because there is only one unit per site to service
   Disadvantages:
    Depending on the amount of courts, a PLC with more inputs/
      outputs, and higher performance may be needed. This may
      increase the cost of the PLC
    May be confusing to the user as to which court is being paid
      for since the unit is not located near any one specific court
    This design of the unit would vary between locations because it
      depends on how many lights are being controlled. This may
      cause problems when trying to repair the unit since each one
      would be different

2. Combining the modules so they each control two courts, but are
   paid for separately. The locations of these modules correspond to
   number “2” on the diagram.
   Advantages:
    Cost would be reduced since only two PLCs and two token
       readers would be needed
   Disadvantages:
    The design for each location would be different depending on
       the location of the courts. It would also be different if there is
       a situation where there is an odd number of courts
    May be confusing to the user as to which court is being paid
       for since the unit can not be located near all of the courts at
       once
    This design of the unit would depend on how many lights are
       being controlled and therefore would be unique for each site.
       This may cause problems when trying to repair the unit since
       each one would be different

3. One module per light group. This means that there would be four
   modules for the tennis courts with locations corresponding to the
   number “3” on the diagram. Each module will control the lighting
   for one fourth of the entire area.
   Advantages:
    The module design allows the unit to be easily switched to
       other locations, for as few or for as many lights as needed
    More user friendly since the control module is next to the lights
       it controls
    Only uses electricity for the lights that are being used rather
       than the whole court




                        - 20 -
       Disadvantages:
        More expensive because each module will require its own PLC
          and token reader
        Will require a small amount of extra time to retrieve tokens
        Four locations need to have the time reset instead of one. This
          will be done twice a year, or more as needed

Taking all of the different options into consideration, the team has chosen
to use option 3. The main reason for this choice is that the design can be
easily modified to be used in other locations.

2.1.4.12 Coin-to-Token Converter
To buy time for the lights the user will be required to use a token. To
dispense tokens, a coin-to-token converter is required. For this the team
researched several options.

1. The first option, to change coins to tokens, would be to purchase a
   machine that accepts coins, bills, and credit cards.
   Advantages:
    Allows user to purchase tokens with many different options for
      forms of payment
    Staff members do not have to worry about dispensing coins
      themselves
   Disadvantages:
    Expensive
    Boone does not currently have the capacity to accept credit cards
      as payment and does not want to change
    Will not make change if user puts in too much money

2. The second option is to purchase a coin-to-token converter that accepts
   only bills.
   Advantages:
    Cheaper than the first option
    Staff members do not have to worry bout dispensing coins
   Disadvantages:
    Credit cards cannot be used as payment
    Converter still costs over $1000
    Will not make change if user puts in too much money

3. The third option is to have Boone Area Recreation Department staff
   manually exchange money for tokens.
   Advantages:
    Cheapest of all three options
    Staff members can dispense change to users




                           - 21 -
   Disadvantages:
    Uses staff time to dispense tokens
    Prone to human error

The team recommendation on this consideration is to use option two as it
will allow patrons of the facilities to get tokens without the need to find a
Recreation Department employee. This option is also more feasible than
the first as it significantly reduces the expense of the converter and fits the
department’s needs as a credit card option is unnecessary.

2.1.4.13 Monitoring Usage
There are a few options to monitor the usage of the lights by different
sports teams that will have access to some version of free lighting.

1. Allow the team to use a PIN for overriding the system. This would go
   into the PLC and keep track of which team is using the court at what
   time and for how long. The administrator of the system would then be
   able to display or print the information for records.
   Advantages:
    It would be simple for the administrator to retrieve the information
       of who has been using the facilities and the times of usage
    If the PIN is lost, a new PIN could be assigned and reprogrammed
       into the module
   Disadvantages:
    Cost is a major factor when dealing with extra hardware for this
       option. The added hardware for this option would include a
       keypad and printer
    Extra programming and testing would need to be done on the PLC.
    Each module would have to be reprogrammed separately if the PIN
       is changed
    User may forget to turn the lights back off when using them with
       the PIN

2. Paper and pencil method. Since there are not a large number of
   different teams that will be using the facilities, the administrator could
   give tokens to the team in advance. At the end of the season, the
   difference between the number of tokens assigned and the number of
   tokens remaining would indicate the amount of light used by the team.
   This would be kept track of on paper or by using a computer program
   such as Excel.
   Advantages:
    No extra cost for hardware would be required
    No extra programming of the PLC would be required
    Administrator would not have to collect information from each
       module to find out how much light is being used by whom



                            - 22 -
         PLC can run in normal operation so there is no risk of the team
          forgetting to turn the lights off when finished using them
       Disadvantages:
        Administrator would have to keep a record of who is using how
          much time
        Tokens could be lost or stolen

   Taking these considerations into account, the option that will be used is
   option 2. The primary reason for this is because of the extra cost of the
   printer and keypad. Also, since the team will have to talk to the
   administrator to get the PIN, it would be just as easy to get tokens while
   talking to the administrator.

   2.1.4.14 System Housing
   A few considerations are taken into account on this matter. One is to have
   all the system components in one enclosure, and another is to have
   multiple enclosures for each primary component. Since no feasible option
   was discovered for the first consideration of using only one enclosure, the
   team decided to use multiple enclosures for each of the primary
   components. Also, since the supplier of the token reader supplies
   enclosures designed for their components and smaller enclosures for the
   remaining elements of the PLC and lighting contactor have been found
   from multiple sources; the team feels having individual enclosures is the
   better option.

2.1.5 Testing Approach Considerations
The products ordered are assumed to work correctly as specified by the
manufacturer, and minimum testing will be necessary to see if the devices do
indeed work as stated, i.e. does the token reader output a voltage when a token
is inserted. Testing will center on group implemented functions, such as
intermediate connections between parts, and software on the controller.

Control software will be tested extensively to ensure proper functionality.
The software will be tested for all use cases and deviations including power
loss, lights just turned off then back on, lights off for extended period of time,
one token inserted, multiple tokens inserted, etc. The limited number of
scenarios means that each can be tested independently, and no testing software
will be necessary. Depending on cost, the actual control unit may need to be
simulated, but the software functionality can be tested using the same
methodology.

The PLC programming software has the ability to monitor variable and I/O
levels while the system is in. This software will be used for testing purposes
in order to verify functionality and that proper values and being used during
I/O.




                                - 23 -
             If all tested aspects pass successfully for all users and use cases, the system
             will pass. If any aspect should fail, this will be a fail for the system, and
             updates to the system will need to take place in order to ensure proper
             functionality once installed.

             Since many system components are expensive, building a full scale prototype
             may not be the most pragmatic approach to testing and proof of concept
             demonstration. If desired parts are unable to be acquired, an alternative
             method to demonstrate the proof of concept will be developed using the
             FPGA boards provided by Altera in Coover Hall.

             2.1.6 Recommendations for Project Continuation or Modification
             The group recommends that the project be continued according to the project
             plan. The control unit parts are quite expensive, so prototyping will likely
             include some simulation of parts. The expensive parts also mean the control
             system as a whole is quite expensive, which will decrease the cost
             effectiveness of the system. However, the system will work and the client can
             evaluate the cost to see if it is worth implementing. Furthermore, the coin-
             token converter costs less than expected, somewhat offsetting the extra cost of
             the PLC.

         2.2 Detailed Design
         This section covers a detailed description of parts to be used, component
         interconnects, software flowcharts, and all other information related to system
         functionality.

             2.2.1 Parts Listings
             Table 1 below has contains a list of all the parts, part numbers, vendors, and
             prices of parts that are currently known.
                                       Table 1 - Parts List
Part                        Supplier                            Part Number      Price (each)
PLC                         Allen Bradley                       1760-L12BWB      $205.00
7-Segment Displays (1.8")   Electronix Express                  08LSD23265       $4.20
Lighting Contactors         Control Supply                      -                $100-250
System Housing(s)           Vynckier Enclosure Systems, Inc.    -                -
Token Reader and Housing    Coin Mechanisms, Inc.               MC-40            -
Override Switch             RadioShack                          275-322          $5.49
Alarm Light                 RadioShack                          272-336          $3.29
Alarm Buzzer (76db)         RadioShack                          273-059          $3.29
IN4004 Diode                RadioShack                          276-1103         $0.79
Security Sticker            Products For Seniors                SEC238           $1.00




                                            - 24 -
2.2.2 Location of Modules
Using option 3 on where to place the modules, the setting for this will look
like Figure 4. The number of lights that are pointing towards each court
are labeled on each pole. The number of lights each module will be
controlling is shown next to each module location in red.




          Figure 4 - Module Location at Tennis Courts

For the softball diamonds, the module will be mounted on one of the light
poles, preferably near one of the dugouts. This is so that when the time is
about to run out, users will be able to see the light and hear the warning
alarm. Figure 5 on the following page shows a possible location for the
module with the red “X.” This will be finalized when the team is able to
obtain more complete wiring information for the softball diamonds.




                            - 25 -
         Figure 5 – Module Location at the Softball Field

For the outdoor skating rink, the module will be located inside of the
warming house near the parking lot. Since the lights for the skating rink
have a small re-strike time, there is not a high priority need for the users to
keep track of how much time they have left. If the time runs out and the
lights go off, they will not have to wait long before the lights return.




                             - 26 -
2.2.3 Module Design
A block diagram of how the basic system will be connected is shown in
Figure 6.




               Figure 6 - System Block Diagram

The purpose of each of the modules in this diagram is as follows:
Supply Power: Power to the system will be provided with the current
wiring at each location.
PLC: This unit will control the logic of the system and drive some of the
outputs. It will take in inputs from the token reader, and be supplied with
power from the existing power supply lines that are at each location. If
possible, a PLC will be used with a built in back up power supply in case
of dips in the supply power or complete loss of power. It will take inputs
from the token reader, and output signals to the 7-segment display, light
alarm, audio alarm, and lighting contactor.
7-Segment Display: This will be controlled by the PLC and receive its
power from the PLC. The amount of time remaining will be displayed on
this in minutes.
Backup Power Supply: In case of an outage of power due to
maintenance or dip in the supply power, the backup power supply will
continue to run the clock. This is important because the clock will
automatically turn off the lights at 11pm each night. This may or may not
be included in the PLC module.
Protection Circuitry: Protection circuitry will be placed across the
terminals of the lighting contactor to assist in surge protection from the
solenoid. Using PLC 1760-L12BWB, the connection of the protection


                           - 27 -
circuitry will be implemented according to Figure 7. An IN4004 diode
will be used for this purpose. (Picture courtesy of Allen-Bradley)




    Figure 7 - Output Surge Protection for Lighting Contactor

Transformer: A transformer will be needed if the PLC does not operate
on 120VAC or if the PLC cannot supply the required power to the audio
alarm, light alarm, 7-segment display, or lighting contactor. It will take
the supply power to 24VDC to be used by the system.
Lighting Contactor: Since the current to the lights is too large for the
PLC to control by itself, the lighting contactor is needed to control this. It
will take a voltage signal from the PLC and close the circuit allowing
current to flow to the lights. The rating of the lighting contactor will
depend on how many light are being run on the circuit. This circuit will
follow according to Figure 7.

If the power required by the lighting contactor from the PLC is too large,
an intermediate relay will be used which will be controlled by the PLC.
This relay will connect the supply power to the lighting contactor coil,
which will then turn on the lights. The set up for this option is shown in
Figure 8 on the following page.




                             - 28 -
             Figure 8 - Intermediary Relay Circuit

Token Reader: This unit will take in a token and send a 24V signal to the
PLC. It will be powered by the PLC or by the transformer. This will
depend on the PLC selection.
Light Alarm: This is the light that will go off when the user’s time is
about to end. It will be a 24VDC light that will be powered and controlled
by the PLC.
Audio Alarm: This alarm will sound when the user’s time is about to
end. It will be a 24VDC alarm that will be powered and controlled by the
PLC.
Lights: These are the existing lights on the tennis courts and softball
diamonds.
Warning Label: A small label will be attached to the system to alert
patrons of metal-halide re-strike. This label is seen below in Figure 9.




                  Figure 9 - Warning Label




                            - 29 -
A diagram for the final circuit design of a single module is shown in
Figure 10. This circuit is set up according to the operation of method 2 for
manual override and option 3 for location. Each of the time delays will be
controlled by the PLC. This is also assuming that the contactor will be
operated with 120VAC.




                Figure 10 - Final Circuit Design



                            - 30 -
2.2.4 PLC Functionality
The PLC will function as a basic state machine as seen below in Figure
11. The system will start in an idle position in the basic run mode waiting
either a token input or the input from the override switch. If the override
switch input is high, indicating the switch is on, the system will output a
high signal to the lighting contactor in order to switch on the lights. From
here the system will then watch for the override switch input to go low, at
which time the PLC will switch the contactor output to off.




                  Figure 11 - PLC Flowchart

When a token is inserted the system will first start two timers, one that has
the amount of time purchased, and one that has two minutes less than this.
When the smaller of the two timers is up the PLC will trigger an audio
buzzer and turn on a light to indicate that time is nearly up. If another
token is added, more time will be added to each of the timers with the
lesser of two timers having two minutes less time remaining than the
other. When all the time has expired on the primary timer, the PLC will
switch off the contactor to turn off the lights.

Since the time value of each token may change over time due to increasing
electricity rates, the PLC will also be set up with functionality for the
timer settings to be easily modified. The PLC comes with its own LCD
screen and attachable keypad that can be used for programming, which
will allow the Recreation Department to easily adjust the timer values by
using a simple scrolling setup menu. The RTC on the PLC will also have


                            - 31 -
               the ability to be updated in this same fashion as it is not 100% accurate
               and may need to be adjusted after some time.

               The final mode of operation for the PLC is to disable the lighting when the
               park is closed. If the RTC on the system is between the hours of 11:00PM
               and 6:00AM, the contactor will not turn on unless the override switch is in
               the on position.

3. Resources and Schedules
This section will cover the estimated costs, labor and schedules of the project. These will
be used to aid in judging progress and expenses throughout the completion of the project.

       3.1 Estimated Resources
       This section of the design report covers all estimated resources including
       personnel man hours and financial resources.

               3.1.1 Personnel
               Table 2 defines all the tasks that are used in tables 3 and 4.

                                    Table 2 - Task Definitions
                   Task 1       Problem Definition
                   Task 2       Technology Considerations and Selection
                   Task 3       End-Product Design
                   Task 4       End-Product Prototype Implementation
                   Task 5       End-Product Testing
                   Task 6       End-Product Documentation
                   Task 7       End-Product Demonstration
                   Task 8       Project Reporting

               Table 3 shows the estimated time requirements of the team. It shows the
               estimated number of hours each team member will spend on each task.

                            Table 3 - Original Time Usage Estimates
       Name         Task    Task      Task     Task    Task    Task   Task      Task   Total
                    1       2         3        4       5       6      7         8
       Craig        15      8         32       23       16       9    9         36     148
       Cartier
       Steven       14      10        30       25       14       8    9         35     145
       Cornelius
       Alex         16      9         31       26       15       7    9         37     150
       McLaren
       Michael      16      8         30       24       14       9    9         40     150
       Schmitt
       Total        61      35        123      98       59       33   36        148    593




                                             - 32 -
       Table 4 shows the new estimated time requirements of each number.

                    Table 4 - Updated Time Usage Estimates
Name        Task    Task      Task    Task    Task    Task        Task    Task     Total
            1       2         3       4       5       6           7       8
Craig       10       10       30       23      16       9         9       36       143
Cartier
Steven      10       15       36       25      14       8         9       35       152
Cornelius
Alex        12       20       31       26      15       7         9       37       157
McLaren
Michael     12       25       30       24      14       9         9       40       163
Schmitt
Total       42       70       127      98      59       33        36      148      615


       To date there have been a few changes to the time estimates for each team
       member. Craig has fewer hours that originally estimated due to time spent
       in the hospital. Other times have gone up due to underestimating the time
       it would take to research parts and design the system.

       3.1.2 Other Resources
       Table 5 below outlines other resources that are related to the project
       including transportation, software, computers, and documentation
       expenses.
                   Table 5 - Original Other Resource Estimates
              Item                                          With Labor
Parts and Material
    a. 7-segment Display                                          Donated
    b. Token Reader                                               $200.00
    c. Coin-to-token converter                                   $2,500.00
    d. Alarm bell                                                  $10.00
    e. Security stickers                                           $15.00
    f. Switching unit                                              $20.00
    g. Micro Controller                                             $5.00
    h. Housing for system                                          $20.00
    i. Container for tokens                                  with token reader
    j. Miscellaneous Parts                                        $150.00
    k. Poster                                                      $45.00
    l. Software                                             Free from university
    m. Computers                                            Free from university
    n. Documentation                                               $18.00
                                         Subtotal                $2,983.00




                                     - 33 -
       Table 6 below lists the updated other expenses associated with this project.

                  Table 6 - Updated Other Costs Estimates
             Item                                 With Labor
Parts and Material
    a. 7-segment display                                    $18.00
    b. Token reader                                        $120.00
    c. Lighting contactor                                 $100-$250
    d. Coin-to-token converter                            $1,300.00
    e. Alarm bell                                            $7.00
    f. Security stickers                                     $1.00
    g. Switching unit                                        $5.00
    h. Micro controller                                    $205.00
    i. Housing for system                                   $80.00
    j. Container for tokens                          Included in housing
    k. Miscellaneous parts                                 $150.00
    l. Poster and printing                                  $59.00
    m. Computers                                     Free from university
    n. Software                                      Free from university
    o. Documentation                                        $18.00
                                    Subtotal         $2,063.00-$2,213.00




                                  - 34 -
       3.1.3 Financial Requirements
       Table 7 shows the cost estimate for the project, including all solution
       possibilities.

                  Table 7 – Original Cost Estimates per Unit
              Item                                      With Labor
Parts and Material
    a. 7-segment Display                                        Donated
    b. Token Reader                                             $200.00
    c. Coin-to-token converter                                 $2,500.00
    d. Alarm bell                                                $10.00
    e. Security stickers                                         $15.00
    f. Switching unit                                            $20.00
    g. Micro Controller                                           $5.00
    h. Housing for system                                        $20.00
    i. Container for tokens                                with token reader
    j. Miscellaneous Parts                                      $150.00
    k. Poster                                                    $45.00
    l. Software                                          Free from University
    m. Computers                                         Free from University
    n. Documentation                                             $18.00
                                        Subtotal               $2983.00
Labor at $10.50 per hour
  a. Craig Cartier                                             $1554.00
  b. Steven Cornelius                                          $1522.50
  c. Alex Mclaren                                              $1575.00
  d. Michael Schmitt                                           $1575.00
                                        Subtotal               $6226.50
                                         Total                 $9,209.50




                                    - 35 -
       Table 8 shows the updated cost estimate for the project.

                  Table 8 - Updated Cost Estimates per Unit
             Item                                  With Labor
Parts and Material
    a. 7-segment display                                     $18.00
    b. Token reader                                         $120.00
    c. Lighting contactor                                  $100-$250
    d. Coin-to-token converter                             $1,300.00
    e. Alarm bell                                             $7.00
    f. Security stickers                                      $1.00
    g. Switching unit                                         $5.00
    h. Micro controller                                     $205.00
    i. Housing for system                                    $80.00
    j. Container for tokens                           Included in housing
    k. Miscellaneous parts                                  $150.00
    l. Poster and printing                                   $59.00
                                     Subtotal         $2045.00-$2195.00
Labor at $10.50 per hour
  a. Craig Cartier                                            $1501.50
  b. Steven Cornelius                                         $1596.00
  c. Alex Mclaren                                             $1648.50
  d. Michael Schmitt                                          $1711.50
                                     Subtotal                 $6457.50
                                      Total         $8,502.50-$8652.50

       Original estimates of the cost per module were too high. While some parts
       are more expensive, the drop in the coin-to-token dispenser causes a
       significant drop in cost. Originally the team though it would be possible
       to get the 7-segment displays donated but after further research it was
       decided that was not possible. The cost of the micro controller has also
       increased dramatically. This is because originally the team did not know
       all of the other components required for the operation of a micro
       controller, explaining the $200 increase for the unit. A drop in the price of
       the token reader can be explained because the original unit was meant to
       read coins and a cheaper unit that would read tokens was found from a
       different company. Currently there is a range of prices for the lighting
       contactor. This is because the team does not have enough information
       from the client to choose the appropriate lighting contactor. The other
       price drops are because the team was able to find better prices through
       different companies.




                                   - 36 -
3.2 Schedules
Figure 12 represents the estimated dates and duration each task and subtask will
take to complete. The schedule shows all dates for both semesters of the project.




              Figure 12 - Original Gantt Chart for Project Tasks




                                    - 37 -
Figure 13 is the updated Gantt chart for the team’s tasks. As shown in the Gantt
chart, the research of parts overlapped with the design of the system. While the
team was doing the design, parts were being updated and changed causing more
time for parts research.




              Figure 13 - Updated Gantt Chart for Project Tasks



                                   - 38 -
       Figure 14 shows the due dates for all of the deliverables for the project. This
       information has not been modified since the beginning of the project.




                       Figure 14 - Gantt Chart for Project Deliverables



4. Closure Material
This section contains contact information for the persons involved with this project. It
also contains a closing summary for the project, references used, and appendices.

       4.1 Project Team Information
       Contact information for client, faculty and team members to serve as a reference
       of those who had stake in this project.

           4.1.1 Client Information
               Mary Beth Chinery
               Director, Boone Area Recreation Department
               728 Lincoln Avenue
               Boone, IA 50036
               Phone: 515-433-0635
               E-mail: mbchinery@city.boone.ia.us

           4.1.2 Faculty Advisor Information
               Tom Baird
               Advisor
               1111 Coover Hall
               Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
               Iowa State University
               Ames, IA 50011
               Phone: 515-294-7678
               Fax: 515-294-4263
               E-mail: tbaird@iastate.edu




                                           - 39 -
   John Lamont
   Professor
   324 Town Engineering Building
   Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
   Iowa State University
   Ames, IA 50011
   Phone: 515-294-3600
   Fax: 515-294-6760
   E-mail: jwlamont@iastate.edu

   Ralph Patterson III
   Assistant Professor
   326 Town Engineering Building
   Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
   Iowa State University
   Ames, IA 50011
   Phone: 515-294-2428
   Fax: 515-294-6760
   E-mail: repiii@iastate.edu

4.1.3 Student Team Information
    Steven Cornelius
    Team Leader
    Electrical Engineering
    1300 Coconino RD Apt. 102
    Ames, IA 50014
    Phone: 515-451-6241
    E-mail: scorn@iastate.edu

   Michael Schmitt
   Communication Coordinator
   Computer Engineering
   1121 Delaware Ave. Apt. #5
   Ames, IA 50014
   Phone: 515-460-1082
   E-mail: mikejs@iastate.edu

   Craig Cartier
   Team Member
   Computer Engineering
   713 Dickinson Ave.
   Ames, IA 50014
   Phone: 515-296-2168
   E-mail: ccartier@iastate.edu




                             - 40 -
       Alex McLaren
       Team Member
       Electrical Engineering
       4102 Buchanan
       Ames, IA 50013
       Phone: 515-572-6255
       E-mail: mcalex9@iastate.edu

4.2 Closing Summary
The light management system for the tennis courts, softball diamonds, ice skating
pond, and soccer field of the Boone Area Recreational Department is an important
issue. When it comes to rising electricity costs and facility users not turning off
lights, it can also become an expensive problem. The proposed system will be
implemented in a manner so as to have patrons pay for light use as well as let the
Recreational Department use the lights at any time. The modular design of this
system will allow it to be used at all the current locations, as well as be easily
adaptable to any future facility additions.




                                   - 41 -

				
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